Full Text Available Approximately 5,000 to 6,000 Somalis arrived in Finland between 1990 and 1995 through Russia. Currently, 8,096 have settled permanently in the country. The data reported here is from a 1998-1999 research survey carried out in the Finish cities of Helsinki and Turku. The survey of 117 married Somalis explored the social-cultural determinants of contraception use. The paper presented here focuses upon one particular aspect of the survey. We selected 21 Somali parents (11 women and 10 men to look in-depth at the experiences of Somali migrants raising children in Finland. All of the respondents selected have more than 5 children in their family and all were asked to describe their experiences of raising children in Finland and, more generally, in establishing and maintaining family structures. Unlike their experiences in Somali, bringing up large families (by Westerns standards is not a collective matter in Finland where biological parents are left to manage the family for themselves. A number of challenges also accompany this shift in family norms: first, and most notably, there is the need to re-establish control over one's life in an alien environment; second, intergenerational conflict between adult migrants and their adolescent children is often heightened. The findings indicate that Somalis' experiences of raising children in Finland raise important parenting challenges associated with changing generational, gender and family relations within the migrant household. Importantly, this case study of large Somali families shows how migrants' lives are intricately linked to the household dynamic between home and host country. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060388
Collin, Finn; Pedersen, David Budtz
Synthese was the first academic outlet to take notice of the phenomenon of social epistemology, by dedicating a special volume to the theme back in 1987. Since then social epistemology has grown into a major interdisciplinary effort in the borderland between philosophy and social science. Today, ...
Merlita C. Medallon
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the awareness and sensitivity of the younger generation in environmental issues such global warming, climate change and waste management. Data were gathered from selected students who attended the environmental awareness seminar held at Lyceum of the Philippines – Laguna in 2011. There were 54 students who participated in the survey. The respondents had participated in several activities related to environmental issues which include attendance to seminars, and participation in school and community projects. Most of the information about environmental issues was obtained by the students from their teachers. Global warming was the most common issue. There was a significant increase in the level of knowledge after the environmental awareness campaign was made. As a result, the highest level of action proposed by the students is on the proper disposal of wastes and the proper segregation of wastes.
Vriens, Eva; van Ingen, Erik
We derive hypotheses from popular accounts of how use of social media affects our strong ties. Several authors have suggested that social media use erodes our strong ties by increasing the volume of social interactions and decreasing their depth. Using two-wave panel data representative of the Dutch
L. Joyce; R. Haynes; R. White; R.J. Barbour
These are the proceedings of the 2005 workshop titled implications of bringing climate into natural resource management in the Western United States. This workshop was an attempt to further the dialogue among scientists, land managers, landowners, interested stakeholders and the public about how individuals are addressing climate change in natural resource management....
Rogers, Everett M.
Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)
Stein, M B; Chavira, D A; Jang, K L
Shyness is a risk factor for, or an early manifestation of, more enduring problems with social anxiety. But the majority of shy children do not develop social phobia, and factors that further increase risk are poorly understood, underscoring the complexity of this relationship. Studies uniformly show that social phobia (particularly the generalized subtype) runs in families, and twin studies suggest that a moderate component of this familial tendency is genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic etiology of other neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal social interest, social communication (e.g., autism), or both may prove informative for social phobia. The contribution of unique experiences to the development of social phobia is clear from genetic studies, but studies to date have failed to elucidate what kinds of experiences might be involved. Given patient reports that socially traumatic conditioning experiences have often occurred, detailed evaluation of these kinds of experiences in monozygotic twins discordant for social phobia would be a particularly informative research strategy. Nongenetic familial factors probably have more limited effects on the development of social phobia, although the impact of parental modeling of, and acquiescence to, childhood social fears deserves to be further investigated. These factors may be particularly salient for the expression of social phobia in children whose genes render them susceptible. If so, it should be possible to design early interventions to prevent the progression from phobia proneness (e.g., designated on the basis of family history) to phobic disorder.
Jenkins, Kisha V.; Shriberg, David; Conway, Devyn; Ruecker, Dana; Jones, Haley
Using consensual qualitative research methods, this qualitative study explored how nine recent graduates, all graduating within the past 7 years from an overtly social justice-oriented school psychology program, were experiencing social justice in practice. Semistructured interviews were conducted covering the following three theme areas: defining…
Scheyett, Anna; Dean, Charlotte; Zeitlin, Lisa
College athletes develop many strengths and skills during their athletic career, such as dedication, ability to work across cultures, leadership, and community building. Social workers need many of these same skills. This study explores the potential transfer of skills from athletics to social work among 15 former college athlete MSW students.…
Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A
The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011
Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community…
Olutokunbo, Adekalu Samuel; Suandi, Turiman; Cephas, Oluwaseyitan Rotimi; Abu-Samah, Irza Hanie
Social mobilization is a proactive measure for community development that salvages the society from destruction and disaster. From sociological perspective, this paper discusses the concept of social mobilization and its implications for cross-cultural research. To do this, the study uses the "Bring Back Our Girls" Global Campaign, as…
Buffington, Melanie L.
Public art takes many forms, including commemorative sculptures, site-specific works, and collaborative murals. Additionally, public art can beautify an urban environment or raise awareness of social issues. Public works of art are a form of discourse and open conversations and dialogue, helping communities work toward unity and empowerment. Using…
Pettersen, Marit Viktoria; Fleck, Fiona
As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen.
As countries gear up for a major round of international climate talks next year in Paris, the growing problem of air pollution is fast becoming a vital part of the climate change and health debate. Fiona Fleck talks to Marit Viktoria Pettersen.
Traditional communities remain a dominant feature in the Pacific and are key players in land and sea management. Fostering improved climate literacy is therefore essential to equip communities to respond to the current and future challenges posed by climate change in the region. Increased understanding and development of skills to respond to the…
Pethe, V P
The issue of whether overpopulation is the cause of poverty or vice versa is a sham controversy. Both population explosion and poverty are symptoms of a deeper problem, i.e., the incapacity of the socioeconomic system and the international economic order to put into service modern science and technology for an optimal utilization of this planet's vast resources for economic development. There is no question that population growth cannot be allowed to go unabated for an indefinite period, yet there is no reason for alarm. History shows that human adjustments in social behavior have always restored equilibria in every crisis in the progress of humankind. Neo-Malthusians fail to see this point. Instead, they try to create a scare by making unrealistic projections. There is no need for the incorrect and dangerous neo-Malthusian theory as a way to plead for checking population growth. There are 3 simple reasons why population growth should slow down: populations in most less developed countries have a size sufficiently large to make them militarily and economically viable and will not face serious problems in economic and social management if their populations get stabilized at the current levels; there are several advantages in changing attitudes and behavior patterns in respect to matters such as marriage age, family limitation, and spacing of children, and these are desirable in their own right besides their effect on reducing fertility and population growth; and a need exists to intervene on the side of fertility in order to maintain the longrun equilibrium of population size. In the past, equilibrium between mortality and fertility was achieved through the operation of natural factors. Now, with the reduction in mortality as a result of human intervention, it has become necessary to bring about a decline in fertility through human intervention. Human intervention in the control of fertility is a difficult and complex process. The solution to the population
Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M
Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.
Since environmental sociology was born as a sub-discipline of sociology, its proponents have encouraged sociological research that incorporates environmental factors. After a quarter of a century, however, sociological research continues to overlook the role of environmental factors - even when the object of the research is to understand an environmental issue. This paper analyzes the role of environmental factors to understand the ways that natural resource interests have been translated into political outcome in the form of American responses to the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. Incorporating data about natural resource use and national decision-making both before and after the Bush Administration's decision to pull out of negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol, this paper concludes that comprehending fully political decisions about global climate change in the United States requires that we recognize the conjoint constitution between policy-making and the environmental factors that are affected by such policies. More broadly, this research supports the notion that, in order to understand social phenomena more fully, sociologists must recommit to bringing environmental factors into social research. (author)
Environmental changes in the Arctic and Antarctic appear to be accelerating and scientists are trying to understand both the patterns and the impacts of change. These changes will have profound impact on humanity and create a need for public education about these critical habitats. We have focused on a two-pronged strategy to increase public awareness as well as enable educators to discuss comfortably the implications of climate change. Our first focus is on entraining public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has been released in May 2015 and has garnered interest in movie theatres and on social media stores (NetFlix, ITunes). This broad outreach is coupled with our group's interest assisting educators formally. The majority of current polar education is focused on direct educator engagement through personal research experiences that have impact on the participating educators' classrooms. Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) proposes to improve educator and student engagement in polar sciences through exposure to scientists and polar data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, Polar ICE will reduce the logistical costs of bringing polar science to students in grades 6-16. We will provide opportunities to: 1) build capacity of polar scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with polar scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia; and 3) evaluate the outcomes of Polar ICE and contribute to our understanding of science education practices. We will use a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. This combined multi-pronged approach
Gachago, Daniela; Condy, Janet; Ivala, Eunice; Chigona, Agnes
Although becoming a more racially-integrated society, the legacy of Apartheid still affects learners' social engagements in and outside their classrooms. Adopting Nussbaum's (2010) capabilities framework for a socially just democracy, this paper examines 27 pre-service teacher education students' perceptions of a digital storytelling project and…
theoretical formulations. They begin with discussions on early Schumpeter and a rhetorical analysis of the current academic literature on social entrepreneurship. They go on to present myriad contextual examples of how entrepreneurship can shape social change, and indicate how this is initiated through...
Full Text Available Although becoming a more racially-integrated society, the legacy of Apartheid still affects learners' social engagements in and outside their classrooms. Adopting Nussbaum's (2010 capabilities framework for a socially just democracy, this paper examines 27 pre-service teacher education students' perceptions of a digital storytelling project and its potential for recognising and honouring capabilities necessary for engaging empathetically with the 'other'. Using narrative inquiry, and specifically Bamberg's (2006 'small stories' approach, the research team analysed 30 stories students constructed in four focus group conversations at the end of the project. In these stories, most of Nussbaum's (2010 capabilities were evident. We found that, in the collective sharing of their stories, students positioned themselves as agentive selves, displaying the belief that they can make a difference, not only individually within their own classrooms, but also as a collective of teachers.
Phelan, Liam; Jones, Holly; Marlon, Jennifer R.
Climate change is complex and thus requires interdisciplinary research, and new scholars are rising to that challenge. The Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS (pronounced "discourse"); see http://www.disccrs.org) brings together select groups of recent PhD graduates to encourage interdisciplinary work on climate change. The DISCCRS Symposium VII held just outside of Colorado Springs, Colo., brought together 33 graduates from fields as diverse as climatology, ecology, anthropology, and political science for an intensive week of cross-disciplinary engagement in activities like facilitation and leadership training, collaborative research development, peer networking, communication training, and analysis of working group processes.
This work offers a summary of the book: « Google+ for business: How Google's Social Network Changes Everything » by Chris Brogan.Summary of the ideas in Chris Brogan's book « Google+ for business » highlights that the social network created by Google now has lore than 175 million users and is tied to the largest search engines in the world. Therefore, Google+ could end up being the best online business building tool ever developed. So if you can master using Google+ today, you will be well positioned for what happens in the future as Google, YouTube and others continue to bring new developmen
Davidoff, Scott; Holloway, Alexandra
Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a relatively new field that brings together the interdisciplinary study of technological components of a project (systems engineering) with a model-based ontology to express the hierarchical and behavioral relationships between the components (computational modeling). Despite the compelling promises of the benefits of MBSE, such as improved communication and productivity due to an underlying language and data model, we observed hesitation to its adoption at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. To investigate, we conducted a six-month ethnographic field investigation and needs validation with 19 systems engineers. This paper contributes our observations of a generational shift in one of JPL's core technologies. We report on a cultural misunderstanding between communities of practice that bolsters the existing technology drag. Given the high cost of failure, we springboard our observations into a design hypothesis - an intervention that blends the social affordances of the narrative-based work flow with the rich technological advantages of explicit data references and relationships of the model-based approach. We provide a design rationale, and the results of our evaluation.
Full Text Available In Sweden, municipal social services provide help and support for vulnerable people with a variety of needs. Although the family has long been understood to be a focus of social work interventions, it is unclear how it is brought into the casework process in the highly individualised and specialised municipal social services. Therefore, in this study we investigated processes of client-making and role assignment in five service sectors: social assistance, child welfare, substance abuse, disability, and elderly care. We carried out focus group interviews with social workers in each of these sectors in a mid-sized community in central Sweden. Findings showed that clienthood and the family are interpreted in different ways. The family is brought into or kept out of service provisions in ways that are connected to social workers’ construction of the family either as expert, client or non-client. However, the role of the family may also change during the casework process. Findings are examined in relation to theories of the welfare state and implications for family-focused practice are discussed.
Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF
Social change educators challenge social, economic, and political injustices that exist locally and globally. Their students may be people marginalized by these injustices or conversely, people who benefit from unjust systems. Much of the current social change pedagogy derives from the foundational work of Paulo Freire, developed in Brazil in…
for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...
From 1926 to 1938, the Aeronautics Branch, forerunner of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), had been charged with aircraft accident investigation. While the Branch had been investigating accidents since its inception, it had, early in its tenure, put into place a policy making its findings secret. Media and political pressure began to mount in late 1928 over its policy of nondisclosure and the debate brought pressure to bear on the young Aeronautics Branch to reverse its policy and make its findings public. The focusing event for the Branch's policy reversal was the death of Knute Rockne, the famous Notre Dame football coach, in a Transcontinental and Western Airways (TWA) airliner on March 31, 193 1. This paper will examine the role of print media in bringing about a significant, and lasting, change in aircraft accident public-disclosure policy.
Hawkins, Amy J.; Stark, Louisa A.
Climate change is at the forefront of our cultural conversation about science, influencing everything from presidential debates to Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech. The topic is becoming increasingly socially and scientifically relevant but is no closer to being resolved. Most high school students take a life science course but…
Fernald, Russell D; Maruska, Karen P
Social animals live in complex physical and social environments requiring them to attend and rapidly respond to social and environmental information by changing their behavior. A key social influence is rank or status, a ubiquitous element in animal societies. Rank typically regulates access to reproduction and other resources, among other consequences for individuals. Because reproduction is arguably the most important event in any animals' life, understanding how reproduction is regulated by social status and related physiological factors can instruct our understanding of evolutionary change. This article reviews evidence from a model social system in which reproduction is tightly controlled by social status. Surprisingly, changes in social status have rapid and profound effects over very short time scales and radically alter overt behavior, as well as physiological, cellular, and molecular factors that regulate reproductive capacity.
McCulloh, Ian A; Carley, Kathleen M
... between group members. The ability to systematically, statistically, effectively and efficiently detect these changes has the potential to enable the anticipation of change, provide early warning of change, and enable...
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010
This good practice guide is based on research that looked at how to teach adult literacy and numeracy using a social capital approach. The guide suggests ways vocational education and training (VET) practitioners can adopt a social capital approach to their teaching practice. A social capital approach refers to the process in which networks are…
Full Text Available This article contributes to a newer debate in teacher education research regarding the professionalization for the work in multicultural urban classrooms. In a social studies didactics’ perspective teacher-learnermismatch seems to be an important factor influencing the ability to construct meaningful social studies learning environments – and thus represents an important challenge for the education of future teachers in our domain. But what are the social origins of diverse teacher professional identities in the social studies domain? This article refers to a biographicalnarrative study on teacher students from very heterogeneous backgrounds exploring their basic beliefs and attitudes towards becoming a social studies teacher.
Jentes Banicki, J.; Dierkes, C.
When people think about the effects of climate change, many will still picture that iconic lone polar bear clinging to a shrinking iceberg in Antarctica. But many don't realize that the impacts that we will face here at home could also be severe, directly affecting the food we eat, the health we have, and the natural environments we appreciate. To help better explain and ultimately localize those impacts for Great Lakes residents, 10 departments within Ohio State University partnered in 2009 to create the Global Change, Local Impact webinar series. The monthly series brings in experts from around the Great Lakes region to discuss issues and impacts we will encounter regionally as our climate changes. Originally designed as a small series for Ohioans, the series has broadened to focus on Great Lakes-related issues, with more than 4,500 attendees representing 500 organizations in governmental agencies, academia, non-profit groups, private industry, and the legislature from around the country. Over the past two years, the OSU Climate Team expanded its educational reach by partnering with external groups like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Great Lakes Regional Water Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network to help deliver the most knowledgeable experts and resources for each Great Lake-focused climate topic and archive those resources on its www.changingclimate.osu.edu web site. As a result of these collaborative efforts, participants say the webinars are one of their primary resources for climate-related research information in the region, with 80-90% polled saying they use this information as an unbiased resource to help not only understand how climate change could affect local concerns like public health, agriculture, and infrastructure, but what they in their vocations and daily lives can do to prepare for it. For scientists and practitioners, this series serves as the perfect low carbon venue
Johnson, Craig; Bansha Dulal, Hari; Prowse, Martin Philip
This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject.......This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject....
In this paper I take up the quest for an integrated approach to health promotion and prevention that incorporates the social context. I suggest that an integrated theory of public health has to rethink the individual society relationships and move beyond the dominance of socialization theory and individual level analysis. A theoretical analysis of key issues in an integrated theory of public health. I maintain that we must shift the attention away from the individual to the social organization and the embeddedness of the social actor in the ongoing social networks and relationships; we must pay attention to the definition of levels of analysis and the relationships between them; we must emphasize the social mechanisms that influence people in social relationships and networks and connect various levels; we must reconsider some of the epistemological and methodological ideas that have been taken for granted and pay attention to issues of emergence and reductionism and the use of multiple methods. I conclude by suggesting that if public health is to move forward and develop better theories, and more efficient ways of prevention and health promotion, it needs to move beyond reductionist models of social behaviour and develop a transdisciplinary approach that integrates various elements from different disciplines and different levels of analysis.
Gumucio-Dagron, Alfonso; Tufte, Thomas
This anthology, the result of 3 years of review of 1000+ articles, now assembles 150 authors with 200 contributions - full articles, excerpts and quotes - ranging from 1927 to 2005. The articles all have been selected upon the criteria of contributing conceptually to the field of communication...... for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community...... Participation, 3) Power, Media and the Public Sphere, 4) Paradigms in Communication for Development, 5) Information Society & Communication Rights....
Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.
In this context, this paper focuses on one of the software - Atlas-ti 5.0- to describe its use as a tool for enhancing rigour in qualitative social research. The paper describes why and how Atlas-ti 5.0 has been used for data analysis in an exemplar qualitative social research on the ecology of the Mauritian early adolescents' ...
Arai, Sato; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Much attention has been given to the role that dogs play in the social, physical, and psychological development of children. Furthermore, dogs are now playing a new important role in animal-assisted education (AAE). However, some dogs have difficulty getting along with children. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how dogs' contact with children during and after their socialization period influenced their responses toward children. In total, 31 pet dogs were divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs had been in contact with children during the canine socialization period (between 3 and 12 weeks of age); Group 2 dogs had been in contact with children after this socialization period; Group 3 dogs seldom had contact with children. As soon as a child entered the room, the dog was presented three stimuli by the child over the course of several intervals. The dogs' responses were evaluated by analyzing behavior and heart rates. The dogs that had been in contact with children during their socialization period did not show aggressive behavior or excited behavior toward the child in our test. Moreover, their heart rates were significantly decreased even during the last stimulus, which involved the child running around the dog while calling its name. This study suggested that the dogs having contact with children during socialization period might not show inappropriate responses toward children and could be suitable for taking part in AAE.
Hjeltnes, Aslak; Moltu, Christian; Schanche, Elisabeth; Binder, Per-Einar
Social anxiety disorder typically manifests in young adulthood, but there is an absence of qualitative research on the actual experiences of young adults suffering with this disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lived experiences of 29 Norwegian university students who were seeking professional help for symptoms of social anxiety. We conducted in-depth interviews prior to a clinical trial. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a team-based thematic analysis method based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. We identified five themes: (a) from being shy to interpreting anxiety as a mental health problem, (b) experiencing emotions as threatening and uncontrollable, (c) encountering loneliness as relationships fall away, (d) hiding the vulnerable self from others, and (e) deciding to face social fears in the future. We relate our findings to existing theory and research, discuss our process of reflexivity, highlight study limitations, and suggest implications for future research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Levy, Kira; Minnis, Alexandra M; Lahiff, Maureen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Dehlendorf, Christine
Although social networks are an increasingly recognized influence on contraceptive use, little is known about if and how social influences are discussed during women's contraceptive counseling visits. We performed a mixed-methods analysis of audio recordings of contraceptive counseling visits. We examined predictors of discussion of social influence arising in a contraceptive counseling visit and analyzed the content and process of social influence discussions. Social influences were mentioned in 42% of the 342 visits included in the sample, with these discussions most commonly initiated by patients. Younger patients were more likely to have social influence mentioned than older patients. The content of social influence focused on side effects and adverse events, with the sources of influence being predominantly patients' friends and the media, with little input from partners. Providers were more likely to engage around the content of the social influence than the social influence itself. The frequency with which social influence was mentioned in these visits supports the importance of women's social context on their contraceptive decision making. However, the fact that patients initiated the discussion in the majority of cases suggests that providers may not recognize the relevance of these influences or may not be comfortable engaging with them. Increasing providers' ability to elicit and engage patients about their social context with regard to contraception could enhance providers' ability to understand women's contraceptive preferences and provide appropriate counseling to address their specific concerns or questions. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…
To improve access, interpretability, and use of the full body of research, a pilot project was initiated by the USDA Forest Service to synthesize relevant scientific information and develop publications and decision support tools that managers can use to inform fuels treatment plans. This article provides an overview of the work of the Social Science Core Team. Team...
Taranto, Gregory; Dalbon, Melissa; Gaetano, Julie
The middle grades are an exciting time for adolescents to explore, learn, and collaborate with one another (National Middle School Association, 2010). By incorporating an academic social network as part of the classroom experience, collaboration and active learning take on new forms, and a transformation from passive learning to active learning…
Morris, Zoë Slote; Clarkson, Peter John
We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social marketing applied to healthcare. We then applied the social marketing framework to analyse the literature and to consider implications for future guideline policy to assess its feasibility and accessibility. There is sizeable extant literature on healthcare practitioners' non-compliance with clinical guidelines. This is an international problem common to a number of settings. The reasons for poor levels of take up appear to be well understood, but not addressed adequately in practice. Applying a social marketing framework brings new insights to the problem." We show that a social marketing framework provides a useful solution-focused framework for systematically understanding barriers to individual behaviour change and designing interventions accordingly. Whether the social marketing framework provides an effective means of bringing about behaviour change remains an empirical question which has still to be tested in practice. The analysis presented here provides strong motivation to begin such testing.
Full Text Available We examine two academic traditions that address the nature-society interface. These traditions are organized around two main concepts: social-ecological system and territoire. These traditions have grown independently and are rooted respectively in ecology and social geography. We show that they have much in common: Both come with a systemic view of the nature-society interface and have the intention of understanding better the relations between nature and society and improving their sustainability. However, they differ in how they deal with space and society. We foresee that the combination of both traditions could improve the understanding of these systems, their definition, and their evolution, and hence, the capacity to assess and manage their resilience.
Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles; Afzal, Zabia
Since the mid-2000s, the practice of South-South cooperation in health (SSC) has attracted growing attention among policymakers, health and foreign affairs ministries, global health agencies, and scholars from a range of fields. But the South-South label elucidates little about the actual content of the cooperation and conflates the "where" with the "who, what, how, and why". While there have been some attempts to theorize global health diplomacy and South-South cooperation generally, these efforts do not sufficiently distinguish among the different kinds of practices and political values that fall under the South-South rubric, ranging from economic and geopolitical interests to social justice forms of solidarity. In the spirit of deepening theoretical, historical, and social justice analyses of SSC, this article: (1) critically revisits international relations theories that seek to explain SSC, exploring Marxian and other heterodox theories ignored in the mainstream literature; (2) traces the historical provenance of a variety of forms of SSC; and (3) introduces the concept of social justice-oriented South-South.
Sanderson, Matthew R.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Heier Stamm, Jessica L.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Ramsey, Steven M.
Identifying means of empirically modeling the human component of a coupled, human-water system becomes critically important to further advances in sociohydrology. We develop a social-psychological model of environmental decision making that addresses four key challenges of incorporating social science into integrated models. We use the model to explain preferences for three conservation policies designed to conserve and protect water resources and aquatic ecosystems in the Smoky Hill River Basin, a semiarid agricultural region in the Central U.S. Great Plains. Further, we compare the model's capacity to explain policy preferences among members of two groups in the River Basin: agricultural producers and members of nonfarming communities. We find that financial obligation is the strongest and most consistent explanation of support for conservation policies among members of both groups. We also find that policy support is grounded in cultural values—deeply held ideas about right and wrong. Environmental values are particularly important explanations of policy support. The constellations of values invoked to make decisions about policies, and the social-psychological pathways linking values to policy support, can vary across policies and types of agents (farmers and nonfarmers). We discuss the implications of the results for future research in sociohydrology.
Ramirez, A. Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K.; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana
To describe and evaluate the process of implementation of a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. Case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in the implementation of such strategies and underscore the importance of community involvement in decision-making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and a reconsideration of the problem of “access” in rural areas. PMID:27956000
Arno, Peter S; Sohler, Nancy; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde
The principal objective of our research is to examine whether the earned income tax credit (EITC), a broad-based income support program that has been shown to increase employment and income among poor working families, also improves their health and access to care. A finding that the EITC has a positive impact on the health of the American public may help guide deliberations about its future at the federal, state, and local levels. The authors contend that a better understanding of the relationship between major socioeconomic policies such as the EITC and the public's health will inform the fields of health and social policy in the pursuit of improving population health.
