WorldWideScience

Sample records for bright xmm-newton observations

  1. A XMM-Newton Observation of Nova LMC 1995, a Bright Supersoft X-ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Marina; Hartmann, Wouter; Still, Martin; Greiner, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    Nova LMC 1995, previously detected during 1995-1998 with ROSAT, was observed again as a luminous supersoft X-ray source with XMM-Newton in December of 2000. This nova offers the possibility to observe the spectrum of a hot white dwarf, burning hydrogen in a shell and not obscured by a wind or by nebular emission like in other supersoft X-ray sources. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the calibration of the EPIC instruments at energy E0.6 keV, and an upper limit Fx,hard = 10 sup-14 erg s sup-l cm sup-2 to the X-ray flux above this energy. The background corrected count rate measured by the EPIC instruments was variable on time scales of minutes and hours, but without the flares or sudden obscuration observed for other novae. The power spectrum shows a peak at 5.25 hours, possibly due to a modulation with the orbital period. We also briefly discuss the scenarios in which this nova may become a type Ia supernova progenitor.

  2. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...

  3. A Catalog of Galaxy Clusters Observed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Mushotzky, R. M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Davis, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Images and the radial profiles of the temperature, abundance, and brightness for 70 clusters of galaxies observed by XMM-Newton are presented along with a detailed discussion of the data reduction and analysis methods, including background modeling, which were used in the processing. Proper consideration of the various background components is vital to extend the reliable determination of cluster parameters to the largest possible cluster radii. The various components of the background including the quiescent particle background, cosmic diffuse emission, soft proton contamination, and solar wind charge exchange emission are discussed along with suggested means of their identification, filtering, and/or their modeling and subtraction. Every component is spectrally variable, sometimes significantly so, and all components except the cosmic background are temporally variable as well. The distributions of the events over the FOV vary between the components, and some distributions vary with energy. The scientific results from observations of low surface brightness objects and the diffuse background itself can be strongly affected by these background components and therefore great care should be taken in their consideration.

  4. Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http

  5. An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Arakelian 564

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2004-01-01

    We report on two XMM-Newton observations of the bright Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 taken one year apart (2000 June and 2001 June). The 0.6-10 keV continuum is well described by a soft blackbody component (kT - 140-150 eV) plus a steep power law (Gamma - 2.50-2.55). No significant spectral changes are observed between the two observations, although the X-ray flux in the second observation is - 40-50 per cent lower. In both observations we detect a significant absorption edge at a rest-frame energy of - 0.73 keV, corresponding to 0 VII. The presence of the absorption feature is confirmed by a simultaneous Chandra grating observation in 2000 June, although the best-fitting edge threshold is at a slightly lower energy in the Chandra data, possibly because of a different parameterization of the underlying X-ray continuum. We find tentative evidence for a broad iron emission line in the 2000 June observation. The results from an analysis of the power spectral density (PSD) function are also presented. The present XMM-Newton data support the idea that the PSD shows two breaks, although the location of the high-frequency break requires further constraints.

  6. XMM-Newton Observations of Two Candidate Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Kargaltsev, O.; Schmitt, B. M.; Pavlov, G. G.; Misanovic, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Candidate supernova remnants G23.5+0.1 and G25.5+0.0 were observed by XMM-Newton in the course of a snap-shot survey of plerionic and composite SNRs in the Galactic plane. In the field of G23.5+0.1, we detected an extended source, ~3' in diameter, which we tentatively interpret as a pulsar-wind nebula (PWN) of the middle-aged radio pulsar B1830-08. Our analysis suggests an association between PSR B1830-08 and the surrounding diffuse radio emission. If the radio emission is due to the SNR, the...

  7. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE {alpha} PERSEI CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 6, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Evans, Nancy Remage [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 70, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bruck Syal, Megan, E-mail: ipillitteri@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Box 1846, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the {alpha} Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.

  8. Analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of IC443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, E.; Miceli, M.; Peres, G.; Orlando, S.; Troja, E.; Bocchino, F.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze for the first time the full set of archive XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant IC 443. We aim at identifying the contribution of the shocked ejecta and interstellar medium and at the describing the physical and chemical properties of the shocked plasma. We also aim at addressing the presence of overionized plasma and its physical origin. We trace the morphology of Si- and S-rich ejecta with unprecedented spatial resolution, by adopting a novel method to produce maps of equivalent width. We describe in detail the method adopted and the results obtained and present preliminary results of a spatially resolved spectral analysis performed on selected regions, chosen on the basis of our image analysis.

  9. First Observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first X-ray observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton. Images taken with the EPIC cameras show prominent emission, essentially all confined to the 0.2-2.0 keV band, from the planet s auroral spots; their spectra can be modelled with a combination of unresolved emission lines of highly ionised oxygen (OW and O W) , and a pseudo-continuum which may also be due to the superposition of many weak lines. A 2.8 enhancement in the RGS spectrum at 21-22 A (-0.57 keV) is consistent with an O W identification. Our spectral analysis supports the hypothesis that Jupiter s auroral emissions originate from the capture and acceleration of solar wind ions in the planet s magnetosphere, followed by X-ray production by charge exchange. The X-ray flux of the North spot is modulated at Jupiter s rotation period. We do not detect evidence for the -45 min X-ray oscillations observed by C W r u more than two years earlier. Emission from the equatorial regions of the planet s disk is also observed. Its spectrum is consistent with that of scattered solar X-rays.

  10. XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter

  11. XMM-Newton Observations of Four Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2005-01-01

    I present an analysis of the XMM-Newton observations of four millisecond pulsars, J0437-4715, J2124-3358, J1024-0719, and J0034-0534. The new data provide strong evidence of thermal emission in the X-ray flux detected from the first three objects. This thermal component is best interpreted as radiation from pulsar polar caps covered with a nonmagnetic hydrogen atmosphere. A nonthermal power-law component, dominating at energies E greater than or equal to 3 keV, can also be present in the detected X-ray emission. For PSR J0437-4715, the timing analysis reveals that the shape and pulsed fraction of the pulsar light curves are energy dependent. This, together with the results obtained from the phase-resolved spectroscopy, supports the two-component (thermal plus nonthermal) interpretation of the pulsar's X-ray radiation. Highly significant pulsations have been found in the X-ray flux of PSRs 52124-3358 and 51024-0719. For PSR 50034-0534, a possible X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar has been suggested. The inferred properties of the detected thermal emission are compared with predictions of radio pulsar models.

  12. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  13. XMM-Newton Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton spectrum of diffuse X-ray emission from within the solar system. The spectrum is dominated by O VII and O VIII lines at 0.57 keV and 0.65 keV, O VIII (and possibly Fe XVII) lines at approximately 0.8 keV, Ne IX lines at approximately 0.92 keV, and Mg XI lines at approximately 1.35 keV. This spectrum is consistent with what is expected from charge exchange emission between the highly ionized solar wind and either interstellar neutrals in the heliosphere or material from Earth's exosphere. The emission is clearly seen as a low-energy ( E less than 1.5 keV) spectral enhancement in one of a series of observations of the Hubble Deep Field North. The X-ray enhancement is concurrent with an enhancement in the solar wind measured by the ACE satellite. The solar wind enhancement reaches a flux level an order of magnitude more intense than typical fluxes at 1 AU, and has ion ratios with significantly enhanced higher ionization states. Whereas observations of the solar wind plasma made at a single point reflect only local conditions which may only be representative of solar wind properties with spatial scales ranging from less than half of an Earth radii (approximately 10 s) to 100 Earth radii, X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange are remote sensing measurements which may provide observations which are significantly more global in character. Besides being of interest in its own right for studies of the solar system, this emission can have significant consequences for observations of more cosmological objects. It can provide emission lines at zero redshift which are of particular interest (e.g., O VII and O VIII) in studies of diffuse thermal emission, and which can therefore act as contamination in objects which cover the entire detector field of view. We propose the use of solar wind monitoring data, such as from the ACE and Wind spacecraft, as a diagnostic to screen for such possibilities.

  14. XMM-Newton Observation of the Intermediate Polar XY Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin Camurdan, Dicle; Balman, Solen; Burwitz, Vadim

    2016-07-01

    XY Ari is a rare Intermediate Polar which shows deep X-ray eclipses and has no optical counterpart due to the high visual extinction. We present results from a detailed analysis of an unpublished archival observation using XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and MOS data covering to more than five orbital periods in a quiescent state of XY Ari. The X-ray orbital modulation and spin pulse variations were investigated in 0.2-10 keV energy band and also in different energy bands (i.e. 0.3-1.5, 1.6-3.0, 3.1-10 keV). The EPIC light curves folded at the spin phases show a double peak profile as expected from double pole accretion. However, a detailed analysis showed that the relative peak heights of the spin profiles, corresponding to different time intervals, vary during the entire observation which may be a result of small accretion rate differences or variable scattering from the weaker pole. We modeled the time-averaged spectrum with single- and multi-temperature optically thin thermal plasma emission (e.g. MEKAL APEC/VAPEC, CEVMKL, MKCFLOW/VMKCFLOW) in XSPEC to derive spectral parameters. The simultaneously fitted EPIC spectra with a double MEKALs model yield plasma temperatures of kT_{MEKAL}=39-44 keV and kT_{MEKAL}=0.3-2.21 keV with a solar metal abundance of 0.52-71 (for higher MEKAL temperature). We find an intrinsic, partial covering absorption about N _{H}=2.9-5.5x10 ^{22} cm ^{-2}. In addition, Gaussian lines at the Fe line energies 6.4 and 6.7 keV, were also included in the fit. We will discuss different model fits and the accretion geometry of the system. The X-ray luminosity of the source is ˜2x10 ^{32} erg/sec in the 0.2-10.0 keV range assuming a 270 pc distance.

  15. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...

  16. XMM-Newton observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.326

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yanli; Fabian, A. C.; Fan, Xiaohui; Walker, S. A.; Ghisellini, G.; Sbarrato, T.; Dou, Liming; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Feng, Longlong

    2017-09-01

    A brief Chandra observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.326 showed it to be a relatively bright, soft X-ray source with a count rate of about 1 count ks-1. In this article, we present results for the quasar from a 65-ks XMM-Newton observation, which constrains its spectral shape well. The quasar is clearly detected with a total of ˜460 net counts in the 0.2-10 keV band. The spectrum is characterized by a simple power-law model with a photon index of Γ = 2.30^{+0.10}_{-0.10} and the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity is 3.14 × 1045 erg s-1. The 1σ upper limit to any intrinsic absorption column density is NH = 6.07 × 1022 cm-2. No significant iron emission lines were detected. We derive an X-ray-to-optical flux ratio αox of -1.74 ± 0.01, consistent with the values found in other quasars of comparable ultraviolet luminosity. We did not detect significant flux variations either in the XMM-Newton exposure or between XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, which are separated by ˜8 months. The X-ray observation enables the bolometric luminosity to be calculated after modelling the spectral energy distribution: the accretion rate is found to be sub-Eddington.

  17. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population......We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um...... L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even...

  18. Searching for Decaying Dark Matter in Deep XMM-Newton Observation of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyardsky, Alex; Iakbovskyi, Dmytro; Bulbul, Esra; Eckert, Domique; Franse, Jeron; Malyshev, Denys; Markevitch, Maxim; Neronov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a search for the 3.5 keV emission line in our recent very long (approx. 1.4 Ms) XMM-Newton observation of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The astrophysical X-ray emission from such dark matter-dominated galaxies is faint, thus they provide a test for the dark matter origin of the 3.5 keV line previously detected in other massive, but X-ray bright objects, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. We do not detect a statistically significant emission line from Draco; this constrains the lifetime of a decaying dark matter particle to tau >(7-9) × 10(exp 27) s at 95% CL (combining all three XMM-Newton cameras; the interval corresponds to the uncertainty of the dark matter column density in the direction of Draco). The PN camera, which has the highest sensitivity of the three, does show a positive spectral residual (above the carefully modeled continuum) at E = 3.54 +/- 0.06 keV with a 2.3(sigma) significance. The two MOS cameras show less-significant or no positive deviations, consistently within 1(sigma) with PN. Our Draco limit on tau is consistent with previous detections in the stacked galaxy clusters, M31 and the Galactic Centre within their 1 - 2(sigma) uncertainties, but is inconsistent with the high signal from the core of the Perseus cluster (which has itself been inconsistent with the rest of the detections). We conclude that this Draco observation does not exclude the dark matter interpretation of the 3.5 keV line in those objects.

  19. XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the Carina nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Méndez, M.; Morrell, N. I.

    2003-01-01

    We use new XMM-Newton observations to perform a detailed X-ray analysis of the Carina nebula region in the 0.3-12 keV energy range. Our source detection yields 80 discrete X-ray sources, from which about 20 per cent seem not to have optical counterparts. To get an idea of the energy spectrum of

  20. XMM-Newton, RXTE, and Radio Observations of CYGNUS X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    XMM-Newton observations of this target were not made successfully until October 2004, due to problems of high background and instrumental flaring in the prior observability windows. Processed data for analysis was delivered a few months after the observations. Thus, work on these observations is beginning now, in the spring of 2005. A preliminary analysis of these observations reveals a complex spectrum, with relativistic emission line features. Detailed modeling and interpretation of this data will be completed over several months.

  1. Joint XMM-Newton, Chandra, and RXTE Observations of Cyg X-1 at Phase Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    We present first results of simultaneous observations of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 for 50 ks with XMM-Newton, Chandra-HETGS and RXTE in 2008 April. The observations are centered on phase 0 of the 5.6 d orbit when pronounced dips in the X-ray emission from the black hole are known to occur. The dips are due to highly variable absorption in the accretion stream from the O-star companion to the black hole. Compared to previous high resolution spectroscopy studies of the dip and non-dip emission with Chandra, the addition of XMM-Newton data allows for a better determination of the continuum, especially through the broad iron line region (with RXTE constraining the greater than 10 keV continuum).

  2. Digging deeper: Towards a catalogue of detections from stacked XMM-Newton observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, I.; Schwope, A.; Lamer, G.; XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre Consortium, o.

    2017-10-01

    About one third of the sky area covered by the XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes was observed more than once. The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre Consortium (SSC) has been generating catalogues of individual detections in all publicly available XMM-Newton observations and matched catalogues of unique sources from them. The most recent incarnation is 3XMM-DR7. We present a new standardized approach to source detection on stacked images of multiple pointings. It aims at achieving ultimate sensitivity on repeatedly observed sky areas. The method has entered the Science Analysis System (SAS) as a new task and will be used to publish a catalogue of stacked detections from overlapping observations. Our first proto-catalogue is based on 736 individual observations grouped into 278 stacks with a minimum overlap of 80% in area between contributing observations. It comprises approximately 26000 unique sources, an increase of at least 5% over the summed detections in individual pointings, and shows that the new approach gives higher sensitivity, improved source parameters, and likely fewer spurious detections.

  3. Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Schartel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the  European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.

  4. An XMM-Newton Observation of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577 in an Extreme Low State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    Previous observations of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 have found its X-ray spectrum to range from that of a typical Seyfert 1 with 2-10 keV power law index Gamma approx. 1.9 to a much flatter power law of Gamma approx. 1.5 or less. We report here a new XMM-Newton observation which allows the low state spectrum to be studied in much greater detail than hitherto. We find a very hard spectrum (Gamma approx. 1.0), which exhibits broad features that can be modelled myth the addition of an extreme relativistic Fe K emission line or with partial covering of the underlying continuum by a substantial column density of near-neutral gas. Both the EPIC and RGS data show evidence for strong line emission of OVII and OVIII requiring an extended region of low density photoionised gas in 1H 0419-577. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was 'X-ray bright' indicates the dominant spectral variability occurs via a steep power law component.

  5. Spectral variability analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of Ark 564

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, W.; Papadakis, I. E.; Raeth, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a spectral variability analysis of the X-ray emission of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 564 using the data from a ~100 ks XMM-Newton observation. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of this long observation and the simple spectral shape of Ark 564, we determine accurately the spectral variability patterns in the source. We use standard cross-correlation methods to investigate the correlations between the soft and hard energy band light curves. We also generated 200 energ...

  6. The Burst Spectra of EXO 0748-676 during a Long 2003 XMM-Newton Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Cottam, J.; Paerels, F.; Méndez, M.; Boirin, L.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Kuulkers, E.; Miller, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron have been previously identified in the burst spectra of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676. To repeat this detection we obtained a long, nearly 600 ks observation of the source with XMM-Newton in 2003. The spectral features seen in the burst spectra from the initial data are not reproduced in the burst spectra from this new data. In this paper we present the spectra from the 2003 observations and discuss the sensitivity of the...

  7. XMM-Newton Observations of GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of GX 339-4 were completed in March, 2004, but processed data were only sent to the PI in the late fall of 2004. Thus, serious work on the observations only began in the winter and spring of 2005. Data from each of the instruments - the EPIC CCD cameras, the Reflection Grating Spectrometer, and the Optical Monitor have been reduced and a preliminary analysis is underway. Four days of simultaneous optical radio, and X-ray data was obtained at SAAO, the Australia Telescope, and RXTE, respectively, and preliminary work on the broad-band multi-wavelength lightcurves is also underway. This observational effort is the most extensive ever undertaken to observe a black hole in the "low/hard" state, and will provide new insights into accretion onto black holes at low mass accretion rates.

  8. XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.

  9. Triggered high-state simultaneous XMM-Newton/NuSTAR observations of AM Herculis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwope, A.; Worpel, H.; Traulsen, I.

    2017-10-01

    We report on simultaneous XMM-Newton/NuSTAR observations of the prototypical polar AM Herculis. The observations were triggered by an optical monitoring programme indicating a stable high accretion state. For the first time, AM Herculis could be observed in its reversed mode of accretion with imaging CCDs and full phase coverage for several subsequent binary cycles. The observations revealed several novelties: (1) Ultraviolet, soft and hard X-ray light curves displayed a complete new morphology; (2) a spectral analysis of the soft flares originating from the secondary (far) pole was possible for the first time; (3) extended phases of complete soft X-ray absorption were indicating a complex distribution of cold intra-binary matter; (4) the joint NuSTAR/XMM-Newton spectrum revealed the Compton reflection hump due to scattered radiation from the white-dwarf surface; (5) the Fe-line complex thought to originate from the main (regular) pole showed pronounced dissimilarities with its behavior in the regular accretion mode in year 2005.

  10. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led to the disco......We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...... to the discovery of X-ray and optical afterglows. GRB 030227 had a duration of about 20 s and a peak flux of similar to1.1 photons cm(-2) s(-1) in the 20-200 keV energy range. The time-averaged spectrum can be fitted by a single power law with photon index similar to2, and we find some evidence for a hard......-to-soft spectral evolution. The X-ray afterglow has been detected starting only 8 hr after the prompt emission, with a 0.2-10 keV flux decreasing as t(-1) from 1.3 x 10(-12) to 5 x 10(-13) ergs cm(-2) s(-1). The afterglow spectrum is well described by a power law with photon index modified by a 1.94 +/- 0...

  11. WEBT multiwavelength monitoring and XMM-Newton observations of BL Lacertae in 2007-2008. Unveiling different emission components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Capetti, A.; Aller, M. F.; Bach, U.; Calcidese, P.; Gurwell, M. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Ohlert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Strigachev, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Bachev, R.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Buttiglione, S.; Carosati, D.; Charlot, P.; Chen, W. P.; Dultzin, D.; Forné, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Gómez, J. L.; Gupta, A. C.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hsiao, W.-S.; Jelínek, M.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kostov, A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionova, L. V.; Leto, P.; Latev, G.; Le Campion, J.-F.; Lee, C.-U.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Marscher, A. P.; Mihov, B.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nikolov, Y.; Ovcharov, E.; Principe, D.; Pursimo, T.; Ragozzine, B.; Robb, R. M.; Ros, J. A.; Sadun, A. C.; Sagar, R.; Semkov, E.; Sigua, L. A.; Smart, R. L.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Uckert, K.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Volvach, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: BL Lacertae is the prototype of the blazar subclass named after it. Yet, it has occasionally shown a peculiar behaviour that has questioned a simple interpretation of its broad-band emission in terms of synchrotron plus synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) radiation. Aims: In the 2007-2008 observing season we carried out a new multiwavelength campaign of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) on BL Lacertae, involving three pointings by the XMM-Newton satellite in July and December 2007, and January 2008, to study its emission properties, particularly in the optical-X-ray energy range. Methods: The source was monitored in the optical-to-radio bands by 37 telescopes. The brightness level was relatively low. Some episodes of very fast variability were detected in the optical bands. Flux changes had larger amplitude at the higher radio frequencies than at longer wavelengths. Results: The X-ray spectra acquired by the EPIC instrument onboard XMM-Newton are well fitted by a power law with photon index Γ ˜ 2 and photoelectric absorption exceeding the Galactic value. However, when taking into account the presence of a molecular cloud on the line of sight, the EPIC data are best fitted by a double power law, implying a concave X-ray spectrum. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built with simultaneous radio-to-X-ray data at the epochs of the XMM-Newton observations suggest that the peak of the synchrotron emission lies in the near-IR band, and show a prominent UV excess, besides a slight soft-X-ray excess. A comparison with the SEDs corresponding to previous observations with X-ray satellites shows that the X-ray spectrum is very variable, since it can change from extremely steep to extremely hard, and can be more or less curved in intermediate states. We ascribe the UV excess to thermal emission from the accretion disc, and the other broad-band spectral features to the presence of two synchrotron components, with their related SSC emission. We fit the thermal

  12. XMM-Newton publication statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J.-U.; Parmar, A. N.; Valencic, L. A.; Smith, R.; Loiseau, N.; Salama, A.; Ehle, M.; Schartel, N.

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the scientific productivity of XMM-Newton by examining XMM-Newton publications and data usage statistics. We analyse 3272 refereed papers, published until the end of 2012, that directly use XMM-Newton data. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) was used to provide additional information on each paper including the number of citations. For each paper, the XMM-Newton observation identifiers and instruments used to provide the scientific results were determined. The identifiers were used to access the XMM-{Newton} Science Archive (XSA) to provide detailed information on the observations themselves and on the original proposals. The information obtained from these sources was then combined to allow the scientific productivity of the mission to be assessed. Since around three years after the launch of XMM-Newton there have been around 300 refereed papers per year that directly use XMM-Newton data. After more than 13 years in operation, this rate shows no evidence that it is decreasing. Since 2002, around 100 scientists per year become lead authors for the first time on a refereed paper which directly uses XMM-Newton data. Each refereed XMM-Newton paper receives around four citations per year in the first few years with a long-term citation rate of three citations per year, more than five years after publication. About half of the articles citing XMM-Newton articles are not primarily X-ray observational papers. The distribution of elapsed time between observations taken under the Guest Observer programme and first article peaks at 2 years with a possible second peak at 3.25 years. Observations taken under the Target of Opportunity programme are published significantly faster, after one year on average. The fraction of science time taken until the end of 2009 that has been used in at least one article is {˜ 90} %. Most observations were used more than once, yielding on average a factor of two in usage on available observing time per year. About 20 % of

  13. The calibration of read-out-streak photometry in the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor and the construction of a bright-source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. J.; Chan, N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Talavera, A.; Yershov, V.; Kennedy, T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Hancock, B.; Smith, P. J.; Carter, M.