Ramirez, A Susana; Diaz Rios, Lillian K; Valdez, Zulema; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana
This study describes and evaluates the process of implementing a social marketing food access intervention for food desert communities in rural California. A case study approach used mixed-methods data from nationwide market comparisons, environmental assessment, and community informants. Lessons learned demonstrate room for improvement in implementing such strategies and underscore the importance of involving community in decision making; the strategic importance of operational decisions relating to intervention design, site and product selection, and distribution models; and the need to reconsider the problem of access in rural areas. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available From early discussions of the disruptive potential of computer technologies for archaeological applications, to the present era of digital archaeology as the technical underpinning of modern archaeological practice, we have continued to debate the potential impacts of digital communication and digital capture and storage on our knowledge, profession and communications. The increased use of digital tools and methods for archaeological research and dissemination, as well as what Roosevelt (2015 has referred to as the shift to the digital paradigm within archaeological practice, leads us to suggest that the impact of this paradigm shift requires careful and critical examination. This article will examine the edges of the disciplines of archaeology and sociology, where we aim to advance our understanding of the relationship between digital technologies and archaeological knowledge from a uniquely social perspective, using the theoretical approaches of both classic and modern sociologists. The application of this lens of sociology to digital archaeology equips us to understand how archaeology and archaeological practice is situated in a social world, which is especially relevant in the Global West, where digital technology is ubiquitous. Through a critical consideration of the complexity of use of digital technologies within digital archaeology, we can begin to shift our focus away from the character and method of tools and workflow, to the background of intellectual power and influence.
An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is…
Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.
This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available
Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.
This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.
Fisher, William P
Capital is defined mathematically as the abstract meaning brought to life in the two phases of the development of "transferable representations," which are the legal, financial, and scientific instruments we take for granted in almost every aspect of our daily routines. The first, conceptual and gestational, and the second, parturitional and maturational, phases in the creation and development of capital are contrasted. Human, social, and natural forms of capital should be brought to life with at least the same amounts of energy and efficiency as have been invested in manufactured and liquid capital, and property. A mathematical law of living capital is stated. Two examples of well-measured human capital are offered. The paper concludes with suggestions for the ways that future research might best capitalize on the mathematical definition of capital.
Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter
Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.
Full Text Available This paper reports on the deployment of a multilingual Social Networking Platform in three Regions of Europe (Catalonia, Poitou-Charentes and Tuscany, in the context of an EU-funded Preparatory Action on eParticipation dealing with the issue of climate change and energy policy making at the level of the European Parliament. The US (“Obama” approach and a novel (“European” usage of social networks in political online discourses are compared. A recommendation to policy makers is that social networking can be useful whenever the topics under discussion are limited in scope, but also wide in implications, so that they require moving forward from “one-off” and “ad-hoc” participation experiments, towards the permanent coverage of “mission critical” Public Administration functions.
Discusses emotional literacy, which combines emotions, intelligence, and literacy, and suggests ways to increase emotional intelligence in school libraries and classrooms. Emotional literacy skills include self-awareness, empathy, social problem solving, mood management, and the understanding of motivation. (LRW)
The aim of this article is to bring attention to an important connection between art education programs and the development of social justice practices in K-16 classrooms. This article is organized into three sections. The first is an analysis of the hierarchical and unilateral approach to education that urban students experience throughout their…
Ferguson, Therese; Chevannes, Pauletta
The Small Island Developing State of Jamaica, in the Caribbean region, is facing significant environmental, economic, and social challenges. Violence has become a serious challenge for Jamaica and several other countries in the region; the level of violence against and among children is particularly disturbing. Perhaps even more troubling is the…
Cahill, Lisa Sowle
Recent years have witnessed a concern among theological bioethicists that secular debate has grown increasingly "thin," and that "thick" religious traditions and their spokespersons have been correspondingly excluded. This essay disputes that analysis. First, religious and theological voices compete for public attention and effectiveness with the equally "thick" cultural traditions of modern science and market capitalism. The distinctive contribution of religion should be to emphasize social justice in access to the benefits of health care, challenging the for-profit global marketing of research and biotechnology to wealthy consumers. Second, religion and theology have been and are still socially effective in sponsoring activism for practical change, both locally and globally. This claim will be supported with specific examples; with familiar concepts like subsidiarity and "middle axioms"; and with recent analyses of "participatory democracy" and of emerging, decentralized forms of global governance.
Deneca Winfrey Avant
Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.
Suraiya R Naicker
Full Text Available This study investigated a system-wide change strategy in a South African school district, which sought to build the leadership capacity of principals and district officials to improve instruction. The three-year venture was called the Leadership for Learning Programme (LLP. A distinctive feature of the LLP was that it was based on a partnership between two universities, a local one with understanding of the local context of schools, and an international institution, which brought international expertise, experience and repute/branding. Both universities had a shared vision to contribute to the ailing South African school landscape by using leadership development to leverage change. The LLP was implemented in a single school district, where the overall learner performance was unsatisfactory. A qualitative approach was used to research this change intervention. One of the main findings was that collaboration between principals collectively and district officials, as well as among principals, was lacking. It is recommended that collaborative structures such as professional learning communities, networks and teams are established to reduce isolation and fragmented work practices in the school district. This may speed up system-wide change towards improved learner performance.
Clinton, William Jefferson
Over the course of history, students and universities have played important, often transformative roles in guiding all people toward a healthier, more equitable, sustainable, and prosperous global community. Today they face unprecedented global challenges relating to climate change, extreme poverty, malnutrition and disease, and equitable…
Full Text Available To date, there is little in the way of theorizing or empirical work on the imagined endpoint of political action aimed at social change – the type of “dream” those engaged in action are attempting to bring into fruition. We suggest that previous approaches have focused narrowly on one type of social change – amelioration of collective grievances. In contrast, we argue that social change is much richer and imaginative than this narrow focus suggests. In the present article we draw on key constructs in social psychology (e.g., goals, efficacy, legitimacy, identity, social system, and social value in order to develop a typology of social change goals. In doing so, we explain why people might support one type of social change (e.g., revolution versus others (e.g., separatism or amelioration. The typology is used to discuss future directions for research and to highlight the implications for psychological (and broader approaches to social change.
Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Stanitski, D.
To address the dearth of climate education resources at the elementary level, we have developed a new module of Elementary GLOBE to showcase the science of climate change for young learners. Elementary GLOBE builds K-4 student understanding of the science concepts and the practices of science research. At the heart of each Elementary GLOBE module is a fiction storybook, describing how three kids investigate a science question. Accompanying classroom activities allow students to explore the science concepts in the book in more depth and in a context appropriate for young learners. The book for the Elementary GLOBE climate module, "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?," is the account of an adventure to explore climate change, how it is affecting melting glacial ice and sea level rise, and how climate change is a problem that can be solved. Three hands-on activities, which will be presented at this session, allow students to explore the topics in greater depth including differences between weather and climate, how sea level rise affects coastal areas, and how they can shrink their carbon footprint to help address recent climate change. Each activity includes instructions for teachers, background information, and activity sheets for students, and is aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core Math and Language Arts Standards. The storybook and activities were field tested in classrooms and reviewed by climate and Earth system scientists as well as elementary education and climate education specialists and educators to ensure scientific accuracy and clear explanations, and that the resources are age appropriate and reflect the needs of the climate education community. Other Elementary GLOBE modules include the science of seasonal change, water, soil, clouds, aerosols, and Earth as a system. All Elementary GLOBE educational resources are freely available online (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe).
Each year since 2000, the French 'ADEME' (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) conducts a survey on the social representations of greenhouse effect and global warming. This survey is administered by telephone to a representative sample of the French population. The information gathered in the database can answer a series of basic questions concerning public perception in this area. What do the concepts of 'greenhouse effect' and 'global warming' mean for the public? To what extent do people think there is a consensus among scientists to explain these phenomena? Is responsibility for human action clearly established? What kind of solutions, based on public regulation or private initiative can help to remedy this situation? Finally, what were the major changes in public opinion over this 12 years period? (author)
Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.
A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE
Barnabas, A P
Changing social conditons, particularly in rural areas, often create a feeling of normlessness. For such major changes as family limitation to be accepted in rural India, those involved must understand the total social change which will be necessary. In rural areas today the desire for motherhood is a matter of being accepted. A barren woman suffers social ostracism; folk tales tell of even animals refusing to eat a meal prepared by a barren woman. A women with a large family is particularly respected, especially if they are well provided for. The other reasons given for having large numbers of children are family survival, care in old age, increase in family income, to get more share in the property, to follow the community pattern, and to make the home happier. There is a rationale for most of these. High infant and child mortality account for the family survival, The only security the parents have is the children. More children increase the family share in a joint-family land-holding. Raising the age at marriage for girls has often been suggested as a population control measure, but what is the girl to do until 19? Rural parents do not feel their obligations to their daughter have been discharged until she is married and it is the parents who are blamed if no arrangments have been made. The idea of her becoming educated is not socially acceptable and rural boys are reluctant to marry educated girls. India's values pertaining to divorce, widow remarriage, and abortion are already undergoing change. Migration to the cities is bringing about change. Looking to the cities may bring about modernization, but the fact that the young men are the ones moving away is leading a lack of leadership in the villages. To bring about the social conditions favorable to modernization agriculture should be modernized, reducing the need for labor; factories should be built in rural areas to take up this slack in agricultural employment, and perhaps it would become acceptable for
This paper addresses value changes that have occurred to college-educated youth as China is going through drastic social transformations under Western influences. It explains how socio-economic and cultural forces interplay within a particular historical and political context in bringing about such notable changes as individualism, materialism and…
Joan Rita O'Brien
The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether somethings could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psycholo...
Joan Rita O'Brien
The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether some things could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psychol...
Fabricius, Anne H.
be reserved to refer to a socially generated mental ‘construct’, a set of expressed and tacit norms for ‘status-bearing’ language practice learned through the educational system and evident in the public domain. The chapter discusses variationist findings on word-final /t/, prevocalic /r/ and a range of vowel......This chapter summarises recent quantitative research on phonetic variation and change in Received Pronunciation (RP) as an elite sociolect, the vernacular of a multiplex socio-economically privileged group in the UK. The ‘elite sociolect’ is distinct from the ‘standard variety’, a term which should...... qualities. It also addresses evidence of sociolinguistic change, in the form of ongoing de-standardisation processes in the speech community of England, as well as the changing language-ideological and language-attitudinal place of RP in the sociolinguistic landscape....
Lyons, Denise, (Thesis)
The social care worker receives a comprehensive education through the combination of theoretical knowledge and practice training. The effective worker integrates this knowledge and experience into planned practice that meets the diverse needs of each service user. As well as honed skills and integrated knowledge, the graduate also brings their values, beliefs, socialisation influences and personality traits with them to work. The practice of social care involves working with vulnerable people...
This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.
Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril
The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…
Kotler, P; Zaltman, G
This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.
Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.
Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.
Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.
Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu
Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…
Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret
This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…
Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Frith, Chris D
Humans are intensely social animals. Much of our behavior is enacted in the presence, and during interactions, with others. We should not be surprised at the extent to which others influence our decisions and values. As Adam Smith suggested (1759), obtaining money (i.e. resources) may not be the ...
This study examines the role of adult education in bringing about social change through community development initiatives at a grassroots organisation called SUCCESS (United Chinese Community Enrichment Services Society), an immigrant community organisation in Vancouver, Canada. It adopts a case study approach. The study focuses on the historical…
Karimi, Y.; Saffarinia, M.
One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field
Sembiring, Sri Alem Br
This paper discusses how agricultural practices build social change in the Berastagi highlands. Agricultural products from this area are the vegetable supplier base for Medan City and other surrounding cities. The supply involves a network of trades involving many actors with many interests, as well as generating migration from other areas around and coming from different ethnicities. The migrants’ settlements are concentrated in certain areas of the region around Berastgai. This paper will illustrate the interaction between these aspects to bring about social change in Berastagi. This research uses qualitative method. Primary data were obtained through in-depth interview techniques and participant observation. Secondary data accessed from relevant agencies. This discussion shows how the pattern of social relationships changed due to changes in the goals of agricultural practices that not only oriented local markets but also exports. Competition, secrecy, and money orientation have become part of their planting activities. On the other hand, trade networks also construct them to work together in a particular context. This paper shows that agricultural activities and all things related to it reflect a broader context to see the development of small towns that also affect the development of the surrounding villages.
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
de la Sablonnière, Roxane
Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC. PMID:28400739
de la Sablonnière, Roxane
Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.
Scott, Jennifer E
Background: Since 1971, social marketing (SM) has been adopted as a behaviour change approach to address various social issues, including those of public health and the environment. In a context of proliferating health promotion and intervention approaches, as well as a changing communication environment, SM as a field has had to respond to various challenges. The purpose of this research was to explore the current context of SM, understand the challenges to the practice of SM, and explore it...
Justenlund, Anders; Rebelo, Sofia
The intention of this paper is to provide a specific understanding of corporate social responsibility with a particular focus in social issues in relation to human resource development. The understanding of CSR is used to create a theoretical analytical framework that should provide researchers...... with key points to set up an interview guide for a future qualitative reseach. This research recognises the importance of the individual's motives for exercising CSR at the lower levels of a hospitality organisation. The intention is to provide a perspective on the positive social processes that lower...... level employees (middle management/employees) go through when working according to CSR-principles, based on social motives and behaviour. A hermeneutical paradigm is applied to the understanding of human (inter-) action in relation to understand a phenomenon as CSR and motives for social change...
Two issues of particular interest in the Irish context are (1) the motivation for broadening engineering education to include the humanities, and an emphasis on social responsibility and (2) the process by which broadening can take place. Greater community engagement, arising from a socially-driven model of engineering education, is necessary if engineering practice is to move beyond its present captivity by corporate interests.
Annear, Michael J.; Elliott, Kate‐Ellen J.; Tierney, Laura T.; Lea, Emma J.; Robinson, Andrew
Abstract Background Older adults living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) often experience limited opportunities for social connection despite close proximity to peers, which has implications for mental health and quality of life (QoL). The introduction of large‐scale undergraduate health student placements in RACFs may enhance opportunities for meaningful engagement through social connection, although this remains unexplored. Objective This research explores whether interpersonal e...
Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...
Da Cunha, G
Social marketing became respectable only in the late 1970s in places like Indonesia, Brazil, Egypt, Honduras, and Gambia. In practice social change and marketing are both about modifying group behavior. Social change provides opportunities for marketing, which is the process that identifies the unmet consumer need and satisfies it at a profit. Social research and production technologies are involved in market segmentation, target group selection, pricing, distribution, selling, and promotion. The crucial, people-centered and community-based characteristic of marketing is its social relevance. Marketing is a neutral methodology and social marketing is its adaptation to social imperatives. Among a set of underlying ideas related to marketing is the primacy of the consumer in all marketing decisions. Marketing clusters are a way of analyzing a situation, making a product, and pricing and distributing it. Demand is the driving force behind marketing with the components of price, performance, and decision. The benefit obtained from the product must justify the price. Advertising is commercial mass persuasion, the centerpiece of promotion; it is also needed for marketing communications. Promotional tools include special price offers, merchandizing, and dealer incentive schemes. Straightforward information rarely causes lasting behavioral changes. In a Bangladeshi community, 90% of women could have correct knowledge about oral rehydration salts, yet only 8% of them might actually use them correctly. Information that is resisted does not work, yet huge amounts of money go into producing manuals, leaflets, radio programs, and posters. The issues of distribution and competition are often neglected in social marketing programs. Other deficiencies are failure to monitor, evaluate, and innovate. To be successful, social marketing must aim at a 100% conversion of the market actors. Some successes of the social marketing approach include: a nutrition education and behavior change
Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu
This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.
Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Signe Svalgaard
ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. People have a high level of trust in socio-technical systems and feel that adaptation measures primarily should be taken by the authorities.......This poster reports from a explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The aim of the project was to explore how people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation, what risks are associated with climate change and how are those risks balanced with other...... risks and concerns of everyday life? The project found that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. The prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting...
Full Text Available This study explored the social science-orientated literature on genetically modified (GM crops in Europe and compared it with the corresponding literature on GM crops in African contexts, in order to determine the nature and extent of north-south cross-fertilisation in the literature. A total of 1625 papers on GM crops and agriculture falling within the ‘social science and humanities’ subject area in the Scopus abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature were analysed for major trends relating to geographical areas. More detailed analysis was performed on papers discussing African (56 papers and European (127 papers contexts. The analysis revealed that studies on policy and politics were common in both strands of the literature, frequently focusing on effects of the relatively restrictive European Union regulations on GM crops. There were also clear differences, however. For example, papers focusing on Africa frequently examined farm-level impacts and production, while this theme was almost non-existent in the Europe literature. It focused instead on policy impacts on trade and consumer attitudes to GM products. The lack of farm-level studies and of empirical studies in general in the European literature indicates a need for empirical research on GM crops in European farming. Social science research on GM crop production in Europe could draw lessons from the African literature.
Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana
Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.
Kaspersen, Mia; Riise Johansen, Thomas
via underlying systems, we focus on how and why a specific programme with auditability as its ultimate aim changed the basis on which the external social and environmental report was prepared. Our analysis demonstrates that the perceived alignment with the financial report preparation and the explicit......Based on a case study of a large multinational group, this paper addresses the way in which social and environmental reporting (SER) systems were changed and the consequences and controversies associated with this change. Drawing on Power's work on the processes by which things are made auditable...... pursuit of auditability legitimized SER and paved the way for data systems to be changed. The programme borrowed authority from financial accounting technologies not only to make a system change but also to push SER internally, as we suggest that an intraorganizational group used the programme to ensure...
Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien
Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236
Full Text Available I suggest that Social Media and Society will be substantially focused on questions of social change. Thus, I urge a historical perspective that avoids the temptation to consolidate the vision of mass media as concentrated, passively consumed, and unidirectional in influence by contrast with today’s supposedly more dispersed, participatory, globalized, peer-to-peer social media. I then observe that many diverse disciplines are interested in social media and express concern that while they have considerable expertise regarding the “social” and “society,” they too-often appear content to black-box “media.” This requires us to enter the fray to explain how the media part of the equation matters too. Since, I suggest, this matters whenever the material or symbolic dimensions of communication are important to or contested within the unfolding action, that is very often indeed. I then suggest some pressing questions to which I hope this journal will contribute. These concern (1 the wider ecology of communication within which, intriguingly, the dimensions that best characterize face-to-face communication are still used as the yardstick by which to judge social (and other media; (2 the imperative to adopt a multi- and trans-cultural gaze as we grapple with (rather than presume we already know the ethnographic diversity of social media “users” in all their complexity—including emerging social media literacy and its relation to social media legibility; and (3 larger questions of the theoretical framework by which to conceptualize power relations “at the interface”—of speakers and hearers, producers and audiences, or, today, affordances and users.
Thomas K. J. Craig
Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.
• Basic principles of Change Management • Group practice • TheoryU and Social Networking theory as framework for Leadership • Theory about Lean thinking as a method for improving Leadership skills and strategy deployment • Group practice in collegial peer coaching • Summary and mission setting for
Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen
In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…
The book introduces the recent complex development trajectory of Nepal. The first part consist of a number of specialist contributions on gender, social change and media; while the second is focused more specifically on the role of art and theater in its societal context....
Claims that modernization in Singapore has had little effect on the Chinese concept of filial piety, a key factor in moral development. Argues that social change and modernization are challenging this firmly held tenet. Focuses on studies of student attitudes toward filial piety and moral values. Analyzes values and beliefs of Chinese, Malay, and…
Rajan, Sudhir Chella
Time is fast running out for formulating a viable global climate policy regime even as it seems obvious that the major initiative will have to come from the United States, which currently appears indisposed to take any meaningful action at all. This paper reviews the prospects for emissions reductions in the US passenger transport sector and the technical, economic, social, and political barriers to developing policies that focus solely on technology or pricing. Using scenarios it shows that, in order to meet stringent emissions targets over the coming half-century, technology and pricing policies may have to be supplemented by strategies to change life-styles and land uses in ways that effectively reduce car dependence. In the medium to long term, bold initiatives that treat vehicle users as citizens capable of shifting their interests and behaviour could form kernels of social change that in turn provide opportunities for removing many of the social and political constraints
Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.
Climate change subjects societies to a large range of uncertainties concerning the future and their development orientation. It came up as a scientific global problem, extended to political concerns first at a global and then national scales. Though it has long been the object of economic approaches which have notably contributed to its recognition, particularly the Stern Report, social sciences have hardly been mobilized as part of policies to counteract it. Social sciences strongly question the notion of climate change being built as a global scale transcendent phenomenon, analyzed by several authors. With the rise of adaptation policies, the question becomes even more important. Adaptation first comes up as a spontaneous behaviour, independent of policy, in close relationship to social dimensions as a basic way through which climate change is grasped collectively. Thus adaptation policies' social aspects need to be carefully worked in relation with more general goals for adaptation policies to be implemented efficiently, on the basis of wide interactions between local and global scales. (author)
Suarez-Almazor, M E
Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.
Hirsch, Gary B; Levine, Ralph; Miller, Robin Lin
Community psychologists have a long history of interest in understanding social systems and how to bring about enduring positive change in these systems. However, the methods that community psychologists use to anticipate and evaluate the changes that result from system change efforts are less well developed. In the current paper, we introduce readers to system dynamics modeling, an action research approach to studying complex systems and the consequences of system change. We illustrate this approach by describing a system dynamics model of educational reform. We provide readers with an introduction to system dynamics modeling, as well as describe the strengths and limitations of the approach for application to community psychology.
Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A
The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect
Thøgersen, Jacob; Pharao, Nicolai
to understand how patterns of variation and change develop in a ‘prestige’ standard language which may function as a model for normative language. In order to study on-going sound change in standard spoken Danish and their socio-linguistic consequences, the paper investigates the production of a series of front...... to neighboring vowels as well as relating these results to the realization of (a) and (æ:) as observed in sociolinguistic interviews. These variables are of particular interest because they have been discussed as emblematic of substandard pronunciation for generations, and because the social evaluation...
Jennifer E. Davison; Sharon Coe; Deborah Finch; Erika Rowland; Megan Friggens; Lisa J. Graumlich
Indices that rate the vulnerability of species to climate change in a given area are increasingly used to inform conservation and climate change adaptation strategies. These species vulnerability indices (SVI) are not commonly associated with landscape features that may affect local-scale vulnerability. To do so would increase their utility by allowing managers to...
Talbot, Lyn; Walker, Rae
Understanding what undermines or builds social capital is important when estimating the impact that changes in social capital have on people's lives. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the consequences of neo-liberal policy initiatives have impacted on linking social capital in one small and vibrant rural community in Australia. Policy changes affecting all levels of government and various commercial agencies have undermined people's capability for a range of actions which bring personal and community-wide social and economic returns. Rationalisation and regionalisation of services and commercial agencies, including local government amalgamation, and increased workloads have undermined people's capabilities for community engagement. Policy outcomes are at odds with the stated policy agenda of building community capacity.
Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher
This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...
Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C
Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations. Copyright © 2014 Chang, Fuller, Carrasquillo, Beier. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Richards-Schuster, Katie; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Nicoll, Kerri Leyda
Social work education has a long and successful history of developing change agents through bachelor of social work, master's of social work, and PhD programs, but these programs often create boundaries limiting the reach and infusion of social work perspectives. With rapid changes in social, economic, and political contexts, students from all…
Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development of the soci......Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development...... of the society he lived in. The fact that his original analyses were rooted in a given historical context and were founded on a well thought-through conceptual system should not be ignored. The galvanising effect of the dribs and drabs of Adam Smith ideas that have been bandied about are a long way from...... the powerful insights imbued in the original ideas. Putting those back into context, looking into how Smith proceeded then, trying to update his observations, might help us to be more attentive to the market changes and social challenges of our times....
Because of regulatory and technological changes, energy operators have to reconsider their business model, i.e. to identify their tomorrow's key activities and skills, and to keep control of the value chain as a multitude of new and various operators try to be present on the production sector and on the distribution sector. In order to give an insight on these issues, this study proposes three reports and a video. While the video proposes an original presentation of the main conclusions of this study, the first document is an executive synthesis which outlines and discusses some important issues: regulatory and technological changes submit energy operators to an unprecedented competitive and strategic paradigm; an efficient management of transition requires a profession-based approach and renewed strategic assets; energy operators must take the risk of 'uberisation' of their profession into account in order to better respond. The second document is an analysis report which addresses the upheavals of the energy operator environment (regulatory changes, technological upheavals, focus on the new energy deal), and the main strategic challenges faced by energy operators (redesign of the energy model, projection on non-core activities, acquisition of new strategic assets). It also proposes a discussion on the reconfiguration of the energy value chain (an upstream disruption of the value chain, a risk of reversal of the whole value chain). The third document proposes presentations of the evolution of key figures of energy markets in France (electricity, gas, renewable energy, turnovers of specialised actors in gas production and distribution and of the electricity sectors), a presentation of the sector economic structure and competitive landscape (sites, personnel, market shares, market key figures, main operators, electric power producers, gas providers, and renewable plant operators), and an overview of main events (asset management strategy
Zhang, Ping; Ding, Lin; Mazur, Eric
This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n =441 ) in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture) teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI). In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes pre-post matched gains in the epistemological views of science students taking the introductory physics course at Beijing Normal University (BNU in China. In this study we examined the attitudes and beliefs of science majors (n=441 in four classes, one taught using traditional (lecture teaching methods, and the other three taught with Peer Instruction (PI. In two of the PI classes, student peer groups were constantly changing throughout the semester, while in the other PI class student groups remained fixed for the duration of the semester. The results of the pre- and post-test using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey showed that students in traditional lecture settings became significantly more novicelike in their beliefs about physics and learning physics over the course of a semester, a result consistent with what was reported in the literature. However, all three of the classes taught using the PI method improved student attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. In the PI class with fixed peer groups, students exhibited a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs than in the other PI class with changing peer groups. The study also looked at gender differences in student learning attitudes. Gender results revealed that female science majors in the PI classes achieved a greater positive shift in attitudes and beliefs after instruction than did male students.
The undergraduate thesis focuses on students’ social network and lifestyle changes after engaging in a new partnership. Theoretical framework about the young adulthood era, social relationship, social network and support was in the empirical part upgraded with an overview of changes in diversification and composition of students’ social network after engaging in a new partnership and their satisfaction with these changes. I was researching also lifestyle changes that occur after entering a...
Herzberg, Judith T.
Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok
A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…
Kanbara, S; Yamamoto, Y; Sugishita, T; Nakasa, T; Moriguchi, I
To discuss the evolving roles of Japanese nurses in meeting the goals and concerns of ongoing global sustainable development. Japanese nurses' roles have evolved as the needs of the country and the communities they served, changed over time. The comprehensive public healthcare services in Japan were provided by the cooperation of hospitals and public health nurses. The nursing profession is exploring ways to identify and systemize nursing skills and competencies that address global health initiatives for sustainable development goals. This paper is based on the summary of a symposium, (part of the 2015 annual meeting of the Japan Association for International Health) with panel members including experts from Japan's Official Development Assistance. The evolving role of nurses in response to national and international needs is illustrated by nursing practices from Japan. Japanese public health nurses have also assisted overseas healthcare plans. In recent catastrophes, Japanese nurses assumed the roles of community health coordinators for restoration and maintenance of public health. The Japanese experience shows that nursing professionals are best placed to work with community health issues, high-risk situations and vulnerable communities. Their cooperation can address current social needs and help global communities to transform our world. Nurses have tremendous potential to make transformative changes in health and bring about the necessary paradigm shift. They must be involved in global sustainable development goals, health policies and disaster risk management. A mutual understanding of global citizen and nurses will help to renew and strengthen their capacities. Nursing professionals can contribute effectively to achieve national and global health goals and make transformative changes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Parnell, Daniel; Hylton, Kevin
Providing pragmatic interventions (through sport) to tackle social issues in hard-to-reach communities, including those in Aboriginal and black minority ethnic (BME) communities, this study highlights how a community football club was able to deliver positive outcomes for racism, discrimination and health. The article compares findings geographically originating from Australia with those in the UK. The program highlighted herein does not have the so-called 'power' and backing of a brand (of a professional football club) to rely on, and the appealing factor is football alone; football in its purest sense: the activity. We call upon those strategically placed in funding and commissioning roles to draw on the evidence base to support non-professional football (and sport and recreation) clubs to deliver on the health agenda. Adding further conclusions that this mechanism and context of delivery can support positive social and health changes, but requires further examination.
Mahaffey, Amanda L; Bryan, Angela D
To test the effects of social influence and social distance on attitudes, we assessed judgments of gay and lesbian targets in various contexts over three studies (n = 814, 51% female). We compared the impact of a derogatory message to a relatively favorable message ostensibly written by another participant. Participants were robustly moved by the feedback; social influence was a significant predictor in final evaluations of the target, as was social distance. Discrimination against gay men and lesbian women appears not to be a fixed behavior; seemingly anyone can be persuaded to discriminate or not to discriminate by mere peer suggestion.
James Q. Whitman
Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.
Now in paperback for the first time, Social Movements and their Technologies explores the interplay between social movements and their 'liberated technologies'. It analyzes the rise of low-power radio stations and radical internet projects ('emancipatory communication practices') as a political
van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.
The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic
The body of literature on social learning is enormous, with differently framed ontologies and epistemologies aligned to multiple perspectives of learning in a social context. These have grown out of the many academic disciplines which have seen the value of social learning. This paper highlights the need to be aware of ...
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.
Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.
This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…
Ronay, R.D.; von Hippel, W.
To adapt one’s behavior to suit changing social contingencies, it is necessary to be skillful at detecting such changing contingencies in the first place. As a consequence, the ability to detect changing contingencies (reversal learning) should predict social competence across both competitive and
Full Text Available Can social change be brought about only in a radical manner? Is a radical manner of bringing about change possible at all? When we say social change, do we mean "revolution"? Is there a different way of looking at social change, and what is the role of elite culture and that of popular culture in these processes? Has the temporally and contextually limited effect of change and guerilla subversion through popular culture proved more effective? This small-scale study aims to raise the question of whether pop music can contribute to positive changes in society, and examines the conditions for this possibility through the case study of Nebojša "Šobaja" Anđelković’s song Three Kisses, declared the biggest music hit of 2009 in Serbia.
Byg, Anja; Herslund, Lise Byskov
what circumstances people can make use of their ties. The use of different kinds of ties varies with context and is not as clear cut as suggested in the literature. For example families closer to the city are in a better position to take advantage of new opportunities. Using a combination of ties......We investigate the use of social capital in the form of social ties in the face of commercialization, urbanization and climate change. While discussions of social capital often focus on whether people possess certain social ties or not our study shows that it is also necessary to consider under...... unsustainable in the long run. Thus, decreased vulnerability at the household level may come at the price of increased vulnerability at higher levels and negative consequences for the wider social–ecological system. Evaluating vulnerability and the role of social ties depends on the unit and sector of analysis...
Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen
This country report briefly describes the social structure of Pakistan based on socioeconomic indicators and the current status of education along with the opportunities available to girls at the state level. To flourish as a prosperous nation, Pakistani society needs a change in its social setup, where women are given equal rights and status, society has respect for every belief and religion, and there is no economic disparity between the genders. If the women in science and technology, especially the women physicists, are motivated to join international forums like IUPAP and given opportunities for research to develop their career and participate in the economy of the country, we hope that these women will help bring positive change, benefiting Pakistani society.
The social movement surrounding autism in the U.S. has been rightly defined a ray of light in the history of social progress. The movement is inspired by a true understanding of neuro-diversity and is capable of bringing about desirable change in political discourse. At several points along the way, however, the legal reforms prompted by the autism movement have been grafted onto preexisting patterns of inequality in the allocation of welfare, education, and medical services. In a context most recently complicated by economic recession, autism-driven change bears the mark of political and legal fragmentation. Distributively, it yields ambivalent results that have not yet received systemic attention. This article aims to fill this analytical vacuum by offering, first, a synoptic view of the several legal transformations brought about or advocated for by the autism movement and, second, a framework for investigating their distributive consequences.
Dunne, Sandra; Edwards, Julie
This article examines the potential of international schools to act as agents of social transformation in developing countries. The method comprises a case study at two international schools in the Philippines. The case study explored ways in which schools foster host-national students' sense of social responsibility, particularly through…
Bouje, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.
Ordinary social violence, - i.e. recurrent mental or physical aggression occurring between closely related people - structures social relationships in Africa, and in the world. Studies of violence in Africa often refer to ethnic wars and explicit conflicts and do not enter the hidden domain of
Feb 8, 2011 ... David Bonbright, founder and chief executive of the UK-based Keystone organization, says social investors need “eco-intelligence” systems in their bid to develop sustainable ... Bovespa, a social-investment offshoot of the Brazilian Stock Exchange, may spawn similar ventures elsewhere in the South.
M. R. LUCA
Full Text Available The paper presents the main theoretical issues of the organisational socialization: theoretical models as well as instruments used in the field research. The research in the field of organisational socialization is important mainly in the context of changes in career paths in recent times, the output of the socialization process being related to work performance, job satisfaction and organizational involvement.
Author believes that the teacher of literature should encourage the study of modern novels and drama that will lead to realistic discussions of low life, life in the slums, and other social problems. (Author/PG)
Goodsell, Todd L.
In recent years, the process of social change through improvement of residences in decaying neighborhoods--gentrification--has itself changed. Traditional families (married with children) and a broader spectrum of the social class spectrum are more likely to be involved. The present research takes an ethnographic perspective and considers the…
Goldstein, Marc A.
Three questions are examined: (1) Why have contemporary American educators generally ignored Durkheim's sociology of education? (2) What were Durkheim's contributions to the sociology of education as his analysis related to social change through education? and (3) What is the relationship between Durkheim's sociology of education, social change,…
Glenn, Cerise L.
The influence of social media and technological developments has changed how groups and organizations advocating for social change generate awareness and participation in their causes. In this single class activity students will (a) analyze notions of activism and "slacktivism" from scholarly and popular sources to apply these concepts…
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change – and predictors of that change – in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these...
Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Turgut, Liz
Past research has suggested that social influences on drinking can be manipulated with subsequent reductions in alcohol intake. However, the experimental evidence for this and the best strategies to positively change these social influences have not been meta-analyzed. This research addressed these gaps. Randomized controlled trials testing social influence-based interventions on adults' drinking were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The behavior change techniques used in each study were coded and the effect sizes showing the impact of each intervention on (a) social influence and (b) alcohol intake were calculated. Metaregressions identified the association between these effect sizes, as well as the effect of specific behavior change techniques on social influences. Forty-one studies comprising 17,445 participants were included. Changes in social influences were significantly associated with changes in alcohol intake. However, even moderate-to-large changes in social influences corresponded with only a small change in drinking behavior and changing social influences did not reduce alcohol-related problems. Providing normative information about others' behavior and experiences was the most effective technique to change social influences. Social influences and normative beliefs can be changed in drinkers, particularly by providing normative information about how much others' drink. However, even generating large changes in these constructs are likely to engender only small changes in alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…
Rice, James J; Prince, Michael J
... in the 1990s. Globalization and the concomitant corporate mobility affect government's ability to regulate the distribution of wealth, while the increasing diversity of the population puts increasingly complex demands on an already overstressed system. Yet in the face of these constraints, the system still endures and is far from irrelevant. Some social progr...
A shortage of economic resources could lead to job lay-offs that will significantly affect the social network, regardless of endogenous effects...P. & A. Rényi (1959). “On Random Graphs I.” Publicationes Mathematicae 6: 290–297. Feld, S. (1997). “Structural Embeddedness and Stability of
In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.
Hogan, Bernie; Quan-Haase, Anabel
In "Star Trek," Scotty suggests that Transwarp beaming is "like trying to hit a bullet with a smaller bullet, whilst wearing a blindfold, riding a horse." The study of social media faces similar challenges because new tools are developed at a rapid pace and existing tools are constantly being updated with new features, policies, and applications.…
A familiar discourse about higher education and social change today relates to higher education's socio-economic role within knowledge societies in a globalizing world. This paper addresses how issues of social justice feature in such discourses; whether social justice in higher education has been appropriated into a neo-liberal strategy for…
The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…
African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...
William J. Mello
Full Text Available This article examines how Brazilian labor organizations developed educational programs that simultaneously confronted the issues of large scale illiteracy, particularly among young workers, while at the same time seized the opportunity to educate new generations of social movement and labor activists. Specifically, it explores the educational program Projeto Integrar, organized by the National Confederation of Metalworkers (CNM/CUT, and its importance for the broader process of political transformation presently underway in Brazil.
Maria Isabel Muñoz Carvajal
Full Text Available Nowdays society CSR has emerged as one of the rising values for companies, not only because of the benefits it can bring associating with the image, but also with the growing awareness that companies are becoming as social beings, must report part of their profits to the society of which they were acquired. Internet and all its possibilities is outlined as the most appropriate social media to communicate CSR corporate information. Therefore, in this study we aim to analyze the corporate website of the leading Spanish Ibex 35 and deeply engaged in the use when communicating their CSR and Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change.
The density of junk orbiting the Earth is at or near a critical value beyond which this man-made debris will self-perpetuate, forming many smaller pieces that are even more of a problem. Stephen Ornes reports on the latest ideas about how to bring down the trash.
as facts, i.e. establish a scientific authoritative truth. In a case study from Denmark, the paper shows how the first survey - a study of seamstresses - was carried out by bringing several cognitive and organizational elements together: a network of researchers, a method for sampling, the construction...
Graves, Donald H.
A focus on people--whether community members, students, historical figures, or fictional characters--and their motivations brings excitement to learning. A community's experts on everything from jazz music and Chinese tapestries to building construction can help students move inside history and other subjects. (MLH)
Metzger, E. P.; Santone, S.; Smith, G.; Cordero, E.
Sustainability education is an approach to learning that builds knowledge, skills, and values needed to create lasting economic prosperity, environmental health, and social justice. In collaboration with Creative Change Educational Solutions (http://www.creativechange.net/) and with funding from the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation and NASA, scientists and science educators at San José State University (SJSU) are developing an online 'Introduction for Sustainability' course for middle and high school educators. The module will introduce sustainability as a context for learning, highlight connections to climate change science and solutions, and provide strategies for linking the environmental, economic and social dimensions of climate destabilization to fundamental sustainability concepts. This self-paced course will be piloted during the 2013-2014 academic year. Upon completion, participants will receive inexpensive university credit ( $50/unit) from SJSU. Course goals are to demonstrate the applicability of sustainability themes across disciplines; increase learners' knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and related sustainability challenges; and support learners in integrating course content and methods into their classroom teaching. Course activities combine: 1) reading selections and questions; 2) online discussion; 3) digital media (short videos and tutorials); and 4) journal entries and other written assignments, including consideration of how course content aligns with the Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. The module is divided into five sections: 1) Defining What Matters - What Do We All Need for a Fulfilling Life?; 2) The Commons and Ecosystem Services; 3) Causes and Impacts of Climate Change; 4) Individual and Collective Actions to Mitigate Its Effects; and 5) Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum. Initial recruitment for the course will take place among participants in workshops offered by the Bay
Fishing communities constantly change and adapt to modifications in their environment, which are reflected by changes in variables related to fishery. However, the impact of these quickly changing fishery patterns on social dynamics of artisanal fishing communities in the Western Indian Ocean has been poorly investigated ...
Dec 2, 2012 ... change hotspots: social vulnerability. Framework, key ... odi.org.uk. An illustration of key concepts. Adapted from IPCC 2012. CLIMATE. DEVELOPMENT. Natural variability. Anthropogenic climate change. Climate change ... What is the role of local institutions and risk management strategies, and how do.
Jansen, Giedo; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Need, Ariana
To what extent can the decline of class voting in the Netherlands be explained by sociological factors (compositional changes, the evolution of the class structure and economic progressivism) and political factors (a party-merger and changing party positions)? Multinomial logit (MNP) and conditional
Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, which represents the discrepancy between one's own and another person's opinion, or, more broadly, between currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. Research on persuasion has revealed that people's susceptibility to persuasive messages is related to activation in a nearby but more anterior part of the medial frontal cortex. Future progress in this field will depend upon the ability of researchers to dissociate underlying motivations for attitude change in different paradigms, and to utilize neuroimaging methods to advance social psychological theories of social influence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bullis, Connie; Bach, Betsy Wackernagel
To examine perspectives of change in individual-organizational socialization, a study used the retrospective interview technique (RIT) to reconstruct the history and process of individuals' socialization experiences over an 8-month period. Using the RIT, researchers asked subjects, 28 entering graduate students enrolled in three communication…
Vegt, N.J.H.; Visch, V.T.
In this paper we propose an approach towards designing social games or game elements for changing people’s social behavior for serious applications. We use the concept of the magic circle, which outlines the experience of a game world as different from the real world. We can design a connection
Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests the self-interest hypothesis arguing that changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect popular demand for redistribution. I analyze data from four waves of the European Social Survey and use a synthetic cohort design to generate pseudo panel data for socio-demographic gr...
Smailhodzic, Edin; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David
Social media represent specific types of technologies that are end-user driven and end-users are able to drive disruptive change giving little time to organizations to react. With rapid and powerful emergence of social media communities in healthcare, this sector is faced with new and alternative
Smailhodzic, E.; Boonstra, A.; Langley, D.J.
Social media represent specific types of technologies that are end-user driven and end-users are able to drive disruptive change giving little time to organizations to react. With rapid and powerful emergence of social media communities in healthcare, this sector is faced with new and alternative
Monitoring to detect change on rangelands: physical, social and economic /policy drivers. ... Social drivers include attitudes and values of land mangers and the public. ... Risk assessments, adaptive management analyses, or management by hypothesis require understanding linkages between environmental drivers and ...
Rahman O Oloritun
Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as
Teeters, Leah Anne
1.) Relationships "de Confianza" and the Organization of Collective Social Action: We examine the relational elements of community change, focusing on how community health workers ("promotoras") build relationships "de confianza." The analysis demonstrates how relationships "de confianza" have laid a…
Murray, Richard B; Larkins, Sarah; Russell, Heather; Ewen, Shaun; Prideaux, David
Medical education reform can make an important contribution to the future health care of populations. Social accountability in medical education was defined by the World Health Organization in 1995, and an international movement for change is gathering momentum. While change can be enabled with policy levers, such as funding tied to achieving equity outcomes and systems of accreditation, medical schools and students themselves can lead the transformation agenda. An international movement for change and coalitions of medical schools with an interest in socially accountable medical education provide a "community of practice" that can drive change from within.
Berkovits, L D; Baker, B L
Social difficulties are closely linked to emotion dysregulation among children with typical development (TD). Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for poor social outcomes, but the relationship between social and emotional development within this population is not well understood. The current study examines the extent to which emotion dysregulation is related to social problems across middle childhood among children with TD or DD. Children with TD (IQ ≥ 85, n = 113) and children with DD (IQ ≤ 75, n = 61) participated in a longitudinal study. Annual assessments were completed at ages 7, 8 and 9 years. At each assessment, mothers reported on children's emotion dysregulation, and both mothers and teachers reported on children's social difficulties. Children with DD had higher levels of emotion dysregulation and social problems at each age than those with TD. Emotion dysregulation and social problems were significantly positively correlated within both TD and DD groups using mother report of social problems, and within the TD group using teacher report of social problems. Among children with TD, emotion dysregulation consistently predicted change in social problems from one year to the next. However, among children with DD, emotion dysregulation offered no unique prediction value above and beyond current social problems. Results suggested that the influence of emotion regulation abilities on social development may be a less salient pathway for children with DD. These children may have more influences, beyond emotion regulation, on their social behaviour, highlighting the importance of directly targeting social skill deficits among children with DD in order to ameliorate their social difficulties. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L
Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lucaire, L E
Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources
Andrade, Thales de; Vargas, Marcelo; Freitas Rodrigues, Diego de; Guiraldeli, Isamara; Nozawa, María Luisa
A problemática das mudanças climáticas começa a receber atenção da parte dos cientistas sociais. Nos últimos anos os relatórios do International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) têm despertado o interesse de governos, empresas e vários setores sobre questões que envolvem capacidade de adaptação, vulnerabilidade e mitigação de efeitos danosos decorrentes da mudança climática global. Esse texto pretende discutir como diferentes setores governamentais e da sociedade civil estão construindo inicia...
Full Text Available This article presents the findings of an evaluation of an innovative Australian social entrepreneurship and leadership program to highlight some of the challenges young social change makers face as they attempt to influence change in their local, national and international environments. Through an investigation of an innovative Australian social entrepreneurship program, this article demonstrates how reflexive, communicative and participatory practices position young people at the forefront of new forms of civic engagement and that there are certain needs relating to the development of self and community which must to be addressed in order that these young social actors can fulfil their civic aspirations. The findings of the evaluation reported here demonstrate that if social entrepreneur programs are to be successful in providing a service to young people, they need to foster the creation of environments characterised by collectivism, collaboration and opportunities for self development while providing practical solutions to common barriers faced by social entrepreneurs
Full Text Available In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.
Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric
In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.
Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J
Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.
Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L.; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Mayes, Linda C.
Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. PMID:27330184
Full Text Available The Arab Spring and U.S. Occupy movements surprised the world in 2011, showing that movements for radical social change remain viable responses to the intertwined crises of globalization: economic precarity, political disenchantment, rampant inequality, and the long-term fuse of potentially catastrophic climate change. These movements possess political cultural affinities of emotion, historical memory, and oppositional and creative discourses with each other and with a chain of movements that have gathered renewed momentum and relevance as neoliberal globalization runs up against the consequences of its own rapaciousness.Three paths to radical social change have emerged that differ from the hierarchical revolutionary movements of the twentieth century: 1 the electoral path to power pursued by the Latin American Pink Tide nations, 2 the route of re-making power at the local level or seeking change at the global level, both by-passing the traditional goal of taking state power, and 3 the occupation of public space to force out tyrants, as in Tunisia and Egypt.This paper assesses the strengths and limitations of each path, arguing that social movements and progressive parties together may possess the best chances for making radical social change in this new situation. These threads of resistance may also point toward a future of radical social change as we imagine their enduring results, self-evident and more subtle.
This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.
Kathy Lynn; Katharine MacKendrick; Ellen M. Donoghue
The effects of climate change are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others because of geographic location, the degree of association with climate-sensitive environments, and unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics of particular landscapes and human populations. Social vulnerability and equity in the context of climate change...
Husbands in Wives' Shoes: Changing Social Roles in Child Care among Cameroon's Urban Residents. ... and society? This paper addresses these issues using historical, anthropological, psychological and sociological methods and techniques of data collection and analyses. Key Words: Fathers and childcare; changing ...
This essay explores how the concept of social marketing can be employed to change attitudes towards leprosy. Firstly, the concept of social marketing is discussed, then the attitudes that people have about leprosy, the stigma that people with leprosy and their families may face, and the detrimental effects that this can have on their lives. The effect of knowledge and education on attitudes towards leprosy is discussed, as this can be a key component of social marketing campaigns. Various methods of social marketing used to change attitudes and reduce stigma are examined, such as mass media campaigns, school based education, methods which involve community leaders, and the integration and improvement of leprosy services. Principles of social marketing which can lead to the success of campaigns such as incorporating local beliefs are emphasized. The success of the social marketing campaign in Sri Lanka is described, which aimed to remove the fear of leprosy, and to encourage patients to seek and comply with treatment. Finally, it is argued that social marketing, used correctly, can be highly effective at changing community attitudes towards leprosy, reducing stigma and improving the lives of patients, who become able to seek treatment sooner as they lose their fear of stigmatization.
Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...
del Prado, Pixita; McMillen, Susan E.; Friedland, Ellen S.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS); the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS); and the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social State Standards are bringing many changes to schools and classrooms across the United States. This article suggests using the power of questions to make connections across seemingly disparate…
Murie, A.; Musterd, S.
Contemporary debates about social polarisation and divided cities emphasise common influences on social and economic change in cities, The development of a global economy and of global influences on both market systems and on public policy regimes encourages an expectation that there is a
McGonigal, James; Doherty, Robert; Allan, Julie; Mills, Sarah; Catts, Ralph; Redford, Morag; McDonald, Andy; Mott, Jane; Buckley, Christine
This paper synthesises a collaborative review of social capital theory, with particular regard for its relevance to the changing educational landscape within Scotland. The review considers the common and distinctive elements of social capital, developed by the founding fathers--Putnam, Bourdieu and Coleman--and explores how these might help to…
Nakamura, Taiki (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan))
Three facilities of nuclear fuel cycle, that is, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing and low level radioactive waste storage and burying, are being constructed by electric power industry in Rokkasho Village, Kamikita County, Aomori Prefecture. These are the large scale project of the total investment of 1.2 trillion yen. It is expected that the promotion of this project exerts not a little effect to the social economy of the surrounding districts. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, carried out the social environment survey on the location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In this report, the outline of the economical pervasive effect due to the construction and operation of the three facilities in the report of this survey is described. The method of survey and the organization, the outline of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the economical pervasive effect, the effect to the local social structure, and the direction of arranging occupation, residence and leisure accompanying the location of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reported. (K.I.).
Full Text Available Women have throughout history participated in and sometimes initiated rebellions to defend the welfare of their family, community, class and race or ethnic group. It appears that generations of women in a wide range of political and social movements, individual women resisting social injustice and at least three waves of conscious feminism(s have not yet succeeded in defeating the popular stigma surrounding female activism. Women moving in the public arena still evoke the same negative images they have conjured for centuries, reflected in such derogatory appellations as ‘viragos,’ ‘witches,’ ‘femmes-hommes,’ or ‘hyenas in petty-coats’. This paper looks at social change from the perspective of its arguably most cogent, but nevertheless controversial, agents. It examines a range of recent theories concerning gender and social change, to affirm women’s revolutionary potential beyond the boundaries of political revolution.
A lot of studies have been achieved on the effects of social support on psychological stress or psychological well-being. Few of them, however, have focused their attention on the interactive influences by various support resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of developmental change of perceived availability of social support from parents, friends (boys and girls were separated) and teachers on psychological stress responses in junior high school students, high s...
As an exemplar of bottom-up progressive social experimentation, HUSK provides opportunities to examine how innovative practice is supported and challenged in bureaucratic settings. In this analysis the author uses a sensemaking lens to identify critical issues and questions for those seeking to promote progressive change initiative in social welfare systems. Findings identify essential organizational and managerial supports needed to support service user voice and participation and reinforce the importance of reflexivity in practice and research.