    2017-04-01

    The dynamic range of the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) is limited at the bright end by coincidence loss, the superposition of multiple photons in the individual frames recorded from its micro-channel-plate (MCP) intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. One way to overcome this limitation is to use photons that arrive during the frame transfer of the CCD, forming vertical read-out streaks for bright sources. We calibrate these read-out streaks for photometry of bright sources observed with XMM-OM. The bright-source limit for read-out-streak photometry is set by the recharge time of the MCPs. For XMM-OM, we find that the MCP recharge time is 5.5 × 10-4 s. We determine that the effective bright limits for read-out-streak photometry with XMM-OM are approximately 1.5 mag brighter than the bright-source limits for normal aperture photometry in full-frame images. This translates into bright-source limits in Vega magnitudes of UVW2=7.1, UVM2=8.0, UVW1=9.4, U=10.5, B=11.5, V=10.2, and White=12.5 for data taken early in the mission. The limits brighten by up to 0.2 mag, depending on filter, over the course of the mission as the detector ages. The method is demonstrated by deriving UVW1 photometry for the symbiotic nova RR Telescopii, and the new photometry is used to constrain the e-folding time of its decaying ultraviolet (UV) emission. Using the read-out-streak method, we obtain photometry for 50 per cent of the missing UV source measurements in version 2.1 of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous UV Source Survey catalogue.

  14. A long XMM-Newton observation of an extreme narrow-line Seyfert 1: PG 1244+026

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, C.; Done, C.; Middleton, M.; Ward, M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the origin of the strong soft X-ray excess in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies using spectral-timing information from a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of PG 1244+026. Spectral fitting alone cannot distinguish between a true additional soft X-ray continuum component and strongly

  15. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 1365: Extreme absorption variability and a constant inner accretion disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of four coordinated NuSTAR+XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365. These exhibit an extreme level of spectral variability, which is primarily due to variable line-of-sight absorption, revealing relatively unobscured states in this source for the first...

  16. The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by NUSTAR and XMM-NEWTON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K alpha emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up...

  17. XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified

  18. XMM-Newton Observation of Fe K(alpha) Emission from a BAL QSO: Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a 20 ksec XMM-Newton observation of Mrk 231. EPIC spectral data reveal strong line emission due to Fe K alpha, which has rarely been detected in this class, as BAL QSOs are very faint in the X-ray band. The line energy is consistent with an origin in neutral Fe. The width of the line is equivalent to a velocity dispersion approximately 18,000 kilometers per second and thus the line may be attributed to transmission and/or reflection from a distribution of emitting clouds. If, instead, the line originates in the accretion disk then the line strength and flat X-ray continuum support some contribution from a reflected component, although the data disfavor a model where the hard X-ray band is purely reflected X-rays. The line parameters are similar to those obtained for the Fe Ka line detected in another BAL QSO, H1413 + 117.

  19. Supernova remnants in M33: X-ray properties as observed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Benjamin F.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Wold, Brian; Haberl, Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Gross, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    We have carried out a study of the X-ray properties of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in M33 with XMM-Newton, comprising deep observations of eight fields in M33 covering all of the area within the D25 contours, and with a typical luminosity of 7.1 × 1034 erg s-1 (0.2-2.0 keV). Here, we report our work to characterize the X-ray properties of the previously identified SNRs in M33, as well as our search for new X-ray detected SNRs. With our deep observations and large field of view we have detected 105 SNRs at the 3σ level, of which 54 SNRs are newly detected in X-rays, and three are newly discovered SNRs. Combining XMM-Newton data with deep Chandra survey data allows detailed spectral fitting of 15 SNRs, for which we have measured temperatures, ionization time-scales and individual abundances. This large sample of SNRs allows us to construct an X-ray luminosity function, and compare its shape to luminosity functions from host galaxies of differing metallicities and star formation rates to look for environmental effects on SNR properties. We conclude that while metallicity may play a role in SNR population characteristics, differing star formation histories on short time-scales, and small-scale environmental effects appear to cause more significant differences between X-ray luminosity distributions. In addition, we analyse the X-ray detectability of SNRs, and find that in M33 SNRs with higher [S II]/H α ratios, as well as those with smaller galactocentric distances, are more detectable in X-rays.

  20. XMM-Newton Observations of MBM 12: More Constraints on the Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Bubble Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Smith, Randall K.; Edgar, Richard J.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12. We find that in the direction of MBM 12 the total O VII (0.57 keV) triplet emission is 1.8(+0.5/-0.6) photons/sq cm/s/sr (or Line Units - LU) while for the O VIII (0.65 keV) line emission we find a 3(sigma) upper limit of Newton observations. This comparison provides new constraints on the relative heliospheric and Local Bubble contributions to the local diffuse X-ray background. The heliospheric SWCX model predicts 0.82 LU for O VII, which accounts for approx. 46+/-15% of the observed value, and 0.33 LU for the O VIII line emission consistent with the XMM-Newton observed value. We discuss our results in combination with previous observations of the MBM 12 with CHANDRA and Suzaku.

  1. XMM-Newton observations of 1A 0535+262 in quiescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion onto magnetized neutron stars is expected to be centrifugally inhibited at low accretion rates. Several sources including 1A 0535+262, however, are known to pulsate in quiescence at luminosities below the theoretical limit predicted for the onset of the centrifugal barrier. Here we present the results of an analysis of a ~ 50 ks long XMM-Newton observation of 1A 0535+262 in quiescence. At the time of the observation, the neutron star was close to the apastron, and the source had remained quiet for two orbital cycles. In spite of this, we detected a pulsed X-ray flux of ~ 3×10−11erg cm−2 s−1. Several observed properties, including the power spectrum, remained similar to those observed in the outbursts. Particularly, we have found that the frequency of the break detected in the quiescent noise power spectrum follows the same correlation with flux observed when the source is in outburst. We argue that, along with other arguments previously reported in the literature, our results suggest that the accretion in quiescence also proceeds from an accretion disk around the neutron star.

  2. XMM-Newton Observations of the Neutron Star X-Ray Transient KS 1731-260 in Quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, Rudy; Guainazzi, Matteo; van der Klis, Michiel; Méndez, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton observations performed on 2001 September 13-14 of the neutron star X-ray transient KS 1731-260 in quiescence. The source was detected at an unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV flux of only (4-8)×10-14 ergs cm-2 s-1, depending on the model used to fit the data, which for a distance of 7 kpc

  3. XMM - Newton observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy ESO 141-G55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondoin, P

    2004-06-01

    We report on an observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy ESO 141-G55 performed in October 2001 with the EPIC MOS cameras and Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) on board the XMM - Newton observatory. We find the hard (3-10 keV) continuum slope, including reflection, to be somewhat flatter ({gamma}=1.72{+-}0.06) than that of a typical broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxy. The spectrum shows a weak emission line at 6.45 {+-} 0.04 keV with a measured equivalent width of {approx} 40 eV. A broad spectral feature is observed around 7 keV that can be fitted by an absorption edge at 7.6 {+-} 0.1 keV. The extrapolation of the primary power law continuum to energies lower than 2 keV indicates the presence of a soft excess component contributing 45{+-} 3% of the overall flux in the 0.3-2.0 keV energy range. This soft-excess cannot be explained solely by enhanced reflection from a highly ionized disk.

  4. New results on Super-Eddington Accretion Flow in NLS1s from XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C.; Done, C.; Ward, M.; Gardner, E.

    2017-10-01

    Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (NLS1s) have small black hole masses and high, sometimes super-Eddington, mass accretion rates. The physical mechanism of their X-ray emission, especially the soft X-ray excess, has been a controversial topic for many years. We have conducted deep XMM-Newton observations of some bright unobscured super-Eddington NLS1s. Their multi-wavelength properties can be well understood in a unified accretion flow scenario, which contains a standard outer disc, a puffed-up inner disc with strong disc wind, an extended soft X-ray region and a compact hard X-ray region. By considering the inclination angle effect, such a scenario can also explain NLS1s with more complex X-ray properties such as 1H 0707-495, without requiring a large spin parameter. I will also show that these super-Eddington NLS1s are probably the best low-redshift analogies of weak emission-line quasars at high redshifts.

  5. ASCA and XMM-Newton Observations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G311.5-0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, T. G.; Filipović, M. D.; Luken, K.; Wong, G. F.; Manojlović, P.; Maxted, N.; Roper, Q.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of X-ray observations made with ASCA and XMM-Newton of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G311.5-0.3. Prior infrared and radio observations of this SNR have revealed a shell-like morphology at both wavelengths. The spectral index of the radio emission is consistent with synchrotron emission, while the infrared colors are consistent with emission from shocked molecular hydrogen. Also previous CO observations have indicated an interaction between G311.5-0.3 and an adjacent molecular cloud. Our previous analysis of the pointed ASCA observation made of this SNR detected X-ray emission from the source for the first time but lacked the sensitivity and the angular resolution to rigorously investigate its X-ray properties. We have analyzed an archival XMM-Newton observation that included G311.5-0.3 in the field of view: this is the first time that XMM-Newton data has been used to probe the X-ray properties of this SNR. The XMM-Newton observation confirms that the X-ray emission from G311.5-0.3 is centrally concentrated and supports the classification of this source as a mixed-morphology SNR. In addition, our joint fitting of extracted ASCA and XMM-Newton spectra favor a thermal origin for the X-ray emission over a non-thermal origin. The spectral fitting parameters for our TBABS × APEC fit to the extracted spectra are N_{H} = 4.63^{+1.87}_{-0.85} × 10 ^{22} cm^{-2} and kT = 0.68^{+0.20}_{-0.24} keV. From these fit parameters, we derive the following values for physical parameters of the SNR: n_{e} = 0.20 cm^{-3}, n_{p} = 0.17 cm^{-3}, M_{X} = 21.4 M_{⊙} and P/k = 3.18 × 10^6 K cm^{-3}.

  6. XMM-Newton Observations of the 2003 X-Ray Minimum of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Corcoran, M. F.; White, N. E.; Damineli, A.; Davidson, K.; Gull, T. R.

    2004-01-01

    The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory took part in the multi-wavelength observing campaign of the massive, evolved star Eta Carinae in 2003 during its recent X-ray minimum in June 2003. This paper reports on the first results of these observations, which were performed (1) before the minimum (five times in January, 2003), (2) near the X-ray maximum just before the minimum (two times in June) and (3) during the minimum (four times in July-August). Hard X-ray emission from the point source of Eta Carinae was detected even during the minimum. The observed flux above 3 keV was approx. 3x10(exp -12) ergs cm(exp -2)/s, which is about one percent of the flux before the minimum. Light curves from the individual observations show no time variability on the scale of a few kilo-seconds. Changes in the spectral shape occurred, but these changes were smaller than expected if the minimum is produced solely by an increase of hydrogen column density. Fits of the hard X-Ray source by an absorbed 1T model show a constant plasma temperature at around 5 keV and an increase of column density from 5x10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) to 2x10(exp 23) cm(exp -2). The spectra below 6 keV significantly deviate from the models that fit the higher energy emission. The X-ray minimum seems to be dominated by an apparent decrease of the emission measure, suggesting that the brightest part of the X-ray emitting region is completely obscured during the minimum in the form of an eclipse. Partial covering plasma emission models might be considered for the spectral variation. The spectra also showed strong iron K line emission from both hot and cold gases, and weak line emission from Ni, Ca, Ar, S and Si.

  7. X-Ray Bright Optically Faint AGNs Found in XMM-Newton and Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Y.; Suganuma, M.; Akiyama, M.; Greene, J.; Kawaguchi, T.; Iwasawa, K.; Nagao, T.; Toba, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamashita, T.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new sample of X-ray bright optically faint active galactic nuclei selected by combining XMM-Newton and Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam surveys. 53 X-ray sources satisfying i band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9 deg^2 in the XMM-XXL field, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. 46 objects with an X-ray to i band flux ratio F_{X}/F_{i}>10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. SEDs of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or starforming galaxies and show signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the optical in the source rest frame. X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log N_{H} = 20.5-23.5 cm^{-2} in most cases). The absorption corrected X-ray luminosities are in a range of 6×10^{42}-2×10^{45} erg s^{-1}. 20 objects are classified as type 2 quasars. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z>1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  8. Extensive X-ray variability studies of NGC 7314 using long XMM-Newton observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; McHardy, I. M.; Vaughan, S.; Papadakis, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    We present a detailed X-ray variability study of the low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 7314 using the two newly obtained XMM-Newton observations (140 and 130 ks), together with two archival data sets of shorter duration (45 and 84 ks). The relationship between the X-ray variability characteristics and other physical source properties (such as the black hole mass) are still relatively poorly defined, especially for low-mass AGN. We perform a new, fully analytical, power spectral density (PSD) model analysis method, which will be described in detail in a forthcoming paper, that takes into consideration the spectral distortions, caused by red-noise leak. We find that the PSD in the 0.5-10 keV energy range, can be represented by a bending power law with a bend around 6.7 × 10-5 Hz, having a slope of 0.51 and 1.99 below and above the bend, respectively. Adding our bend time-scale estimate, to an already published ensemble of estimates from several AGN, supports the idea that the bend time-scale depends linearly only on the black hole mass and not on the bolometric luminosity. Moreover, we find that as the energy range increases, the PSD normalization increases and there is a hint that simultaneously the high-frequency slope becomes steeper. Finally, the X-ray time-lag spectrum of NGC 7314 shows some very weak signatures of relativistic reflection, and the energy resolved time-lag spectrum, for frequencies around 3 × 10-4 Hz, shows no signatures of X-ray reverberation. We show that the previous claim about ks time delays in this source, is simply an artefact induced by the minuscule number of points entering during the time-lag estimation in the low-frequency part of the time-lag spectrum (I.e. below 10-4 Hz).

  9. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X- Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, F.; Muller, C.; Madsen, K. K.; Lanz, L.; Rivers, E.; Brightman, M.; Arevalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Beuchert, T.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations spanning 3-78 keV of the nearest radio galaxy, Centaurus A (Cen A). The accretion geometry around the central engine in Cen A is still debated, and we investigate possible configurations using detailed X-ray spectral modeling. NuSTAR imaged the central region of Cen A with subarcminute resolution at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time, but found no evidence for an extended source or other off-nuclear point sources. The XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra agree well and can be described with an absorbed power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.8150 +/- 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kaline in good agreement with literature values. The spectrum is greater than 1 MeV. A thermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters that agree with values measured by INTEGRAL, in particular an electron temperature kTe between approximately 100-300 keV and seed photon input temperatures between 5 and 50 eV. We do not find evidence for reflection or a broad iron line and put stringent upper limits of R is less than 0.01 on the reflection fraction and accretion disk illumination. We use archival Chandra data to estimate the contribution from diffuse emission, extra-nuclear point sources, and the outer X-ray jet to the observed NuSTAR and XMM-Newton X-ray spectra and find the contribution to be negligible. We discuss different scenarios for the physical origin of the observed hard X-ray spectrum and conclude that the inner disk is replaced by an advection-dominated accretion flow or that the X-rays are dominated by synchrotron self-Compton emission from the inner regions of the radio jet or a combination thereof.

  10. XMM-Newton Observations of HESSJ1813-178 Reveal a Composite Supernova Remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Moriguchi, Y.; Aharonian, F.A.; Fukui, Y.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Puehlhofer, G.; Reimer, O.; Rowell, G.; Terrier, R.; Vink, J.; Wagner, S.

    2006-11-27

    Aims--We present X-ray and {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations of the very-high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1813-178 with the aim of understanding the origin of the {gamma}-ray emission. Methods--High-angular resolution X-ray studies of the VHE {gamma}-ray emission region are performed using 18.6 ks of XMM-Newton data, taken on HESS J1813-178 in October 2005. Using this dataset we are able to undertake spectral and morphological studies of the X-ray emission object with greater precision than previous studies. NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) data are used to search for correlations of the {gamma}-ray emission with molecular clouds which could act as target material for {gamma}-ray production in a hadronic scenario. Results--The NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations show a giant molecular cloud of mass 2.5 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} at a distance of 4 kpc in the vicinity of HESS J1813-178. Even though there is no direct positional coincidence, this giant cloud might have influenced the evolution of the {gamma}-ray source and its surroundings. The X-ray data show a highly absorbed (n{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) non-thermal X-ray emitting object coincident with the previously known ASCA source AXJ1813-178 showing a compact core and an extended tail towards the north-east, located in the center of the radio shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) G12.82-0.2. This central object shows morphological and spectral resemblance to a Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) and we therefore consider that this object is very likely to be a composite SNR. Nevertheless, we cannot distinguish between the scenarios in which the {gamma}-rays originate in the shell of the SNR and the one in which they originate in the central object. We discuss both scenarios in terms of a one-zone leptonic model and demonstrate, that in order to connect the core X-ray emission to the VHE {gamma}-ray emission electrons have to be accelerated to energies of at least 1 PeV. We conclude that if indeed the

  11. AGN spectral states from simultaneous UV and X-ray observations by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, J.; Guainazzi, M.; Merloni, A.

    2017-07-01

    Context. It is generally believed that the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries (XRBs) work in a similar way. Aims: While XRBs evolve rapidly and several sources have undergone a few complete cycles from quiescence to an outburst and back, most AGN remain in the same state over periods of years and decades, due to their longer characteristic timescale proportional to their size. However, the study of the AGN spectral states is still possible with a large sample of sources. Multi-wavelength observations are needed for this purpose since the AGN thermal disc emission dominates in the ultraviolet energy range, while the up-scattered hot-corona emission is detected in X-rays. Methods: We compared simultaneous UV and X-ray measurements of AGN obtained by the XMM-Newton satellite. The non-thermal power-law flux was constrained from the 2-12 keV X-ray luminosity, while the thermal disc component was estimated from the UV flux at ≈ 2900 Å. The hardness (defined as a ratio between the X-ray and UV plus X-ray luminosity) and the total luminosity were used to construct the AGN state diagrams. For sources with reliable mass measurements, the Eddington ratio was used instead of the total luminosity. Results: The state diagrams show that the radio-loud sources have on average higher hardness, due to the lack of the thermal disc emission in the UV band, and have flatter intrinsic X-ray spectra. In contrast, the sources with high luminosity and low hardness are radio-quiet AGN with the UV spectrum consistent with the multi-temperature thermal disc emission. The hardness-Eddington ratio diagram reveals that the average radio-loudness is stronger for low-accreting sources, while it decreases when the accretion rate is close to the Eddington limit. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the general properties of AGN accretion states are similar to those of XRBs. This suggests that the AGN radio dichotomy of radio

  12. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1e1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X......-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum...

  13. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: hstiele@mx.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, No. 101 Sect. 2 Kuang-Fu Road, 30013, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-20

    The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339–4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.

  14. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X-Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Müller, C.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations spanning 3–78 keV of the nearest radiogalaxy, Centaurus A (Cen A), performed during a very high flux state. The accretion geometry around thecentral engine in Cen A is still debated, and we investigate possible configurations using detailed...... X-ray spectralmodeling. NuSTAR imaged the central region of Cen A with subarcminute resolution at X-ray energies above10 keV for the first time, but finds no evidence for an extended source or other off-nuclear point-sources.The XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra agree well and can be described...... with an absorbed power-law witha photon index Γ = 1.815 ± 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kα line in good agreement with literature values.The spectrum does not require a high-energy exponential rollover, with a constraint of Efold > 1 MeV. Athermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters...

  15. New XMM-Newton observation of the thermally emitting isolated neutron star 2XMM J104608.7-594306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. M.; Motch, C.; Turolla, R.; Popov, S. B.; Schwope, A. D.; Treves, A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The isolated neutron star (INS) 2XMM J104608.7-594306 is one of the only two to be discovered through their thermal emission since the ROSAT era. Possibly a remnant of a former generation of massive stars in the Carina nebula, the exact nature of the source is unclear, and it might be unique amongst the several classes of Galactic INSs. Aims: In a first dedicated XMM-Newton observation of the source, we found intriguing evidence of a very fast spin period of P ~ 18.6 ms at the 4σ confidence level. Moreover, spectral features in absorption have also been identified. We re-observed 2XMM J104608.7-594306 with XMM-Newton to better characterise the spectral energy distribution of the source, confirm the candidate spin period, and possibly constrain the pulsar spin-down. Methods: We used the two XMM-Newton observations of 2XMM J104608.7-594306 to perform detailed timing and spectral X-ray analysis. Both the spin-down rate and the energy of the spectral features provide estimates on the neutron star magnetic field, which are crucial for investigating the evolutionary state of the neutron star. Results: Statistically acceptable spectral fits and meaningful physical parameters for the source are only obtained when the residuals at energies 0.55 keV and 1.35 keV are taken into account by the spectral modelling. While the former can result from the inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the surface of the neutron star or can be related to a local overabundance of oxygen in the Carina nebula, the one at 1.35 keV is only satisfactorily accounted for by invoking a line in absorption. In this case, the best-fit neutron star atmosphere models constrain the hydrogen column density, the effective temperature, and the luminosity of the source within NH = (2.5-3.3) × 1021 cm-2, Teff = (6-10) × 105 K, and LX = (1.1-7.4) × 1032 erg s-1. The implied distance is consistent with a location in (or in front of) the Carina nebula, and radiation radii are compatible with

  16. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4−6200 and SAX J1452.8−5949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Patruno, A.; Testa, V.; Israel, G.; Degenaar, N.; Paul, B.; Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of two low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4-6200 and SAX J1452.8-5949 which have spin periods of 172 and 437 s, respectively. The XMM-Newton spectra for both sources can be fitted well with a simple power-law model of photon

  17. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X...

  18. Probing the Accretion Disk and Central Engine Structure of the NGC 4258 with Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Markoff, Sera; Tueller, Jack; Wilms, Joern; Young, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present an X-ray study of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4258 using data from Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey. We find that signatures of X-ray reprocessing by cold gas are very weak in the spectrum of this Seyfert-2 galaxy; a weak, narrow fluorescent K(alpha) emission line of cod iron is robustly detected in both the Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra but at a level much below that of most other Seyfert-2 galaxies. We conclude that the circumnuclear environment of this AGN is very "clean" and lacks the Compton-thick obscuring torus of unified Seyfert schemes. From the narrowness of the iron line, together with evidence of line flux variability between the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations, we constrain the line emitting region to be between 3 x 10(exp 3)r(sub g) and 4 x 10(exp 4)r(sub g), from the black hole. We show that the observed properties of the iron line can be explained if the line originates from the surface layers of a warped accretion disk. In particular, we present explicit calculations of the expected iron line from a disk warped by Lens-Thirring precession from a misaligned central black hole. Finally, the Suzaku data reveal clear evidence of large amplitude 2-10 keV variability on timescales of 50 ksec and smaller amplitude flares on timescales as short as 5-10 ksec. If associated with accretion disk processes, such rapid variability requires an origin in the innermost regions of the disk (r approx. equals 10(r(sub g) or less). Analysis of the difference spectrum between a high- and low-flux states suggests that the variable component of the X-ray emission is steeper and more absorbed than the average AGN emission, suggesting that the primary X-ray source and absorbing screen have a spatial structure on comparable scales. We note the remarkable similarity between the circumnuclear environment of NGC 4258 and another well studied low-luminosity AGN, M81*.