Jiang, Mingming; Thagard, Paul
Social innovations are creative products and changes that are motivated by social needs and bring value to society by meeting those needs. This article uses case studies to investigate the cognitive and social processes that contribute to creativity in social innovation. The cases are: Wendy Kopp with Teach For America in education, Cicely…
Murray, David A B
Currently, in a number of public and semi-public forums in Barbados, the idea of 'sexual rights' is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to 'rights'. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rights discourses are the best way to advocate for social justice or bring about changes to socio-sexual attitudes in the Caribbean. It is argued that framing justice and equality through rights talk may have deleterious effects for its advocates, as there is no 'clear' or transparent universality as to what rights means. It is suggested that it may be more efficacious for groups who are stigmatized based on sexual orientation to develop vernacular strategies with values and/or logics stressing elements of justice, equality, dignity and respect for personhood, which include but also move beyond sexual orientation as a principal identification.
Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John
Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Continuous change in the complex health care environments is a major challenge for administrative managers. This study aimed to design a change model to facilitate change implementation in the Iranian hospitals. Methods: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The data were collected through library search and in-depth interview with 15 hospital managers. Nine well-established change theories developed by Lewin, Action Research, Kotter, Ackerman- Anderson and Anderson, Prosci , Kilman, Beer, Continuum, and Gelicher were compared. Common denominators of the theories were identified and tabulated. Experienced hospital managers’ suggestions about social factors were acquired. The initial model was designed and validated using the Delphi Technique. Results: The majority of the selected change models emphasize the significance of social factors in change implementation such as effective communication, organizational climate and culture, and leadership. The results from the interviews indicate that low readiness to change, lack of confidence (or trust for change, and autocratic leadership style ,and poor communication could hinder the change process. Conclusion: Based on the model developed in the study, effective communication, readiness of employees, and a contingency leadership/management combined could lead to successful implementation of change in the hospital.
Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.
Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…
Full Text Available Working abroad helps teachers have a global perspective and enable them to become aware of global affairs. Teachers with international experience stands a better chance for professional and personal development. They not only enhance their teaching skills but also become more social. The skills they develop while working abroad make a difference in the lives of their students. Through transferring what they have learnt abroad to their home country, they can enhance the success of their students. This article presents the reasons why teachers need international experience and what changes they bring home.
Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Madoka; Aoki, Ryuta; Sugiura, Ayaka; Phillips, Adam N; Matsumoto, Kenji
Social norms regulate behavior, and changes in norms have a great impact on society. In most modern societies, norms change through interpersonal communication and persuasive messages found in media. Here, we examined the neural basis of persuasion-induced changes in attitude toward and away from norms using fMRI. We measured brain activity while human participants were exposed to persuasive messages directed toward specific norms. Persuasion directed toward social norms specifically activated a set of brain regions including temporal poles, temporo-parietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex. Beyond these regions, when successful, persuasion away from an accepted norm specifically recruited the left middle temporal and supramarginal gyri. Furthermore, in combination with data from a separate attitude-rating task, we found that left supramarginal gyrus activity represented participant attitude toward norms and tracked the persuasion-induced attitude changes that were away from agreement.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin
Full Text Available In the article, the attention is paid to a role of service-producing industries rendering social services, promoting human development in the modern state. Theoretical positions of scientists considering meaning of the social benefits and need of active state support of the social sphere are generalized. The condition of the Russian service-producing industries is considered, the comparative analysis of indicators of their activity with indicators of service-producing industries of other countries is carried out. In view of indicators of the efficiency ratings of national education systems, world countries on the health systems efficiency, world countries on the level of social development of 2014, the author’s conceptual approach is offered; it considers interconditionality and interdependence of level of public financing of the social sphere and dynamics of a contribution of service-producing industries to the human capital development providing a gain of gross domestic product of the country. Need of innovative changes in socio-economic systems of service-producing industries for the efficiency increase of their activity, taking into account the received results — first of all in health care is proved. Theoretical approaches to management of changes in socio-economic systems are investigated. On the basis of the conducted research, the created theoretical basis of the level increase of change management in open socioeconomic systems for the purpose of the theoretical and methodological approaches to development to change management in relation to health sector, the optimization model of management of health care organizations ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes is offered. The use possibilities of management optimization by ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes in health sector of different management levels are confirmed by the high rates of performance efficiency on micro-, meso- and macrolevel in industry on the
John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson
As the world becomes increasingly urbanized and interconnected, the distinctionÂ between urban and rural areas is diminishing. Creation of new urbanârural interfaceÂ areas causes immediate changes in local natural and social environments, and theseareas are also susceptible to both short-term and long-term environmental changes.Â Different groups of people...
Christensen, Toke Haunstrup
The paper presents initial theoretical suggestions on how practice theory might be combined with understandings of learning as an experiential and social activity. The aim is to inspire to further thinking about how to make practice theory more “applicable” for designing changes towards a low...
Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun
We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…
This article evaluates the validity of "theories of change" of anti-polarisation and anti-radicalisation interventions. Assumptions of four dominant social policies are confronted with the literature. In addition, epistemological issues are discussed. Notions of "what works and why", do not equate to straightforward…
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Feedback surveys are an assessment exercise that differs from conventional evaluation by creating a comparative data set. Transnational social change networks are international networks with members spread across multiple countries working to collectively organize towards a common long-term goal that would not be ...
Evaluation and development research therefore needs to foster a better information ecosystem – “eco-intelligence” – for social change investing, so that investors can base their choices on validated information. These were some of the conclusions Bonbright shared with his audience. “We don't have good data about most ...
Combining Post-Harvest Fish Value Chain and Social Change Interventions in Zambia and Malawi (CultiAF). While fish resources are critical to the livelihoods of 700 million people worldwide, they are not achieving their full potential in Africa. This project will examine interventions to reduce poverty and to improve food and ...
In the absence of fuller integration and representation within the sphere of law making in both domestic and international arrangement, the increasing influence, contribution and work of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) for the purpose of social change, policy formulation and eventual rule making are undeniable.
Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At
AJRH Managing Editor
Kagurusi. Impediments to effective family planning. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2013; 17(3): 70. REVIEW ARTICLE. Impediments to Media Communication of Social Change in Family. Planning and Reproductive Health: Experiences from East Africa. Kagurusi Patrick T. Regional Center for Quality of ...
Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, this article examines the personal characteristics and environmental experiences that contribute to college students' involvement in social change. Results indicate that collegiate environmental characteristics (i.e., student group membership, leadership training, discussions…
Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.
urban Gloucester with those of 46 individuals from two rural cemeteries at Horcott Quarry and Cotswold Community, respectively. Seven individuals from urban Gloucester were buried in a mass grave; all others were buried in single inhumations. Results show small but significant differences in stable...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change....
Sep 21, 2015 ... 2Centre for Communication,. Media and Society, University ... projects is discussed. The article thus highlights ways in which spirituality can be considered in relation to social change ... The importance of the Kalahari People's spiritual beliefs as reflected in these case studies, and its significance regarding ...
Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.
This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…
Honikman, Basil, Ed.
This book presents a spectrum of the environmental design and research issues of today, an introduction to the field as a whole, and an emphasis on the need for changes in attitudes and procedures in the disciplines. Contributions, multidisciplinary in approach, range from a diversity of perspectives, including urban planning, social and…
Stanley, Christopher T.; Stanley, Lauren H. K.
An individual's identity related to health is critically important in terms of the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, and guides approaches to health change across the lifespan. This article presents a review of the literature and proposes a health socialization and health identity framework, which may be used to clarify challenges in…
McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.
This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…
individual sharing and a cash-centred economy. While fishers in the study area have remained rather passive in the wake of declining resources, those in other areas of the world such as Bangladesh (Kabir et al., 2011) and Nicaragua (Daw, 2008) have. Changes in Fisheries and Social Dynamics in Tanzanian Coastal ...
Full Text Available Complex social and environmental issues call for broader collaboration across different sectors so as to instigate transformative social change. While previous scholars have emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in facilitating social change, they have not provided a nuanced assessment of NGOs’ different roles. We use the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO research partnership as a study case and explore NGO partners’ different roles in a large cross-sector social partnership (CSSP. By interviewing 12 NGO partners and 4 non-NGO partners involved in the PEPSO research partnership, our research results show that NGOs primarily have 10 roles in a CSSP. They include enabling roles such as consultant, capacity builder, analyst, and funder; coordinating roles such as broker and communicator; and facilitating roles such as initiator, leader, advocate, and monitor. These roles allow NGOs to fulfil their duties to make substantial contributions to a CSSP.
Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Waehrens, Brian Vejrum
social practice in the receiving organizational unit. The paper builds on six case studies in three MNEs with well established capabilities for transferring operations activities. Case studies illustrate how different aspects of the learning arena may be used for supporting knowledge and competence...
Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.
Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.
Fuller, Rhema D; Harrison, C Keith; Lawrence, S Malia; Eyanson, Jeff; McArdle, Danielle
Historically, men have been characterized as task-oriented leaders who are motivated by desires for autonomy, wealth, and power (17, 33). However, these "masculine" views of leadership might not accurately capture the leadership motivations of Millennial males as the views were developed in previous generations (4). Given the commitment of many Millennials towards socially responsible attitudes and behaviors (18, 25), we utilized a qualitative research design to examine the influence of social change on the leadership motivations of Millennial male intercollegiate athletes. In doing so, we found participants were motivated to lead in order to affect social change within their communities and within society. Our findings indicate a new perspective, one which includes a commitment to social change, is potentially needed when discussing "masculine" views of leadership.
Trucco, Elisa M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Colder, Craig R.
Objective This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11 – 16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Method Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (n = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals; yet, significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. Conclusions This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge. PMID:23998889
Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11-16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave, with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (N = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender, and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals, yet significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions, as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McGloin, Aileen F; Eslami, Sara
The way that people communicate, consume media and seek and receive information is changing. Forty per cent of the world's population now has an internet connection, the average global social media penetration is 39% and 1·5 billion people have internet access via mobile phone. This large-scale move in population use of digital, social and mobile media presents an unprecedented opportunity to connect with individuals on issues concerning health. The present paper aims to investigate these opportunities in relation to dietary behaviour change. Several aspects of the digital environment could support behaviour change efforts, including reach, engagement, research, segmentation, accessibility and potential to build credibility, trust, collaboration and advocacy. There are opportunities to influence behaviour online using similar techniques to traditional health promotion programmes; to positively affect health-related knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. The abundance of data on citizens' digital behaviours, whether through search behaviour, global positioning system tracking, or via demographics and interests captured through social media profiles, offer exciting opportunities for effectively targeting relevant health messages. The digital environment presents great possibilities but also great challenges. Digital communication is uncontrolled, multi-way and co-created and concerns remain in relation to inequalities, privacy, misinformation and lack of evaluation. Although web-based, social-media-based and mobile-based studies tend to show positive results for dietary behaviour change, methodologies have yet to be developed that go beyond basic evaluation criteria and move towards true measures of behaviour change. Novel approaches are necessary both in the digital promotion of behaviour change and in its measurement.
Full Text Available Evaluation of cognitive psychology ideas leads to turn us in direction of constructivist conceptions. It appears in current research studies, that the construction of knowledge in each learners mind is strongly supported by social processes and by well-organized group work. On the other hand we see a dynamic development of community education portals and other educational services in Web. The meeting of these two achievements may lead to changes in the concepts of work organization in educational processes. The paper presents constructivist analysis of new social networking tools and creates examples of applying them in modern education.
Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.
Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.
Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.
This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.
Engstedt, J; Johansson, K E; Marshall, A; Mulligan, M
For a glimpse of modern physics at the frontline of research and to improve the scientific and international character of their physics education, two classes of students from the London and Stockholm areas visited the European Research Laboratory CERN to study particle physics with experienced scientists as mentors. A week of joint study and research resulted in a good Insight into particle physics and experimentation and excellent collaboration between the students, who were often of very different social and cultural backgrounds. (14 refs).
Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Miles, Carrie A.
After two decades of resistance, the Mormon church has begun accommodating change in women's roles. Accommodation increases participation among younger and less experienced members but decreases participation among older and more experienced members, suggesting that successful churches must balance accommodation and resistance to social change.…
Full Text Available The Turkish social insurance system has been feverishly debated for years, particularly through its burden on the economy. The most recent reform is an attempt to neutralize the deterioration within the social security system and its effects on the economy. After the recent reform, ‘the way that retirement benefits are calculated’ is changed unfavorably for workers and the minimum age for retirement is increased. In particular, for an agent with 25 years of social security tax payments, the replacement rate is down from 65 percent to 50 percent. On the other hand, retirement age is up from 60 to 65. The aim of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of these changes using an OLG model. The author’s findings indicate that labor supply, output and capital stock increase when changes above are applied to the benchmark economy calibrated to the Turkish economy data in 2005. A critical change with the current reform is that the marginal benefit of working has become uniform over ages. In a simulation exercise, the marginal retirement benefit in the benchmark economy is changed to be uniform over ages while keeping the size of social security system unchanged. As a result, the benefit of retiring at a later period increases. However, uniform distribution of the marginal benefits itself decreases both the capital stock and output of the economy. Increasing the retirement age, on the other hand, has positive effects on the economy since agents obtain retirement benefits for fewer years and at an older age. Age increase has substantial positive effects on the labor supply, the capital stock, and the output.
Elizabeth V. Hobman
Full Text Available Ecologists have used the concept of resilience since the 1970s. Resilience also features in many of the social and economic sciences, though in a less central role and with a variety of interpretations. Developing a fuller understanding of the concept of social-ecological resilience promises advances in how science can contribute to achieving better environmental outcomes, locally and globally. Such a development requires articulation of different perspectives on resilience and critical engagement across those perspectives. We present, in some detail, a particular perspective on resilience developed by the pioneering social psychologist Kurt Lewin. We suggest that Lewin's explicit use of social-ecological systems in his framework presaged much of the current social-ecological understanding of resilience. We set out some key details of his framework, notably the characteristics of his field theory, his use of group dynamics as a vehicle for social change, his introduction and development of the principles of action research, and his three-step change model. We conclude by mentioning some areas of the framework that are under-theorized or not theorized at all.
Full Text Available EnglishSocial cohesion can be viewed in terms of common projects and networks of social relations that characterize families, communities and society. In the past decades, the basis for family cohesion has shifted from organic to mechanical or from breadwinner to collaborative model. As in many Western countries, data on family change in Canada point to a greater flexibility in the entry and exit from relationships, a delay in the timing of family events, and a diversity of family forms. After looking at changes in families and in the family setting of individuals, the paper considers both intra-family cohesion and families as basis for social cohesion. Implications are raised for adults, children and publicp olicy.FrenchLa cohésion sociale peut se voir à travers les projets communs et les réseaux desrelations sociales qui caractérisent les familles, les communautés et les sociétés.La base de cohésion familiale est passée d’organique à mécanique, pour utiliserles termes de Durkheim, ou vers un modèle de collaboration plutôt qu’unepartage asymétrique de tâches. Comme dans d’autres sociétés orientales, lafamille au Canada est devenue plus flexible par rapport aux entrées et sortiesd’unions, il y a un délais dans les événements familiaux, et une variété deformes de familles. Après un regard sur les changements dans les familles etdans la situation familiale des individus, nous considérons la cohésion intrafamilialeet la famille comme base de cohésion sociale. Nous discutons desimpacts sur les adultes, les enfants et la politique publique.
`I'm doing a physics that is pulling me towards it.' `I like the course being more up to date.' `You learn the physics but you also think ``well I actually see a point in knowing this physics''.' `This course presents physics in a more interesting way as it focuses on practical activity and applications of physics.' `The industrial visit gives students the opportunity to look for science in action.' These are just some of the comments from students and teachers piloting the new Salters Horners Advanced Physics course (SHAP). Contexts and applications drive the course, providing interest and motivation for students and alerting them to some of the many career areas that involve physics. For example, the operation of a CD player leads to a study of waves and superposition; archaeological surveying and analysis brings in d.c. circuitry and x-ray diffraction; consideration of safety in rail transport involves learning about mechanics and electromagnetism. The course is produced by a team directed from the University of York and funded by a consortium of industrial and charitable sponsors. It is examined by Edexcel and support materials are published by Heinemann. The pilot, involving some 50 centres, began in September 1998 with the new subject core and the AS qualification intermediate between GCSE and the full A-level standard. The course has been fully approved by QCA, and from September 2000 it will be open to all. For comprehensive information about SHAP, visit the project's website: www.york.ac.uk/org/seg/salters/physics . Pilot materials for students, teachers and technicians are available from Heinemann. They will be re-edited and published in full colour for September 2000. Members of the team will attend the annual ASE meeting in Leeds this month; there will be a talk and a hands-on workshop where student activities can be sampled. Materials will be on view at the University of York stand. In addition, Edexcel and the York team are running a series of
Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.
Sanmartín Arce, Ricardo
Full Text Available This article describes how social change has affected the cultural values in a small community of fishermen in the Albufera Lake of Valencia. Industrial development, tourism, new employment and jobs changed the ecology of the lake, the mutual dependency among neighbours and the efficiency of old cultural values to orient social interaction. Both the new role played by of women and the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lie at the basis of new conflicts which are at once a challenge and an opportunity for the emergence of new horizons.
El artículo describe cómo ha afectado el cambio social a los valores culturales en una pequeña comunidad de pescadores en el lago de la Albufera de Valencia. El desarrollo industrial, el turismo y el nuevo empleo y trabajos cambiaron la ecología del lago, la mutua dependencia entre los vecinos y la eficiencia de los viejos valores culturales para orientar la interacción social. El nuevo rol de la mujer y la Constitución están en la base de nuevos conflictos como reto y como apertura de nuevos horizontes a la vez.
... Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual Intercourse Techniques to Bring Up Mucus COPD: Exercises Giving Up Smoking Managing Your Environment Nutrition Patients & Visitors Giving For ...
Pampel, Fred C.
In noting that common explanations of smoking cannot account for both its current inverse relationship with SES and the shift over time toward greater concentration among low SES groups, this paper presents an explanation based on diffusion and status distinctions. The explanation predicts that, as cigarette diffusion proceeds and fashions change, the social determinants of smoking will shift across cohorts, such that initially positive relationships between pre-adult components of socioecono...
Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Jensen, Anne; Svalgaard Nielsen, S.
This report addresses the social aspects of climate change adaptation. How do people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation; what risks are associated with climate change, and how are these risks balanced with other risks and concerns of everyday life and long-range choices? The report is based on an explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The issue was investigated through literature studies and interviews with respondents with residence in different parts of Denmark. The study was based on a distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation and further on an assumption in adaptation policies that some adaptation measures - for economic or practical reasons - will have to be carried out by private citizens and households. This study showed, however, that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. Moreover, the prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. Nevertheless, some adaptation measures are carried out by single households and local communities. When households experience weather related damages - of a kind that are expected to occur more frequently and with greater force as a result of climate changes - they take action to repair damages and prevent similar damages in the future; at least the kind of action that is easily carried out such as moving valuable goods from the basement or felling a tree. Such measures are, however, not necessarily understood in a context of climate change adaptation; they are rather specific reactions to acute problems. To the extent that a more thorough precautionary adaptation effort is required, also by private citizens, it will have to be performed in
Topham, Phil; Moller, Naomi; Davies, Hannah
Social anxiety in learning is prevalent amongst traditional-age students and has a marked effect on their engagement with higher education. It receives little attention from academic or support services and there is a presumption that students will manage their anxieties. Yet it is unclear what psychosocial resources they might bring to this task…
Full Text Available Over the last two decades or so, major Western societies have remoulded the institutional set-up by which they are deailing with social risks related to frailty during old age. While the 20th century had brought a transnational tendency towards the establishment of elderly care ‘going public’, the proliferation of more market-based services brings confusion into the societal norm-set underlying the aforementioned tendency. Marketisation has placed the emphasis on economic values engrained in liberal worldviews, leading into a new welfare culture that devaluates universalism and reemphasises the sovereignty of the individual. However, the new cult of the individual produces contradictory signals. Drawing on an encompassing study on the ‘culture of welfare markets’ in elderly care provision, covering two (post-liberal and two (post-corporatist welfare regimes (Canada, Britain; France, Germany, the paper looks at these fuzzy developments in order to assess the cultural embeddedness of what can be referred to as the mixed economy of elderly care. The analysis, charting major patterns of both institutional change and public communication around it, elucidates that we currently are facing a permanent struggle between liberal values and (renewed elements of the ‘going-public-agenda’ proliferating over the 1970s and 1980s, that is, a hybrid and ‘nervous’ cultural configuration in which senior social citizenship remains an issue, albeit on precarious foundations.
Cohen, Geoffrey L; Sherman, David K
People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time. The present review highlights both connections with other disciplines and lessons for a social psychological understanding of intervention and change.
Thalberg Pedersen, Nathalie; Staflund, Linda
Background The mindset of an individual is made up by perception and motivation. Motivation is in turn driven by personal experiences, values and goals. Many times, a personal experience can act as a ‘Gandhi-moment’ or a triggering event to take action towards achieving a specific outcome. For a social entrepreneur, this outcome is many times some type of positive social change. In order for the social entrepreneur to create this, he or she needs to be innovative and creative, and therefore s...
Full Text Available The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g. in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity.Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and - frequencies, number of loci for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions.This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.
Kramer, Koen; van der Werf, Bert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan
The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g., in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity. Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and-frequencies, number of loci) for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions. This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.
Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.
The objective of this paper is to outline a conceptual model of vulnerability to climate change as the first step in appraising and understanding the social and economic processes which facilitate and constrain adaptation. Vulnerability as defined here pertains to individuals and social groups. It is the state of individuals, of groups, of communities defined in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. This proposed approach puts the social and economic well-being of society at the centre of the analysis, thereby reversing the central focus of approaches to climate impact assessment based on impacts on and the adaptability of natural resources or ecosystems and which only subsequently address consequences for human well-being. The vulnerability or security of any group is determined by the availability of resources and, crucially, by the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources. This perspective extends the concept of entitlements developed within neoclassical and institutional economics. Within this conceptual framework, vulnerability can be seen as a socially-constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics. The study develops proxy indicators of vulnerability related to the structure of economic relations and the entitlements which govern them, and shows how these can be applied to a District in coastal lowland Vietnam. This paper outlines the lessons of such an approach to social vulnerability for the assessment of climate change at the global scale. We argue that the socio-economic and biophysical processes that determine vulnerability are manifest at the local, national, regional and global level but the state of vulnerability itself is associated with a specific population. Aggregation one level to another is therefore not appropriate and global-scale analysis is meaningful only in so far as it deals with the vulnerability of the global
Discusses an orientation to the local environment as the lens through which to detect global change. Discusses how students can relate to a structure that includes the intertemporal, interspatial, intergenerational, and interspecies realities of place leading to a comprehensive view of biology. Discusses the existential tensions intrinsic to…
Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.
Different time scales of climate change and their differential perception in society are discussed. A historical examination of natural climate changes during the past millennium suggests that short-term changes, especially crucial changes, trigger a significant response in and by society. Short-term changes correspond to the 'time horizon of everyday life', that is, to a time scale from days and weeks to a few years. The anticipated anthropogenic climate changes, however, are expected to occur on a longer time scale. They require a response by society not on the basis of primary experience but on the basis of scientifically constructed scenarios and ways in which such information is represented in the modern media for example. Socio-economic impact research relies on concepts that are based on the premise of perfectly informed actors for the development of optimal adaptation strategies. In contrast to such a conception, we develop the concept of a 'social construct of climate' as decisive for the public perception of scientific knowledge about climate and for public policy on climate change. The concept is illustrated using a number of examples. (orig.)
A study of intermediate variables affecting fertility in 3 rural villages and suburbs of Xianyang City, China was carried out to examine historical changes in household economy and socioeconomic factors from 1949-1987. Women in 151 households were surveyed in January-May 1988 on topics ranging from education status, marriage age, reproductive history, contraceptive history, occupation, to child-costs. Some data from a prior survey of 1000 married women in the province are also included. The marriage age was as low as 15 in older women, but 80% of women married at age 20-22 in 1985-87. The women had approximately 12% high school, 30% junior high school, 30% elementary school educated and 30% illiterate. Total fertility ranged from 4-8.5 in the 1940s-19509s, to 2.5 in the 1980s. Now most women prefer 2 children, although some want 3. Most wished for 1 son and 1 daughter. Neither education nor socioeconomic status affected sex preference. Costs and benefits of children, particularly the role of males in providing income for parents, were strong motivators. Analyses of costs of children showed that parents were very aware of the income derived from male children, but did not take into account the time spent raising children, nor did they realize the income girls bring in, a low but steady income while boys are still in school. Boys cost more to raise because of significantly higher expenses for 1st month celebration and marriages. Girls costs were higher for clothing, but they bring in money at marriage. In China today the actual fertility rate is higher than the expected because of male sex preference, problems with contraceptive supplies, and lack of awareness of the negative impact of social and economic policies on family planning.
Jacobson, Arne Edward
and social change. Mainstream policy makers have sought to expand the market through credit-based sales. However, my analysis indicates that, without subsidies, credit-based sales are unlikely to deepen access beyond levels established in the existing cash market. Thus, while solar electrification may potentially contribute to sustainable development, concerns about equity and other social issues indicate a need for careful attention to the implications of policy choices and processes that influence the social use possibilities of the technology.