  19. Scaling relations and mass calibration of the X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at redshift similar to 0.2 : XMM-Newton observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.-Y.; Finoguenov, A.; Boehringer, H.; Kneib, J.-P.; Smith, G. P.; Czoske, O.; Soucail, G.

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a flux-limited morphology-unbiased sample of 12 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at redshift around 0.2 based on XMM-Newton observations. The scaled radial profiles are characterized by a self-similar behavior at radii outside the cluster cores

  20. Unveiling the structure of galaxy clusters with combined ESO-VLT, WFI, and XMM-Newton observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, H.; Braglia, F.; Pierini, D.; Schuecker, P.; Zhang Yu-Ying; Finoguenov, A.; Pratt, G.W. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Biviano, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Quintana, H. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Lynam, P.D. [ESO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Understanding the dynamical structure and matter content of galaxy clusters is crucial for many cosmological and astrophysical applications. While optical studies provide information on the distribution and dynamics of the galaxies, allowing for a tentative reconstruction of the cluster mass distribution, X-ray observations provide complementary details through the study of the hot, X-ray luminous intracluster plasma which is confined by the cluster's gravitational potential well. To exploit the advantage of such a combined approach we have been conducting observations with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT, the wide field imager at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. In this article we illustrate the power of the combination of these instruments for galaxy cluster studies. (orig.)

  1. An XMM-Newton Observation of 4U1755-33 in Quiescence: Evidence for a Fossil X-Ray Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella; White, Nicholas E.

    2003-01-01

    We report an XMM-Newton observation of the Low mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) and black hole candidate 4U1755-33. This source had been a bright persistent source for at least 25 yrs, but in 1995 entered an extended quiescent phase. 4U1755-33 was not detected with an upper limit to the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5 x 10(exp 31) d(sup 2) (sub 4kpc) ergs per second (where d(sub 4kpc) is the distance in units of 4 kpc) - consistent with the luminosity of other black hole candidates in a quiescent state. An unexpected result is the discovery of a narrow 7 arc min long X-ray jet centered on the position of 4Ul755-33. The spectrum of the jet is similar to that of jets observed from other galactic and extragalactic sources, and may have been ejected from 4Ul755-33 when it was bright. Jets are a feature of accreting black holes, and the detection of a fossil jet provides additional evidence supporting the black hole candidacy of 4U1755-33. The spectral properties of three bright serendipitous sources in the field are reported and it is suggested these are background active galactic nuclei sources.

  2. The XMM-Newton Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, F.; Sturm, R.; Ballet, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R.; Ehle, M.; Filipovic, M. D.; Gilfanov, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Context. Although numerous archival XMM-Newton observations existed towards the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) before 2009, only a fraction of the whole galaxy had been covered. Aims. Between May 2009 and March 2010, we carried out an XMM-Newton survey of the SMC, to ensure a complete coverage of both its bar and wing. Thirty-three observations of 30 different fields with a total exposure of about one Ms filled the previously missing parts. Methods. We systematically processed all available SMC data from the European Photon Imaging Camera. After rejecting observations with very high background, we included 53 archival and the 33 survey observations. We produced images in five different energy bands. We applied astrometric boresight corrections using secure identifications of X-ray sources and combined all the images to produce a mosaic covering the main body of the SMC. Results. We present an overview of the XMM-Newton observations, describe their analysis, and summarize our first results, which will be presented in detail in follow-up papers. Here, we mainly focus on extended X-ray sources, such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies, that are seen in our X-ray images. Conclusions. Our XMM-Newton survey represents the deepest complete survey of the SMC in the 0.15-12.0 keV X-ray band. We propose three new SNRs that have low surface brightnesses of a few 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2 and large extents. In addition, several known remnants appear larger than previously measured at either X-rays or other wavelengths extending the size distribution of SMC SNRs to larger values.

  3. The XXL Survey. I. Scientific motivations - XMM-Newton observing plan - Follow-up observations and simulation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Adami, C.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Baran, N.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bremer, M. N.; Brusa, M.; Butler, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Coupon, J.; De Breuck, C.; Democles, J.; Desai, S.; Delhaize, J.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.; Eckert, D.; Elyiv, A.; Ettori, S.; Evrard, A.; Faccioli, L.; Farahi, A.; Ferrari, C.; Finet, F.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fourmanoit, N.; Gandhi, P.; Gastaldello, F.; Gastaud, R.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Giles, P.; Guennou, L.; Guglielmo, V.; Horellou, C.; Husband, K.; Huynh, M.; Iovino, A.; Kilbinger, M.; Koulouridis, E.; Lavoie, S.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Le Fevre, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Lieu, M.; Lin, C. A.; Mantz, A.; Maughan, B. J.; Maurogordato, S.; McCarthy, I. G.; McGee, S.; Melin, J. B.; Melnyk, O.; Menanteau, F.; Novak, M.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, M.; Poggianti, B. M.; Pomarede, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Ramos-Ceja, M. E.; Ranalli, P.; Rapetti, D.; Raychaudury, S.; Reiprich, T. H.; Rottgering, H.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sadibekova, T.; Santos, J.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Schimd, C.; Sereno, M.; Smith, G. P.; Smolčić, V.; Snowden, S.; Spergel, D.; Stanford, S.; Surdej, J.; Valageas, P.; Valotti, A.; Valtchanov, I.; Vignali, C.; Willis, J.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum. Over the past two decades, the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories have supported numerous studies of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the X-ray background. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXL-XMM survey; it comes at a time when the Planck mission results are being finalised. Aims: We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg2 each at a point-source sensitivity of ~5 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band (completeness limit). The survey's main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the space-time distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, wide-area X-ray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and large-scale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 follow-up programmes. Methods: We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multi-λ and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the X-ray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. Results: The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the X-ray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multi-λ associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. Conclusions: The XXL multi-λ data set will have a unique lasting legacy

  4. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  5. NUSTAR and Xmm-Newton Observations of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5907 UlX1: A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ~5 × 1040 erg s–1. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ~4 days, revealed an extreme level of short......-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC 5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC 5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ~2 orders of magnitude or more during...

  6. Another look at the BL Lacertae flux and spectral variability. Observations by GASP-WEBT, XMM-Newton, and Swift in 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bruschini, L.; Capetti, A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Larionov, V. M.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Chen, W.-P.; Coloma, J.; Diltz, C.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hakola, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Ligustri, R.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Sillanpää, A.; Sainio, J.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: In a previous study we suggested that the broad-band emission and variability properties of BL Lacertae can be accounted for by a double synchrotron emission component with related inverse-Compton emission from the jet, plus thermal radiation from the accretion disc. Here we investigate the matter with further data extending over a wider energy range. Methods: The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the whole earth blazar telescope (WEBT) monitored BL Lacertae in 2008-2009 at radio, near-IR, and optical frequencies to follow its flux behaviour. During this period, high-energy observations were performed by XMM-Newton, Swift, and Fermi. We analyse these data with particular attention to the calibration of Swift UV data, and apply a helical jet model to interpret the source broad-band variability. Results: The GASP-WEBT observations show an optical flare in 2008 February-March, and oscillations of several tenths of mag on a few-day time scale afterwards. The radio flux is only mildly variable. The UV data from both XMM-Newton and Swift seem to confirm a UV excess that is likely caused by thermal emission from the accretion disc. The X-ray data from XMM-Newton indicate a strongly concave spectrum, as well as moderate (~4-7%) flux variability on an hour time scale. The Swift X-ray data reveal fast (interday) flux changes, not correlated with those observed at lower energies. We compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) corresponding to the 2008 low-brightness state, which was characterised by a synchrotron dominance, to the 1997 outburst state, where the inverse-Compton emission was prevailing. A fit with an inhomogeneous helical jet model suggests that two synchrotron components are at work with their self inverse-Compton emission. Most likely, they represent the radiation from two distinct emitting regions in the jet. We show that the difference between the source SEDs in 2008 and 1997 can be explained in terms of pure geometrical variations. The

  7. GRS 1739-278 Observed at Very Low Luminosity with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, F.; Tomsick, J. A.; Yamaoka, K.; Dauser, T.; Miller, J. M.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Fabian, A.; García, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Loh, A.; Kaaret, P.; Kalemci, E.; Migliari, S.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rahoui, F.; Rodriguez, J.; Stern, D.; Stuhlinger, M.; Walton, D. J.; Wilms, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the accreting transient black hole GRS 1739-278 during a very faint low hard state at ˜0.02% of the Eddington luminosity (for a distance of 8.5 kpc and a mass of 10 {M}⊙ ). The broadband X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 60 keV can be well-described by a power-law continuum with an exponential cutoff. The continuum is unusually hard for such a low luminosity, with a photon index of Γ = 1.39 ± 0.04. We find evidence for an additional reflection component from an optically thick accretion disk at the 98% likelihood level. The reflection fraction is low, with {{ R }}{refl}={0.043}-0.023+0.033. In combination with measurements of the spin and inclination parameters made with NuSTAR during a brighter hard state by Miller et al., we seek to constrain the accretion disk geometry. Depending on the assumed emissivity profile of the accretion disk, we find a truncation radius of 15-35 {R}{{g}} (5-12 {R}{ISCO}) at the 90% confidence limit. These values depend strongly on the assumptions and we discuss possible systematic uncertainties.

  8. The XXL Survey I. Scientific Motivations - Xmm-Newton Observing Plan - Follow-up Observations and Simulation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Adami, C.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Baran, N.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bremer, M. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum. Over the past two decades, the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories have supported numerous studies of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the X-ray background. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXL-XMM survey; it comes at a time when the Planck mission results are being finalized. Aims. We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg2 each at a point-source sensitivity of approx. 5 x 10(exp 15) erg/s/sq cm in the [0.5-2] keV band (completeness limit). The surveys main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the space-time-distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, wide-area X-ray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and large-scale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 follow-up programs. Methods. We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multi- and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the X-ray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. Results. The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the X-ray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multi-associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. Conclusions. The XXL multi- data set will have a unique lasting legacy value for

  9. Eye-openers from XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    many years of work. They are all that we hoped they would be. In the LMC we can see the elements, which go to make up new stars and planets, being released in giant stellar explosions. We can even see the creation of new stars going on, using elements scattered through space by previous stellar explosions. This is what we built the EPIC cameras for and they are really fulfilling their promise" Multiwavelength views of Hickson Group 16 The HCG-16 viewed by EPIC and by the Optical Monitor in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths is one of approximately a hundred compact galaxy clusters listed by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the 1980s. The criteria for the Hickson cluster groups included their compactness, their isolation from other galaxies and a limited magnitude range between their members. Most Hicksons are very faint, but a few can be observed with modest aperture telescopes. Galaxies in Hickson groups have a high probability of interacting. Their study has shed light on the question of galactic evolution and the effects of interaction. Investigation into their gravitational behaviour has also significantly contributed to our understanding of "dark matter", the mysterious matter that most astronomers feel comprises well over 90% of our universe. Observation of celestial objects from space over a range of X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, is a unique feature of the XMM-Newton mission. The EPIC-PN view of the Hickson 16 group shows a handful of bright X-sources and in the background more than a hundred faint X-ray sources that XMM-Newton is revealing for the first time. Juxtaposing the X-ray view of HCG 16 with that of the Optical Monitor reveals one of the great strengths of XMM-Newton in being able to routinely compare the optical, ultraviolet and X-ray properties of objects. Many of the X-ray sources are revealed as elongated "fuzzy blobs" coincident with some of the optical galaxies. Routine access to ultraviolet images is a first for the mission

  10. UNAMBIGUOUS DETECTION OF REFLECTION IN MAGNETIC CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES: JOINT NuSTAR–XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THREE INTERMEDIATE POLARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, K. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rana, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bernardini, F. [New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); De Martino, D., E-mail: Koji.Mukai@nasa.gov [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-07-10

    In magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), X-ray emission regions are located close to the white dwarf surface, which is expected to reflect a significant fraction of intrinsic X-rays above 10 keV, producing a Compton reflection hump. However, up to now, a secure detection of this effect in magnetic CVs has largely proved elusive because of the limited sensitivity of non-imaging X-ray detectors. Here we report our analysis of joint NuSTAR–XMM-Newton observations of three magnetic CVs, V709 Cas, NY Lup, and V1223 Sgr. The improved hard X-ray sensitivity of the imaging NuSTAR data has resulted in the first robust detection of Compton hump in all three objects, with amplitudes of ∼1 or greater in NY Lup, and likely <1.0 in the other two. We also confirm earlier reports of a strong spin modulation above 10 keV in V709 Cas, and we report the first detection of small spin amplitudes in the others. We interpret this as due to different height of the X-ray emitting region among these objects. A height of ∼0.2 white dwarf radii provides a plausible explanation for the low reflection amplitude of V709 Cas. Since emission regions above both poles are visible at certain spin phases, this can also explain the strong hard X-ray spin modulation. A shock height of ∼0.05 white dwarf radii can explain our results on V1223 Sgr, while the shock height in NY Lup appears negligible.

  11. Peering Through the Dust. II. XMM-Newton Observations of Two Additional FIRST-2MASS Red Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Eilat; LaMassa, Stephanie; Piconcelli, Enrico; Urry, Meg; Lacy, Mark

    2017-10-01

    We obtained XMM-Newton observations of two highly luminous dust-reddened quasars, F2M1113+1244 and F2M1656+3821, that appear to be in the early, transitional phase predicted by merger-driven models of quasar/galaxy co-evolution. These sources have been well studied at optical through mid-infrared wavelengths and are growing relatively rapidly, with Eddington ratios > 30 % . Their black hole masses are relatively small compared to their host galaxies, placing them below the {M}{BH}{--}{L}{bulge} relation. We find that for both sources, an absorbed power-law model with 1%-3% of the intrinsic continuum scattered or leaked back into the line of sight best fits their X-ray spectra. We measure the absorbing column density (N H ) and constrain the dust-to-gas ratios in these systems, finding that they lie well below the Galactic value. This, combined with the presence of broad emission lines in their optical and near-infrared spectra, suggests that the dust absorption occurs far from the nucleus and in the host galaxy, while the X-rays are mostly absorbed in the nuclear, dust-free region within the sublimation radius. We also compare the quasars’ absorption-corrected, rest-frame X-ray luminosities (2-10 keV) to their rest-frame infrared luminosities (6 μm) and find that red quasars, similar to other populations of luminous obscured quasars, are either underluminous in X-rays or overluminous in the infrared.

  12. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of 1E1743.1-2843: Indications of a Neutron Star LMXB Nature of the Compact Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum with kT approximately 1.8 keV emitted from a hot spot or an equatorial strip on an NS surface. This spectrum is thermally Comptonized by electrons with kTe approximately 4.6 keV. Accepting this NS hypothesis, we probe the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) nature of the source. While the lack of Type-I bursts can be explained in the LMXB scenario, the absence of pulsations in the 2 MHz-49 Hz frequency range, the lack of eclipses and of an IR companion, and the lack of a Kaline from neutral or moderately ionized iron strongly disfavor interpreting this source as a HMXB. We therefore conclude that 1E1743.1-2843 is most likely an NS-LMXB located beyond the Galactic Center. There is weak statistical evidence for a soft X-ray excess which may indicate thermal emission from an accretion disk. However, the disk normalization remains unconstrained due to the high hydrogen column density (N(sub H) approximately 1.6 x 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2)).

  13. XMM-Newton and Swift Observations of WZ Sagittae: Spectral and Timing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Kuulkers, E.; De Paolis, F.; Mukai, K.; Ingrosso, G.; Maiolo, B. M. T.

    2014-01-01

    WZ Sagittae is the prototype object of a subclass of dwarf novae with rare and long (super)outbursts, in which a white dwarf primary accretes matter from a low mass companion. High-energy observations offer the possibility of a better understanding of the disk-accretion mechanism in WZ Sge-like binaries.

  14. XMM-Newton Observations of the DLS Shear-Selected Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellAntonio, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project continues to be to test the selection effects in cluster surveys by investigating the X-ray properties of the first shear-selected sample of galaxy clusters, the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). Because lensing signal is only sensitive to mass (albeit with projection effects), lensing signal can be used to select a sample that is independent of its X-ray properties. If a lensing-selected sample has very different X-ray properties from an X-ray selected sample, it would have important consequences for evolutionary studies based on existing cluster samples was aimed at refining the lensing-selected sample as part of this continuing study The grant supported a KPNO run to obtain data on another region of the sky to extend the cluster sample, and also the purchase of a disk array for archiving the optical mosaic data (Two terabytes worth) from which the lensing maps are derived As a result of the grant, we have extended the lensing cluster sample to another 4-square degree patch of the sky, adding another three clusters to our sample to be observed While the sample of X-ray observed clusters is too small to derive a firm conclusion yet, our preliminary finding is that the X-ray properties of the observed sample do not differ from those of X-ray selected surveys A paper discussing the first results has been published, and a second paper on the mass differences is still in preparation (with J Hughes as first author)

  15. Shadowing Observations of the Galactic Halo with XMM-Newton and Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin

    Observations made with various NASA-funded facilities show that there is hot (T ~ 1e6 - 3e6 K), tenuous, ionized gas in the Galactic halo. This gas has been detected both in emission, as it is an important contributor to the soft X-ray background (SXRB), and in absorption, via the lines it produces in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of background AGN. This hot halo gas may be due to stellar-driven outflows from the disk, gas falling in from extragalactic space, or a combination of both. Understanding the origin and evolution of this gas is key to understanding the halo's relationship with the disk and the Galaxy's relationship with its surroundings, making it essential for a complete understanding of our Galaxy. By measuring the halo's X-ray emission, and comparing with hydrodynamic model predictions, we can determine the relative importance of inflow versus outflow to the heating of the halo. Deviations from the model predictions, meanwhile, may indicate the importance of additional physical processes (e.g. magnetic fields or non-equilibrium ionization). In order to measure the halo X-ray emission, we must separate it from the other components of the SXRB, namely the foreground emission due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX), and the extragalactic background due to unresolved AGN. A key technique for this separation is called shadowing, which makes use of dense interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the SXRB by partially blocking the background emission. By comparing the X-ray spectra measured toward and to the side of such a shadowing cloud, one can separate the foreground and background emission components, and thus infer the halo's X-ray emission. In recent XMM and Suzaku AOs, we were awarded observations of three potential shadowing targets. We are requesting funding to analyze these new shadowing observations, and to re-analyze archival observations of three shadows in the southern Galactic hemisphere in the same manner. This will be the first uniform

  16. XMM-Newton Observations of the Dwarf Nova RU Peg in Quiescence: Probe of the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balman, Şölen; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Schlegel, Eric; Barrett, Paul E.; Szkody, Paula

    2011-11-01

    We present an analysis of X-ray and UV data obtained with the XMM-Newton Observatory of the long-period dwarf nova RU Peg. RU Peg contains a massive white dwarf (WD), possibly the hottest WD in a dwarf nova (DN), it has a low inclination, thus optimally exposing its X-ray emitting boundary layer (BL), and has an excellent trigonometric parallax distance. We modeled the X-ray data using XSPEC assuming a multi-temperature plasma emission model built from the MEKAL code (i.e., CEVMKL). We obtained a maximum temperature of 31.7 keV, based on the European Photon Imaging Camera MOS1, 2 and pn data, indicating that RU Peg has an X-ray spectrum harder than most DNe, except U Gem. This result is consistent with and indirectly confirms the large mass of the WD in RU Peg. The X-ray luminosity we computed corresponds to a BL luminosity for a mass accretion rate of 2 × 10-11 M sun yr-1 (assuming M wd = 1.3 M sun), in agreement with the expected quiescent accretion rate. The modeling of the O VIII emission line at 19 Å as observed by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer implies a projected stellar rotational velocity v rotsin i = 695 km s-1, i.e., the line is emitted from material rotating at ~936-1245 km s-1 (i ~ 34°-48°) or about 1/6 of the Keplerian speed; this velocity is much larger than the rotation speed of the WD inferred from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrum. Cross-correletion analysis yielded an undelayed (time lag ~ 0) component and a delayed component of 116 ± 17 s where the X-ray variations/fluctuations lagged the UV variations. This indicates that the UV fluctuations in the inner disk are propagated into the X-ray emitting region in about 116 s. The undelayed component may be related to irradiation effects.

  17. XMM-Newton observations of the non-thermal supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 (G353.6-0.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V.; Pühlhofer, G.; Bamba, A.; Acero, F.; Tian, W. W.; Klochkov, D.; Santangelo, A.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the analysis of XMM-Newton observations of the non-thermal shell-type supernova remnant HESS J1731-347 (G353.6-0.7). For the first time the complete remnant shell has been covered in X-rays, which allowed direct comparison with radio and TeV observations. We carried out a spatially resolved spectral analysis of XMM-Newton data and confirmed the previously reported non-thermal power-law X-ray spectrum of the source with negligible variations of spectral index across the shell. On the other hand, the X-ray absorption column is strongly variable and correlates with the CO emission thus confirming that the absorbing material must be in the foreground and reinforcing the previously suggested lower limit on distance. Finally, we find that the X-ray emission of the remnant is suppressed towards the Galactic plane, which points to lower shock velocities in this region, likely due to the interaction of the shock with the nearby molecular cloud.

  18. XMM-Newton observations of the massive colliding wind binary and non-thermal radio emitter CygOB2#8A [O6If + O5.5III(f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; Rauw, G.; Sana, H.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Pittard, J. M.; Blomme, R.; Stevens, I. R.; van Loo, S.

    2006-09-01

    We report on the results of four XMM-Newton observations separated by about ten days from each other of CygOB2#8A [O6If + O5.5III(f)]. This massive colliding wind binary is a very bright X-ray emitter - one of the first X-ray emitting O-stars discovered by the Einstein satellite - as well as a confirmed non-thermal radio emitter whose binarity was discovered quite recently. The X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 10.0keV is essentially thermal, and is best fitted with a three-component model with temperatures of about 3, 9 and 20MK. The X-ray luminosity corrected for the interstellar absorption is rather large, i.e. about 1034ergs-1. Compared to the `canonical' LX/Lbol ratio of O-type stars, CygOB2#8A was a factor of 19-28 overluminous in X-rays during our observations. The EPIC spectra did not reveal any evidence for the presence of a non-thermal contribution in X-rays. This is not unexpected considering that the simultaneous detections of non-thermal radiation in the radio and soft X-ray (below 10.0keV) domains is unlikely. Our data reveal a significant decrease in the X-ray flux from apastron to periastron with an amplitude of about 20 per cent. Combining our XMM-Newton results with those from previous ROSAT-PSPC and ASCA-SIS observations, we obtain a light curve suggesting a phase-locked X-ray variability. The maximum emission level occurs around phase 0.75, and the minimum is probably seen shortly after the periastron passage. Using hydrodynamic simulations of the wind-wind collision, we find a high X-ray emission level close to phase 0.75, and a minimum at periastron as well. The high X-ray luminosity, the strong phase-locked variability and the spectral shape of the X-ray emission of CygOB2#8A revealed by our investigation point undoubtedly to X-ray emission dominated by colliding winds. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and the USA (NASA). E-mail: debecker

  19. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.

    2018-01-01

    an extensive campaign observing Ark 120 in X-rays with XMM-Newton (4 × 120 ks, 2014 March 18–24), and NuSTAR (65.5 ks, 2014 March 22).Results. During this very deep X-ray campaign, the source was caught in a high-flux state similar to the earlier 2003 XMM-Newton observation, and about twice as bright...

  20. An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Ultrasoft Narrow-Line Quasar NAB 0205+024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2004-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray continuum of NAB 0205424 is well constrained due to the excellent photon statistics obtained (about 97,700 counts), and its impressive soft X-ray excess is clearly apparent. The hard X-ray power law has become notably steeper than when NAB 0205424 was observed with ASCA, attesting to the presence of significant X-ray spectral variability. A strong and broad emission feature is detected from about 5 to 6.4 keV, and we have modeled this as a relativistic line emitted close to the black hole from a narrow annulus of the accretion disk. Furthermore, a strong X-ray flare is detected with a hard X-ray spectrum; this flare may be responsible for illuminating the inner line-emitting part of the accretion disk. The combined observational results can be broadly interpreted in terms of the "thundercloud model proposed by Merloni & Fabian (2001).

  1. B stars seen at high resolution by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Nazé, Yaël

    2017-12-01

    We report on the properties of 11 early B stars observed with gratings on board XMM-Newton and Chandra, thereby doubling the number of B stars analysed at high resolution. The spectra typically appear soft, with temperatures of 0.2-0.6 keV, and moderately bright (log [LX/LBOL] -7) with lower values for later type stars. In line with previous studies, we also find an absence of circumstellar absorption, negligible line broadening, no line shift, and formation radii in the range 2-7 R⋆. From the X-ray brightnesses, we derived the hot mass-loss rate for each of our targets and compared these values to predictions or values derived in the optical domain: in some cases, the hot fraction of the wind can be non-negligible. The derived X-ray abundances were compared to values obtained from the optical data, with a fair agreement found between them. Finally, half of the sample presents temporal variations, either in the long-term, short-term, or both. In particular, HD 44743 is found to be the second example of an X-ray pulsator, and we detect a flare-like activity in the binary HD 79351, which also displays a high-energy tail and one of the brightest X-ray emissions in the sample. Based on observations collected with the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA).

  2. Evidence of Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Reynolds, C.S.; Nowak, M.A.; Homan, J.; Freyberg, M.J.; Ehle, M.; Belloni, T.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; van der Klis, M.; Charles, P.A.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed spectra of the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 obtained through simultaneous 76 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and 10 ks Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations during a bright phase of its 2002-2003 outburst. An extremely skewed, relativistic Fe Kalpha emission line and ionized disk

  3. XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the ejecta-dominated mixed-morphology galactic supernova remnant G352.7–0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Napier, Jared P. [Space Science Center, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Kargaltsev, Oleg; Brehm, Derek, E-mail: t.pannuti@moreheadstate.edu, E-mail: jpnapier@moreheadstate.edu, E-mail: kargaltsev@gwu.edu, E-mail: brehm.derek@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 308 Samson Hall, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    We present a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7–0.1 using archival data from observations made with the XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Prior X-ray observations of this SNR had revealed a thermal center-filled morphology that contrasts with a shell-like radio morphology, thus establishing G352.7–0.1 as a member of the class of Galactic SNRs known as mixed-morphology SNRs (MMSNRs). Our study confirms that the X-ray emission comes from the SNR interior and must be ejecta dominated. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton may be fit satisfactorily with a single thermal component (namely a non-equilibrium ionization component with enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur). In contrast, spectra extracted by Chandra from certain regions of the SNR cannot always be fit by a single thermal component. For those regions, a second thermal component with solar abundances or two thermal components with different temperatures and thawed silicon and sulfur abundances (respectively) can generate a statistically acceptable fit. We argue that the former scenario is more physically plausible: on the basis of parameters of our spectral fits, we calculate physical parameters including X-ray emitting mass (∼45 M {sub ☉} for solar abundances). We find no evidence for overionization in the X-ray emitting plasma associated with the SNR: this phenomenon has been seen in other MMSNRs. We have conducted a search for a neutron star within the SNR by using a hard (2-10 keV) Chandra image but could not identify a firm candidate. We also present (for the first time) the detection of infrared emission from this SNR as detected at 24 μm by the MIPS on board Spitzer. Finally, we discuss the properties of G352.7–0.1 in the context of other ejecta-dominated MMSNRs.

  4. XMM-Newton Observations Reveal the X-ray Counterpart of the Very-high-energy gamma-ray Source HESS J1640-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puhlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Leeds U. /Dublin Inst. /Stanford U., HEPL; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puehlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.

    2007-03-05

    We present X-ray observations of the as of yet unidentified very high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1640-465 with the aim of establishing a counterpart of this source in the keV energy range, and identifying the mechanism responsible for the VHE emission. The 21.8 ksec XMM-Newton observation of HESS J1640-465 in September 2005 represents a significant improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution over previous ASCA studies in this region. These new data show a hard-spectrum X-ray emitting object at the centroid of the H.E.S.S. source, within the shell of the radio Supernova Remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0. This object is consistent with the position and flux previously measured by both ASCA and Swift-XRT but is now shown to be significantly extended. We argue that this object is very likely the counterpart to HESS J1640-465 and that both objects may represent the Pulsar Wind Nebula of an as of yet undiscovered pulsar associated with G338.3-0.0.

  5. Spectral and Temporal Analysis of 1H1934-0617: Observing an “Eclipsed” AGN with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Kara, Erin; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    1H1934-0617 is a low-mass (3×106 M⊙) NLS1 which was ranked as 7th in excess variance among AGN comprising the CAIXA catalogue (Ponti 2012). Similar to its high-ranking and oft-studied counterparts, this AGN is extremely time-variable, luminous, and displays strong reflection features. We present spectral and temporal analyses of concurrent XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations (120 ks), during which we explore a dramatic dip in flux, similar to that of Fairall 9 (Lohfink 2012, 2016). The transit-like dip appears in the NuSTAR band, and the spectral shape of the 0.3-2 keV band remains constant throughout the flux varied observation, ruling out a strong absorber. XMM-Newton’s large effective area and NuSTAR’s constraints on the 10-79 keV band combine to inform us about the source geometry, black hole spin, and emission/absorption processes as we speculate on the nature of the variability of this scarcely-studied AGN. Preliminary spectral modeling indicates that the dip in flux can be understood as a decrease in the height of the corona, and preliminary timing analysis shows hints of an iron K reverberation lag.

  6. Characterization of AGN from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, R. L. C.; Wildy, C.; Wiersema, K.; Mateos, S.; Saxton, R. D.; Read, A. M.; Mingo, B.

    2017-06-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN) pinpointed by a Swift follow-up campaign on unidentified transients in the XMM-Newton Slew Survey, increasing the completeness of the identifications of AGN in the Survey. Our Swift follow-up campaign identified 17 X-ray Telescope-detected candidate AGN, of which 9 were selected for optical follow-up and a further two were confirmed as AGN elsewhere. Using data obtained at the William Herschel Telescope, Very Large Telescope and New Technology Telescope, we find AGN features in seven of the candidates. We classify six as Seyfert types 1.0-1.5, with broad-line region velocities spanning 2000-12000 km s-1, and identify one as a possible type II AGN, consistent with the lack of a soft band X-ray detection in the Slew Survey. The virial black hole mass estimates for the sample lie between 1× 108 and 3× 109 M⊙, with one source likely emitting close to its Eddington rate, LBol/LEdd ˜ 0.9. We find a wide redshift range 0.08 < z < 0.9 for the nine now confirmed AGN drawn from the unidentified Slew Survey sample. One source remaining unclassified shows outbursts rarely seen before in AGN. We conclude that AGN discovered in this way are consistent with the largely non-varying, Slew-selected, known AGN population. We also find parallels with XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey AGN selected from pointed observations, and postulate that shallow X-ray surveys select AGN drawn from the same populations that have been characterized in deeper X-ray-selected samples.

  7. Investigating early-type galaxy evolution with a multiwavelength approach - I. X-ray properties of 12 galaxies observed with Swift and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Wolter, A.

    2015-05-01

    We report here the results from the X-ray observations of 12 early-type galaxies (ETGs) observed with Swift and XMM-Newton, originally selected from a sample of galaxies with Spitzer and/or GALEX data. With the combined analysis of new X-ray and optical-UV observations and of previously available data from archives, we aim at investigating the relation between X-ray luminosity and evolutionary phases of ETGs. We will interpret the results with the additional aid of smoothed particle hydrodynamics chemo-photometric simulations. All galaxies have been detected in the X-ray band, with luminosities Lx > 1039 erg s-1. X-ray emitting gas has been detected in about half of the sample, with luminosities from ≥1039 to 1040 erg s-1. UVOT images show a variety of morphologies, from absence of peculiar features relative to optical wavelengths typical of red and dead early-types, to well defined almost circular rings clearly emerging in the U band, to more spectacular and complex features connected to recent or even ongoing star formation (SF). We find little evidence of any influence of the SF activity on their global X-ray properties, and in particular, on the luminosity-weighted age of the system, usually estimated in the nuclear region. However, with the present data we cannot exclude that such a relation exists on smaller scales, related to the specific sites where we see evidence of newly formed stars, such as outer rings and arcs and peculiar features observed in UV images.

  8. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR joint observations of Mrk 915: a deep look into the X-ray properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, L.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Vignali, C.; Zaino, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the X-ray monitoring programme (covering slightly more than 11 d) carried out jointly by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR on the intermediate Seyfert galaxy Mrk 915. The light curves extracted in different energy ranges show a variation in intensity but not a significant change in the spectral shape. The X-ray spectra reveal the presence of a two-phase warm absorber: a fully covering mildly ionized structure [log ξ/(erg cm s-1) ˜ 2.3, NH ˜ 1.3 × 1021 cm-2] and a partial covering (˜90 per cent) lower ionized one [log ξ/(erg cm s-1) ˜ 0.6, NH ˜ 2 × 1022 cm-2]. A reflection component from distant matter is also present. Finally, a high-column density (NH ˜ 1.5 × 1023 cm-2) distribution of neutral matter covering a small fraction of the central region is observed, almost constant, in all observations. The main driver of the variations observed between the data sets is a decrease in the intrinsic emission by a factor of ˜1.5. Slight variations in the partial covering ionized absorber are detected, while the data are consistent with no variation of the total covering absorber. The most likely interpretation of the present data locates this complex absorber closer to the central source than the narrow line region, possibly in the broad line region, in the innermost part of the torus, or in between. The neutral obscurer may either be part of this stratified structure or associated with the walls of the torus, grazed by (and partially intercepting) the line of sight.

  9. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  10. XMM-Newton Mobile Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Kennedy, M.; Rodríguez, P.; Hernández, C.; Saxton, R.; Gabriel, C.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first XMM-Newton web mobile application, coded using new web technologies such as HTML5, the Query mobile framework, and D3 JavaScript data-driven library. This new web mobile application focuses on re-formatted contents extracted directly from the XMM-Newton web, optimizing the contents for mobile devices. The main goals of this development were to reach all kind of handheld devices and operating systems, while minimizing software maintenance. The application therefore has been developed as a web mobile implementation rather than a more costly native application. New functionality will be added regularly.

  11. Thermal and Non-thermal Nature of the Soft Excess Emission from Sersic 159-03 observed with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Lieu, Richard; Mittaz, Jonathan P. D.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Nevalainen, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Several nearby clusters exhibit an excess of soft X-ray radiation which cannot be attributed to the hot virialized intra-cluster medium. There is no consensus to date on the origin of the excess emission: it could be either of thermal origin, or due to an inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background. Using high resolution XMM-Newton data of Sersic 159-03 we first show that strong soft excess emission is detected out to a radial distance of 0.9 Mpc. The data are interpreted using the two viable models available, i.e., by invoking a warm reservoir of thermal gas, or relativistic electrons which are part of a cosmic ray population. The thermal model leads to a better goodness-of-fit, and the emitting warm gas must be high in mass and low in metallicity.

  12. XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    other stars as well. A team of astronomers, led by Fabio Favata, from ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre, The Netherlands, has monitored a small number of solar-type stars since the beginning of the XMM-Newton mission in 2000. The X-ray brightness of HD 81809, a star located 90 light years away in the constellation Hydra (the water snake), has varied by more than 10 times over the past two and a half years, reaching a well defined peak in mid 2002. The star has shown the characteristic X-ray modulation (brightening and dimming) typical of the solar cycle. "This is the first clear sign of a cyclic pattern in the X-ray emission of stars other than the Sun," said Favata. Furthermore, the data show that these variations are synchronised with the starspot cycle. If HD 81809 behaves like the Sun, its X-ray brightness can vary by a factor of one hundred over a few years. "We might well have caught HD 81809 at the beginning of an X-ray activity cycle," added Favata. The existence of starspot cycles on other stars had already been established long ago, thanks to observations that began in the 1950s. However, scientists did not know whether the X-ray radiation would also vary with the number of starspots. ESA's XMM-Newton has now shown that this is indeed the case and that this cyclic X-ray pattern is not typical of the Sun alone. "This suggests that our Sun's behaviour is probably nothing exceptional," said Favata. Besides its interest for scientists, the Sun's cyclical behaviour can have an influence on everyone on Earth. Our climate is known to be significantly affected by the high-energy radiation emitted by the Sun. For instance, a temporary disappearance of the solar cycle in the 18th century corresponded with an exceptionally cold period on Earth. Similarly, in the early phases of the lifetime of a planet, this high-energy radiation has a strong influence on the conditions of the atmosphere, and thus potentially on the development of life. Finding out

  13. Planck intermediate results I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Collaboration, Planck; Arnaud, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present further results from the ongoing XMM-Newton validation follow-up of Planck cluster candidates, detailing X-ray observations of eleven candidates detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.5 ... of candidates previously confirmed with XMM-Newton. The X-ray and optical redshifts for a total of 20 clusters are found to be in excellent agreement. We also show that useful lower limits can be put on cluster redshifts using X-ray data only via the use of the Y-X vs. Y-SZ and X-ray flux F-X vs. Y-SZ relations....

  14. Analysis of XMM-Newton Data from Extended Sources and the Diffuse X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of X-ray data from extended objects and the diffuse background is a complicated process that requires attention to the details of the instrumental response as well as an understanding of the multiple background components. We present methods and software that we have developed to reduce data from XMM-Newton EPIC imaging observations for both the MOS and PN instruments. The software has now been included in the Science Analysis System (SAS) package available through the XMM-Newton Science Operations Center (SOC).

  15. Recovering galaxy cluster gas density profiles with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, I.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Vikhlinin, A.; Pointecouteau, E.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Mazzotta, P.; Andrade-Santos, F.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the reconstruction of galaxy cluster radial density profiles obtained from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, using high quality data for a sample of twelve objects covering a range of morphologies and redshifts. By comparing the results obtained from the two observatories and by varying key aspects of the analysis procedure, we examined the impact of instrumental effects and of differences in the methodology used in the recovery of the density profiles. We find that the final density profile shape is particularly robust. We adapted the photon weighting vignetting correction method developed for XMM-Newton for use with Chandra data, and confirm that the resulting Chandra profiles are consistent with those corrected a posteriori for vignetting effects. Profiles obtained from direct deprojection and those derived using parametric models are consistent at the 1% level. At radii larger than 6″, the agreement between Chandra and XMM-Newton is better than 1%, confirming an excellent understanding of the XMM-Newton PSF. Furthermore, we find no significant energy dependence. The impact of the well-known offset between Chandra and XMM-Newton gas temperature determinations on the density profiles is found to be negligible. However, we find an overall normalisation offset in density profiles of the order of 2.5%, which is linked to absolute flux cross-calibration issues. As a final result, the weighted ratios of Chandra to XMM-Newton gas masses computed at R2500 and R500 are r = 1.03 ± 0.01 and r = 1.03 ± 0.03, respectively. Our study confirms that the radial density profiles are robustly recovered, and that any differences between Chandra and XMM-Newton can be constrained to the 2.5% level, regardless of the exact data analysis details. These encouraging results open the way for the true combination of X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, fully leveraging the high resolution of Chandra and the high throughput of XMM-Newton.

  16. The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. VII. The third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosen, S.R; Webb, N.A; Watson, M.G; Ballet, J; Barret, D; Braito, V; Carrera, F.J; Ceballos, M.T; Coriat, M; Della Ceca, R; Denkinson, G; Esquej, P; Farrell, S.A; Freyberg, M; Grisé, F; Guillout, P; Heil, L; Law-Green, D; Lamer, G; Lin, D; Martino, R; Michel, L; Motch, C; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A; Page, C.G; Page, K; Page, M; Pakull, M.W; Pye, J; Read, A; Rodriguez, P; Sakano, M; Saxton, R; Schwope, A; Scott, A.E; Sturm, R; Traulsen, I; Yershov, V; Zolotukhin, I; Koliopanos, F

    2016-01-01

    ... (30' across in full field mode) of the X-ray cameras on board the European Space Agency X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, each individual pointing can result in the detection of hundreds of X-ray sources, most of which are newly discovered...

  17. Extreme AGN Captured in a Low State by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Kara, Erin; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    The most variable active galactic nuclei (AGN), taken together, are a compelling wellspring of interesting accretion-related phenomena and can exhibit dramatic variability in the X-ray band down to timescales of a few minutes. We present the exemplifying case study of 1H 1934-063 (z = 0.0102), a narrow-line Seyfert I (NLS1) that is among the most variable AGN ever observed with XMM-Newton. We present spectroscopic and temporal analyses of a concurrent XMM-Newton and NuSTAR 120 ks observation, during which the source exhibited a steep (factor of 1.5) plummet and subsequent full recovery of flux that we explore in detail. Combined spectral and timing results point to a dramatic change in the continuum on timescales as short as a few ks. Similar to other highly variable Seyfert 1s, this AGN is X-ray bright and displays strong reflection spectral features. We find agreement with a change in the continuum, and we rule out absorption as the cause for this dramatic variability that is observed even at NuSTAR energies. We compare measurements from detailed time-resolved spectral fitting with Fourier-based timing results to constrain coronal geometry, dynamics, and emission/absorption processes dictating the nature of this variability. We also announce the discovery of a Fe-K time lag between the hard X-ray continuum emission (1-4 keV) and relativistically-blurred reprocessing by the inner accretion flow (0.3-1 keV).

  18. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  19. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  20. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...

  1. The XID Results Database of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L.; Motch, C.

    2011-07-01

    (Written on behalf of the Survey Science Center of the XMM-Newton satellite) The Survey Science Center (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite has carried out several large optical campaigns aiming at the spectroscopic identification of samples of about a thousand X-ray sources at various X-ray flux levels and towards different Galactic directions. In addition, the SSC has obtained multi-color wide-field imaging for hundreds of XMM-Newton fields. Building learning samples for the statistical identification of all 2XMM sources was one of the main drivers for undertaking these observing campaigns. However, as demonstrated by the amount of papers published, these collections of data also constitute a very valuable resource which can be used for addressing a wide range of astrophysical issues. We describe the content and architecture of the XID results database recently opened by the SSC and containing a first installment of these data. The interface provides easy selection and browsing through catalogs and access to all optical images and spectral data associated with any given X-ray source as well as all relevant XMM-Newton data. The database was created using the database generator Saada and, together with the XCat-DB already deployed at the Observatoire de Strasbourg, provides another example of the flexibility, ease of use and scalability offered by Saada.

  2. The XMM-Newton View of Wolf-Rayet Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M.; Toala, J.

    2017-10-01

    The powerful stellar winds of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars blow large bubble into the circumstellar material ejected in previous phases of stellar evolution. The shock of those stellar winds produces X-ray-emitting hot plasmas which tells us about the diffusion of processed material onto the interstellar medium, about processes of heat conduction and turbulent mixing at the interface, about the late stages of stellar evolution, and about the shaping of the circumstellar environment, just before supernova explosions. The unique sensitivity of XMM-Newton has been key for the detection, mapping and spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the hot bubbles around WR stars. These observations underscore the importance of the structure of the interstellar medium around massive stars, but they have also unveiled unknown phenomena, such as blowouts of hot gas into the interstellar medium or spatially-resolved spectral properties of the hot gas, which disclose inhomogeneous chemical abundances and physical properties across these bubbles.

  3. Quiet but still bright: XMM-Newton observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 0526-66

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiengo, A.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Israel, G.L.; Stella, L.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Rea, N.; Götz, D.; Feroci, M.

    2009-01-01

    SGR 0526-66 was the first soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) from which a giant flare was detected in March 1979, suggesting the existence of magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic field. Since then, very little information has been obtained on this object,

  4. Simultaneous NuSTAR and XMM-Newton 0.5-80 keV spectroscopy of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Kara, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad-band spectral analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observational campaign of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SWIFT J2127.4+5654, consisting of 300 ks performed during three XMM-Newton orbits. We detect a relativistic broadened iron Kα line...

  5. The XMM-Newton Very Large Program on Cosmology with High-Redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risaliti, G.

    2017-10-01

    The non-linear relation between the X-ray and UV emission in quasars can be used to estimate the distance of quasars with a precision of 0.2 dex. Based on this property, we built a Hubble Diagram of quasars up to z˜6. This provides a new way to test the cosmological model at high redshift, and to measure the cosmological parameters. So far, we filled the Hubble Diagram with SDSS quasars with serendipitous XMM observation. This is an efficient method up to z˜2-2.5, but at higher redshifts pointed observations are needed in order to constrain the cosmological models. XMM-Newton will observe 30 optically bright quasars at z 3, allowing to measure the expansion rate of the Universe at z=3 with a 8% precision. This will provide a tight test of the standard LCDM model, and an improvement of the constraints on the possible evolution of the equation of state of the dark energy.