Although sociologists have identified education as likely determinant of migration, the ways in which education affects migration are unclear and empirical results are disparate. This paper addresses the relationship between educational attainment, enrolment, and migration, focusing on the role of gender and how it changes with evolving social contexts. Using empirical analyses based in Nepal, results indicate that educational attainment has positive effects and enrolment has negative effects on out-migration and including enrolment in the model increases the effect of attainment. In the case of women, with the changing role of gender, increased education and labor force participation, the affect of educational attainment changes drastically over time, from almost no effect, to a strong positive effect. Consideration of enrolment, and the role of gender in education, employment, and marriage may help to explain the disparate results in past research on education and migration.
Tanimoto, Jun; Kukida, Shinji; Hagishima, Aya
Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)
Full Text Available Social structures are changing. The industrial society is a hierarchical pyramid with separate social classes and the law of limited social mobility. The social status tended to be stable and was transmitted from parents to children. The information society, the knowledge society, the society in change and the risk society, is a turmoil of centripetal and centrifugal social forces. The social status of each individual, ranging from the highest with their place in the very heart of the society to the lowest, is temporary. The main production resource in the accelerated economy of the information society is knowledge. Renewing competences is essential in order to preserve one’s social status in the social spiral; lagging behind in knowledge and in personal growth , on the other hand, shoves one off to the margins of society. The way back up to a more prestigious position can be achieved through education. Education systems differ from state to state. Some are losing their legitimacy since they fail to train young people for new methods of work and survival; they are an obstacle to the development of the most immanent properties in the new society, as e.g., innovativeness, independence, decisionmaking ability, creativity. If young people drop out from school too early, before they complete a fouryear secondary school, they are surrendered to the street and crime. Manual workers are being discarded on a large scale to find themselves on the margins of society, among the "service proletariat" depending on the handouts of the welfare state. Whereas the GNP is increasing, the wealth redistribution stick to the old formulas and are widening the gap between the poor and the rich. The information society is opening up countless new opportunities, but it is also bringing new responsibilities. Work is becoming more humane, with the "brain" winning over "brawn".
Schwenk, Eric S; Chu, Larry F; Gupta, Rajnish K; Mariano, Edward R
This review summarizes the current applications of social media in regional anesthesiology, describes ways that specific platforms may promote growth, and briefly discusses limitations and future directions. Although Facebook users outnumber Twitter users, the latter has been better studied in regional anesthesiology and may have the advantages of speed and expansion of reach. Highly tweeted publications are more likely to be cited in the medical literature, and twitter-enhanced journal clubs facilitate communication regarding important articles with international colleagues. In both the United States and internationally, Twitter has been shown to enhance the anesthesiology conference experience, changing communication among attendees and non-attendees. YouTube and podcasts are quickly finding a niche in regional anesthesiology for just-in-time training and continuing professional development. Social media use is rapidly growing in regional anesthesiology, and benefits include global interaction and knowledge translation within the specialty and with the general public.
Del Valle, Alejandro Hugo
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the system of social protection and social policies in Argentina. To do this, the characteristics of social protection system and the different programs to combat poverty which have been implemented since the reforms made in the 90,are developed. Later, we consider the changes that the system has had since 2003, especially in security matters, family allowances and coverage for young people. The main cash transfer programs are then developed, highlighting the current line thereof, especially the Argentina Works Program (Entry with social work, among others. We conclude that the current provision of social benefits maintains and deepens the structure of social risks existing as state transfers can be interpreted as a state grant to companies in the informal sector
Nesbitt, Nathan T.
In the past several years the global impacts brought about by climate change have become increasingly apparent through the advent of numerous natural disasters. In these events the social costs of climate change have materialized demonstrating high costs in lives, livelihoods, and equity. Due to geographic bad-luck many of the countries most affected by climate change are those that contributed least, a challenge that's exacerbated by a lack of robust infrastructure in these countries. Wealthy nations remain at risk themselves and incidents such as Hurricanes Sandy & Katrina have demonstrated that in times of crisis even institutions like the Red Cross will abandon the poor to their deaths. As necessary action on climate change would cost the fossil fuel industry 20 trillion, money in politics has stymied action. Recently, however, a groundswell grassroots movement (e.g. People's Climate March in NYC) and great strides in energy technology and policy have begun to create necessary change. Reports quantifying the impacts of climate change will be discussed, as well as an update on the current state of the global climate justice movement. The important contributions from scientists to this movement will be highlighted. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).
The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main strategies for implementing organizational changes in the current social and economic context, characterized by an unprecedented dynamism. As a result, the paper presents the results of the research that have led to the identification of the factors determining the application of a particular strategy or even the usage of their mix. To achieve the established objectives set we have used as a research method the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' work.
Full Text Available This paper describes Migratory Homes, two collaborative projects that investigate the notion of home/land and belonging in conditions of displacement. The fundamental question that Migratory Homes asks is “how can the disparate identities that constitute mixed societies collectively and equally participate in the creation of a common ‘home/land’ that would be co-designed, co-produced, and co-owned”? Through iterative engagements with conditions of everyday materiality, and by activating processes of co-design as research, Migratory Homes attempt to prototype conditions for social change.
Pöyhtäri, A. (Aleksi)
Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to provide a clearer picture of how gamers view gaming as a social construct and how social interaction changes the gaming experience. Social interaction in games brings people together. Online games have been researched from many points of view. However, the research done from social perspective is relatively new and this is why I wanted to write my thesis from the social interaction ...
‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)
St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.
This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation
S. M. Bierbower
Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.
Triberti, Stefano; Durosini, Ilaria; Aschieri, Filippo; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe
Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man. This research tested whether avatars, as digital self-representations, may change depending on the above-mentioned variables. Ninety-four participants created two avatars to be used in different contexts (video game and job-themed social network). Moreover, two groups of participants were told that they would have met friends or total strangers within the two virtual contexts. Results showed that avatars changed from the game to the job context. Changes involved avatars' transient features (Clothes) more than physical (Body) and symbolic (Accessories) ones, and females changed accessories more than males. Moreover, females who expected to meet friends changed their avatars' bodies significantly more than males in both virtual contexts. The findings are discussed based on literature about computer-mediated communication and online self-disclosure. In conclusion, possible implications of the results for avatar-based interventions and the field of video games and social network design are reviewed.
The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the
Kanter, R M
Corporations are continually looking for new sources of innovation. Today several leading companies are beginning to find inspiration in an unexpected place: the social sector. That includes public schools, welfare-to-work programs, and the inner city. Indeed, a new paradigm for innovation is emerging: a partnership between private enterprise and public interest that produces profitable and sustainable change for both sides. In this article, the author shows how some companies are moving beyond corporate social responsibility to corporate social innovation. Traditionally, companies viewed the social sector as a dumping ground for their spare cash, obsolete equipment, and tired executives. But that mind-set hardly created lasting change. Now companies are viewing community needs as opportunities to develop ideas and demonstrate business technologies; find and serve new markets; and solve long-standing business problems. They focus on inventing sophisticated solutions through a hands-on approach. This is not charity; it is R & D, a strategic business investment. The author concedes that it isn't easy to make the new paradigm work. But she has found that successful private-public partnerships share six characteristics: a clear business agenda, strong partners committed to change, investment by both parties, rootedness in the user community, links to other organizations, and a commitment to sustain and replicate the results. Drawing on examples of successful companies such as IBM and Bell Atlantic, the author illustrates how this paradigm has produced innovations that have both business and community payoffs.
Full Text Available Climate change adaptation presents a challenge to current top-down governance structures, including the tension between provision of public goods and actions required by diverse stakeholders, including private actors. Alternative governance approaches that facilitate participation and learning across scales are gaining attention for their ability to bring together diverse actors across sectors and to foster adaptive capacity and resilience. We have described the method and outcomes from the application of a social-ecological inventory to "prime," i.e., hasten the development of, a regional climate change adaptation network. The social-ecological inventory tool draws on the social-ecological systems approach in which social and ecological systems are considered linked. The tool bridges the gap between conventional stakeholder analysis and biological inventories, drawing on a social-ecological systems approach, and incorporates local knowledge as an explicit component. The process, which is dynamic and iterative, includes six phases: preparations, preliminary identification, identification of key individuals, interviewing, reviewing and enriching the inventory, and engagement. By considering the social and ecological aspects of a system, a more comprehensive inventory is achieved that provides a foundational platform to facilitate or support climate change adaptation processes that are participatory and learning oriented. Although social-ecological inventories have been used for ecosystem management, the intent of this research was to understand the potential of the tool for climate change adaptation. A social-ecological inventory was undertaken in the Niagara Region of Canada to assemble and facilitate a regional governance group to champion climate change adaptation. Moreover, the social-ecological inventory was purposefully undertaken as the initial step in priming the governance system and led into an adaptive comanagement process for climate
Yigit, E. Ozlem
Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…
Drawing on the experiences of REACH Trust, this paper highlights practical lessons of using research processes and outcomes to promote equity in health policy and practice. The REACH Trust is first introduced. Case studies are then used to highlight how REACH Trust has worked in a participatory manner with key ...
George, Zelma Watson
Society must find ways to nurture and bring to full maturity a new image of man, not as the prey of past causes or future fates, but as man, free to be responsibile for his past and future, free to participate in forging his own destiny and shaping the course of history, free to formulate fresh lifestyles and models of society. (Author)
Sills, Marion R; Hall, Matthew; Cutler, Gretchen J; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura M; Macy, Michelle L; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Morse, Rustin B; Fieldston, Evan S; Raphael, Jean L; Auger, Katherine A; Shah, Samir S
To determine whether social determinants of health (SDH) risk adjustment changes hospital-level performance on the 30-day Pediatric All-Condition Readmission (PACR) measure and improves fit and accuracy of discharge-level models. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all hospital discharges meeting criteria for the PACR from 47 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information database from January to December 2014. We built four nested regression models by sequentially adding risk adjustment factors as follows: chronic condition indicators (CCIs); PACR patient factors (age and sex); electronic health record-derived SDH (race, ethnicity, payer), and zip code-linked SDH (families below poverty level, vacant housing units, adults without a high school diploma, single-parent households, median household income, unemployment rate). For each model, we measured the change in hospitals' readmission decile-rank and assessed model fit and accuracy. For the 458 686 discharges meeting PACR inclusion criteria, in multivariable models, factors associated with higher discharge-level PACR measure included age <1 year, female sex, 1 of 17 CCIs, higher CCI count, Medicaid insurance, higher median household income, and higher percentage of single-parent households. Adjustment for SDH made small but significant improvements in fit and accuracy of discharge-level PACR models, with larger effect at the hospital level, changing decile-rank for 17 of 47 hospitals. We found that risk adjustment for SDH changed hospitals' readmissions rate rank order. Hospital-level changes in relative readmissions performance can have considerable financial implications; thus, for pay for performance measures calculated at the hospital level, and for research associated therewith, our findings support the inclusion of SDH variables in risk adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laxman, Kumar; Holt, Craig
The purpose of this exploratory case study was to investigate the utilisation of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) technologies in the classroom to determine if students and teachers perceive that the use of a digital device increased a learner's access to learning opportunities within the classroom, and, if the use of digital devices increased their…
Full Text Available The modern world is interpreted and described in terms of an autobiographical society, in which the fundamental issues of human life are resolved in the process of an individual decision and being involved in a peculiar type of a dialog. This dialog is more and more often a dialog with oneself and an author’s vision of the world created in the confrontation with virtual reality. In this epoch context the biography is taken into account as a tool for perceiving, understanding and describing the change of the world and the human’s place in the world. Even though, the biography has functioned in social life forever, only now with the epoch of individualization, and then virtualization of life, its formative character has been noticed. Who is the subject of (autobiography? Who is it aimed at as a message and testimony of life? How is it created? Why is it constructed? Who is it constructed by? And then the questions which are behind the autobiography in the theoretical sense – What is life? How do we discover it? What is the link between telling about life and living the life? How is the telling (living about a life connected with culture and history? How does reading (interpreting about life connect with telling about life and the truth about life? Social development phases coupled with transformations within biographical reflection have been distinguished: life in a traditional world – the culture of telling about life; the birth of individualism (the individualization of experience – the culture of describing life; the discovery of identity – the culture of reading about life; life in the net and cyberspace – the culture of constructing life; the new communalism – the culture of seeking the meaning of life. Every stage of biographical reflection enables us to distinguish new forms of creating, understanding and using it in both the humanities and social life, but also in ordinary people’s life. The direction of changes sketched
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.
Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…
Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.
For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…
Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina
To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…
Nakamura, Ayako; Morita, Seiichiro; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Umezaki, Noriyoshi
To investigate changes in college student perceptions of radiation over time, we performed questionnaire surveys in November 1992 and January 2000. The subjects were students of the humanities or social sciences, numbering 290 (19.1±1.1 y) in 1992 and 226 (19.9±2.0 y) in 2000. The questionnaires had two sections. First, the students were asked to list words which they associated with the stimulus word 'radiation'. Next, they performed a ten stage-evaluation (0 to 10 points) of the degree of familiarity', 'danger', 'usefulness', and 'acceptability' with regard to 26 items which included radiation and things related to radiation. In both surveys, the top three responses to the stimulus word 'radiation', were roentgen', 'atomic bomb', and 'nuclear power'. The students in 2000 associated the word 'radiation' with words such as 'Tokaimura' which were related to recent accidents. The evaluation ratings of 'familiarity', usefulness', and 'acceptability' for nuclear power changed significantly between 1992 and 2000 (p<0.01). The 'acceptability' ratings for radiation and X-ray photos were negatively correlated with those of 'danger'. This negative correlation coefficient showed an increase between 1992 and 2000 (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was apparent that the students are now showing greater concern about radiation and nuclear power. (author)
Full Text Available Our ability to learn from the outcomes of our actions and to adapt our decisions accordingly changes over the course of the human lifespan. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using computational models to understand developmental changes in learning and decision-making. Moreover, extensions of these models are currently applied to study socio-emotional influences on learning in different age groups, a topic that is of great relevance for applications in education and health psychology. In this article, we aim to provide an introduction to basic ideas underlying computational models of reinforcement learning and focus on parameters and model variants that might be of interest to developmental scientists. We then highlight recent attempts to use reinforcement learning models to study the influence of social information on learning across development. The aim of this review is to illustrate how computational models can be applied in developmental science, what they can add to our understanding of developmental mechanisms and how they can be used to bridge the gap between psychological and neurobiological theories of development.
Bolenz, Florian; Reiter, Andrea M. F.; Eppinger, Ben
Our ability to learn from the outcomes of our actions and to adapt our decisions accordingly changes over the course of the human lifespan. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using computational models to understand developmental changes in learning and decision-making. Moreover, extensions of these models are currently applied to study socio-emotional influences on learning in different age groups, a topic that is of great relevance for applications in education and health psychology. In this article, we aim to provide an introduction to basic ideas underlying computational models of reinforcement learning and focus on parameters and model variants that might be of interest to developmental scientists. We then highlight recent attempts to use reinforcement learning models to study the influence of social information on learning across development. The aim of this review is to illustrate how computational models can be applied in developmental science, what they can add to our understanding of developmental mechanisms and how they can be used to bridge the gap between psychological and neurobiological theories of development. PMID:29250006
Errika Dwi Setya Watie
Media presents to be a part of human life. The presence and the development of internet bring a new way of how to communite in social life. Social media presents and changes the communication paradigm in today's society. Communication in social media is not limited by distance, time, and space. It could happen anywhere, anytime, without having a face to face talking. Even social media can negate social status that is often as a barrier in communication. Social media has changed the world....
Full Text Available This article deals with the dynamics of personality changes in people serving a prison sentence whereas these changes are as result of the social work performed in prisons. Analyzed are some personality characteristics displayed in the context of emotional intelligence and social empathy in people with delinquent behavior of different age and of different social, educational, psychosomatic and family status.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.
Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…
den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Hickman, G. R.
Using insights from the social movement literature and institutional change theory, we explore how activism influences corporate social change activities. As the responsibility for addressing a variety of social issues is transferred from the state to the private sector, activist groups increasingly
Terry L. Raettig; Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen
This atlas illustrates the spatial and temporal dimensions of social and economic changes in the social-economic assessment region in the decade since 1987/1988. Maps, interpretive text, and accompanying tables and graphs portray conditions, trends, and changes in selected social, economic, and natural resource-related indicators for the 26 counties of the diverse...
McKeown, Margaret G., Ed.; Kucan, Linda, Ed.
This book brings together some of the world's foremost literacy scholars to discuss how research influences what teachers actually do in the classroom. Chapters describe the current state of knowledge about such key topics as decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, digital literacies, reading disabilities, and reading reform. At the same time, the…
Full Text Available Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999 on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers’ strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations. Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.
_ Summary: This article analyses – by drawing on ideology critical and psychoanalytical concepts from Slavoj Zizek and Glynos et al. – how political, social and fantasmatic logics interplay and form social workers’ professional identities within two youth social work institutions that operate...... within different social policy paradigms: a socialinterventionist paradigm in 2002 and a neoliberal paradigm in 2010. _ Findings: The article shows how the current neoliberalisation of public policy permeates social work practices through fantasmatic narratives that create professional identities to heal...... a mobilising-motivating identity is created to meet the young people’s alleged excess. In both narratives, however, the young people risk bearing the blame for the failure of the social professional project. _ Applications: Fantasies in both institutions conceal how social workers’ professional identities...
Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena
Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.
Cai, Y.; Judd, K. L.; Lontzek, T.
Many scientists are worried about climate change triggering abrupt and irreversible events leading to significant and long-lasting damages. For example, a rapid release of methane from permafrost may lead to amplified global warming, and global warming may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall or typhoon, destroying large cities and killing numerous people. Some elements of the climate system which might exhibit such a triggering effect are called tipping elements. There is great uncertainty about the impact of anthropogenic carbon and tipping elements on future economic wellbeing. Any rational policy choice must consider the great uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of global warming's impact on economic productivity. While the likelihood of tipping points may be a function of contemporaneous temperature, their effects are long lasting and might be independent of future temperatures. It is assumed that some of these tipping points might occur even in this century, but also that their duration and post-tipping impact are uncertain. A faithful representation of the possibility of tipping points for the calculation of social cost of carbon would require a fully stochastic formulation of irreversibility, and accounting for the deep layer of uncertainties regarding the duration of the tipping process and also its economic impact. We use DSICE, a DSGE extension of the DICE2007 model of William Nordhaus, which incorporates beliefs about the uncertain economic impact of possible climate tipping events and uses empirically plausible parameterizations of Epstein-Zin preferences to represent attitudes towards risk. We find that the uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change imply carbon taxes much higher than implied by deterministic models. This analysis indicates that the absence of uncertainty in DICE2007 and similar IAM models may result in substantial understatement of the potential benefits of policies to reduce GHG emissions.
Ruijsbroek, A.; Droomers, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.
Background: Area crime and perceived safety are two components of social safety that are presumed to affect individual health and health related behaviour. So far, most studies have used cross-sectional data to study this relation. We have investigated changes in social safety in relation to
Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need...
Full Text Available It is shown in this article that the Gospel of John describes a battle between darkness and light, life and death, chaos and God’s new order. Although the certainty is given right at the beginning of the Gospel that the darkness will not overcome the light, God does not take the possibility of darkness away. Darkness in John is darkness of the mind, not seeing the light, not comprehending, not accepting and not believing the Word. The battle between light and darkness is described at two levels – the visible level that you can see with your eyes and the invisible level that only those who have been regenerated by the Spirit can see. Although it may seem that the contrary is true, God is in control of both levels. Jesus made the invisible visible with his words and deeds and, eventually, with his resurrection. The diakonoi (servants of Jesus are called to follow him in his task to honour the father by speaking the words of the father and doing the work of the father. In doing this, they will make the invisible God visible by their diakonia (service. Real social change will take place in God’s time, and he will use the diakonia of his children to bring order in the chaos, like he did in the beginning when he created the heavens and the earth. The results of the research are used to suggest guidelines on social change in South Africa.
Larson, E. K.; Li, J.; Zycherman, A.
Integration of social science into climate and global change assessments is fundamental for improving understanding of the drivers, impacts and vulnerability of climate change, and the social, cultural and behavioral challenges related to climate change responses. This requires disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge as well as integrational and translational tools for linking this knowledge with the natural and physical sciences. The USGCRP's Social Science Coordinating Committee (SSCC) is tasked with this challenge and is working to integrate relevant social, economic and behavioral knowledge into processes like sustained assessments. This presentation will discuss outcomes from a recent SSCC workshop, "Social Science Perspectives on Climate Change" and their applications to sustained assessments. The workshop brought academic social scientists from four disciplines - anthropology, sociology, geography and archaeology - together with federal scientists and program managers to discuss three major research areas relevant to the USGCRP and climate assessments: (1) innovative tools, methods, and analyses to clarify the interactions of human and natural systems under climate change, (2) understanding of factors contributing to differences in social vulnerability between and within communities under climate change, and (3) social science perspectives on drivers of global climate change. These disciplines, collectively, emphasize the need to consider socio-cultural, political, economic, geographic, and historic factors, and their dynamic interactions, to understand climate change drivers, social vulnerability, and mitigation and adaptation responses. They also highlight the importance of mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to explain impacts, vulnerability, and responses at different time and spatial scales. This presentation will focus on major contributions of the social sciences to climate and global change research. We will discuss future directions for
Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.
Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…
London, Jack; Ewing, Jeanne Bunderson
Uses a cohort case study of Americans born between 1900 and 1905 as an example of how history and social forces shape the experiences and educational needs of adults. Implies that knowledge of adult students' social, historical, economic, and cultural experiences can be used to improve their educational experiences. (Author/SK)
Williamson, Cait M; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P
Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice. Replicating our previous reports, we show that male laboratory mice housed in a semi-natural environment form stable linear social hierarchies. Novel to the current study, we find that subdominant male mice immediately respond to the removal of the alpha male from a hierarchy by initiating a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior towards more subordinate individuals. Consequently, subdominants assume the role of the alpha male. Analysis of brain gene expression in individuals 1h following social ascent indicates elevated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus compared to individuals that do not experience a social opportunity. Moreover, hormonal analyses indicate that subdominant individuals have increased circulating plasma testosterone levels compared to subordinate individuals. Our findings demonstrate that male mice are able to dynamically and rapidly adjust both behavior and neuroendocrine function in response to changes in social context. Further, we establish the social opportunity paradigm as an ethologically relevant approach for studying social competence and behavioral plasticity in mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pijl, Mirjam K. J.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Hendriks, Monica; De Korte, Manon W. P.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterling, Iris J.
The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core…
Milroy, James; Milroy, Lesley
In an analysis of social class, social network, and gender, arguments suggest that gender difference often occurs prior to social class in accounting for sociolinguistic variation. Data are presented to show how all three variables may help account for language variation and change. (54 references) (Author/LB)
Full Text Available The paper reviewed studies of entrepreneurship based on the emergency of online social networks. Similar to offline social networks, entrepreneurs’ online social networks have their own unique characteristics. We first reviewed the offline network based research on entrepreneurship. Then we reviewed the studies of entrepreneurship in the context of online social networks including those focusing on topics of network structures and network ties. We highlighted online network communities based on the data collected from LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter. Our research implies that both researcher and entrepreneurs are facing new opportunities due to the emergence of online social networks.
Hibbs, S.M.; Bell, H.H.; Bowman, F.M.; Hitchin, C.; Jackson, M.
New free electron laser (FEL) technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) promises electron-cyclotron plasma heating at power levels, cost efficiency, and tunable frequency range far beyond the capabilities of existing technology. LLNL has the high-current induction linear accelerators needed to drive such an FEL. Thus, the first stage of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), designed to test this new technology, was to bring the Alcator-C tokamak across the United States from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to LLNL in California. The authors discuss why the tokamak was moved across the country and described the move
Papa, Michael J.; Singhal, Arvind; Law, Sweety; Pant, Saumya; Sood, Suruchi; Rogers, Everett M.; Shefner-Rogers, Corinne L.
Explores processes of social change initiated by an entertainment-education radio soap opera by studying its effects in an observational case study in one rural village in India. Investigates the paradoxes, contradictions, and audience members' struggles in the process of media-stimulated change, a process involving parasocial interaction, peer…
Nakamine, Shin; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Aiba, Miyuki; Takahashi, Sho; Noguchi, Haruko; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako
The present study examines the relationships between changes in bonding and bridging types of social capital and depressive states among middle-aged adults in Japan using a nationally representative sample. Data was collected from a nationwide, population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2013 in nine annual waves. A total of 16,737 middle-aged men and 17,768 middle-aged women provided data. They reported about depressive states, measured by Kessler 6 scores, and bonding and bridging types of social capital, measured by reported participation in different social activities. Latent growth modeling was conducted to examine relations between changes in bonding and bridging types of social capital and depressive states within individuals across the nine waves. The results showed that, for both men and women, increases in bonding social capital were associated with decreases in depressive states, while changes in bridging social capital were not related to changes in depressive states. In addition, the results showed that changes in bonding social capital, but not bonding social capital at the baseline, affected changes in depressive states. Future studies should take changes in social capital as an independent variable into consideration.
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that are
Figueroa, Maria J.
and sharing space for bicycle mobility is still receiving different degrees of success and failure across cities globally given the strong dominance of motorized forms of moving across the world. The methodological approach traced the practices, influences and narratives of the social innovation to share......Societies require full integration of the potential of civil engagement and collective action of societal actors in forms of social innovation that advances creativity in problem solving. Social innovations is here understood as new forms of resolving societal problems advanced by organized civil...... societal groups in collective efforts and practices in interaction with other actors business, state, foundations etc. This paper offers reflections based on the results of a large EU project the ITSSOIN.eu project that investigated impacts of Third Sector as Social innovation in a variety of areas...