  6. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Arzner, K.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Feigelson, E. D.; Franciosini, E.; Glauser, A.; Grosso, N.; Micela, G.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) is the nearest large star-forming region, prototypical for the distributed mode of low-mass star formation. Pre-main sequence stars are luminous X-ray sources, probably mostly owing to magnetic energy release. Aims. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (EST) presented in this paper surveys the most populated =5 square degrees of the TMC, using the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory to study the thermal structure, variability, and long-term evolution of hot plasma, to investigate the magnetic dynamo, and to search for new potential members of the association. Many targets are also studied in the optical, and high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy has been obtained for selected bright sources. Methods. The X-ray spectra have been coherently analyzed with two different thermal models (2-component thermal model, and a continuous emission measure distribution model). We present overall correlations with fundamental stellar parameters that were derived from the previous literature. A few detections from Chandra observations have been added. Results. The present overview paper introduces the project and provides the basic results from the X-ray analysis of all sources detected in the XEST survey. Comprehensive tables summarize the stellar properties of all targets surveyed. The survey goes deeper than previous X-ray surveys of Taurus by about an order of magnitude and for the first time systematically accesses very faint and strongly absorbed TMC objects. We find a detection rate of 85% and 98% for classical and weak-line T Tau stars (CTTS resp. WTTS), and identify about half of the surveyed protostars and brown dwarfs. Overall, 136 out of 169 surveyed stellar systems are detected. We describe an X-ray luminosity vs. mass correlation, discuss the distribution of X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratios, and show evidence for lower X-ray luminosities in CTTS compared to WTTS. Detailed analysis (e.g., variability, rotation

  7. The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.

  8. An XMM-Newton Science Archive for next decade, and its integration into ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Rodriguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.; Colomo, E.; Merin, B.; Giordano, F.; Racero, E.; Migliari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We will present a roadmap for the next decade improvements of the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA), as planned for an always faster and more user friendly access to all XMM-Newton data. This plan includes the integration of the Upper Limit server, an interactive visualization of EPIC and RGS spectra, on-the-fly data analysis, among other advanced features. Within this philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky, the science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions. A first public beta release of the ESASky service has been already released at the end of 2015. It is currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-ready data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new generation of HEALPix projections called HiPS, developed at the CDS; detailed geometrical footprints to connect the all-sky mosaics to individual observations; and direct access to science-ready data at the underlying mission-specific science archives. New XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky, together with INTEGRAL, HST, Herschel, Planck and other future data.

  9. The multi-layer variable absorbers in NGC 1365 revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations...

  10. Supernova remnants and candidates detected in the XMM-Newton M31 large survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Manami; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Haberl, Frank; Hatzidimitriou, Despina; Stiele, Holger; Williams, Benjamin; Kong, Albert; Kolb, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in M31 identified in the XMM-Newton large programme survey of M31. SNRs are among the bright X-ray sources in a galaxy. They are good indicators of recent star formation activities of a galaxy and of the interstellar environment in which they evolve. By combining the X-ray data of sources in M31 with optical data as well as with optical and radio catalogues, we aim to compile a complete, revised list of SNRs emitting X-rays i...

  11. The distance and internal composition of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Guobao; Mendez, Mariano; Jonker, Peter; Hiemstra, Beike

    Recently, the neutron star X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 underwent a transition to quiescence. We analysed an XMM-Newton observation of this source in quiescence, where we fitted the spectrum with two different neutron star atmosphere models. From the fits we constrained the allowed parameter space in

  12. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than

  13. Ultraviolet and X-ray variability of NGC 4051 over 45 days with XMM-Newton and Swift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alston, W.N.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse 15 XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051 obtained over 45 d to determine the ultraviolet (UV) light curve variability characteristics and search for correlated UV/X-ray emission. The UV light curve shows variability on all time-scales, however with lower fractional rms

  14. An X-Ray Investigation of the NGC346 Field in the SMC (3): XMM-Newton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naze, Yael; Manfroid, Jean; Corcoran, Michael F.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2004-01-01

    We present new XMM-Newton results on the field around the NGC346 star cluster in the SMC. This continues and extends previously published work on Chandra observations of the same field. The two XMM-Newton observations were obtained, respectively, six months before and six months after the previously published Chandra data. Of the 51 X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton, 29 were already detected with Chandru. Comparing the properties of these X-ray sources in each of our three datasets has enabled us to investigate their variability on times scales of a year. Changes in the flux levels and/or spectral properties were observed for 21 of these sources. In addition, we discovered long-term variations in the X-ray properties of the peculiar system HD5980, a luminous blue variable star, that is likely to be a colliding wind binary system, which displays the largest luminosity during the first XMM-Newton observation.

  15. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcons, X.

    2005-03-17

    We present the results of a long ({approx} 93 ksec) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength {lambda} = 23.33 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} which we interpret as OVI K{alpha} absorption at z = 0.058, i.e., {approx} 3000 km s{sup -1} from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line {approx} 30m {angstrom}, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density N{sub OVI} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s{sup -1}. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV K{alpha} absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is {approx} 2.5 x 10{sup 5} K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  16. XMM-Newton Archival Study of the ULX Population in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, christopher S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of an archival XMM-Newton study of the bright X-ray point sources (L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 38 erg per second)) in 32 nearby galaxies. From our list of approximately 100 point sources, we attempt to determine if there is a low-state counterpart to the Ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) population, searching for a soft-hard state dichotomy similar to that known for Galactic X-ray binaries and testing the specific predictions of the IMBH hypothesis. To this end, we searched for low-state objects, which we defined as objects within our sample which had a spectrum well fit by a simple absorbed power law, and high-state objects, which we defined as objects better fit by a combined blackbody and a power law. Assuming that low-state)) objects accrete at approximately 10% of the Eddington luminosity (Done & Gierlinski 2003) and that high-state objects accrete near the Eddington luminosity we further divided our sample of sources into low and high state ULX sources. We classify 16 sources as low-state ULXs and 26 objects as high-state ULXs. As in Galactic black hole systems, the spectral indices, GAMMA, of the lowstate objects, as well as the luminosities, tend to be lower than those of the high-state objects. The observed range of blackbody temperatures for the high state is 0.1-1 keV, with the most luminous systems tending toward the lowest temperatures. We therefore divide our high-state ULXs into candidate IMBHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 0.1 keV) and candidate stellar mass BHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 1.0 keV). A subset of the candidate stellar mass BHs have spectra that are well-fit by a Comptonization model, a property similar of Galactic BHs radiating in the very-high state near the Eddington limit.

  17. The accretion environment of supergiant fast X-ray transients probed with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Bernardini, F.; Ferrigno, C.; Falanga, M.; Romano, P.; Oskinova, L.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Supergiant fast X-ray (SFXT) transients are a peculiar class of supergiant X-ray binaries characterized by a remarkable variability in the X-ray domain, widely ascribed to accretion from a clumpy stellar wind. Aims: In this paper we performed a systematic and homogeneous analysis of the sufficiently bright X-ray flares observed with XMM-Newton from the supergiant fast X-ray transients to probe spectral variations on timescales as short as a few hundred seconds. Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether SFXT flares and outbursts are triggered by the presence of clumps, and to reveal whether strongly or mildly dense clumps are required. Methods: For all sources, we employ a technique developed by our group already exploited in a number of our previous papers, making use of an adaptive rebinned hardness ratio to optimally select the time intervals for the spectral extraction. A total of twelve observations performed in the direction of five SFXTs are reported, providing the largest sample of events available so far. Results: Using the original results reported here and those obtained with our technique from the analysis of two previously published XMM-Newton observations of IGR J17544-2619 and IGR J18410-0535, we show that both strongly and mildly dense clumps can trigger these events. In the former case, the local absorption column density may increase by a factor of ≫3, while in the latter case, the increase is only a factor of 2-3 (or lower). An increase in the absorption column density is generally recorded during the rise of the flares/outbursts, while a drop follows when the source achieves peak flux. In a few cases, a re-increase of the absorption column density after the flare is also detected, and we discovered one absorption event related to the passage of an unaccreted clump in front of the compact object. Overall, there seems to be no obvious correlation between the dynamic ranges in the X-ray fluxes and absorption column densities in

  18. The XMM-Newton View of the x<0.4 Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, F.

    2017-10-01

    We present preliminary results from the whole 1.6 Ms XMM-Newton observation of the z>0.4 Blazar 1ES 1553+113. The final 1.6 Ms spectrum of 1ES 1553+113 has reached a 90% sensitivity of 4 mA to absorption line equivalent width. In the XMM-Newton and Chandra grating archives such sensitivities are reached only in the spectra of the brightest blazar in the Universe, Mkn 421, which however explores a line-of-sight pathlength >10 times shorter than that seen against 1ES 1553+113. According to the most conservative theoretical predictions at least 2 WHIM OVII Ka absorbers should have been detected down to these sensitivities and up to such pathlengths. However, the RGS spectrum of 1ES 1553+113, which clearly detects several all the expected Galactic absorption lines down to such sensitivities and hints to a bunch of even weaker Galactic transitions, does not show any intervening absorption line securely identifiable with WHIM. This clearly questions predictions at a significance larger than 90% and opens a number of questions that desperately need to be properly investigated and possibly addressed, both theoretically and observationally, before the advent of the next generation of high-resolution X-ray spectrometers.

  19. XMM-Newton study of the supersoft symbiotic system Draco C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara; Sasaki, Manami; Ducci, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirty-one XMM-Newton observations of the symbiotic star Draco C1 located in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This object had been identified as a supersoft source based on ROSAT data. We analysed X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and optical data taken with XMM-Newton in order to obtain the physical parameters and the geometry of the system. We have also performed the first X-ray timing analysis of Draco C1. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with a blackbody model with a temperature of (1.8 ± 0.3) × 105 K. We obtained a bolometric luminosity of ≳1038 erg s-1 for the white dwarf. The X-ray spectrum and luminosity suggest stable nuclear burning on the surface of the white dwarf. The low column density derived from the X-ray spectrum is consistent with the lack of nebular lines found in previous UV studies. The long-term variability in the optical and the UV suggests that the system is not observed face-on and that the variability is caused by the reflection effect. For the red giant companion, we estimate a radius of ∼110 R⊙ and an upper limit ≲1.5 M⊙ for its mass assuming Roche lobe overflow.

  20. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  1. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband...

  2. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Accretion-driven Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1751-305 in Outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Méndez, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Tiengo, A.; van der Klis, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the first high-resolution spectra measured from an accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar in outburst. We observed XTE J1751-305 with XMM-Newton on 2002 April 7 for approximately 35 ks. Using a simple absorbed blackbody plus power-law model, we measure an unabsorbed flux

  3. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the X-ray Detected Broad Absorption Line QSO CSO 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from XMM-Newton observations of the highly optically polarized broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) CSO 755. By analyzing its X-ray spectrum with a total of approximately 3000 photons we find that this source has an X-ray continuum of "typical" radio-quiet quasars, with a photon index of Gamma=1.83, and a rather flat (X-ray bright) intrinsic optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of alpha_ox=- 1.51. The source shows evidence for intrinsic absorption, and fitting the spectrum with a neutral-absorption model gives a column density of N_H approximately 1.2x10^22 cm^{-2}; this is among the lowest X-ray columns measured for BALQSOs. We do not detect, with high significance, any other absorption features in the X-ray spectrum. Upper limits we place on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral (ionized) Fe K-alpha line, less than =180 eV (less than =120 eV), and on the Compton-reflection component parameter, R less than =0.2, suggest that most of the X-rays from the source are directly observed rather than being scattered or reflected; this is also supported by the relatively flat intrinsic alpha ox we measure. The possibility that most of the X-ray flux is scattered due to the high level of UV-optical polarization is ruled out. Considering data for 46 BALQSOs from the literature, including CSO 755, we have found that the UV-optical continuum polarization level of BALQSOs is not correlated with any of their X-ray properties. A lack of significant short-term and long-term X-ray flux variations in the source may be attributed to a large black-hole mass in CSO 755. We note that another luminous BALQSO, PG 2112+059, has both similar shallow C IV BALs and moderate X-ray absorption.

  4. An XMM-Newton Monitoring Campaign of the Accretion Flow in IGRJ16318-4848

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Nicastro, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    This grant is associated to a successful XMM-Newton-AO3 observational proposal to monitor the spectrum of the X-ray loud component of the recently discovered binary system IGR J16138-4848, to study the conditions of the accretion flows (and their evolution) in binary system. All four EPIC-PN and MOS observations of the target have now been performed (the last one of the 4, only 3 months ago). The four observations were logarithmically spaced, so to cover timescales from days to months. Data from all four pointings have now been reduced, using the XMM-Newton data reduction pipeline, and spectra and lightcurves from the target have been extracted. For the first three observations we have already performed the observation-by-observation data analysis, by fitting the single EPIC spectra with spectral models that include an intrinsic continuum power law (reduced at low energy by neutral absorption), a 6.4 keV iron emission line (detected in all spectra with varying intensity) and a Compton-reflection component. A Compton reflection component is also detected in all spectra, although at lower significance. The analysis of the fourth and last observation of our monitoring campaign has just recently begun. Next, we will (1) stack together the four observations of IGR J16138-4848, to obtain high-accuracy estimates of the average spectral parameters of this object; and then (2) proceed to the time-evolving analysis, of the three spectral parameters: (a) Gamma (the slope of the intrinsic continuum), (b) W(FeK), the equivalent width of the 6.4 keV Iron emission line, and (c) R, the relative amount of Compton reflection. Through this time-resolved spectroscopic analysis we hope to constrain (a) the physical state of the accreting matter and its relation with the X-ray output, and (b) the evolution of the accretion flow geometry, distribution and covering factor.

  5. On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ibarra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.

  6. XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.

  7. Neutron Stars and Black Holes New clues from Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Neutron stars and black holes, the most compact astrophysical objects, have become observable in many different ways during the last few decades. We will first review the phenomenology and properties of neutron stars and black holes (stellar and supermassive) as derived from multiwavelength observatories. Recently much progress has been made by means of the new powerful X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton which provide a substantial increase in sensitivity as well as spectral and angular resolution compared with previous satellites like ROSAT and ASCA. We shall discuss in more detail two recent topics: (1) The attempts to use X-ray spectroscopy for measuring the radii of neutron stars which depend on the equation of state at supranuclear densities. Have quark stars been detected? (2) The diagnostics of the strong gravity regions around supermassive black holes using X-ray spectroscopy.

  8. Investigating the origin of X-ray variability through XMM-Newton and WISE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaino, A.; Vignali, C.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Ballo, L.

    2017-10-01

    An efficient diagnostic method to find local (zmethod outlined above using the latest 3XMM and WISE data, and I investigated its potentialities in finding interesting spectrally variable (including changing-look) XMM-Newton sources.

  9. The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; /SRON, Utrecht; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.; de Plaa, J.; /SRON, Utrecht; Rasmussen, A.P.; /KIPAC, Menlo; de Vries, C.P.; /SRON, Utrecht

    2006-04-28

    Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  10. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03855 (United States); Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Costantini, E. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Jahnke, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Vignali, C.; Brusa, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-20

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  11. An XMM-Newton study of the mixed-morphology supernova remnant W28 (G6.4-0.1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ping; Safi-Harb, Samar; Chen, Yang; ZHANG, XIAO; Jiang, Bing; Ferrand, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We have performed an XMM-Newton imaging and spectroscopic study of supernova remnant (SNR) W28, a prototype mixed-morphology or thermal composite SNR, believed to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The observed hot X-ray emitting plasma is characterized by low metal abundances, showing no evidence of ejecta. The X-rays arising from the deformed northeast shell consist of a thermal component with a temperature of $\\sim0.3$ keV plus a hard component of either thermal (temperature $\\sim 0.6$...

  12. X-ray Investigations of Quasars with XMM-Newton: Outflow Energetics and High- Redshift Intrinsic Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are among the most extreme physical environments in the Universe, and it now appears that feedback from AGN winds and jets plays a critical role in the evolution of typical massive galaxies and larger-scale structures. This proposal requests funding to support work on two XMM-Newton guest investigator projects that have already won competitive observing time to study quasars, the most luminous examples of AGNs. The first project is an approved XMM-Newton Large Program that won 350 ks of priority A observation time in AO-9. This project involves an ambitious long-look observation that will obtain the first high-quality grating spectroscopy of a mini-Broad Absorption Line (mini-BAL) quasar, with the aim of assessing the kinetic luminosity of its outflow (the target is PG 1114+445). Grating spectroscopy of a small sample of local Seyfert galaxies has led to highly regarded accurate determinations of their wind properties. The planned extension of grating spectroscopy to the first mini-BAL quasar level AGN will determine if the outflow becomes as powerful as proposed in current AGN feedback scenarios. The 375,000 count EPIC CCD spectra from this long-look will enable unprecedented complementary studies of high-energy absorption features and iron K emission. The data for this project will be gathered over the coming year starting in 2010 May. The second project is an investigation of X-ray absorption in the most-distant radio-loud quasars. Here we are extending our systematic X-ray studies of the most-distant known quasars with XMM-Newton spectroscopy of typical radio-loud quasars (RLQs) at z ~ 4- 5. Our targets are more representative of the overall RLQ population than the small number of highly radio-loud blazars studied at these redshifts. We will search for X-ray absorption in the quasars' environments to determine if it is common among typical RLQs at the highest redshifts. We will also measure X-ray continuum shapes and search for

  13. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 715 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MOV format Movie still in TIFF format (9761 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (715 Kb) This animation depicts three hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three chunks (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 30 000 kilometres per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. hi-res Size hi-res: 220 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MPG format Movie still in TIFF format (2553 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (220 Kb) This is a simplified illustration of two hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volt (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volt as it moves away. This is the 'Doppler effect' and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, a second blob is added, which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. The observation, made with ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory, marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and

  14. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark 120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Lobban, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Dauser, T.; Farrah, D.; Garcia, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tortosa, A.; Ursini, F.; Zhang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The physical characteristics of the material closest to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are primarily studied through X-ray observations. However, the origins of the main X-ray components such as the soft X-ray excess, the Fe Kα line complex, and the hard X-ray excess are still hotly debated. This is particularly problematic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) showing a significant intrinsic absorption, either warm or neutral, which can severely distort the observed continuum. Therefore, AGN with no (or very weak) intrinsic absorption along the line of sight, so-called "bare AGN", are the best targets to directly probe matter very close to the SMBH. Aims: We perform an X-ray spectral analysis of the brightest and cleanest bare AGN known so far, Ark 120, in order to determine the process(es) at work in the vicinity of the SMBH. Methods: We present spectral analyses of data from an extensive campaign observing Ark 120 in X-rays with XMM-Newton (4 × 120 ks, 2014 March 18-24), and NuSTAR (65.5 ks, 2014 March 22). Results: During this very deep X-ray campaign, the source was caught in a high-flux state similar to the earlier 2003 XMM-Newton observation, and about twice as bright as the lower-flux observation in 2013. The spectral analysis confirms the "softer when brighter" behavior of Ark 120. The four XMM-Newton/pn spectra are characterized by the presence of a prominent soft X-ray excess and a significant Fe Kα complex. The continuum is very similar above about 3 keV, while significant variability is present for the soft X-ray excess. We find that relativistic reflection from a constant-density, flat accretion disk cannot simultaneously produce the soft excess, broad Fe Kα complex, and hard X-ray excess. Instead, Comptonization reproduces the broadband (0.3-79 keV) continuum well, together with a contribution from a mildly relativistic disk reflection spectrum. Conclusions: During this 2014 observational campaign, the soft X-ray spectrum of Ark 120 below 0

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton and Chandra monitoring of Sgr A* (Ponti+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; de, Marco B.; Morris, M. R.; Merloni, A.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Clavel, M.; Haggard, D.; Zhang, S.; Nandra, K.; Gillessen, S.; Mori, K.; Neilsen, J.; Rea, N.; Degenaar, N.; Terrier, R.; Goldwurm, A.

    2018-01-01

    As of 2014 November 11 the XMM-Newton archive contains 37 public observations that can be used for our analysis of Sgr A*. In addition, we consider four new observations aimed at monitoring the interaction between the G2 object and Sgr A*, performed in fall 2014 (see Table A4). A total of 41 XMM-Newton data sets are considered in this work. All the 46 Chandra observations accumulated between 1999 and 2011 and analysed here are obtained with the ACIS-I camera without any gratings on (see Table A1). From 2012 onwards, data from the ACIS-S camera were also employed. The 2012 Chandra "X-ray Visionary Project" (XVP) is composed of 38 High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) observations with the ACIS-S camera at the focus (Nowak et al. 2012ApJ...759...95N; Neilsen et al. 2013ApJ...774...42N; 2015ApJ...799..199N; Wang et al. 2013Sci...341..981W; see Table A2). The first two observations of the 2013 monitoring campaign were performed with the ACIS-I instrument, while the ACIS-S camera was employed in all the remaining observations, after the outburst of SGR J1745-2900 on 2013 April 25. Three observations between 2013 May and July were performed with the HETG on, while all the remaining ones do not employ any gratings (see Table A2). (4 data files).

  16. Comparative Analysis and Variability of the Jovian X-Ray Spectra Detected by the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yawei [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Kharchenko, Vasili A [ORNL; Bhardwaj, Anil [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, India; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella [University College, London; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2010-01-01

    Expanding upon recent work, a more comprehensive spectral model based on charge exchange induced X-ray emission by ions precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere is used to provide new understanding of the polar auroras. In conjunction with the Xspec spectral fitting software, the model is applied to analyze observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton by systematically varying the initial precipitating ion parameters to obtain the best fit model for the observed spectra. In addition to the oxygen and sulfur ions considered previously, carbon is included to discriminate between solar wind and Jovian magnetospheric ion origins, enabled by the use of extensive databases of both atomic collision cross sections and radiative transitions. On the basis of fits to all the Chandra observations, we find that carbon contributes negligibly to the observed polar X-ray emission suggesting that the highly accelerated precipitating ions are of magnetospheric origin. Most of the XMM-Newton fits also favor this conclusion with one exception that implies a possible carbon contribution. Comparison among all the spectra from these two observatories in light of the inferred initial energies and relative abundances of precipitating ions from the modeling show that they are significantly variable in time (observation date) and space (north and south polar X-ray auroras).

  17. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  18. X-Ray Timing Measurements of NGC 5408 X-1 With XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT: Implications for the Mass of a ULX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2008-01-01

    I present new X-ray timing measurements of the ULX NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton, and long term monitoring with the XRT onboard SWIFT. This object is one of only two ULXs in which quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) have been detected. Recent observations with XMM-Newton confirm the presence of QPOs in this object. Most interestingly, two QPOs are again detected, as in an earlier observation, however, the QPO frequencies are different, now appearing at 10 and approximately 14 mHz. We discuss the implications of the QPO frequencies and spectra at these two different epochs for the mass of the black hole in NGC 5408 X-1. We also present strong evidence for long term flux variations based on the SWIFT monitoring campaign.

  19. The Soft-X-Ray Emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the Importance of Taking the Broad View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M.; Lohfink, A.; Arevalo, P.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Stern, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models, a cutoff power law best explains the soft-X-ray emission. This model likely corresponds to Comptonization of the accretion disc seed UV photons by a population of warm electrons: using Comptonization models, a temperature of approximately 0.3 kiloelectronvolts and an optical depth of approximately 13 are found. If the UV-to-X-ray OPTXAGNF model is applied, the UV fluxes from the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor suggest an intermediate black hole spin. Contrary to several other sources observed by NuSTAR, no high-energy cutoff is detected with a lower limit of 190 kiloelectronvolts.