De Laat, Maarten; Prinsen, Fleur
Current trends and challenges in higher education (HE) require a reorientation towards openness, technology use and active student participation. In this article we will introduce Social Learning Analytics (SLA) as instrumental in formative assessment practices, aimed at supporting and
An appreciation of the complexity and uncertainty that characterizes linked human and natural systems - or social-ecological systems - has proliferated throughout the sciences in recent decades. However, dominant societal images, mental models and discourses frame the complexity of
Anderson, Kimberley; Laxhman, Neelam; Priebe, Stefan
Social networks of patients with psychosis can provide social support, and improve health and social outcomes, including quality of life. However, patients with psychosis often live rather isolated with very limited social networks. Evidence for interventions targeting symptoms or social skills, are largely unsuccessful at improving social networks indirectly. As an alternative, interventions may directly focus on expanding networks. In this systematic review, we assessed what interventions have previously been tested for this and to what extent they have been effective. A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials, testing psychosocial interventions designed to directly increase the social networks of patients with psychosis. Searches of five online databases (PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, Embase), hand searching of grey literature, and both forward and backward snowballing of key papers were conducted and completed on 12 December 2014. Trial reports were included if they were written in English, the social network size was the primary outcome, participants were ≥ 18 years old and diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Five studies (n = 631 patients) met the complete inclusion criteria. Studies were from different countries and published since 2008. Four trials had significant positive results, i.e. an observable increase in patients' social network size at the end of the intervention. The interventions included: guided peer support, a volunteer partner scheme, supported engagement in social activity, dog-assisted integrative psychological therapy and psychosocial skills training. Other important elements featured were the presence of a professional, and a focus on friendships and peers outside of services and the immediate family. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of included studies, the results suggest that interventions directly targeting social isolation can be effective and achieve a meaningful increase
One of the most prominent changes in adolescence is social reorientation. In other words, adolescents develop more intimate relationships with peers, they discover what it is like to be involved in a romantic relationship, and they take (social) risks by for example showing risky driving in the presence of friends. Given that social networks with peers become central elements in the adolescent’s life, investigating the role of individual differences related to the development of social reorie...
Through our outreach initiative at Jacksonville State University, we have been supporting a number of school districts in Northeast Alabama to improve the teaching of physics at the high school level. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. The main aim of project IMPACTSEED is to help teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama Course of Study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of program. In this presentation, we want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to physics classrooms. We have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms, most notably through a series of make-and-take technology workshops that were developed over several years of research. In turn, when the teachers assign these make-an-take projects to their students, the students will be able to see first-hand---by doing, rather than being told---that physics is not a dry, abstract subject. We found this approach to be particularly effective in heightening the students' interest in math and science.
Computer Security Team
Have you ever heard of “BYOD”? No, it is not a pop band. Try again. It is short for “Bring Your Own Device” (the French use “AVEC” - “Apporter Votre Equipement personnel de Communication”) and describes an option long since offered at CERN: the possibility to bring along your personal laptop, smartphone or PDA, use it on CERN premises and connect it to the CERN office network. But hold on. As practical as it is, there is also a dark side. The primary advantage, of course, is having a digital work environment tuned to your needs and preferences. It allows you to continue working at home. Similarly, you always have your music, address books and bookmarks with you. However, as valuable as this is, it is also a responsibility. Laptop theft is happening - outside CERN but also on site. In France, 30% of stolen laptops were stolen out of cars or homes, and 10% during travel. At CERN, on average one ...
Brown, Eleanor J.
This article engages with debates about transformative learning and social change, exploring practitioner perspectives on non-formal education activities run by non-governmental organisations. The research looked at how global citizenship education practitioners met their organisation's goals of change for social justice through educational…
... climate change and building resilience. Social capital can be a resource for building adaptation by farmers. This study explores the role of social capital in climate change adaptation for improving food security and livelihoods among smallholder farmers. The study was conducted in Appelsbosch, Kwa-Zulu Natal province.
Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes
This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...
This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.
Full Text Available In this article we have presented the most important theories about social change from the perspective of comparative analysis (XIXth and XXth century. Thus, in the first part of the article, we have presented the classical perspectives on social change, which belong to some famous sociologists from the XIXth century, Who have approached this issue: Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Alexis de Tocqueville, Max Weber, or Karl Marx. The common point of these theories is that they all understand social change as a social progress. This idea is no longer found in the twentieth century, where the theoretical approaches to social change are equally varied. Thus, the second part of the article presents the theories of change from four sources: the ‘Chicago School’ (William Ogburn and William I. Thomas; the neo-evolutionary theory of Robert Nisbet; the French Sociology perspective (Pierre Bourdieu and Raymond Boudon and, finally, a more actual perspective, that of Anthony Giddens.
Read, Catherine Y; Pino Betancourt, Debra M; Morrison, Chenille
The social change model (SCM) promotes equity, social justice, self-knowledge, service, and collaboration. It is a relevant framework for extracurricular leadership development programs that target students who may not self-identify as leaders. Application of the SCM in a leadership development program for prelicensure nursing students from underresourced or underrepresented backgrounds is described. Students' opinions about leadership for social change were explored through a focus group and a pilot test of an instrument designed to assess the values of the SCM. Students lack the experience required to feel comfortable with change, but they come into nursing with a sense of commitment that can be nurtured toward leadership for social change and health equity through best practices derived from the SCM. These include sociocultural conversations, mentoring relationships, community service, and membership in off-campus organizations. Nurse educators can cultivate inclusive leadership for social change using the SCM as a guide. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E
The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M
The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were analyzed with mixed models. Weekly changes in the process variables derived from the cognitive model (self-focus, estimated probability and estimated cost of negative social events, safety behaviors) predicted subsequent weekly changes in social anxiety. Changes in the interpersonal variable perceived acceptance by others also predicted subsequent changes in social anxiety. On the other hand, changes in social anxiety predicted changes in the four cognitive variables. There were no interactive effects of process with treatment. The cognitive variables decreased during treatment to a similar degree in both treatments. The results indicate that, to reduce social anxiety, therapy should target self-focus, estimated probability and cost of feared social events, safety behaviors, and perceived acceptance by others. The process of improvement may involve positive cycles in that a reduction of social anxiety, in turn, appeared to impact self-focus, probability, cost, and safety behaviors.
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the health impacts of climate change in the UK, and what the implications are for climate change adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climate change. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climate change influencing health outcomes. Age, pre-existing medical conditions and social deprivation are found to be the key (but not only) factors that make people vulnerable and to experience more adverse health outcomes related to climate change impacts. In the future, climate change, aging population and decreasing public spending on health and social care may aggravate inequality of health outcomes related to climate change. Health education and public preparedness measures that take into account differential exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of different groups help address health and social inequalities to do with climate change. Adaptation strategies based on individual preparedness, action and behaviour change may aggravate health and social inequalities due to their selective uptake, unless they are coupled with broad public information campaigns and financial support for undertaking adaptive measures.
Full Text Available AIMS - Starting from the notion of the Finnish “non-medical approach” in the handling of alcohol and drug problems, this article analyses expressions of the medicalisation of drug problems and drug users in Finnish social work and specialised substance abuse treatment. The article focuses on the first drug wave, in the 1960s, and the second, at the end of the 1990s. DESIGN - The data consists of all texts on illegal drugs found in the years 1968-1972 and 1997-2001 in two leading journals of social work, one from the social care and social service field, the other issued by the key provider of specialist substance abuse treatment. The texts were systematically analysed (author(s, problem descriptions, suggested solutions, and words used for the problem and the drug user. RESULTS - In both periods, we found in the journals a social perspective on drugs and drug problems. There is more emphasis on prevention and more optimism on the possibilities of prevention in the first than in the second period. During the first period the call for medicine or medical solutions are few and the medical voices rare. Medical expertise gets more space in both journals in the second period. The predominant understanding of the problem changes from drugs as part of a new youth culture, possibly an epidemic in the first period, to a dependence/ addiction in the second. The description of the user shifts from a young person to a (marginalised dependent or addict. The proposed solutions in the 1960s are (youth focused social policy and social change, while the 1990s solutions highlight refined treatment and more specific interventions. The society seems difficult to change, and so do the established institutions. CONCLUSIONS - The medicalisation of the Finnish perspective on drugs in the 1990s is expressed through a narrowing of perspective on illegal drugs as social problems. While present, the social perspective is impotent.
Preciado Coronado, Jaime Antonio
Herederas de propuestas disciplinarias originales, como la teoría de la dependencia –y sus posteriores críticas desde el marxismo-, o del pensamiento socioeconómico de la CEPAL, las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas toman distancia de enfoques anglo-euro-céntricos, para avanzar en una línea crítica del pensamiento y de las prácticas neocolonialistas. El desafío para el pensamiento es ser cosmopolita y simultáneamente latinoamericano. En este proceso, el pensamiento social latinoamericano est...
FULLER, RHEMA D.; HARRISON, C. KEITH; LAWRENCE, S. MALIA; EYANSON, JEFF; MCARDLE, DANIELLE
Historically, men have been characterized as task-oriented leaders who are motivated by desires for autonomy, wealth, and power (17, 33). However, these “masculine” views of leadership might not accurately capture the leadership motivations of Millennial males as the views were developed in previous generations (4). Given the commitment of many Millennials towards socially responsible attitudes and behaviors (18, 25), we utilized a qualitative research design to examine the influence of social change on the leadership motivations of Millennial male intercollegiate athletes. In doing so, we found participants were motivated to lead in order to affect social change within their communities and within society. Our findings indicate a new perspective, one which includes a commitment to social change, is potentially needed when discussing “masculine” views of leadership. PMID:29170692
Kelley, Jennifer L; Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Morrell, Lesley J
The ability to change coloration allows animals to modify their patterning to suit a specific function. Many freshwater fishes, for example, can appear cryptic by altering the dispersion of melanin pigment in the skin to match the visual background. However, melanin-based pigments are also used to signal dominance among competing males; thus colour change for background matching may conflict with colour change for social status signalling. We used a colour-changing freshwater fish to investigate whether colour change for background matching influenced aggressive interactions between rival males. Subordinate males that had recently darkened their skin for background matching received heightened aggression from dominant males, relative to males whose coloration had not changed. We then determined whether the social status of a rival male, the focal male's previous social status, and his previous skin coloration, affected a male's ability to change colour for background matching. Social status influenced skin darkening in the first social encounter, with dominant males darkening more than subordinate males, but there was no effect of social status on colour change in the second social encounter. We also found that the extent of skin colour change (by both dominant and subordinate males) was dependent on previous skin coloration, with dark males displaying a smaller change in coloration than pale males. Our findings suggest that skin darkening for background matching imposes a significant social cost on subordinate males in terms of increased aggression. We also suggest that the use of melanin-based signals during social encounters can impede subsequent changes in skin coloration for other functions, such as skin darkening for background matching.
... Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: Safe Eats - Eating Out & Bringing In Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Eggs | Fruits, Veggies & Juices | Ready-to-Eat Foods | Eating Out & Bringing In When you eat out, look at ...
This paper investigates the transformation in the Zhou dynasty China (1046-256 BC) of the concept of education in relation to the process of social selection, which concerns the distribution both of knowledge and of social ranks. An approach in terms of historical semantics, mainly influenced by Luhmannian sociological theory with some reference…
Awad, Sarah H.
Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...
Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.
It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…
African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... The 21st century has seen a shift in gender roles due to multiple factors such as new family structures, education, media, and several others. The article ... In policy terms at least, women are no longer seen as being solely responsible for family work and care.
Adams, Thomas W.
An analysis of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks published in the United States from the 1950s through the 1980s focuses on incidental but pervasive social messages contained in their content, including restriction to middle class populations and values, stereotyped sex roles, lack of visibility of minorities, negative messages about…
This article discusses the effects of imperialism on British (or chiefly English) social life and education in the nineteenth century rather than examining the effects on the colonised as is usually done. It is shown that the nineteenth century was infused with different visual and written images which helped develop attitudes and ideas which…
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
1) Crisis - Dangers and Opportunities 2) "Creative destruction" or Robbery in Open Daylight! 3) Strings and Conditionalities of the IFIs 4) De-regulating Labor Markets/Targetting the Poor And Avoiding Social Chaos 5) Introducing Flexibility in Labor Markets/Impacts 6) Growing inequalities...
New, Kuwi Hoi; Ghafar, Mohamed Najib Abdul
This research examines the development of self-awareness in students as they strive to adapt themselves to their current environment. The significant social factors that immerge include; culture, religion, language; economic status, family integration and work experience. Also considered are the relationships of students with teachers and…
van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.
Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a
van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M
Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,
van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.
Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,
Bybee, Carl R.
The uses and gratifications paradigm, like the initial conceptions of media effects, can be viewed as a compatible elaboration of contemporary social and political theory. The fundamental assumptions of the uses and gratifications approach, particularly the assumptions regarding the nature and extent of audience activity and the ability of the…
Li Peixuan; Yang Liang
The rapid development of mobile Internet and mobile terminals promote business office system from PC to mobile terminals gradually. Thus Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) has become one of the important development trends of enterprise office mode. We analyse the driving factors of implementing Bring Your Own Device, then point out some problems in the process of implementing Bring Your Own Device. Further, we propose the corresponding management strategies of Bring Your Own Device in order to pro...
Full Text Available Social economy and social entrepreneurship are concepts subject of much debate in the academic environment, as their importance is growing in the present times, when the public sector and business environment alike have demonstrated their incapacity to solve specific social problems, such as conserving local traditions and biodiversity or insertion into the labour market of people from vulnerable groups. This article focuses on social entrepreneurs, by aiming to identify their main motivations in the founding and development of a social enterprise, as well as the main challenges faced in their social entrepreneurial activity in a constantly changing business environment. The paper presents a qualitative research conducted on Romanian social entrepreneurs. The results, interpreted through content analysis, indicate that social entrepreneurs, unlike business entrepreneurs, are not profit-driven, but mission driven, their main objective being to make a difference in the society and have a positive impact in the local communities. Furthermore, the research revealed specific challenges faced by Romanian social entrepreneurs, as well as specific differences between social and business entrepreneurs, who aim strictly achieving economic performance. Considering the limitations and future research directions, the implications of the findings are discussed, the paper outlining a profile of the social entrepreneur that can be useful to the public sector for the development of policies aimed at enhancing this type of entrepreneurship, in a constantly changing social environment.
Kuntsche, Sandra; Astudillo, Mariana; Gmel, Gerhard
Young men are likely to report high levels of alcohol use. Previous studies found a reduction in alcohol use when adopting adult social roles. This study examines the frequency of parenthood, partnership and stable employment among young men in Switzerland. It tests whether the alcohol use of those with adult social roles differs from those without and whether changes in social roles relate to changes in alcohol use. Data was available from 5025 men (20.0 years) at baseline (August 2010 to November 2011) and 15 months later. Changes in social roles and their impact on alcohol use were examined in multiple regression models. At baseline, 15.8% had a job and 4.9% a stable partner, and 1.5% had a child or were expecting one (30.5%, 6.1% and 2.2% at follow-up). Having a partner was associated with a significant decrease in annual frequency of drinking and weekly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) at follow-up. A higher number of social roles at follow-up was associated with a significant decrease in weekly RSOD. Apart from a significant decrease in weekly RSOD among those remaining in a stable partnership, role development was not found to have significant effects on alcohol use between baseline and follow-up. In Switzerland, an early engagement in permanent social roles is uncommon. Nevertheless, holding single or multiple social roles was commonly associated with reduced alcohol use, although not always significantly so. In western European countries, the engagement in adult social roles is postponed to later ages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hogan, John; Timoney, Nicola
Read before the society, 14 January 2016 Employing the critical juncture theory (CJT), a discursive institutionalist approach, this paper examines the nature of the changes to social partnership policy at the end of the decade of the 2000s. Did these changes constitute a transformation in social partnership policy, or were they a continuation of a previously established policy pathway? The CJT consists of three elements – economic crisis, ideational change, and the nature of the policy cha...
McKercher, Bob; Wang, Dan; Park, Eerang
This paper argues that both impacts felt by and attitudes to tourism are a function of place change. Destinations are comprised of three types of place: tourism, non-tourism and shared. It is believed attitudes are generally positive when stasis exists among the three types, but deteriorate during periods of rapid place change. Likewise, impacts are felt when place changes, especially when non-tourism place is transformed into either shared or tourism place. This proposition is tested through...
Tonya Surman; Mark Surman
The constellation model was developed by and for the Canadian Partnership for Children's Health and the Environment. The model offers an innovative approach to organizing collaborative efforts in the social mission sector and shares various elements of the open source model. It emphasizes self-organizing and concrete action within a network of partner organizations working on a common issue. Constellations are self-organizing action teams that operate within the broader strategic vision of a ...
Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.
The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.
E. N. Solomatina
Full Text Available The article analyzes the conflict as one of the basic elements of social reality, immediate source and mechanism of modern social changes. The author distinguishes the classification basics of the modern theories of conflict in Western social science, predicts the further development of social studies in problem field of conflict, and formulates the main provisions of the modern conflictological discourse. Are determined, the specific manifestations of the conflict in terms of contemporary realities, trends identified value orientations of modern society through the prism of conceptual views Alain Touraine. Disclosed concepts “subject”, “historicity”, “social movements”, “value”, the nature of social interactions, marked cultural patterns. This historicity is not understood as set of cultural values, accumulated over a certain historical time, integrated into the structure of society, as well as a set of tools with which this integration has occurred, a sort of tool of formation of various social practices that are in demand in a particular historical period. The study shows that the leading role in the discourse conflictological Alain Touraine assigned a sociological study of social changes that are going on in time and space. The conflict as a factor of social change in the theory of A. Touraine has more descriptive as fully concentrated on the study of a new historical stage of development of society and the role of social movements.
Kopp, Mária S; Skrabski, Arpád; Székely, András; Stauder, Adrienne; Williams, Redford
In the last decades in the transforming societies of Central and Eastern Europe, premature mortality increased dramatically, especially among men. Increasing disparities in socioeconomic conditions have been accompanied by a widening socioeconomic gradient in mortality among men. Social cohesion and meaning in life may help to counterbalance the widening gap in material circumstances. Not the difficult social situation in itself, but the subjective experience of relative disadvantage, the prolonged negative emotional state, that is, chronic stress seems to be the most important risk factor. The health consequences of a low socioeconomic situation among men might be mostly explained by chronic stress caused by work and close-partner-related factors, and the toxic components of this interaction are depression and hopelessness. In the case of women, the broader personal and family relations are the most important health-related factors. Weekend workload, low social support at work and low control at work accounted for a large part of variation in male premature cardiovascular mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most markedly to variations in premature cardiovascular mortality rates among women. There are two general approaches that scientists and practitioners might take: train individuals and groups to use skills that will enable them to cope better with the stressful conditions that are damaging their health; and lobby governments to adopt policies that will result in decreased chronic stress on the societal level.
Elizabeth V. Hobman; Iain Walker
Ecologists have used the concept of resilience since the 1970s. Resilience also features in many of the social and economic sciences, though in a less central role and with a variety of interpretations. Developing a fuller understanding of the concept of social-ecological resilience promises advances in how science can contribute to achieving better environmental outcomes, locally and globally. Such a development requires articulation of different perspectives on resilience and critical engag...
Watt, Willis M.
In the fast pace of the 21st century there is a demand for effective leaders capable of handling the internal and external changes occurring in our organizations. This paper seeks to inform the reader because change is natural; it is constant; it is inevitable. But, what constitutes effective leadership is the question. The main purpose of this…
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M
Increasing rates of climate migration may be of economic and national concern to sending and destination countries. It has been argued that social networks - the ties connecting an origin and destination - may operate as "migration corridors" with the potential to strongly facilitate climate change-related migration. This study investigates whether social networks at the household and community levels amplify or suppress the impact of climate change on international migration from rural Mexico. A novel set of 15 climate change indices was generated based on daily temperature and precipitation data for 214 weather stations across Mexico. Employing geostatistical interpolation techniques, the climate change values were linked to 68 rural municipalities for which sociodemographic data and detailed migration histories were available from the Mexican Migration Project. Multi-level discrete-time event-history models were used to investigate the effect of climate change on international migration between 1986 and 1999. At the household level, the effect of social networks was approximated by comparing the first to the last move, assuming that through the first move a household establishes internal social capital. At the community level, the impact of social capital was explored through interactions with a measure of the proportion of adults with migration experience. The results show that rather than amplifying , social capital may suppress the sensitivity of migration to climate triggers, suggesting that social networks could facilitate climate change adaptation in place.
Burns, Victoria F; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Damaris
Objective. To explore how older people who are "aging in place" are affected when the urban neighbourhoods in which they are aging are themselves undergoing socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods. A qualitative case study was conducted in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Montréal (Québec, Canada), the analysis drawing on concepts of social exclusion and attachment. Results. Participants express variable levels of attachment to neighbourhood. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults: loss of social spaces dedicated to older people led to social disconnectedness, invisibility, and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. Conversely, certain changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood fostered their social inclusion. Conclusion. This study thus highlights the importance of examining the impacts of neighbourhood change when exploring the dynamics of aging in place and when considering interventions to maintain quality of life of those concerned.
Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D
Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.
Burns, Victoria F.; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Damaris
Objective. To explore how older people who are “aging in place” are affected when the urban neighbourhoods in which they are aging are themselves undergoing socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods. A qualitative case study was conducted in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Montréal (Québec, Canada), the analysis drawing on concepts of social exclusion and attachment. Results. Participants express variable levels of attachment to neighbourhood. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults: loss of social spaces dedicated to older people led to social disconnectedness, invisibility, and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. Conversely, certain changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood fostered their social inclusion. Conclusion. This study thus highlights the importance of examining the impacts of neighbourhood change when exploring the dynamics of aging in place and when considering interventions to maintain quality of life of those concerned. PMID:22013528
On 1 September 1967, the Nobel Prize-winning civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. delivered a speech entitled 'The role of the behavioral scientist in the civil rights movement' to the American Psychological Association (APA, 1999; King, 1968). With eloquence and passion, Martin Luther King championed the civil rights struggle and spoke to the interests of his audience. He stressed how behavioural scientists could and should support the civil rights movement. King's eloquent and passionate speech is still relevant today - explaining how psychologists and other mental health professionals could help address today's pressing social issues. © The Author(s) 2013.
"Since [the] late nineteen-eighties, two important trends in demographic and social urbanisation have been visible. The first is diminution of [the] influence of demographic influences which originate outside the voivodship, the second is a stabilisation (regress in some cases) of some urban centres. The latter is due to a nation-wide demographic transformation as well as to a growth in emigration from traditional urban centres of Katowice conurbation....[The] latest [official] surveys indicate that the named trends are characteristic for a majority of Polish cities over 100,000 since 1990." (EXCERPT)
Xu, Zhun; Zhang, Wei
To explore the changing pattern of nutrition intake by social class in contemporary China. We defined social class in 2 ways. The first definition was based on employment, and the second definition was based on per capita household income levels. We used China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1991 to 2011 to show the changes in the relation between social class and nutrition intake. The relation between social class and nutrition intake in China changed significantly within the 2 decades. For example, in the early 1990s, the lowest social class (defined by employment or income) had more caloric intake than did the highest social class; 20 years later, however, the relation reversed, and the lowest social class consumed significantly fewer calories. China has seen a great reversal in its social class-nutrition relationship since the early 1990s. Our study calls for wider recognition that insufficient consumption of food and nutrition is increasingly an issue for people in the lower social classes in China.
Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke
The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)
Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))
The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present.
Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado
Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory
Full Text Available The constellation model was developed by and for the Canadian Partnership for Children's Health and the Environment. The model offers an innovative approach to organizing collaborative efforts in the social mission sector and shares various elements of the open source model. It emphasizes self-organizing and concrete action within a network of partner organizations working on a common issue. Constellations are self-organizing action teams that operate within the broader strategic vision of a partnership. These constellations are outwardly focused, placing their attention on creating value for those in the external environment rather than on the partnership itself. While serious effort is invested into core partnership governance and management, most of the energy is devoted to the decision making, resources and collaborative effort required to create social value. The constellations drive and define the partnership. The constellation model emerged from a deep understanding of the power of networks and peer production. Leadership rotates fluidly amongst partners, with each partner having the freedom to head up a constellation and to participate in constellations that carry out activities that are of more peripheral interest. The Internet provided the platform, the partner network enabled the expertise to align itself, and the goal of reducing chemical exposure in children kept the energy flowing. Building on seven years of experience, this article provides an overview of the constellation model, discusses the results from the CPCHE, and identifies similarities and differences between the constellation and open source models.
With, Mari Lande
Concerns about the status of the teaching profession are widespread. In this paper, the social selection to teacher education is compared with the social selection to other higher education courses in Norway from 1975 to 2010. This comparison can shed light on changes in the status of teaching relative to other types of higher education. Using…
Adult education for social change can occur within social movements, and the fight for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered and Queer (LGBTQ) rights has included educational strategies designed to challenge heterosexist and homophobic systems of power. This article explores how the Queer Nation movement of the early 1990s deployed a Foucauldian…
Shi, Q.; Liu, T.; Musterd, S.; Cao, G.