  20. Eta Carinae's Hard X-ray Tail Measured with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Sharma, Neetika; Gull, Theodore R.; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Grefenstette, Brian; Yuasa, Takayuki; Stuhlinger, Martin; Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Madura, Thomas; Richardson, Noel; Groh, Jose; Pittard, Julian; Owocki, Stan

    2016-04-01

    Massive binary stellar systems drive shock plasma heating via the collision of winds from two stars (wind-wind collision: WWC). With typical (pre-shock) wind speeds of ≥1000 km s-1, temperatures can reach as high as several tens of millions of Kelvin. X-ray emission from these stable shocks provides important tests of shock physics. While the spectrum below 10 keV is complicated by discrete line emission and absorption components, the X-ray spectrum above 10 keV is relatively simple. This high-energy emission therefore provides important clues on the condition of the maximum thermalized plasma where the winds collide head-on, while also providing important information about particle acceleration through the shock.We obtained two coordinated X-ray observations of the super massive binary system η Carinae with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, during the elevated X-ray flux state and just before the X-ray minimum flux state around the periastron passage in the summer of 2014. These NuSTAR observations clearly detected X-ray emission associated with η Car extending up to ~50 keV for the first time. The NuSTAR spectrum above 10 keV can be fit with the bremsstrahlung tail from a kT ~6 keV plasma, about 2 keV higher than those measured from the iron K emission line complex. This result may suggest that the companion star's pre-shock wind velocity is underestimated. The NuSTAR observation near the X-ray minimum state showed a gradual decline in the >5 keV emission by 40% in a day. The extreme absorption to the hardest emission component (NH~1e24 cm-2) suggests increased obscuration of the WWC X-ray emission by the thick primary stellar wind prior to superior conjunction. Neither observation detected the power-law component in the extremely hard band that INTEGRAL and Suzaku observed prior to 2011. If the non-detection by NuSTAR is caused by absorption, the power-law source must be small and located very near the WWC apex. Alternatively, it may be that the power-law source is not

  1. XMM-Newton spectroscopy of the accreting magnetar candidate 4U0114+65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjurjo-Ferrrín, G.; Torrejón, J. M.; Postnov, K.; Oskinova, L.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; Bernabeu, G.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: 4U0114+65 is one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. We present an analysis of a pointed observation by the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope in order to study the nature of the X-ray pulsations and the accretion process, and to diagnose the physical properties of the donor's stellar wind. Methods: We analysed the energy-resolved light curve and the time-resolved X-ray spectra provided by the EPIC cameras on board XMM-Newton. We also analysed the first high-resolution spectrum of this source provided by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer. Results: An X-ray pulse of 9350 ± 160 s was measured. Comparison with previous measurements confirms the secular spin up of this source. We successfully fit the pulse-phase-resolved spectra with Comptonisation models. These models imply a very small (r 3 km) and hot (kT 2 - 3 keV) emitting region and therefore point to a hot spot over the neutron star (NS) surface as the most reliable explanation for the X-ray pulse. The long NS spin period, the spin-up rate, and persistent X-ray emission can be explained within the theory of quasi-spherical settling accretion, which may indicate that the magnetic field is in the magnetar range. Thus, 4U 0114+65 could be a wind-accreting magnetar. We also observed two episodes of low luminosity. The first was only observed in the low-energy light curve and can be explained as an absorption by a large over-dense structure in the wind of the B1 supergiant donor. The second episode, which was deeper and affected all energies, may be due to temporal cessation of accretion onto one magnetic pole caused by non-spherical matter capture from the structured stellar wind. The light curve displays two types of dips that are clearly seen during the high-flux intervals. The short dips, with durations of tens of seconds, are produced through absorption by wind clumps. The long dips, in turn, seem to be associated with the rarefied interclump medium. From the analysis of the X-ray spectra, we found evidence of

  2. XMM-Newton and Swift spectroscopy of the newly discovered very faint X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2013-01-01

    A growing group of low-mass X-ray binaries are found to be accreting at very faint X-ray luminosities of <1036 erg s−1 (2-10 keV). One such system is the new X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030. We present Swift and XMM-Newton observations obtained during its 2012 discovery outburst. The Swift

  3. The XMM-Newton survey in the H-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, P.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Koutoulidis, L.; Rovilos, M.; Carrera, F. J.; Akylas, A.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Gilli, R.; Vignali, C.

    2015-05-01

    Wide-area X-ray and far-infrared surveys are a fundamental tool to investigate the link between AGN growth and star formation, especially in the low-redshift universe (z ≲ 1). The Herschel Terahertz Large Area survey (H-ATLAS) has covered 550 deg2 in five far-infrared and sub-mm bands, 16 deg2 of which have been presented in the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) catalogue. Here we introduce the XMM-Newton observations in the H-ATLAS SDP area, covering 7.1 deg2 with flux limits of 2 × 10-15, 6 × 10-15, and 9 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-2, 0.5-8, and 2-8 keV bands, respectively. We present the source detection and the catalogue, which includes 1700, 1582, and 814 sources detected by EMLDetect in the 0.5-8, 0.5-2, and 2-8 keV bands, respectively; the number of unique sources is 1816. We extract spectra and derive fluxes from power-law fits for 398 sources with more than 40 counts in the 0.5-8 keV band. We compare the best-fit fluxes with those in the catalogue, which are obtained assuming a common photon index of Γ = 1.7; we find no bulk difference between the fluxes and a moderate dispersion of s = 0.33 dex. Using the fluxes from the spectral fits wherever possible, we derive the 2-10 keV Log N-Log S, which is consistent with a Euclidean distribution. Finally, we release the computer code for the tools developed for this project. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.Catalogue tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A121

  4. Disentangling the complex broad-band X-ray spectrum of IRAS 13197-1627 with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Risaliti, G.; Fabian, A. C.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Parker, M. L.; Stern, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present results from a coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR observation of the type 1.8 Seyfert galaxy IRAS 13197-1627. This is a highly complex source, with strong contributions from relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disc, neutral absorption and further reprocessing by more distant material, and ionized absorption from an outflow. We undertake a detailed spectral analysis combining the broad-band coverage provided by XMM-Newton+NuSTAR with a multi-epoch approach incorporating archival observations performed by XMM-Newton and Suzaku. Our focus is on characterizing the reflection from the inner accretion disc, which previous works have suggested may dominate the AGN emission, and constraining the black hole spin. Using lamppost disc reflection models, we find that the results for the inner disc are largely insensitive to assumptions regarding the geometry of the distant reprocessor and the precise form of the illuminating X-ray continuum. However, these results do depend on the treatment of the iron abundance of the distant absorber/reprocessor. The multi-epoch data favour a scenario in which the AGN is chemically homogeneous, and we find that a rapidly rotating black hole is preferred, with a* ≥ 0.7, but a slowly rotating black hole is not strongly excluded. In addition to the results for the inner disc, we also find that both the neutral and ionized absorbers vary from epoch to epoch, implying that both have some degree of inhomogeneity in their structure.

  5. A strong and broad iron line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Mendez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We observed the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652−453 si- multaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652−453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a

  6. Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    , the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies (about ∼70%). The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z = 0.45. For 20 sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit...... to observe a sample of S/N > 5 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. The 4 false candidates have S/N = 4.1. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters...... of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 ≲ z ≲ 0.54, with a median redshift of z ∼ 0.37. A first determination is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the estimate of the SZ Compton parameter, Y 500. The follow-up validation...

  7. An Archival Chandra and XMM-Newton Survey of Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Heckman, Timothy; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate obscuration in high-luminosity type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyzed Chandra and XMM-Newton archival observations for 71 type 2 quasars detected at 0.05 100 eV in the rest frame) and we detect this line in the other sources through a joint fit (spectral stacking). The correlation between the Fe K alpha and [O III] fluxes and the inverse correlation of the equivalent width of the Fe Ka line with the ratio of hard X-ray and [O III] fluxes is consistent with previous results for lower luminosity Seyfert 2 galaxies. We conclude that obscuration is the cause of the weak hard X-ray emission rather than intrinsically low X-ray luminosities. We find that about half of the population of optically selected type 2 quasars are likely to be Compton thick. We also find no evidence that the amount of X-ray obscuration depends on the AGN luminosity (over a range of more than three orders of magnitude in luminosity).

  8. An XMM-Newton Study of 9SGR and the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauw, G.; Blomme, R.; Waldron, W. L.; Naze, Y.; Harries, T. J.; Chapman, J. M.; Corcoran, M. F.; Detal, A.; Gosset, E.

    2001-01-01

    We report preliminary results of an XMM-Newton observation of the 04 V star 9 Sgr (= HD 164794). 9 Sgr is one of a few single OB stars that display a non-thermal radio emission attributed to synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons. Inverse Compton scattering of photospheric UV photons by these relativistic electrons is a priori expected to generate a non-thermal power-law tail in the X-ray spectrum. Our EPIC and RGS spectra of 9 Sgr suggest a more complex situation than expected from this 'simple' theoretical picture. Furthermore, soft-band EPIC images of the region around 9 Sgr reveal a number of point sources inside the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Most of these sources have optical counterparts inside the very young open cluster NGC 6530 and several X-ray sources are associated with low and intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars. Finally, we also detect (probably) diffuse X-ray emission from the Hourglass Region that might reveal a hot bubble blown by the stellar wind of Herschel 36, the ionizing star of the HG region.

  9. XMM-Newton studies of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, William; Guinan, E. F.; Maggi, Pierre; Haberl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are leading contributors to the energy balance, chemical enrichment, and mixing of the interstellar medium (ISM). The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts a large sample of SNRs. The close proximity of the LMC (~50 kpc), combined with moderate foreground ISM absorption, makes it an ideal target for studying these significant objects. In the course of an X-ray survey of the LMC, the space-borne observatory XMM-Newton discovered several new SNRs. A sample of previously known SNRs was observed for the first time with modern X-ray instruments as well. We used these new data to perform X-ray imaging and spectral analyses. We measure properties of the sample such as temperature, composition, and age. Based on the local stellar populations, we also discuss the nature of their parent supernovae. This research is supported by the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellows (VURF), the Max Planck Society (MPG), and the DAAD-RISE scholarship program. We also acknowledge support from NSF/RUI Grant AST 1009903 to Villanova University.

  10. Planck early results. XXVI. Detection with Planck and confirmation by XMM-Newton of PLCK G266.6-27.3, an exceptionally X-ray luminous and massive galaxy cluster at z ~ 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delabrouille, J.; Le Jeune, M.; Patanchon, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present first results on PLCKG266.6-27.3, a galaxy cluster candidate detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 in the Planck All Sky survey. An XMM-Newton validation observation has allowed us to confirm that the candidate isa bona fide galaxy cluster. With these X-ray data we measure an accura...

  11. Fe Emission And Ionized Excess Absorption in the Luminous Quasar 3C109 With XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniutti, Giovanni; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ballantyne, D.R.; /Arizona U.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Ross,; /Holy Cross Coll.

    2006-06-09

    We report results from an XMM-Newton observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 109 (z=0.3056). Previous ASCA data revealed the presence of a broad iron line from the accretion disc with which the XMM-Newton spectrum is fully consistent. However, although improving the ASCA constraints on the line parameters, the quality of the data is not high enough to distinguish between an untruncated accretion disc extending down to small radii close to the black hole and a scenario in which the innermost 20-30 gravitational radii are missing. For this reason, our results are model-dependent and the hard data can be modeled equally well by considering an absorption scenario in which a large column of neutral gas partially covers the X-ray continuum source. However, the absorber would have to comprise hundreds/thousands very compact clouds close to the X-ray source, which seems rather extreme a requirement. The 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosity of 3C 109 is of the order of 2-3 x 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} regardless of the adopted model. A recent black hole mass estimate of {approx} 2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} implies that L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} > 1. If partial covering is excluded, the observed reflection fraction (of the order of unity), steep photon index (1.86), and Fe line equivalent width (about 100 eV) all suggest to exclude that the X-ray continuum is strongly beamed indicating that the large Eddington ratio is associated with a radiatively efficient accretion process and making it unlikely that the innermost accretion disc is replaced by a thick radiatively inefficient medium such as in advection-dominated accretion models. We also confirm previous findings on the detection of low energy absorption in excess of the Galactic value, where we find excellent agreement with previous results obtained in X-rays and at other wavelengths (optical and infrared). The better quality of the XMM-Newton data enables us to attribute the excess absorption to slightly ionized gas in

  12. Star formation history of Canis Major OB1. II. A bimodal X-ray population revealed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, T.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Montmerle, T.; Fernandes, B.; Stelzer, B.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: The Canis Major OB1 Association has an intriguing scenario of star formation, especially in the region called Canis Major R1 (CMa R1) traditionally assigned to a reflection nebula, but in reality an ionized region. This work is focussed on the young stellar population associated with CMa R1, for which our previous results from ROSAT, optical, and near-infrared data had revealed two stellar groups with different ages, suggesting a possible mixing of populations originated from distinct star formation episodes. Methods: The X-ray data allow the detected sources to be characterized according to hardness ratios, light curves, and spectra. Estimates of mass and age were obtained from the 2MASS catalogue and used to define a complete subsample of stellar counterparts for statistical purposes. Results: A catalogue of 387 XMM-Newton sources is provided, of which 78% are confirmed as members or probable members of the CMa R1 association. Flares (or similar events) were observed for 13 sources and the spectra of 21 bright sources could be fitted by a thermal plasma model. Mean values of fits parameters were used to estimate X-ray luminosities. We found a minimum value of log(LX [erg/s] ) = 29.43, indicating that our sample of low-mass stars (M⋆ ≤ 0.5 M⊙), which are faint X-ray emitters, is incomplete. Among the 250 objects selected as our complete subsample (defining our "best sample"), 171 are found to the east of the cloud, near Z CMa and dense molecular gas, of which 50% of them are young (10 Myr). The opposite happens to the west, near GU CMa, in areas lacking molecular gas: among 79 objects, 30% are young and 50% are older. These findings confirm that a first episode of distributed star formation occurred in the whole studied region 10 Myr ago and dispersed the molecular gas, while a second, localized episode (<5 Myr) took place in the regions where molecular gas is still present.

  13. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  14. Eta Carinae's Thermal X-Ray Tail Measured with XMM-Newton and NuStar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Grefenstette, Brian; Yuasa, Takayuki; Stuhlinger, Martin; Russell, Christopher; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Madura, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The evolved, massive highly eccentric binary system, Car, underwent a periastron passage in the summer of 2014. We obtained two coordinated X-ray observations with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the elevated X-ray flux state and just before the X-ray minimum flux state around this passage. These NuSTAR observations clearly detected X-ray emission associated with eta Car extending up to approx. 50 keV for the first time. The NuSTAR spectrum above 10 keV can be fit with the bremsstrahlung tail from a kT approx. 6 keV plasma. This temperature is delta kT 2 keV higher than those measured from the iron K emission line complex, if the shocked gas is in collisional ionization equilibrium. This result may suggest that the companion star's pre-shock wind velocity is underestimated. The NuSTAR observation near the X-ray minimum state showed a gradual decline in the X-ray emission by 40% at energies above 5 keV in a day, the largest rate of change of the X-ray flux yet observed in individual eta Car observations. The column density to the hardest emission component, N(sub H) approx. 10(exp24) H cm(exp-2), marked one of the highest values ever observed for eta Car, strongly suggesting the increased obscuration of the wind-wind colliding X-ray emission by the thick primary stellar wind prior to superior conjunction. Neither observation detected the power-law component in the extremely hard band that INTEGRAL and Suzaku observed prior to 2011. The power-law source might have faded before these observations.

  15. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A with the XMM-Newton RGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shinya; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Konami, Saori; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution X-ray spectra of cloud-shock interaction regions in the eastern and northern rims of the Galactic supernova remnant Puppis A, using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton satellite. A number of emission lines including K(alpha) triplets of He-like N, O , and Ne are clearly resolved for the first time. Intensity ratios of forbidden to resonance lines in the triplets are found to be higher than predictions by thermal emission models having plausible plasma parameters. The anomalous line ratios cannot be reproduced by effects of resonance scattering, recombination, or inner-shell ionization processes, but could be explained by charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. Our observations thus provide observational support for charge-exchange X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

  16. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  17. Catalog of 3 < z < 5.5 Quasar Candidates Selected among XMM-Newton Sources and Its Spectroscopic Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii Khorunzhev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have compiled a catalog of 903 quasar candidates (including known quasars at 3 < z < 5.5 selected among X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton serendipitous survey (3XMM-DR4 catalog. We used photometric SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data to select the objects. The surface number density of objects in our sample exceeds that in the SDSS spectroscopic quasar sample at the same redshifts by a factor of 1.5. We have performed spectroscopic observations of a subsample of new quasar candidates using a new low- and medium-resolution spectrograph at the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope (Mondy, Russia and demonstrated that the purity of these candidates is about 65%. We have discovered one of the most distant (z = 5.08 X-ray selected quasars.

  18. Analysis of Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Time Lag in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Xiao, Guang-Cheng; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shu; Bu, Qing-Cui; Zhang, Liang; Ma, Xiang; Yan, Lin-Li; Qu, Jin-Lu

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the power density spectrum (PDS) and time lag of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed by XMM-Newton. We determined the PDSs for each ULX and found that five of them show intrinsic variability due to obvious quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of mHz-1 Hz, consistent with previous reports. We further investigated these five ULXs to determine their possible time lag. The ULX QPOs exhibit a soft time lag that is linearly related to the QPO frequency. We discuss the likelihood of the ULX QPOs being type-C QPO analogs, and the time lag models. The ULXs might harbor intermediate-mass black holes if their QPOs are type-C QPO analogs. We suggest that the soft lag and the linearity may be due to reverberation.

  19. NuSTAR + XMM-Newton monitoring of the neutron star transient AX J1745.6-2901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Mori, K.; De, K.; Rau, A.; De Marco, B.; Hailey, C.; Tomsick, J.; Madsen, K. K.; Clavel, M.; Rahoui, F.; Lal, D. V.; Roy, S.; Stern, D.

    2018-01-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) transient neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary showcasing intense ionized Fe K absorption. We present here the analysis of 11 XMM-Newton and 15 NuSTAR new data sets (obtained between 2013 and 2016), therefore tripling the number of observations of AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Thanks to simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra, we greatly improve on the fitting of the X-ray continuum. During the soft state, the emission can be described by a disc blackbody (kT ∼ 1.1-1.2 keV and inner disc radius rDBB ∼ 14 km), plus hot (kT ∼ 2.2-3.0 keV) blackbody radiation with a small emitting radius (rBB ∼ 0.5 - 0.8 km) likely associated with the boundary layer or NS surface, plus a faint Comptonization component. Imprinted on the spectra are clear absorption features created by both neutral and ionized matter. Additionally, positive residuals suggestive of an emission Fe K α disc line and consistent with relativistic ionized reflection are present during the soft state, while such residuals are not significant during the hard state. The hard-state spectra are characterized by a hard (Γ ∼ 1.9-2.1) power law, showing no evidence for a high energy cut-off (kTe > 60-140 keV) and implying a small optical depth (τ soft state that significantly weakens during the hard state. Optical (GROND) and radio (GMRT) observations suggest for AX J1745.6-2901 a standard broad-band spectral energy distribution as typically observed in accreting NSs.

  20. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  1. The XMM-Newton view of the central degrees of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; Morris, M. R.; Terrier, R.; Haberl, F.; Sturm, R.; Clavel, M.; Soldi, S.; Goldwurm, A.; Predehl, P.; Nandra, K.; Bélanger, G.; Warwick, R. S.; Tatischeff, V.

    2015-10-01

    The deepest XMM-Newton mosaic map of the central 1.5 ° of the Galaxy is presented, including a total of about 1.5 Ms of EPIC-pn cleaned exposures in the central 15 arcsec and about 200 ks outside. This compendium presents broad-band X-ray continuum maps, soft X-ray intensity maps, a decomposition into spectral components and a comparison of the X-ray maps with emission at other wavelengths. Newly discovered extended features, such as supernova remnants (SNRs), superbubbles and X-ray filaments are reported. We provide an atlas of extended features within ±1° of Sgr A⋆. We discover the presence of a coherent X-ray-emitting region peaking around G0.1-0.1 and surrounded by the ring of cold, mid-IR-emitting material known from previous work as the `Radio Arc Bubble' and with the addition of the X-ray data now appears to be a candidate superbubble. Sgr A's bipolar lobes show sharp edges, suggesting that they could be the remnant, collimated by the circumnuclear disc, of an SN explosion that created the recently discovered magnetar, SGR J1745-2900. Soft X-ray features, most probably from SNRs, are observed to fill holes in the dust distribution, and to indicate a direct interaction between SN explosions and Galactic centre (GC) molecular clouds. We also discover warm plasma at high Galactic latitude, showing a sharp edge to its distribution that correlates with the location of known radio/mid-IR features such as the `GC Lobe'. These features might be associated with an inhomogeneous hot `atmosphere' over the GC, perhaps fed by continuous or episodic outflows of mass and energy from the GC region.

  2. Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.

    2016-01-01

    The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html

  3. Exploring the Diffuse X-ray Emission of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ae Seo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasma of the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton. Assuming the plasma is at collisional ionization equilibrium, a plasma temperature and a column absorption are found to be kT ~ 0.62 keV and NH ~ 2.85 ×1022 cm-2 respectively by imaging spectroscopy. Together with the deduced emission measure, we place constraints on its Sedov parameters.

  4. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  5. The soft-X-ray emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the importance of taking the broad view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    , a cutoff power law best explains the soft-X-ray emission. This model likely corresponds to Comptonization of the accretion disc seed UV photons by a population of warm electrons: using Comptonization models, a temperature of similar to 0.3 keV and an optical depth of similar to 13 are found. If the UV......We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models...

  6. The ultraluminous x-ray sources ngc 1313 x-1 and x-2: a broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by Nu......STAR above 10 keV. The NuSTAR data demonstrate that X-1 has a clear cutoff above 10 keV, whose presence was only marginally detectable with previous X-ray observations. This cutoff rules out the interpretation of X-1 as a black hole in a standard low/hard state, and it is deeper than predicted...... for the downturn of a broadened iron line in a reflection-dominated regime. The cutoff differs from the prediction of a single-temperature Comptonization model. Further, a cold disk-like blackbody component at similar to 0.3 keV is required by the data, confirming previous measurements by XMM-Newton only. We...

  7. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  8. Les nouveaux résultats Chandra et XMM-Newton concernant les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Il s'agit ici d'un apercu des résultats sur les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies (AGNs) obtenus grace `a la nouvelle génération de satellites X: Chandra & XMM-Newton. Pour la première fois, grace `a leurs caractéristiques instrumentales (sensibilité, résolutions angulaire et spectrale) des images et des spectres de qualité sans précédent sont obtenus dans le domaine des rayons X pour les objets extragalactiques comme les Noyaux Actifs de Galaxies. Notamment une étude spectroscopique fine est dorénavant possible ce qui permet d'appliquer de puissants diagnostics de plasmas comme notamment ceux basés sur les raies des ions héliumoides qui donnent une estimation précise de la densité, de la température, ainsi que la mise en évidence des processus d'ionisation (photoionisation et/ou ionisation collisionnelle) qui dominent dans les plasmas chauds (e.g. "Warm Absorber") des AGNs. La sensibilité de XMM-Newton permet d'étudier les AGNs à très grands redshifts et/ou très fortement absorbés. La résolution angulaire (0.5") de Chandra permet d'étudier séparément les différentes composantes de ces objets: le noyau, le milieu chaud environnant ("Warm Absorber"), les jets, ainsi que le milieu interstellaire et les objets ponctuelles (binaires X, candidats trous noirs, restes de Supernovae,...) de la galaxie hôte. Cette nouvelle ère dans le domaine des rayons X va permettre de fortement contraindre les paramètres physiques, géométriques, dynamiques ainsi que la localisation de la matière accrétante autour des trous noirs supermassifs, dans les différents types d'AGNs (Seyfert, quasars Radio-Loud et Radio-Quiet, noyaux actifs dans les amas de galaxies), en relation avec les autres composantes observées dans les autres domaines de longueurs d'onde (radio, optique, UV, etc...). Ceci s'inscrit dans un objectif plus vaste de compréhension de l'évolution de l'ensemble des galaxies qui pour la plupart semblent contenir un trou noir supermassif en leur

  9. XMM-Newton Survey of Globular Cluster Ultracompact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2005-01-01

    Our program consisted of an observation of a single source, 4U 0513-40, which we had previously identified as a candidate ultracompact binary (a system with an orbital period below 1 hour). Several other known or suspected ultracompact binaries have shown unusual elemental abundance ratios in their X-ray spectra. In this program, however, our observation found no unusual abundance ratios in the spectrum of 4U 0513-40. This result was included, along with results from a separate Chandra program, in a paper submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

  10. Modeling the Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: An XMM-Newton View of Sco X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Ramirez, J. M.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the absorption structure of the oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM-Newton observations of the low mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. We use simple models based on the O I atomic cross section from different sources to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data in the interpretation of astrophysical observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results. We also show that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21 - 24.5 Angstrom wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of Epsilon = 10(exp -4) erg/sq cm, and an oxygen column density of N(sub O) approx. = 8-10 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm. Our models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K(alpha) absorption line from O I, which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by other than atomic oxygen.

  11. The Multi-Layer Variable Absorbers in NGC 1365 Revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F.; Arevalo, P.; Baur, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brightman, M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations caught NGC 1365 in an unusually low absorption state, revealing complexity in the multi-layer absorber that had previously been hidden. We find the need for three distinct zones of neutral absorption in addition to the two zones of ionized absorption and the Compton-thick torus previously seen in this source. The most prominent absorber is likely associated with broad-line region clouds with column densities of around approximately 10 (sup 23) per square centimeter and a highly clumpy nature as evidenced by an occultation event in 2013 February. We also find evidence of a patchy absorber with a variable column around approximately 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter and a line-of-sight covering fraction of 0.3-0.9, which responds directly to the intrinsic source flux, possibly due to a wind geometry. A full-covering, constant absorber with a low column density of approximately 1 by 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter is also present, though the location of this low density haze is unknown.

  12. A long XMM-Newton campaign on the mode-switching radio pulsar PSR B0943+10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, S.

    2017-10-01

    Observations obtained in the last years challenged the widespread notion that rotation-powered neutron stars are steady X-ray emitters. Besides the few pulsars showing "magnetar-like" activity, in at least one remarkable object, PSR B0943+10, significant variations, correlated to radio-mode switching have been discovered. Their study opens a new window to investigate the processes responsible for the pulsar radio and high-energy emission. An XMM-Newton Large Program, with simultaneous radio observations with LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo, allowed us to detect X-ray pulsations also during the fainter state and to better constrain the spectral and variability properties of PSR B0943+10. In both radio states the pulsed emission can be described by a thermal blackbody with temperature of a few 10^6 K and the unpulsed emission by a power-law. We discuss a scenario in which both unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap (˜1500 m^2) with a strong non-dipolar field (˜10^{14} G), are present during both modes and vary in intensity in a correlated way. This is broadly consistent with the predictions of the partially screened gap model and does not necessarily imply global magnetospheric rearrangements to explain the mode switching.

  13. A broadband x-ray study of the Geminga pulsar with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Dufour, Francois

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first hard X-ray detection of the Geminga pulsar above 10 keV using a 150 ks observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory. The double-peaked pulse profile of non-thermal emission seen in the soft X-ray band persists at higher energies. Broadband...... phase-integrated spectra over the 0.2-20 keV band with NuSTAR and archival XMM-Newton data do not fit to a conventional two-component model of a blackbody plus power law, but instead exhibit spectral hardening above ~5 keV. We find that two spectral models fit the data well: (1) a blackbody (kT1 ~ 42 e......V) with a broken power law (Γ1 ~ 2.0, Γ2 ~ 1.4 and Ebreak ~ 3.4 keV) and (2) two blackbody components (kT1 ~ 44 eV and kT2 ~ 195 eV) with a power-law component (Γ ~ 1.7). In both cases, the extrapolation of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the thermal component is consistent with the UV data, while the non...

  14. An XMM-Newton Study of the Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchettl, Katie; Ng, C.-Y.; Wong, B. T. T.; Lopez, Laura; Slane, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    We present an X-ray imaging and spectroscopic study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology supernova remnant G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum of the remnant is well described by a recombining plasma that most likely arises from adiabatic cooling and has subsolar abundances of Mg, Si, and S. Our fits also suggest the presence of either an additional power-law component with a photon index of ˜2 or an additional thermal component with a temperature of ˜2.0 keV. We investigate the possible origin of this component and suggest that it could arise from either the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, an unidentified pulsar wind nebula, or X-ray synchrotron emission from high-energy particles accelerated at the shock. However, deeper, high-resolution observations of this object are needed to shed light on the presence and origin of this feature. Based on its morphology, its Galactic latitude, the density of the surrounding environment, and its association with a dense molecular cloud, G346.6-0.2 most likely arises from a massive progenitor that underwent core collapse.

  15. Using the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; O'Steen, Richard; Yen, Steffi; Kuntz, K. D.; Hammer, Derek

    2012-02-01

    We explore the application of XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past billion years and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.

  16. Multivariate Monte Carlo Methods for the Reflection Grating Spectrometers on XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.

    2004-11-10

    We propose a novel multivariate Monte Carlo method as an efficient and flexible approach to analyzing extended X-ray sources with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on XMM Newton. A multi-dimensional interpolation method is used to efficiently calculate the response function for the RGS in conjunction with an arbitrary spatially-varying spectral model. Several methods of event comparison that effectively compare the multivariate RGS data are discussed. The use of a multi-dimensional instrument Monte Carlo also creates many opportunities for the use of complex astrophysical Monte Carlo calculations in diffuse X-ray spectroscopy. The methods presented here could be generalized to other X-ray instruments as well.

  17. Cross-calibrating XMM-Newton's EPIC effective areas for a default empirical correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, C.; Smith, M.; Tenzer, C.; Stuhlinger, M.; Santangelo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Since SAS version 14.0, there is an option available to XMM-Newton users to apply an empirical on-axis effective area correction to reconcile the three EPIC cameras amongst themselves via an energy-dependent multiplicative factor. However, CORRAREA, which is the corresponding extension in the XMM calibration files, is currently only implemented as a non-default tool as it is not yet considered fully validated and requires recalibration. The goal is to make CORRAREA a default correction, for which we perform the necessary data reduction, spectral fitting and analysis, including an automation of the process as far as possible for testing purposes and future updates. This poster introduces the project and shows the current status of the recalibration. Further development of the tool is intended to bring the EPIC cameras in line with instruments on other observatories.

  18. Spectral analysis of the Double Pulsar PSR J0737-3039 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Iacolina, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since its discovery in 2003, the first and unique Double Pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 retains all the attention. This exciting system is composed of two neutron stars: a recycled 23 ms pulsar and a younger pulsar with a period of 2.8 s, revolving in a tight orbit in 2.4 hr. It is the only binary system in which both neutron stars have been detected as radio pulsars. The high-energy study of this system is extremely interesting to understand the physics of the magnetosphere emissions/interactions of both pulsars. We present the spectral analysis of the two XMM-Newton "Large Programs" performed in 2006 and 2011, which result in a total exposure time of about 600 ks.

  19. IACHEC CROSS-CALIBRATION OF CHANDRA , NuSTAR , SWIFT , SUZAKU , XMM-NEWTON WITH 3C 273 ANDPKS 2155-304

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beardmore, Andrew P.; Page, Kim L. [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Guainazzi, Matteo [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201 (Japan); Marshall, Herman L.; Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stuhlinger, Martin [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Caada, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration, we present results from the cross-calibration campaigns in 2012 on 3C 273 and in 2013 on PKS 2155-304 between the then active X-ray observatories Chandra , NuSTAR , Suzaku , Swift, and XMM-Newton . We compare measured fluxes between instrument pairs in two energy bands, 1–5 keV and 3–7 keV, and calculate an average cross-normalization constant for each energy range. We review known cross-calibration features and provide a series of tables and figures to be used for evaluating cross-normalization constants obtained from other observations with the above mentioned observatories.

  20. A Suzaku, NuSTAR, and XMM-Newton view on variable absorption and relativistic reflection in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchert, T.; Markowitz, A. G.; Dauser, T.; García, J. A.; Keck, M. L.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Zdziarski, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    We disentangle X-ray disk reflection from complex line-of-sight absorption in the nearby Seyfert NGC 4151, using a suite of Suzaku, NuSTAR, and XMM-Newton observations. Extending upon earlier published work, we pursue a physically motivated model using the latest angle-resolved version of the lamp-post geometry reflection model relxillCp_lp together with a Comptonization continuum. We use the long-look simultaneous Suzaku/NuSTAR observation to develop a baseline model wherein we model reflected emission as a combination of lamp-post components at the heights of 1.2 and 15.0 gravitational radii. We argue for a vertically extended corona as opposed to two compact and distinct primary sources. We find two neutral absorbers (one full-covering and one partial-covering), an ionized absorber (log ξ = 2.8), and a highly-ionized ultra-fast outflow, which have all been reported previously. All analyzed spectra are well described by this baseline model. The bulk of the spectral variability between 1 keV and 6 keV can be accounted for by changes in the column density of both neutral absorbers, which appear to be degenerate and inversely correlated with the variable hard continuum component flux. We track variability in absorption on both short (2 d) and long ( 1 yr) timescales; the observed evolution is either consistent with changes in the absorber structure (clumpy absorber at distances ranging from the broad line region to the inner torus or a dusty radiatively driven wind) or a geometrically stable neutral absorber that becomes increasingly ionized at a rising flux level. The soft X-rays below 1 keV are dominated by photoionized emission from extended gas that may act as a warm mirror for the nuclear radiation.

  1. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa

    2017-11-01

    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than 1 per cent to the total flux of the source in 0.5-10.0 keV. The fits show significant residuals at around 0.5 keV which can be explained by either a hot gas component around the neutron star or a moderately broad emission line from a residual accretion disc. The temperature of the neutron star has decreased significantly compared to the previous observation, from 124 to 105 eV, with the cooling curve being consistent with either an exponential decay plus a constant or a (broken) power law. The best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius can be better constrained if we extend the fits down to the lowest possible energy available. For an assumed distance of 7.1 kpc, the best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius are 2.00_{-0.24}^{+0.07} M_{⊙} and 11.3_{-1.0}^{+1.3} km if we fit the spectrum over the 0.3-10 keV range, but 1.50_{-1.0}^{+0.4} M_{⊙} and 12.2_{-3.6}^{+0.8} km if we restrict the fits to the 0.5-10 keV range. We finally discuss the effect of the assumed distance to the source upon the best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius. As systematic uncertainties in the deduced mass and radius depending on the distance are much larger than the statistical errors, it would be disingenuous to take these results at face value.

  2. First stars of the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. XMM-Newton view of ρ Oph and its neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Chen, H. H.; Goodman, A.

    2016-08-01

    Star formation in molecular clouds can be triggered by the dynamical action of winds from massive stars. Furthermore, X-ray and UV fluxes from massive stars can influence the life time of surrounding circumstellar disks. We present the results of a 53 ks XMM-Newton observation centered on the ρ Ophiuchi A+B binary system. ρ Ophiuchi lies in the center of a ring of dust, likely formed by the action of its winds. This region is different from the dense core of the cloud (L1688 Core F) where star formation is at work. X-rays are detected from ρ Ophiuchi as well as a group of surrounding X-ray sources. We detected 89 X-ray sources, 47 of them have at least one counterpart in 2MASS+All-WISE catalogs. Based on IR and X-ray properties, we can distinguish between young stellar objects (YSOs) belonging to the cloud and background objects. Among the cloud members, we detect three debris-disk objects and 22 disk-less - Class III young stars.We show that these stars have ages in 5-10 Myr, and are significantly older than the YSOs in L1688. We speculate that they are the result of an early burst of star formation in the cloud. An X-ray energy of ≥5 × 1044 erg has been injected into the surrounding mediumover the past 5 Myr, we discuss the effects of such energy budget in relation to the cloud properties and dynamics.

  3. Study of the Many Fluorescent Lines and the Absorption Variability in GX 301-2 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, F.; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Ferrigno, C.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-depth study of the High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) GX 301-2 during its pre-periastron flare using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. The energy spectrum shows a power law continuum absorbed by a large equivalent hydrogen column on the order of 10(exp 24)/ sq cm and a prominent Fe K-alpha fluorescent emission line. Besides the Fe K-alpha line, evidence for Fe K-Beta, Ni K-alpha, Ni K-Beta, S K-alpha, Ar K-alpha, Ca K-alpha, and Cr K-alpha fluorescent lines is found. The observed line strengths are consistent with fluorescence in a cold absorber. This is the first time that Cr K-alpha is seen in emission in the X-ray spectrum of a HMXB. In addition to the modulation by the strong pulse period of approx 685 sec the source is highly variable and shows different states of activity. We perform time-resolved as well as pulse-to-pulse resolved spectroscopy to investigate differences between these states of activity. We find that fluorescent line fluxes are strongly variable and generally follow the overall flux. The N-H value is variable by a factor of 2, but not correlated to continuum normalization. We find an interval of low flux in the light curve in which the pulsations cease almost completely, without any indication of an increasing absorption column. We investigate this dip in detail and argue that it is most likely that during the dip the accretion ceased and the afterglow of the fluorescent iron accounted for the main portion of the X-ray flux. A similar dip was found earlier in RXTE data, and we compare our findings to these results.

  4. A four-year XMM-Newton/Chandra monitoring campaign of the Galactic centre: analysing the X-ray transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E.M.; Homan, J.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Kuulkers, E.; Maccarone, T.J.; van der Klis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a four-year long X-ray monitoring campaign of the central 1.2 square degrees of our Galaxy, performed with Chandra and XMM-Newton between 2005 and 2008. Our study focuses on the properties of transient X-ray sources that reach 2-10 keV luminosities of LX ≳ 1034 erg s-1

  5. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  6. Using the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor to Study Cluster Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; O'Steen, Richard; Yen, Steffi; Kuntz, K. D.; Hammer, Derek

    2012-01-01

    We explore the application of XMM Newton Optical Monitor (XMM-OM) ultraviolet (UV) data to study galaxy evolution. Our sample is constructed as the intersection of all Abell clusters with z < 0.05 and having archival XMM-OM data in either the UVM2 or UVW1 filters, plus optical and UV photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX, respectively. The 11 resulting clusters include 726 galaxies with measured redshifts, 520 of which have redshifts placing them within their parent Abell clusters. We develop procedures for manipulating the XMM-OM images and measuring galaxy photometry from them, and we confirm our results via comparison with published catalogs. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) constructed using the XMM-OM data along with SDSS optical data show promise for evolutionary studies, with good separation between red and blue sequences and real variation in the width of the red sequence that is likely indicative of differences in star formation history. This is particularly true for UVW1 data, as the relative abundance of data collected using this filter and its depth make it an attractive choice. Available tools that use stellar synthesis libraries to fit the UV and optical photometric data may also be used, thereby better describing star formation history within the past billion years and providing estimates of total stellar mass that include contributions from young stars. Finally, color-color diagrams that include XMM-OM UV data appear useful to the photometric identification of both extragalactic and stellar sources.

  7. ETA CARINAE’S THERMAL X-RAY TAIL MEASURED WITH XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gull, Theodore R.; Russell, Christopher M. P. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Takahashi, Hiromitsu [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Space Radiation Lab, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Yuasa, Takayuki [Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, Japan, 351-0198 (Japan); Stuhlinger, Martin [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, urb. Villafranca del Castillo, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Richardson, Noel D. [Département de physique and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 (Canada); Sharma, Neetika [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Madura, Thomas I. [Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Dr., Columbia, MD 21044 (United States); Groh, Jose [Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, Chemin des Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pittard, Julian M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Owocki, Stanley [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolved, massive highly eccentric binary system, η Car, underwent a periastron passage in the summer of 2014. We obtained two coordinated X-ray observations with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the elevated X-ray flux state and just before the X-ray minimum flux state around this passage. These NuSTAR observations clearly detected X-ray emission associated with η Car extending up to ∼50 keV for the first time. The NuSTAR spectrum above 10 keV can be fit with the bremsstrahlung tail from a kT ∼ 6 keV plasma. This temperature is ΔkT ∼ 2 keV higher than those measured from the iron K emission line complex, if the shocked gas is in collisional ionization equilibrium. This result may suggest that the companion star's pre-shock wind velocity is underestimated. The NuSTAR observation near the X-ray minimum state showed a gradual decline in the X-ray emission by 40% at energies above 5 keV in a day, the largest rate of change of the X-ray flux yet observed in individual η Car observations. The column density to the hardest emission component, N{sub H} ∼ 10{sup 24} H cm{sup −2}, marked one of the highest values ever observed for η Car, strongly suggesting increased obscuration of the wind–wind colliding X-ray emission by the thick primary stellar wind prior to superior conjunction. Neither observation detected the power-law component in the extremely hard band that INTEGRAL and Suzaku observed prior to 2011. If the non-detection by NuSTAR is caused by absorption, the power-law source must be small and located very near the wind–wind collision apex. Alternatively, it may be that the power-law source is not related to either η Car or the GeV γ-ray source.

  8. A Multi-Epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the ULX NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Dheeraj, Pasham R.

    2012-01-01

    We report results from extensive new XMM- Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic X-ray variability. We detect quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in each of four new (approximately equal 100 ks each) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies and rms amplitudes observed from the source to 10-40 mHz and 10-45 %, respectively. However, similarly significant variations in the power-law photon spectral index, Gamma, are not observed. We use the results of timing and energy spectral modeling to compare with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass systems. We find that the qualitative nature of the timing and energy spectra of NGC 5408 X-1 are very similar to stellar-mass black holes in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency - photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of approx greater than 800 Solar Mass. Alternatively, the QPO centroid frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy of NGC 5408 X-1's mHz QPOs with Type-C QPOs in stellar systems is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a greater range of spectral parameters (in particular the spectral index) is needed in order to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high frequency QPO analogs (0.1 - 1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6 - 7 keY band, and of the amplitude (rms) of a high frequency QPO analog of approx equal 10 eV and approx equal 4%, respectively.

  9. A Close Look On GX 301-2 With Suzaku And XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Felix; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Barragan, L.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present an in-depth study of the accreting pulsar and HMXB GX 301-2 using data from Suzaku and XMM-Newton for different parts of the 41.5d orbit. The overall spectrum is well fitted with a cutoff-powerlaw continuum modulated by a partial covering model at low energies. The absorption column is strongly variable between 12-24e23 atoms/cm² on time scales as short as a few 100sec, as well as strongly depending on orbital phase. Different fluorescent lines are found in the spectrum, the most prominent being the iron K-alpha line, which is responsible for 12% of the 2-10keV flux. Besides this line, an iron K-beta line and the K-alpha lines of sulfur, argon, calcium, and nickel are evident. Strong indications exits also that a chromium K-alpha and a nickel K-beta line is visible during the pre-periastron flare XMM data. Using the strong fluorescent lines we draw conclusions on the ionization state of the plasma and the abundance of the host elements. A cyclotron resonant scattering feature is visible at 35-40 keV, varying with flux and pulse phase. Spectral continuum parameters are also variable over the two-peaked pulse profile, e.g., the photon index is clearly softer during the secondary peak. We present possible accretion geometries and discuss the size and geometry of the absorbing medium based on these results. This work was founded by DLR, DAAD, the European Commission, and NASA.

  10. Simultaneous NuSTAR and XMM-Newton 0.5-80 KeV Spectroscopy of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Kara, E.; Miniutti, G.; Elvis, M.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F.; Brenneman, L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad-band spectral analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observational campaign of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SWIFT J2127.4+5654, consisting of 300 kiloseconds performed during three XMM-Newton orbits. We detect a relativistic broadened iron K-alpha line originating from the innermost regions of the accretion disc surrounding the central black hole, from which we infer an intermediate spin of a = 0.58 (sup +0.11) (sub -0.17). The intrinsic spectrum is steep (gamma = 2.08 plus or minus 0.01) as commonly found in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, while the cutoff energy (E (sub c) = 108 (sup +11) (sub -10) kiloelectronvolts) falls within the range observed in broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. We measure a low-frequency lag that increases steadily with energy, while at high frequencies, there is a clear lag following the shape of the broad Fe K emission line. Interestingly, the observed Fe K lag in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 is not as broad as in other sources that have maximally spinning black holes. The lag amplitude suggests a continuum-to-reprocessor distance of about 10-20 radius of gyration. These timing results independently support an intermediate black hole spin and a compact corona.