Recent studies on the social structural change in global cities have recognized globalization, migration, and institutional factors as three main forces underlying this process. However, effects of these factors have rarely been synthetically examined and the social structure of emerging Chinese
Delavega, Elena; Kindle, Peter A.; Peterson, Susan; Schwartz, Charles
This study reports the development of a new Blame Index to determine attributions of the causes of poverty along a single structural-to-individual dimension. A multisite pre-/post-group design tested the degree of change in social work students' (N = 177) perception of poverty as a result of taking a single BSW social policy course or an MSW…
Xie, Bo; Watkins, Ivan; Golbeck, Jen; Huang, Man
An exploratory study was conducted to answer the following questions: What are older adults' perceptions of social media? What educational strategies can facilitate their learning of social media? A thematic map was developed to illustrate changing perceptions from the initial unanimous, strong negative to the more positive but cautious, and to…
North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…
One of the most prominent changes in adolescence is social reorientation. In other words, adolescents develop more intimate relationships with peers, they discover what it is like to be involved in a romantic relationship, and they take (social) risks by for example showing risky driving in the
dimensions of social capital affect the choice of adaptation measures utilised by smallholder farmers. This is crucial because adaptation to climate change is created by a social component, through interacting with others, networking to gain information, the sharing of resources and creating collective norms to build.
The "new student activism," as it is often called, is a hot topic in higher education as well as in the popular press and social media. As a college student in the late '60s and early '70s, a long-time student affairs professional, a scholar and practitioner of service-learning, and an academic teaching a course on social change, the…
Hachem, Hany; Nikkola, Eeva; Zaidan, Amani
Context: In Lebanon, older adults face socioeconomic challenges that are expected to worsen due to an increase in older adult population, chronic governmental neglect, institutionalised ageism and a lack of educational and social gerontologists. Consequently, local older adults are in dire need for social change, which can be initiated through…
Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Graves, Misha N.; Peters-Myszak, Jessica; Nellis, Leah
One of the most fundamental factors related to psychological well being across the lifespan is whether a person perceives social support from important others in his or her life. The current study explored changes in and relationships among perceived social support (SS) and socioemotional adjustment (SEA) across the 1-year transition from…
Swader, Christopher Scott
This thesis investigates the mechanisms driving changes in social values, or those values emphasizing relationships, intimate bonds, and families, in the new market economies of Russia, China, and Eastern Germany. It is hypothesized that tensions between social values and individualism, materialism, and calculative rationality have arisen as a…
Granruth, Laura Brierton; Kindle, Peter A.; Burford, Michael L.; Delavega, Elena; Johnson, David H.; Peterson, Susan; Caplan, Mary A.
Understanding student political attitudes--feelings about government and perceptions of its role--has long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students'…
Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Brown, Chris; del Fresno, Miguel
Purpose: The role of relationships in the process of leadership and change is central, yet the social aspect of the work of reform is often background in favor of more technical approaches to improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to argue that social network theory and analysis provides a useful theory and set of tools to unpack the…
Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D; Reynolds, Katherine J
John Turner, whose pioneering work on social identity and self-categorization theories changed the face of modern social psychology, died in July 2011. This unique virtual special issue celebrates Turner's life and work by reproducing a number of key articles that were published in the British Journal of Social Psychology and the European Journal of Social Psychology over the course of his career. These articles are of three types: first, key position papers, on which Turner was the leading or sole author; second, papers that he published with collaborators (typically PhD students) that explored key theoretical propositions; third, short commentary papers, in which Turner engaged in debate around key issues within social psychology. Together, these papers map out a clear and compelling vision. This seeks to explain the distinctly social nature of the human mind by showing how all important forms of social behaviour - and in particular, the propensity for social influence and social change -are grounded in the sense of social identity that people derive from their group memberships. As we discuss in this editorial, Turner's great contribution was to formalize this understanding in terms of testable hypotheses and generative theory and then to work intensively but imaginatively with others to take this vision forward. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
Usdin, S; Scheepers, E; Goldstein, Susan; Japhet, Garth
The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication--a South African multi-media health promotion project--together with the National Network on Violence Against Women, formulated an intervention to address domestic violence. Recognising that behavioural change interventions aimed solely at individuals have limited impact, the intervention was designed to impact at multiple mutually reinforcing levels; individual, community and socio-political environment. The intervention and its evaluation results are presented. Soul City successfully reached 86%, 25% and 65% of audiences through television, print booklets and radio, respectively. On an individual level there was a shift in knowledge around domestic violence including 41% of respondents hearing about the helpline. Attitude shifts were also associated with the intervention, with a 10% increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence was a private affair. There was also a 22% shift in perceptions of social norms on this issue. Qualitative data analysis suggests the intervention played a role in enhancing women's and communities' sense of efficacy, enabling women to make more effective decisions around their health and facilitating community action. The evaluation concluded that implementation of the Domestic Violence Act can largely be attributed to the intervention. While demonstrating actual reductions in levels of domestic violence was not possible, the evaluation shows a strong association between exposure to intervention components and a range of intermediary factors indicative of, and necessary to bring about social change. This paper reports on the evaluation, discusses its limitations and challenges as well as lessons learned regarding multi-level interventions on domestic violence.
New technology is changing the face of the photograph. This volume on 'snapshot' photography-pictures taken by non-professionals-examines key future trends, from multimedia and social practices to the notion of embedding physicality into digital snapshots.
Servaes, J.; Lie, R.
This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,
Lie, R.; Servaes, J.
This article provides an overview of subdisciplines in the field of Communication for Development and Social Change. Different subdisciplines of communication science are analyzed to assess their connection to the field. Building on these subdisciplines the article reviews health communication,
Rasmussen, Tove Valborg
The development of social polarisation – in the light of the concept of inequality and politics to combat inequality. A relational perspective on inequality and poverty......The development of social polarisation – in the light of the concept of inequality and politics to combat inequality. A relational perspective on inequality and poverty...
Full Text Available Global environmental change will have major impacts on ecosystems and human livelihoods while challenging the adaptive capacity of individuals and communities. Social learning, an ongoing adaptive process of knowledge generation, reflection and synthesis, may enhance people’s awareness about climate change and its impacts, with positive outcomes for their adaptive capacity. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of factors promoting social learning in climate change adaptation initiatives in South Africa. An online survey was used to obtain the views of decision makers in government and non-governmental organisations about the presence of personal factors and organisational factors that promote social learning. Descriptive analysis was used to assess these issues. The findings provide some evidence of social learning in climate change adaptation projects in South Africa, with the majority of respondents indicating that personal social learning indicators were present. Mechanisms for improved conflict resolution were, however, less prevalent. The organisational and governance-related barriers to implementation also presented significant challenges. Some of the main organisational barriers were short timeframes for implementing projects, inadequate financial resources, political interference, shortcomings in governance systems and lack of knowledge and expertise in organisations. There is a need for organisations to promote social learning by ensuring that their organisational environment and governance structures are conducive for their employees to embrace social learning. This will help contribute to the overall success of climate change adaptation initiatives.
Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Nørskov, Marco; Yamazaki, Ryuji
Attitudes toward robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes toward robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three...... reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance reductions, given that robots, unlike computers, are not yet perceived as action targets. Specific personality traits may...
Glozah, Franklin N.; Lawani, Suleman
This paper examines the role social change and modernity plays in adolescent rites of passage in developing and developed countries. The ‘Dipo’ rite of the Krobo in Ghana is compared and contrasted with the ‘Russ’ in Norway with specific reference to social change and modernity. A salient distinction in both rites of passage is the observance of a set of processes, procedures and stages adolescent undergo including, inter alia, participation in a procession characterized by a special symbolic...
Petrucci, Andrea M; Chand, Manish; Wexner, Steven D
The role of social media (SoMe) in surgical education is emerging as a tool that augments and complements traditional learning. As SoMe usage has steadily increased in our personal and professional lives, it is no surprise that it has permeated into surgical education. Different SoMe sites offer distinct platforms from which knowledge can be transmitted, while catering to various learning styles. The purpose of this review is to outline the various SoMe platforms and their use in surgical education. Moreover, it will discuss their effectiveness in teaching and learning surgical knowledge and skills as well as other potential roles SoMe has to offer to improve surgical education.
Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.
The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate
Maton, Kenneth I.
Seymour Sarason passed away on January 10, 2010 at the age of 91. He was the author of more than 40 books, including The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (1971), The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (1972), and The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology (1974). His groundbreaking ideas…
The Listen, Live and Learn (LLL) initiative at SU is a senior student housing programme with the aim of providing experiential opportunities for students to make contact with 'the other'. By being in closer, more regular contact with 'the other', students' stereotypes, biases and discriminatory attitudes should start changing for ...
Golden, L L; Johnson, K
Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.
The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC ...
Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey
As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…
Henley, Jennie; Caulfield, Laura S.; Wilson, David; Wilkinson, Dean J.
Good Vibrations is a charity that runs gamelan projects with offenders in prison and on probation. A recent Birmingham City University study investigating the short-, medium- and long-term impact of the project found that participation in a Good Vibrations project acted as a catalyst for positive change. The research found that not only did…
Maghrabi, Rozan Omar
One of the demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution tweeted "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world," thus acknowledging and establishing the fundamental role of social media in the political unrest and revolution against the regime in Egypt. Information Systems (IS) have…
Young, William; Middlemiss, Lucie
Social scientists from all areas are developing theories and testing practical approaches to change individuals' actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK context, policy-makers, local authorities, companies and organisations are using these theories to invest resources to change individual's actions. The problem is that social scientists are delivering fragmented science based on narrow disciplinary views and those using this science are cherry picking whatever theory suits their agenda. We argue that with substantial GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved, a multidisciplinary application and view of social science are urgently needed.
Bielefeldt, Angela R; Canney, Nathan E
This research explored how engineering student views of their responsibility toward helping individuals and society through their profession, so-called social responsibility, change over time. A survey instrument was administered to students initially primarily in their first year, senior year, or graduate studies majoring in mechanical, civil, or environmental engineering at five institutions in September 2012, April 2013, and March 2014. The majority of the students (57 %) did not change significantly in their social responsibility attitudes, but 23 % decreased and 20 % increased. The students who increased, decreased, or remained the same in their social responsibility attitudes over time did not differ significantly in terms of gender, academic rank, or major. Some differences were found between institutions. Students who decreased in social responsibility initially possessed more positive social responsibility attitudes, were less likely to indicate that college courses impacted their views of social responsibility, and were more likely to have decreased in the frequency that they participated in volunteer activities, compared to students who did not change or increased their social responsibility. Although the large percentage of engineering students who decreased their social responsibility during college was disappointing, it is encouraging that courses and participation in volunteer activities may combat this trend.
Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B
Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"Bring Your Baby to the Danforth Museum of Art" is a program for mothers. Unlike other museum programs that focus on the needs of children, Bring Your Baby caters to the intellectual interests of the adult parent. Parents learn about artworks, play with babies in a beautiful environment, and socialize with other families. The program is…
Full Text Available Compared with their forerunners, the modern teenagers experience adolescence and solve age problems in different way, and face other social risks. The representations of situations of social and psychological adjustment and maladjustment also differ in some aspects. The article discusses the factors which influence the adolescence in modern conditions: spread of the Internet, lack of public demand for a certain desired life trajectory of a growing teenager, high social tension and uncertainty, changes in the structure and essence of the family concept; blurred teenagers identity in the context of variety of identification options. These factors affect the development of the resources available to teenagers and their use of them, which social risks they are exposed to, and what forms of deviant behavior they show. Such changes in the social environment of adolescent development and, as a consequence, in the experiencing adolescence, allow to check and revise the existing representations of the teen age problems
Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen
Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process.
Fabricius, Katrine; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Helboe, Lone
dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, it did cause a significant reduction of basal dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, social isolation lead to a significantly larger dopamine response to an amphetamine challenge, in both the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex compared...... an investigation of prefrontal cortical dopamine dynamics using in vivo microdialysis. Social isolation for 12 weeks after weaning caused increased locomotor activity in response to novelty and amphetamine challenge. In vivo microdialysis experiments revealed that while social isolation did not change basal......Post-weaning social isolation of rats produces an array of behavioral and neurochemical changes indicative of altered dopamine function. It has therefore been suggested that post-weaning social isolation mimics some aspects of schizophrenia. Here we replicate and extent these findings to include...
Taylor, Samuel Hardman; Hinck, Alexandra S; Lim, Hajin
Selfies are everywhere on social media. Research has focused only on who is posting selfies and has not addressed the audience members viewing selfies. This study aims to fill this gap by analyzing the judgments people make of selfies posted on Facebook. Using an online experiment, we test how including a selfie on a Facebook status update changes people's appraisals of narcissism, message appropriateness, and social attraction. We also consider how the valence and intimacy of the status update text interplay with the selfie to change social judgments. Participants rated posts with selfies as more narcissistic and inappropriate, and less socially attractive. Selfie evaluations also depended upon the valence and intimacy of the status update text. Gender of the selfie poster did not influence evaluation of posts. One implication from these results is that posting selfies on social media may lead to negative judgments about the poster.
Bruce Tranter; Zlatko Skrbis
A large survey of young people in Queensland, Australia, indicates that the majority believe that climate change is occurring, that the planet is warming because of greenhouse gas emissions, and that anthropogenic global warming poses a serious risk to Australia. Parental education has an important influence upon the development of environmental attitudes among young people, with the children of tertiary-educated parents much more likely than others to be concerned about planetary warming. A ...
dissatisfaction and a lowered sense of emotional wellbeing . Petrich and Holmes (1977) have suggested that patients should be advised to pace the...his or her developmental state. Life changes are important milestones in life span development (Brim & Ryff , 1980). An inspection of both the SRE and...0. G., Jr., & Ryff , C. D. On the properties of life events. In P. B. Baltes & 0. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior, Vol. 3. New
Evans-Lacko, Sara; Malcolm, Estelle; West, Keon; Rose, Diana; London, Jillian; Rüsch, Nicolas; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
England's Time To Change (TTC) social marketing campaign emphasised social contact between people with and without mental health problems to reduce stigma and discrimination. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the mass media component and also that of the mass social contact events. Online interviews were performed before and after each burst of mass media social marketing to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and associations between campaign awareness and outcomes. Participants at social contact events were asked about the occurrence and quality of contact, attitudes, readiness to discuss mental health and intended behaviour towards people with mental health problems. Prompted campaign awareness was 38-64%. A longitudinal improvement was noted for one intended behaviour item but not for knowledge or attitudes. Campaign awareness was positively associated with greater knowledge (β = 0.80, 95% CI 0.52-1.08) and more favourable attitudes (commonality OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10-1.70; dangerousness OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.63) and intended behaviour (β = 0.75, 95% CI 0.53-0.96). Social contact at events demonstrated a positive impact (M = 2.68) v. no contact (M = 2.42) on perceived attitude change; t(211) = 3.30, P = 0.001. Contact quality predicted more positive attitude change (r = 0.33, Psocial marketing campaign suggest that social contact can be used by anti-stigma programmes to reduce stigma.
Full Text Available This article, theoretically based on socio-spatial concepts of Lefebvre, de Certeau and their further interpreta - tions at the New Urban Sociology school (by Gottdiener, Zukin and others, examines the spread of graffiti in the urban space of Vilnius, the change of the local graffiti map during the years 2010–2013 and the possible social implications of the spotted modification of urban landscape. The qualitative research of Vilnius graffiti – which is understood both as an urban practice and an illicit urban inscription – and the case of Naujininkai neighborhood in particular, is based on data obtained from 1 in-depth interviews with experienced graffiti artists, 2 observation of graffiti in public space and 3 visual urban ethnography. Naujininkai neighborhood was attributed by local graffiti writers to the urban periphery in Vilnius graffiti map in 2010. However in 2010–2013 the visual development of urban landscape in Naujininkai indicates the trend, bringing the neigh- borhood a little closer to the urban core.
Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile Internet and mobile terminals promote business office system from PC to mobile terminals gradually. Thus Bring Your Own Device (BYOD has become one of the important development trends of enterprise office mode. We analyse the driving factors of implementing Bring Your Own Device, then point out some problems in the process of implementing Bring Your Own Device. Further, we propose the corresponding management strategies of Bring Your Own Device in order to provide references for enterprises to meet the need of mobile office.
Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is an attempt to overcome the difficulties faced in thefunctioning of previous treaties of the European Union. It aims, through itsprovisions, at offering better opportunities for action including the social scope,but the inter-governmental nature of decision-making continues to prevail.This paper focuses on provisions for social policyin the Lisbon Treaty andimportant changes that deal with reforms in this field. More concretely, theobjective of this paper is to emphasize the most important social aspects of theTreaty in question.Social policy has been qualified as a common competence of the EU and memberstates (article 4b. The EU has to undertake measures to assure the coordination ofemployment policies of member states and to initiate the coordination of socialpolicies of member states.This paper analyzes the provisions that deal with employment, social dialog,consultations between employees and employers, child protection, as well as othersegments of social policy.
Otchere, Kimberly; Bankhead, Tekita; Williams, Ayanna
The resurgence of student activism has yielded dynamic change within university housing departments and beyond on college campuses across the country. In higher education, the social, cultural, and political environment continues to be highly racialized and characterized by a string of protests and public displays of student angst. The threat of…
“They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development. The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...
Tessa K Solomon-Lane
Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina
Abstract In May 2006, Colombia’s Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman’s health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court’s ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision’s implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa’s strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a “pedagogical effect” insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa’s choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge. PMID:28630545
Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.
If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate
Northcott, Sarah; Moss, Becky; Harrison, Kirsty; Hilari, Katerina
Identify what factors are associated with functional social support and social network post stroke; explore stroke survivors' perspectives on what changes occur and how they are perceived. The following electronic databases were systematically searched up to May 2015: Academic Search Complete; CINAHL Plus; E-journals; Health Policy Reference Centre; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES; PsycINFO; and SocINDEX. PRISMA guidelines were followed in the conduct and reporting of this review. All included studies were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tools. Meta-ethnographic techniques were used to integrate findings from the qualitative studies. Given the heterogeneous nature of the quantitative studies, data synthesis was narrative. Seventy research reports met the eligibility criteria: 22 qualitative and 48 quantitative reporting on 4,816 stroke survivors. The qualitative studies described a contraction of the social network, with non-kin contact being vulnerable. Although family were more robust network members, significant strain was observed within the family unit. In the quantitative studies, poor functional social support was associated with depression (13/14 studies), reduced quality of life (6/6 studies) and worse physical recovery (2/2 studies). Reduced social network was associated with depression (7/8 studies), severity of disability (2/2 studies) and aphasia (2/2 studies). Although most indicators of social network reduced post stroke (for example, contact with friends, 5/5 studies), the perception of feeling supported remained relatively stable (4/4 studies). Following a stroke non-kin contact is vulnerable, strain is observed within the family unit, and poor social support is associated with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for social psychology as 'a science of movement'. We argue that such a science must problematise the status quo and focus on the way in which social stability as well as social change is actively produced. Key to this project is a recognition that human action arises in a context where multiple voices seek to mobilise people in different directions. The question of which voice prevails depends upon processes of social identification that provide a basis for authority and influence. We illustrate this approach, first, by examining the dynamics of crowd behaviour. We use the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM to examine when people pay heed to those who advocate a challenge to authority and when, by contrast, participation increases their acceptance of existing authority. We then go on examine Milgram's famous 'obedience' studies, looking again at when participants shun the voice of authority and when they heed it. In contrast to conventional explanations which take conformity to authority as a given, we propose an 'engaged follower' perspective in which conformity depends upon identification with the cause which authority represents. We finish by showing how Milgram actively managed participants' identification in order to mobilise their compliance.
Full Text Available The following article establishes some context and definitions for what is termed the “sharing imperative” – a movement or tendency towards sharing information online and in real time that has rapidly transformed several industries. As internet-enabled devices proliferate to all corners of the globe, ways of working and accessing information have changed. Users now expect to be able to access the products, services, and information that they want from anywhere, at any time, on any device. This article addresses how the nonprofit sector might respond to those demands by embracing the sharing imperative. It suggests that how well an organization shares has become one of the most pressing governance questions a nonprofit organization must tackle. Finally, the article introduces Platformation, a project whereby tools that enable better inter and intra-organizational sharing are tested for scalability, affordability, interoperability, and security, all with a non-profit lens.
Shipsey, Ian (Purdue)
In his talk, Shipsey will discuss the cochlear implant, the first device to successfully allow the profoundly deaf to regain some sense of hearing. A cochlear implant is a small electronic apparatus. Unlike a normal hearing aid, which amplifies sound, a cochlear implant is surgically implanted behind the ear where it converts sound waves into electrical impulses. These implants have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness, and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. Shipsey will discuss the physiology of natural hearing from the perspective of a physicist. He will also touch on the function of cochlear implants in the context of historical treatments, electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation of efficacy and personal experience. Finally, Shipsey will address the social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses.
Towler, E.; Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.
Traditional drought research has mainly focused on physical drought risks and less on the cultural processes that also contribute to how drought risks are perceived and managed. However, as society becomes more vulnerable to drought and climate change threatens to increase water scarcity, it is clear that drought research would benefit from a more interdisciplinary approach. To assess avoided drought impacts from reduced climate change, drought risks need to be assessed in the context of both climate prediction as well as improved understanding of socio-cultural processes. To this end, this study explores a risk-based framework to combine physical drought likelihoods with perceived risks from stakeholder interviews. Results are presented from a case study on how stakeholders in south-central Oklahoma perceive drought risks given diverse cultural beliefs, water uses, and uncertainties in future drought prediction. Stakeholder interviews (n=38) were conducted in 2012 to understand drought risks to various uses of water, as well as to measure worldviews from the cultural theory of risk - a theory that explains why people perceive risks differently, potentially leading to conflict over management decisions. For physical drought risk, drought projections are derived from a large ensemble of future climates generated from two RCPs that represent higher and lower emissions trajectories (i.e., RCP8.5 and RCP4.5). These are used to develop a Combined Drought Risk Matrix (CDRM) that characterizes drought risks for different water uses as the products of both physical likelihood (from the climate ensemble) and risk perception (from the interviews). We use the CRDM to explore the avoided drought risks posed to various water uses, as well as to investigate the potential for reduction of conflict over water management.
Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas
In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 1. Bringing the Male and Female Partners Together is Outsourced ... Change in email domain name. Posted on 26 August 2016. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office ...
Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...
Cheek, James E.
It now seems clear that the decade of the seventies will be a new era of vital social change during which the US will be forced to come to grips with the issues of war, poverty, and racism. Today's student unrest already indicates that a new order is emerging. Moderates seek change through reform and militants seek it through revolution, but both…
Change in social-ecological systems often produces a cascade of unanticipated consequences. Natural resource professionals and other stakeholders need to understand the possible implications of cascading change to prepare for it. The Futures Wheel is a "smart group" method that uses a structured brainstorming process to uncover and evaluate multiple levels of...
New, Kuwihoi; Ghafar, Mohamed Najib Abdul
The sociology of education provides the most effective means to look into in the dynamics of education and the changes it produces in the individual. This research uses in-depth field interviews to study the social change experienced by a group of college students at a private higher learning institution in Malaysia. The results reveal that there…
Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang
With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…
Foster, Gwen; Morris, Meghan Brenna; Sirojudin, Sirojudin
The 2004 California Mental Health Services Act requires large-scale system change in the public mental health system through a shift to recovery-oriented services for diverse populations. This article describes an innovative strategy for workforce recruitment and retention to create and sustain these systemic changes. The California Social Work…
Haylock, Laura; Miller, Carol
Programs seeking to challenge and change gender and power relationships require a nimble, evolving monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL) system that helps make sense of how nonlinear complex social change happens. This article describes efforts by Oxfam Canada to develop such a system for a women's rights and gender equality program. The…
DeMartini, Kelly S; Prince, Mark A; Carey, Kate B
College drinking is embedded in a social context, drawing attention to the effects of social network composition on consumption. The presence of heavy drinking friends in social networks predicts later alcohol misuse, but little is known about how the composition of one's social network composition changes over time. This study identified changes in social network composition in a sample of at-risk students and examined the relationship among network trajectories, alcohol consumption, and descriptive norms. Participants were 503 students (64% male) mandated to participate in an alcohol prevention intervention for residence hall alcohol policy violations. At baseline, students provided self-report data about alcohol consumption, perceived peer drinking norms, and peer alcohol involvement. Parallel assessments were completed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Growth-mixture models identified four groups of individuals with similar levels of heavy drinkers in their social networks. The majority of students had stable or decreasing numbers of heavy drinkers in their networks across the study, whereas two groups reported relatively stable densities of heavy drinkers from baseline to 6-months and increasing densities from 6- to 12-months. At baseline, the four groups were generally equivalent on consumption and normative perceptions. At 6- and 12-months, however, the groups differed significantly on consumption and norms. These results suggest that changes in the number of heavy drinkers in college students' social networks may have significant implications for at-risk drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kent, John P.; Murphy, Kenneth J.; Bannon, Finian J.; Hynes, Niamh M.; Hayden, Thomas J.
Testosterone (T) concentrations in many species are sensitive to seasonal changes and to changes in social conditions. However, the effect of the natural or endogenous T increase in the juvenile on their social behaviour is not well understood. In this study, T and behaviour were measured from the pro-social juvenile to the adult stage in semi-feral domestic fowl. During the pro-social phase T levels and the distance chicks maintained between each other, i.e. inter-individual distance (IID) were low. Then, as T increased, a corresponding increase in IID occurred and continued in males until dispersal to individual adult male territories. In the new and initially stable adult social structure, T declined and IID remained high, indicating a new behavioural mechanism was in place. Males first mated as T levels were declining. They were then challenged; then T increased, and then IID increased again. Adult male T levels fluctuate, being low or declining in a socially stable environment and increasing following a challenge, suggesting a regulatory or modulating role for T. The results are consistent with T having an endogenous role: in the juvenile, driving behavioural change towards adulthood, and in adulthood, a modulating role regulating social organisation.
Campos, Carlos; Santos, Susana; Gagen, Emily; Machado, Sérgio; Rocha, Susana; Kurtz, Matthew M; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa
Social cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia and social cognition training (SCT) is a promising tool to address these deficits. Neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been widely researched, but neuronal changes induced by SCT have been scarcely explored. This review aims to assess the neuroplastic effects of SCT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials testing the effects of SCT in functional and structural brain measurements of adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. A total of 11 studies were included: five used fMRI, two used EEG and ERP, one used ERP only, two used MEG and one study used MRI. Data extracting and processing regarding sociodemographic and clinical variables, intervention characteristics, neuroimaging procedures, neuroplastic findings, effect sizes and study quality criteria was completed by two raters. Results indicate a wide range of structural and functional changes in numerous regions and circuits of the social brain, including early perceptual areas, the limbic system and prefrontal regions. Despite the small number of trials currently available, evidence suggests that SCT is associated with neuroplastic changes in the social brain and concomitant improvements in social cognitive performance. There is a lack of extensive knowledge about the neural mechanisms that underlie social cognitive enhancement after treatment, but the reported findings may shed light on the neural substrates of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and how improved treatment procedures can be developed and applied.
Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia
Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under
The fuel oil market will not become more quiet in the future, says Wolfgang Ristein, Director of the Sales Division of the German BP Aktiengesellschaft, Essen. There will always be price problems. The trade must adapt itself to the changes taking place on the fuel oil market. With more planning, industrial management, and business flexibility. The reduction of the fixed costs is urgently necessary.
Knijnik, Daniela Z; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Blanco, Carlos; Moraes, Carolina; Hauck, Simone; Mombach, Clarissa K; Strapasson, Atahualpa C P; Manfro, Gisele G; Eizirik, Cláudio L
Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are strategies to reduce symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). The addition of PGT might lead to changes in defense styles. The objective of this study is to examine changes in defense styles when comparing clonazepam to psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in GSAD during 12 weeks. Fifty-seven patients that met DSM-IV criteria for GSAD participated. social anxiety disorder symptoms were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and defense styles with the Defense Style Questionnaire. All defense styles changed overtime for both groups, especially mature defense style, which increased independently of the treatment allocation group. Regression analyses found that overtime there was a reduction in neurotic defenses in the combined group, whereas there was an increase in the clonazepam group. Neurotic defense style can change toward greater adaptiveness with the addition of PGT to clonazepam in GSAD, even in 12 weeks.
Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren
Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.
Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D
Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Dinka Corkalo Biruski
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective: This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method: The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results: Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions: In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations.
Lager, Anton C J; Modin, Bitte E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vågerö, Denny H
Intelligence at a single time-point has been linked to health outcomes. An individual's IQ increases with longer schooling, but the validity of such increase is unclear. In this study, we assess the hypothesis that individual change in the performance on IQ tests between ages 10 and 20 years is associated with mortality later in life. The analyses are based on a cohort of Swedish boys born in 1928 (n = 610) for whom social background data were collected in 1937, IQ tests were carried out in 1938 and 1948 and own education and mortality were recorded up to 2006. Structural equation models were used to estimate the extent to which two latent intelligence scores, at ages 10 and 20 years, manifested by results on the IQ tests, are related to paternal and own education, and how all these variables are linked to all-cause mortality. Intelligence at the age of 20 years was associated with lower mortality in adulthood, after controlling for intelligence at the age of 10 years. The increases in intelligence partly mediated the link between longer schooling and lower mortality. Social background differences in adult intelligence (and consequently in mortality) were partly explained by the tendency for sons of more educated fathers to receive longer schooling, even when initial intelligence levels had been accounted for. The results are consistent with a causal link from change in intelligence to mortality, and further, that schooling-induced changes in IQ scores are true and bring about lasting changes in intelligence. In addition, if both these interpretations are correct, social differences in access to longer schooling have consequences for social differences in both adult intelligence and adult health.
Andersen, Mona Agerholm; Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Valentini, Chiara
Purpose - This paper explores the relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in relation to organizational change solutions. Methodology - This project.......046). Findings - The data shows a positive relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and the employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in creating and discussing change solutions. Key words: Internal social media...... is based on a quantitative study in a global Danish company with approximately 18,000 employees worldwide. The company has a strategic focus on implementing social collaboration platforms to create a global working culture. An online survey was conducted globally and a total of 1.046 employees replied (n=1...
Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…
Mohammed, Selina A; Cooke, Cheryl L; Ezeonwu, Mabel; Stevens, Christine A
In undergraduate nursing curricula, the rhetoric of social justice has held more prominence than its operationalization. Although undergraduate education is a prime vehicle for fostering social change, articles that describe social justice as praxis in baccalaureate nursing curricula are relatively uncommon. Addressing this gap, we explain how four RN-to-BSN courses use social justice as a framework for instruction. The first two courses generate emancipatory knowledge and advocacy ideas among students by underscoring how privilege and oppression operate in society, as well as in the production of health inequities. The final two courses demonstrate how partnerships with communities can enhance student knowledge regarding structural barriers to health and health care and lead to actions that target those issues. Despite challenges that exist when implementing curricula on amending health inequities, nurse educators are urged to press onward in planting the seeds of social justice in their classrooms; suggestions are made for accomplishing this goal.
Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn
In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.
Dietz, Thomas; Dan, Amy; Shwom, Rachael
We investigated preferences for climate change mitigation policies and factors contributing to higher levels of policy support. The sample was comprised of 316 Michigan and Virginia residents, all of whom completed mail surveys. Of the eight policies proposed to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, respondents overwhelmingly indicated they would…
Engen, Ole Andreas; Olsen, Odd Einar
Made available from Technology in Society, 29/4, Odd Einar Olsen, & Ole Andreas Engen, Technological change as a trade-off between social construction and technological paradigms, Pages No. 456-468, Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0160791X The theory of social construction of technology (SCOT) and the theory of technological paradigms (TTP) are normally regarded as competing or even incompatible perspectives on technological ch...
Allemand Mathias; Schaffhuser Kathrin; Martin Mike
This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal meas...
Francisco Heras Hernández
Full Text Available This paper highlights some features characterizing the representation of climate change by Spanish society, paying special attention to its assessment of the risk for people and its potential threat to health.A series of opinion polls conducted in Spain in 2008, 2010 and 2012 were used to learn about the assessments of the risks derived from climate change for different time (current generations – future generations, economic (rich countries - poor countries and proximity-to-the-polled-person (Spanish society - your community - your family - you personally scenarios. The analysis of the data collected reveals there are different “styles” of risk assessment, four characteristic groups being described: “unconcerned”, “distant”, “aware” and “alarmed”.The paper also analyses the opinions of the people who where polled on the impacts of climate change on their own health, focusing on the future likelihood of their suffering health problems. Most people thought their health could be affected at some point in the future and that climate change will increase the likelihood of suffering certain illnesses, such as allergies, asthma and respiratory diseases.Nevertheless, it is difficult to know whether an awareness of climate change risks and their effects on health will bring about in the short term new attitudes and behaviours aimed at limiting the perceived threats, given how unimportant climate change is for Spanish society in practice.
to the government and society of each country. Examples of social movements include race equality, feminism , religious, socio-economic, and socio...theory and how that theory impacted the events of the Arab Spring. He began by informing the reader about the history of social movement theory and...assisting role in the revolutions he studied. Rita Safranek writes about the history of social media and its emerging role in bringing change. She
Shrestha Sainju, Romisha
This thesis attempts to investigate how the leading social entrepreneurs understand and enact their leadership role within the Nepali context and how they address the leadership challenges. Taking the social constructivist stand point, I have conducted my research combining two research methods, multiple case study analysis and portrait analysis. The research concludes that the background and earlier life histories of social entrepreneurs, their determination to bring change in the society an...
In the US, national, regional and even institutional plans for ameliorating the effects of pandemic influenza focus on stockpiling antiviral medications, early production and distribution of vaccine, mass and personal social distancing, and a number of personal hygiene activities. Essential personnel are the first scheduled to receive preventive and therapeutic pharmaceuticals, followed by high risk groups, the largest of which are the elderly. Specific recommendations for protection embody a bunker mentality with a time horizon of two weeks, emulating preparation for a natural disaster. The epidemiology of pandemic influenza is scarcely considered. We summarize here the envelope of mortality attributable to epidemic and pandemic influenza in the last 90 years of the last century as a lead in to a presentation of the multinational case age distribution of the novel H1N1 pandemic of 2009. We discuss the sparing of elderly subpopulations in pandemics and the subsequent abrupt resurgence of mortality in the spared age groups as drift variants emerge. The general decline in the baseline of age-specific excess mortality in economically developed countries is characterized and its importance assessed. Models of acute and chronic care facilities are discussed and an argument is advanced that society as a whole as well as acute care facilities cannot be protected against incursion and widespread infection in pandemics of severity above low moderate. The key findings of models of chronic care institutions and others that can control public access, such as corporations, are used to describe programs with a realistic chance of providing protection in even severe pandemics. These principles are further mapped onto individual residences. Materials directing institutional and home planning are cited.
UNFPA Executive Director, Dr. Nafis Sadik, visited Tokyo in February to publicize the organization and its activities. UNFPA worked in 1989 with a US $200 million budget on 3266 projects in 147 countries. Dr Sadik is currently UN Under Secretary General and gave a speech at the College Women's Association on the deterioration of the world environment. Environmental problems stem from industrialization and urbanization. World population will rise to 6.2 billion by 2000 (80% of which are in developing countries) and 8.5 billion by 2025. Developing countries are also becoming dumping grounds for developed countries' waste. Dr. Sadik stresses that women need to change their current status from childbearers to productive members of their societies who ca choose when to have a family and how large it will be. The next decade will be crucial for changes of attitude among governments and the role of non-governmental organizations. Dr. Sadik discussed the importance of Population Forum 21 where 24 Japanese policy makers met to discuss global population problems. She urged Japan to invest more finances, advice, and technical help in this major crisis. She also states that there are no boundaries for environmental and population problems, so we must all work on a solution together. Dr. Sadik praised the efforts of NGO's in this struggle.
Corrigan, Patrick W
This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.
Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924
Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.
Kelly Shanene Fielding
Full Text Available Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.
Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J
Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.
Louisa S Evans
Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.
Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae
Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.
Evans, Louisa S.; Hicks, Christina C.; Adger, W. Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L.; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae
Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute. PMID:26960200
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a
Jongman, Brenden; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Balog, Simone; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje
Coastal communities in developing countries are highly exposed and vulnerable to coastal flood risk, and are likely to suffer from climate change induced changes in risk. Over the last decade, strong evidence has surfaced that nature-based solutions or ecosystem-based approaches are efficient and effective alternatives for flood risk reduction and climate change adaptation. In developing countries, numerous projects have therefore been implemented, often driven by international donors and NGOs. Some of these projects have been successful in reducing risk while improving environmental and socioeconomic conditions. However, the feasibility assessment, design and implementation of nature-based solutions is a multifaceted process, which needs to be well-understood before such solutions can be effectively implemented as an addition or alternative to grey infrastructure. This process has not always been followed. As a result, many projects have failed to deliver positive outcomes. The international community therefore has a challenge in bringing nature-based solutions to scale in an effective way. In this presentation, we will present best practice guidelines on nature-based solution implementation that are currently being discussed by the international community. Furthermore, we will present the alpha version of a new web platform being developed by the World Bank that will serve as a much-needed central repository for project information on nature-based solutions, and that will host actionable implementation guidelines. The presentation will also serve as an invitation to the scientific community to share their experience and lessons learned, and contribute to the outlining of best practice guidance.
Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie
This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.
Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S
The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Climate change is well documented at the global scale, but local and regional changes are not as well understood. Finer, local-to-regional scale information is needed for creating specific, place-based planning and adaption efforts. Here we detail the development of an indicator-focused climate chan...
Serdeczny, Olivia; Adams, Sophie; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel; Perrette, Mahé; Reinhardt, Julia
The repercussions of climate change will be felt in various ways throughout both natural and human systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change projections for this region point to a warming trend, particularly in the inland subtropics; frequent occurrence of extreme heat events; increasing
Rod K Dishman
Full Text Available To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence.Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades.Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, physical activity declined less in children who reported the least decreases in self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to activity and perceived parental support. Physical activity also declined less in students who persistently felt they had more parental and friend support for activity compared to those who reported the largest decrease in support from friends. After further adjustment for race, the decline in physical activity was less in those who had the largest decrease in perceived barriers and maintained a favorable perception of their neighborhood environment. Changes in enjoyment and social motives were unrelated to change in physical activity.Using an objective measure of physical activity, we confirm that naturally-occurring changes in children's beliefs about barriers to physical activity and their ability to overcome them, as well as perceptions of their neighborhood environment and social support, are concurrent with age-related declines in children's physical activity. The longitudinal findings confirm these putative social-cognitive mediators as plausible, interacting targets of interventions designed to mitigate the marked decline in physical activity that occurs during the transition between elementary and middle schools.
Stephen G. Sutton
Full Text Available Understanding how social resilience influences resource users' responses to policy change is important for ensuring the sustainability of social-ecological systems and resource-dependent communities. We use the conceptualization and operationalization of social resilience proposed by Marshall and Marshall (2007 to investigate how resilience level influenced commercial fishers' perceptions about and adaptation to the 2004 rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 114 commercial and charter fishers to measure their social resilience level and their responses and adaptation strategies to the 2004 zoning plan. Fishers with higher resilience were more likely to believe that the zoning plan was necessary, more likely to be supportive of the plan, and more likely to have adapted their fishing business and fishing activity to the plan than were fishers with lower social resilience. High-resilience fishers were also less likely to perceive negative impacts of the plan on their fishing business, less likely to have negative attitudes toward the consultation process used to develop and implement the plan, and less likely to have applied for financial compensation under the structural adjustment program. Results confirm the utility of the social resilience construct for identifying fishers who are likely to be vulnerable to changes, and those who are struggling to cope with change events. We conclude that managing for social resilience in the GBR would aid in the design and implementation of policies that minimize the impacts on resource users and lead to more inclusive and sustainable management, but that further research is necessary to better understand social resilience, how it can be fostered and sustained, and how it can be effectively incorporated into management.
Full Text Available Bankers didn’t want the change; they wanted the money of contributors without a reform of the financial sector. Although the idea of a reform and of a new regulation method was brought in the discussion in January 2007, it remained at idea level state. The idea of excessive regulation would have stopped evolution and this concept wouldn’t be sufficient to take action against regulation and considering innovation as part of the risk (innovation isn’t a real positive fact in the banking sector, because this innovation has as its base point derivate financial instruments that have no real foundation, but the risk is an integrated part of capitalism. The problem of these innovations was that innovation was directed toward the gain of banks despite their clients, be it an owner of a mortgaged house, this way being clear the idea of modifying the stimulus system of bankers to have an efficient reform at top management level and at a moral level for the American contributor. Elections brought a new president, a new team that must share their vision and to reform the governance program. CONTINUITY VERSUS CHANGE is the main purpose of this research paper.
This study is to analyze the change of the health insurance policy in the 1970s in relation to social welfare discourse. The public health care in Korea was in very poor condition around the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. Furthermore, due to the introduction of new medical technology, increasing number of big hospitals participating in the medical market, inflation, and other factors, medical expenses skyrocketed and made it hard for ordinary people to enjoy medical services. Accordingly, the social solution to the problem of medical expenses which an individual found hard to deal with became of demand. And as the way to the solution, it was inevitable to consider the introduction of health insurance as social insurance. In this condition, Park regime began to stress the social development from the 1960s. It was to aim to settle various social problems triggered by the rapid industrialization in the 1960s through social development as well as economic development. As the social development was emphasized, the matter of social welfare appeared of importance and led to the first amendment of the National Health Insurance Act in 1970. However, it was impossible for Korean government to enforce a nationwide health insurance. The key issue was how to fund it. Park regime was reluctant to use government fund; it was also hard to burden private companies. Even while the health insurance policy was not determined yet for this reason, the social demand for health insurance became large and large. In particular, in the midst of the first "Oil Shock" which gave a big blow to people's living condition from the late 1973, some reported issues in relation to health service, such as hospitals' rejection of the poor, became a big problem. Coupled with the social demand for a health insurance system, the changes occurred within the medical community was also important. Most of all, hospitals was facing the decrease of the effectiveness of their
McGovern, Gail J; Court, David; Quelch, John A; Crawford, Blair
Misguided marketing strategies have destroyed more shareholder value than shoddy accounting or shady fiscal practices. Yet marketing functions typically reside deep in the organization, far from the executive suite and boardroom, and they are often poorly aligned with corporate strategy. Boards of directors, it would seem, have compelling reasons to monitor their companies' marketing activities. The authors argue that boards lack a clear understanding of how their companies are meeting customers' needs and how their marketing strategies drive (or often fail to drive) top-line growth. To help remedy that problem, they've devised a "marketing dashboard," a series of management reports that could give the board this critical knowledge. The dashboard has three parts, each of which the board should review regularly. The first part tracks the company's main business drivers--those business conditions that, when manipulated or otherwise changed, will directly and predictably affect the company's performance. The second part describes the specific innovations in a pipeline of growth ideas that will allow the company to reach its short- and long-term revenue goals. And the third part provides an overview of the company's marketing skill set so the board can determine not only if the company has enough marketing talent but also if it has the right marketing talent. Unlike isolated measures of marketing performance that are often insufficient, irrelevant, or misleading, the dashboard allows the board to quickly and routinely assess the effectiveness of its company's marketing strategies. Armed with a clear understanding of marketing's role and performance, the board can expose inadequate marketing campaigns, direct management to address the problem, and monitor progress.
into in a process that hinges on new members functioning as tools for management to bring about the desired change. The article shows that while the newcomer is used as a catalyst for increased use of English and for the creation of a 'global mindset,' she is at the same time socialized into the existing Danish...... for changing language practices toward more English, with the ultimate aim of creating a 'global mindset' in the organization. Language socialization in a transient multilingual setting is shown to focus on and assign positive value to new linguistic norms that experienced members are socialized...
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Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.
Gauca Oana Codruta
Full Text Available This article is a study on the awareness and understanding of social entrepreneurship among students. Moreover, the article aims to emphasize the different meanings this buzz word has developed, whether it is the purpose of social entrepreneurship, the fields it activates in or the profit which should or should not be distributed. We aim to cover aspects of the definition of the social entrepreneurship field, as well as the ways in which students act as agents of change. The main research methodologies used except for literature review are interviews and case studies for several social business developed by students. The interviews are with no predetermined questions, in order to allow flexibility. The article wants to demonstrate that students are the emerging social entrepreneurs and important initiators of change in this field. In this regards, students should be educated and should develop skills within the universities programs, skills that are very specific compared to simple entrepreneurship. The main theoretical contribution to the field of education is the proven necessity that education facilities need to educate themselves. In order to create our future entrepreneurs as well as provide them with the skills set necessary to become entrepreneurs, education needs to become enterprising. The main practical contribution is the proof of students being involved in the change of society around them and main contributors to their environment.
Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y
How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.
Unsworth, Kerrie L; Russell, Sally V; Davis, Matthew C
In this paper, we argue that individuals - as members of society - play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants' belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed.
Unsworth, Kerrie L.; Russell, Sally V.; Davis, Matthew C.
In this paper, we argue that individuals – as members of society – play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:27588009
Manella, Laura; Woldeyohannes, Leuk; McMahon, Devon; Linster, Christiane
Changes to typical procedures in animal husbandry are often necessary to accommodate the needs of behavioral experiments. Two common changes in husbandry for rodents are light chronic food restriction (to motivate animals in reward-association tasks) and social isolation (to accommodate individual feeding schedules or need to reduce interactions because of implants for example). Each of these intervention individually has been shown to modulate behavioral state and with it performance in behavioral tasks. We here systematically test how social isolation and light chronic food restriction modulate olfactory memory in rats. Our results show a strong modulation of olfactory memory after both types of husbandry interventions. These results suggest that common changes in animal husbandry promote distinct and relevant changes in animal behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Standpoints on parenthood represent the central subject of sociological approach in analyzing social determination of low reproductive norms. The goal of comparative analysis (first research carried out at the end of the eighties, and the second at the end of the nineties in different political and socio-economic surroundings is to record changed arguments and to point out to possible consequences which could be manifested through changes of the prevailing type of parenthood, namely the future reproductive behavior of subpopulation of the young (secondary-school pupils and students. Argument change of parenthood motivation basis on the general level is manifested by the weakening of its instrumental foundation, due to the prevailing altruistic motive "children - the meaning of life". As regards birth control, the young are more willing to accept contemporary contraceptive methods. A stabilization of the average values of desired and expected number of children is noted, but this discord is still an indicator of the defeat of complete realization of the need for parenthood. The insisting on everyday life quality is still perceived as an inhabitation factor when bringing decision on the number of children. Changes in the standpoints concerning the relation between marriage and parenthood did not seriously shake up the traditional system of values, which points out to their mutual significant influence and connection. Changes in the standpoints resulted in slowing down the individualization of parenthood which is manifested through the decrease of stratum differences (towns and sex.
This ethnographically inspired field study employs social practice theory in analyzing New Orleans jazz and funk musicians' jamming as learning. Through analysis of participant observation and qualitative interviews the study argues that the musicians' participation in collectively improvised...... musical practices such as jam session is characterized by the iterative discovery of new action possibilities in pursuing a collectively negotiated 'common third': the good music. The study further argues that the musicians’ perpetually changing participation in the jam practice and the development...... of the improvised music itself are inseparable and interdependant. Learning to jam is argued to be situated in the social practice of jamming, thus prototypically presenting learning to be analyzed as improvised development of practice per se. A discussion of the findings' potential for developing teaching...
Dittmann, Andrea G; Stephens, Nicole M
Understanding the sources of the social class achievement gap in education is an important step toward ensuring that education serves its purpose as an engine of social mobility. The goal of the current article is to provide a brief overview of the sources of the social class achievement gap as well as interventions aimed at closing this gap. We outline three major sources of the social class achievement gap-individual skills, structural conditions, and people's processes of meaning-making, or construals-and the interventions that target them. While all of these interventions can effect change, we propose that interventions will be most effective when tailored to fit the specific needs of students and the context in which they are delivered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xun; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Qizhu; Chen, Taolin; Lama, Sunima; Cheng, Bochao; Li, Shiguang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Gong, Qiyong
Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale) and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale) and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness.
Full Text Available Shyness and social anxiety are correlated to some extent and both are associated with hyper-responsivity to social stimuli in the frontal cortex and limbic system. However to date no studies have investigated whether common structural and functional connectivity differences in the brain may contribute to these traits. We addressed this issue in a cohort of 61 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were first assessed for their levels of shyness (Cheek and Buss Shyness scale and social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety scale and trait anxiety. They were then given MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry and seed-based, resting-state functional connectivity analysis investigated correlations with shyness and anxiety scores. Shyness scores were positively correlated with gray matter density in the cerebellum, bilateral superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal gyri and right insula. Functional connectivity correlations with shyness were found between the superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal gyri, between the insula and precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, and between the cerebellum and precuneus. Additional correlations were found for amygdala connectivity with the medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, despite the absence of any structural correlation. By contrast no structural or functional connectivity measures correlated with social or trait anxiety. Our findings show that shyness is specifically associated with structural and functional connectivity changes in cortical and limbic regions involved with processing social stimuli. These associations are not found with social or trait anxiety in healthy subjects despite some behavioral correlations with shyness.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Budge, Stephanie L
This study examined associations between changes in self-reported attractions and mental health in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender adults. Participants were purposively recruited in 2013 using bimodal sampling methods and completed a one-time survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals to examine associations between changes in attractions and mental health outcomes (lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis; past-week clinically significant depressive distress assessed via CES-D 10) among the entire sample (N = 452; 285 female-to-male spectrum, 167 male-to-female spectrum) and after gender transition among those who had socially transitioned (n = 205; 156 female-to-male spectrum, 49 male-to-female spectrum). Models were adjusted for known population social determinants (age, race/ethnicity, gender identity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation identity), transgender-specific determinants (age of transgender realization, social transition, medical transition, visual gender nonconformity, non-binary gender identification), and survey mode (online vs. in-person sampling). Lifetime changes in attractions were significantly associated with increased probability of all mental health outcomes; individuals reporting any change in attractions were more likely than individuals not reporting changes to indicate lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis, and current depressive distress (all ps mental health outcomes. Many, but not all, population and transgender-specific social determinants were significantly associated with mental health in the full sample and among those who had socially transitioned. Clinical implications of findings about changes in attractions and mental health are discussed for transgender individuals.
The chapter argues that the reform of the corporation to promote greater social responsibility is an unlikely solution to the crisis of climate change. The managers of business organisations are relatively powerless in the face of the powerful market forces which drive increasing consumption of the world’s resources. In particular the strong association between the development of oil resources, the worlds markets and productive capacity are noted as the key determinants of climate change. Res...