  11. Detection of Nitrogen and Neon in the X-ray Spectrum of GP Com with XMM/Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on X-ray spectroscopic observations with XMM/Newton of the ultra-compact, double white dwarf binary, GP Com. With the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) we detect the L(alpha) and L(beta) lines of hydrogen-like nitrogen (N VII) and neon (Ne X), as well as the helium-like triplets (N VI and Ne IX) of these same elements. All the emission lines are unresolved. These are the first detections of X-ray emission lines from a double-degenerate, AM CVn system. We detect the resonance (r) and intercombination (i) lines of the N VI triplet, but not the forbidden (f) line. The implied line ratios for N VI, R = f/i less than 0.3, and G = (f + i ) / r approx. = 1, combined with the strong resonance line are consistent with a dense, collision-dominated plasma. Both the RGS and EPIC/MOS spectra are well fit by emission horn an optically thin thermal plasma with an emission measure (EM) is a member of (kT/6.5 keV)(sup 0.8) (model cevmkl in XSPEC). Helium, nitrogen, oxygen and neon are required to adequately model the spectrum, however, the inclusion of sulphur and iron further improves the fit, suggesting these elements may also be present at low abundance. We confirm in the X-rays the under- abundance of both carbon and oxygen relative to nitrogen, first deduced from optical spectroscopy by Marsh et al. The average X-ray luminosity of approx. = 3 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s implies a mass accretion rate dot-m approx. = 9 x 10(exp -13) solar mass/yr. The implied temperature and density of the emitting plasma, combined with the presence of narrow emission lines and the low dot-m value, are consistent with production of the X-ray emission in an optically thin boundary layer just above the surface of the white dwarf.

  12. A combined HST and XMM-Newton campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879. Constraining the weak-wind problem of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2017-10-01

    stars. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  13. Flux and spectral variability of the blazar PKS 2155 -304 with XMM-Newton: Evidence of particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Gupta, A. C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton observations of the high energy peaked blazar, PKS 2155 -304, made on 24 May 2002 in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray band. These observations display a mini-flare, a nearly constant flux period and a strong flux increase. We performed a time-resolved spectral study of the data, by dividing the data into eight segments. We fitted the data with a power-law and a broken power-law model, and in some of the segments we found a noticeable spectral flattening of the source's spectrum below 10 keV. We also performed ;time-resolved; cross-correlation analyses and detected significant hard and soft lags (for the first time in a single observation of this source) during the first and last parts of the observation, respectively. Our analysis of the spectra, the variations of photon-index with flux as well as the correlation and lags between the harder and softer X-ray bands indicate that both the particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling processes make an important contribution to the emission from this blazar. The hard lags indicate a variable acceleration process. We also estimated the magnetic field value using the soft lags. The value of the magnetic field is consistent with the values derived from the broad-band SED modeling of this source.

  14. Spectral re-distribution and surface loss effects in Swift XRT (XMM-Newton EPIC) MOS CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Short, A D; Turner, M J L

    2002-01-01

    In the course of testing and selecting the EPIC MOS CCDs for the XMM-Newton observatory, the developed a Monte-Carlo model of the CCD response. Among other things, this model was used to investigate surface loss effects evident at low energies. By fitting laboratory data, these losses were characterised as a simple function of X-ray interaction depth and this result enabled the spectral re-distribution itself to be modelled as a simple analytical function. Subsequently, this analytical function has been used to generate the response matrix for the EPIC MOS instruments and will now be employed to model the spectral re-distribution for the Swift XRT CCD.

  15. The Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries from the XMM-Newton Space Craft Data using SAS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, P.; Mito, C. O.

    2009-10-01

    A spectral data analysis on a luminous object of sky-coordinates 12h52m24.28s-29d115'02.3'12.6arcsec using Science Analysis Software (SAS) is presented. The analysis, based on data acquired by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) camera aboard the XMM-Newton Space satellite, shows that the primary constituents of the X-ray source are Fe (Iron) and O (oxygen). This suggests that the source may be a magnetized plasma in a binary system and as this magnetic field accelerates the cooling of a star, one may speculate that this may be a compact star in its last stages of a thermonuclear fusion process. Nous présentons une analyse du spectre d'une source a rayons X située -- en coordonnées sidérales - à 12h52m24.28s - 29d115'02.312.6 arcsec. Science Analysis Software (SAS) est le programme informatique utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Cette analyse est basée sur les données provenant du spectromètre à haute résolution (RGS) à bord du satellite spatiale XMM-Newton. Nous montrons que ladite source est principalement constituée de Fer (Fe) et d'oxygene (O). Ce résultat suggère que la source pourrait être un plasma magnétisé au sein d'un système binaire. Et du fait que ce champ magnétique accélère le refroidissement de l'étoile, nous supposons que cette étoile pourrait ètre un objet compact en phase terminale d'un processus de fusion thermonucléaire.

  16. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical...... by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of NH = (6-10) × 1024 cm-2, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 1042 erg s-1. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured...

  17. AGN spectral states from simultaneous UV and X-ray observations by XMM-Newton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Guainazzi, M.; Merloni, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 603, July (2017), A127/1-A127/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20970P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312789 - STRONGGRAVITY Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion disks * galaxies nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  18. Observations of X-ray flares in G-K dwarfs by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jeewan Chandra

    Eclipsing binary BD +5 706 is best investigated member of rare class of cool Algols, which differ from clasical Algol systems in that the mass gaining component is also a late-type star. The analysis of X-ray lightcurve of this system registered by ROSAT suggested the primary component to be the dominant source of activity in the system (Torres et al, AJ 125, 3237, 2003). We reconstruct the spatial structure of coronal emission within the system according to the method proposed by Siarkowski, and show that coronal emission is most likely attributed to both components.

  19. XMM-Newton/Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Star Formation Efficiency in Galaxy Clusters and Constraints on the Matter-density Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Tatiana F.; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter

    2011-12-01

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter Ωm. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M 500 = 1.6 × 1015 M ⊙. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to ~1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter Ωm.

  20. A Multi-Epoch Timing and Spectral Study of the Ultraluminous X-Ray NGC 5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheeraj, Pasham; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of new XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1, one of the few ULXs to show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We detect QPOs in each of four new (approximately equal to 100 ks) pointings, expanding the range of frequencies observed from 10 to 40 mHz. We compare our results with the timing and spectral correlations seen in stellar-mass black hole systems, and find that the qualitative nature of the timing and spectral behavior of NGC 5408 X-1 is similar to systems in the steep power-law state exhibiting Type-C QPOs. However, in order for this analogy to quantitatively hold we must only be seeing the so-called saturated portion of the QPO frequency-photon index (or disk flux) relation. Assuming this to be the case, we place a lower limit on the mass of NGC 5408 X-1 of greater than or equal to 800 solar mass. Alternatively, the QPO frequency is largely independent of the spectral parameters, in which case a close analogy with the Type-C QPOs in stellar system is problematic. Measurement of the source's timing properties over a wider range of energy spectral index is needed to definitively resolve this ambiguity. We searched all the available data for both a broad Fe emission line as well as high-frequency QPO analogs (0.1- 1 Hz), but detected neither. We place upper limits on the equivalent width of any Fe emission feature in the 6-7 keV band and of the amplitude (rms) of a high-frequency QPO analog of approximately equal to 10 eV and approximately equal to 4%, respectively.

  1. XMM-NEWTON/SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MATTER-DENSITY PARAMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, Tatiana F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Departamento de Astronomia, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M{sub 500} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to {approx}1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}.

  2. Fifty M31 black hole candidates identified by Chandra and XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Primini, F.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Over approximately the last five years, we have identified ∼35 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray spectra. Our BHCs exhibited 0.3-10 keV spectra consistent with the X-ray binary (XB) hard state at luminosities that are above the upper limit for neutron star (NS) XBs. When our BHC spectra were modeled with a disk blackbody + blackbody model for comparison with bright NS XBs, we found that the BHCs inhabited a different parameter space than the NS XBs. However, BH XBs may also exhibit a thermally dominated (TD) state that has never been seen in NS XBs; this TD state is most often observed in X-ray transients. We examined the ∼50 X-ray transients in our Chandra survey of M31 and found 13 with spectra suitable for analysis. We also examined two BHCs outside the field of view of our survey in the globular clusters B045 and B375. We have 42 strong BHCs and 8 plausible BHCs that may benefit from further observation. Of our 15 BHCs in globular clusters, 12 differ from NS spectra by >5σ. Due to improvements in our analysis, we have upgraded 10 previously identified plausible BHCs to strong BHCs. The mean maximum duty cycle of the 33 X-ray transients within 6' of M31* is 0.13; we estimate that >40% of the XBs in this region contain BH accretors. Remarkably, we estimate that BHCs contribute >90% of those XBs >10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}.

  3. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. Thirty are cluster member galaxies, and nine are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates between 8 and 525 Msolar yr-1. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J-band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, consistent with several previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell Cardiel et al.; Crawford et al.). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars and, therefore, recent star formation. Using the Starburst99 model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2-219 Msolar yr-1 for the cooling flow sample. For two-thirds of this sample, it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV-inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well-populated XMM UV cluster archive, and a more extensive follow-up study is currently underway.

  4. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines [S. D. Astronomia y Geodesia and Instituto de Matematica Interdisciplinar, Fac. de CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Santiago, Javier [Departamento de Astrofisica, Fac de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Talavera, Antonio [European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691, Madrid (Spain); Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  5. Chandra and XMM-Newton Study of the Supernova Remnant Kes 73 Hosting the Magnetar 1E 1841-045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harsha S.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 hosting the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1841-045. The Chandra image reveals clumpy structures across the remnant with enhanced emission along the western rim. The X-ray emission fills the radio shell and spatially correlates with the infrared image. The global X-ray spectrum is described by a two-component thermal model with a column density N H = 2.6^{+0.4}_{-0.3}\\times1022 cm-2 and a total luminosity of LX = 3.3^{+0.7}_{-0.5}\\times1037 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV, at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc). The soft component is characterized by a temperature kTs = 0.5^{+0.1}_{-0.2} keV, a high ionization timescale, and enhanced Si and S abundances, suggesting emission that is dominated by shocked ejecta. The hard component has a temperature kTh = 1.6^{+0.8}_{-0.7} keV, a relatively low ionization timescale, and mostly solar abundances suggesting emission that is dominated by interstellar/circumstellar shocked material. A spatially resolved spectroscopy study reveals no significant variations in the spectral properties. We infer an SNR age ranging between 750 yr and 2100 yr, an explosion energy of 3.0^{+2.8}_{-1.8}\\times1050 erg and a shock velocity of (1.2 ± 0.3)×103 km s-1 (under the Sedov phase assumption). We also discuss the possible scenario for Kes 73 expanding into the late red-supergiant wind phase of its massive progenitor. Comparing the inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis model yields, we estimate a progenitor mass gsim20 M ⊙, adding a candidate to the growing list of highly magnetized neutron stars proposed to be associated with very massive progenitors.

  6. XMM-Newton view of X-ray overdensities from nearby galaxy clusters: the environmental dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Turgay; Hudaverdi, Murat

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we studied 10 nearby (z ≤ 0.038) galaxy clusters to understand possible interactions between hot plasma and member galaxies. A multi-band source detection was applied to detect point-like structures within the intra-cluster medium. We examined the spectral properties of a total of 391 X-ray point sources within each cluster's potential well. log N versus log S was studied in the energy range 2-10 keV to measure X-ray overdensities. Optical overdensities were also calculated to solve suppression/triggering phenomena for nearby galaxy clusters. X-ray and optical flux/luminosity properties (X/O, LX/LB and LX/LK) were investigated for optically identified member galaxies. The X-ray luminosities of our point sources were found to be faint [40.08 ≤ log (LX) ≤ 42.39 erg s-1]. The luminosity range of point sources reveals possible contributions to X-ray emission from low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries and star formation. We estimated ˜2 times higher X-ray overdensities from galaxies within galaxy clusters compared to fields. Our results demonstrate that optical overdensities are much higher than X-ray overdensities at a cluster's centre, whereas X-ray overdensities increase through the outskirts of clusters. We conclude that high pressure from a cluster's centre affects the balance of galaxies and they lose a significant amount of their fuel. As a result, the clustering process quenches the X-ray emission of the member galaxies. We also find evidence that the existence of X-ray bright sources within a cluster environment can be explained by two main phenomena: contributions from off-nuclear sources and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) triggering caused by galaxy interactions rather than AGN fuelling.

  7. Sixteen years of X-ray monitoring of Sagittarius A*: Evidence for a decay of the faint flaring rate from 2013 August, 13 months before a rise in the bright flaring rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Grosso, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Context. X-ray flaring activity from the closest supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) located at the center of our Galaxy has been observed since 2000 October 26 thanks to the current generation of X-ray facilities. In a study of X-ray flaring activity from Sgr A* using Chandra and XMM-Newton public observations from 1999 to 2014 and Swift monitoring in 2014, it was argued that the "bright and very bright" flaring rate has increased from 2014 August 31. Aims: As a result of additional observations performed in 2015 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift (total exposure of 482 ks), we seek to test the significance and persistence of this increase of flaring rate and to determine the threshold of unabsorbed flare flux or fluence leading to any change of flaring rate. Methods: We reprocessed the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift data from 1999 to 2015 November 2. From these data, we detected the X-ray flares via our two-step Bayesian blocks algorithm with a prior on the number of change points properly calibrated for each observation. We improved the Swift data analysis by correcting the effects of the target variable position on the detector and we detected the X-ray flares with a 3σ threshold on the binned light curves. The mean unabsorbed fluxes of the 107 detected flares were consistently computed from the extracted spectra and the corresponding calibration files, assuming the same spectral parameters. We constructed the observed distribution of flare fluxes and durations from the XMM-Newton and Chandra detections. We corrected this observed distribution from the detection biases to estimate the intrinsic distribution of flare fluxes and durations. From this intrinsic distribution, we determined the average flare detection efficiency for each XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift observation. We finally applied the Bayesian blocks algorithm on the arrival times of the flares corrected from the corresponding efficiency. Results: We confirm a constant overall flaring

  8. An XMM-Newton Search for Crab-like Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The primary goals of the study are to search for evidence of non-thermal emission that would suggest the presence of a pulsar in this compact SNR. We have performed the reduction of the EPIC data for this observation, cleaning the data to remove time intervals of enhanced particle background, and have created maps in several energy bands, and on a variety of smoothing scales. We find no evidence for emission from the SNR. Given the small angular size of the SNR, we conclude that rather than being a young remnant, it is actually fairly old, but distant. At its current stage of evolution, the remnant shell has apparently entered the radiative phase, wherein the shell temperature has cooled sufficiently to be either below X-ray-emitting temperatures or at temperatures easily absorbed the foreground interstellar material. We have thus concluded that this SNR is not a viable candidate for a young ejecta-rich or pulsar-driven SNR.

  9. The Properties of the Diffuse X-ray Background from the DXL sounding rocket mission (plus ROSAT, XMM-Newton and Suzaku data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the properties of the different components of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXB) is made particularly difficult by their similar spectral signature.The University of Miami has been working on disentangling the different DXB components for many years, using a combination of proprietary and archival data from XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra, and a sounding rocket mission (DXL) specifically designed to study the properties of Local Hot Bubble (LHB) and Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) using their spatial signature. In this talk we will present:(a) Results from the DXL mission, specifically launch #2, to study the properties of the SWCX and LHB (and GH) and their contribution to the ROSAT All Sky Survey Bands(b) Results from a Suzaku key project to characterize the SWCX and build a semi-empirical model to predict the SWCX line emission for any time, any direction. A publicly available web portal for the model will go online by the end of the year(c) Results from XMM-Newton deep surveys to study the angular correlation of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) in the direction of the Chandra Deep Field South.DXL launch #3, schedule for January 2018 and the development of the DXG sounding rocket mission to characterize the GH-CGM emission using newly developed micropore optics will also be discussed.

  10. Multifrequency Observations of BL Lacertae: The Quest for Accretion Disc Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Capetti, A.; Webt Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    BL Lacertae is the prototype of a class of active galactic nuclei whose continuum emission is dominated by non-thermal radiation from the jet. However, its optical spectrum has occasionally shown a broad and strong Hα emission line, suggesting that the broad line region is photoionized by the accretion disc radiation. The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) organized a huge multiwavelength campaign in 2007-2008, also involving three pointings by the XMM-Newton satellite, with the main goal to look for signatures of the accretion disc. These observations were complemented by optical spectroscopic monitoring at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). The brightness level was relatively low. However, in the optical band we observed the most noticeable inter-day variability episode ever detected by the WEBT in more than 15 years. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built with simultaneous radio-to-X-ray data at the epochs of the XMM-Newton observations present a prominent UV excess as well as a slight soft-X-ray excess. We interpret the UV excess as a signature of the accretion disc. Since in previous observations the X-ray spectrum was found to vary dramatically, we suggest that the X-ray emission is due to a second synchrotron component, in addition to the one responsible for the radio-to-optical emission.

  11. THE RHYTHM OF FAIRALL 9. I. OBSERVING THE SPECTRAL VARIABILITY WITH XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Stern, D.; Walton, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: alohfink@ast.cam.ac.uk [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectral analysis of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. Our analysis shows that Fairall 9 displays unique spectral variability in that its ratio residuals to a simple absorbed power law in the 0.5–10 keV band remain constant with time in spite of large variations in flux. This behavior implies an unchanging source geometry and the same emission processes continuously at work at the timescale probed. With the constraints from NuSTAR on the broad-band spectral shape, it is clear that the soft excess in this source is a superposition of two different processes, one being blurred ionized reflection in the innermost parts of the accretion disk, and the other a continuum component such as a spatially distinct Comptonizing region. Alternatively, a more complex primary Comptonization component together with blurred ionized reflection could be responsible.

  12. Characterizing Three Candidate Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables From SDSS: XMM-Newton and Optical Follow-Up Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-29

    files ready for spectral analysis in XSPEC , lcmath created background-subtracted light curves and combined the twoMOS light curves, while earth2sun...through the Galaxy. Typically, we used a single bremsstrahlung model or a model in- cluding explicit line emission (the XSPEC model MEKAL) as expected...well; hence, no error estimates are available. b We used the XSPEC model CEMEKL, in which a fine grid of MEKAL models are co-added, with the emission

  13. The Rhythm of Fairall 9. I. Observing the Spectral Variability with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Pinto, C.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectral analysis of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. Our analysis shows that Fairall 9 displays unique spectral variability in that its ratio residuals to a simple absorbed power law in the 0.5–10 keV band remain constant with time in spite of large variations in flux....... This behavior implies an unchanging source geometry and the same emission processes continuously at work at the timescale probed. With the constraints from NuSTAR on the broad-band spectral shape, it is clear that the soft excess in this source is a superposition of two different processes, one being blurred...

  14. The Rhythm of Fairall 9. I. Observing the Spectral Variability With XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Reynolds, S. C.; Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A.C; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectral analysis of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. Our analysis shows that Fairall 9 displays unique spectral variability in that its ratio residuals to a simple absorbed power law in the 0.510 keV band remain constant with time in spite of large variations in flux. This behavior implies an unchanging source geometry and the same emission processes continuously at work at the timescale probed. With the constraints from NuSTAR on the broad-band spectral shape, it is clear that the soft excess in this source is a superposition of two different processes, one being blurred ionized reflection in the innermost parts of the accretion disk, and the other a continuum component such as a spatially distinct Comptonizing region. Alternatively, a more complex primary Comptonization component together with blurred ionized reflection could be responsible.

  15. Modeling the Magnetospheric X-ray Emission from Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Verification from XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    Earth (i.e., hydrogen) to a heavy , high charge state, ion in the solarwind. The electron can be captured in an excited state and transition to lower... heavy ions , Geophys Res. Lett., 24, 105–109, doi:10.1029/96GL03780. Cravens, T. E. (2000), Heliospheric X-ray emission associated with charge transfer...quantifying charge exchange from other ions with emission lines around the 1 4 keV band have also been performed, though the lack of cross-sectional

  16. The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110: hard X-ray emission observed by NuSTAR and variability of the iron Kα line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM-Newton, Suz......We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM...... is found and, by using temporal information collected over more than a decade, we investigate variations of the iron Kα line on time-scales of years. The Fe K alpha line is likely the sum of two components: one constant (originating from distant Compton-thick material) and the other one variable...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton slew survey Source Catalogue, version 2.0 (XMM-SSC, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    XMM-SSC

    2018-01-01

    XMMSL2 is the second catalogue of X-ray sources found in slew data taken from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been constructed by members of the XMM SOC and the EPIC consortium on behalf of ESA. This release uses results of work which has been carried out within the framework of the EXTraS project ("Exploring the X-ray variable and Transient Sky"), funded from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no.607452. This is the first release of XMMSL2 which contains data taken between revolutions 314 and 2758. The previous catalogue was called XMMSL1_Delta6 and contained slews up to revolution 2441. The release includes two FITS files. A full catalogue (xmmsl2_total.fits.gz), containing 72352 detections found with a likelihood of DETML>8 and a "clean" catalogue (xmmsl2clean.fits.gz) where all known bad sources have been removed and where the detection limit has been raised to DETML>10.5 in general and DETML>15.5 for sources found in images with a higher than usual background. Efforts have been made to identify spurious detections and 3017 have been flagged as such in the full catalogue. (3 data files).

  18. X-Ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses from XMM-Newton Follow-upof the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Amruta J.; Hughes, John P.; Wittman, David

    2017-04-01

    We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the XMM-Newton properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the L X -T X relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team. The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (˜48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  20. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  1. Multistate observations of the Galactic black hole XTE J1752-223: evidence for an intermediate black hole spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.C.; Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Cackett, E.M.; Maitra, D.; Reynolds, C.S.; Rupen, M.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752−223 was observed during the decay of its 2009 outburst with the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observatories. The observed spectra are consistent with the source being in the ‘intermediate’ and ‘low-hard’ states, respectively. The presence of a strong, relativistic

  2. Detailed high-energy characteristics of AXP 4U 0142+61: Multi-year observations with INTEGRAL, RXTE, XMM-Newton, and ASCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.; Knödlseder, J.; Gavriil, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    4U 0142+61 is one of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars exhibiting hard X-ray emission above 10 keV discovered with INTEGRAL. In this paper we present detailed spectral and temporal characteristics both in the hard X-ray (> 10 keV) and soft X-ray (<10 keV) domains obtained using data from INTEGRAL,

  3. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  4. Hi-C Observations of Penumbral Bright Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, S. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Savage, S. L.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-quality data obtained by the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) to examine bright dots (BDs) in a sunspot's penumbra. The sizes of these BDs are on the order of 1 arcsecond (1") and are therefore hard to identify using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's (AIA) 0.6" pixel(exp -1) resolution. These BD become readily apparent with Hi-C's 0.1" pixel(exp -1) resolution. Tian et al. (2014) found penumbral BDs in the transition region (TR) by using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). However, only a few of their dots could be associated with any enhanced brightness in AIA channels. In this work, we examine the characteristics of the penumbral BDs observed by Hi-C in a sunspot penumbra, including their sizes, lifetimes, speeds, and intensity. We also attempt to find any association of these BDs to the IRIS BDs. There are fewer Hi-C BDs in the penumbra than seen by IRIS, though different sunspots were studied. We use 193 Angstroms Hi-C data from July 11, 2012 which observed from approximately 18:52:00 UT- 18:56:00 UT and supplement it with data from AIA's 193 Angstrom passband to see the complete lifetime of the dots that were born before and/or lasted longer than Hi- C's 5-minute observation period. We use additional AIA passbands and compare the light curves of the BDs at different temperatures to test whether the Hi-C BDs are TR BDs. We find that most Hi-C BDs show clear movement, and of those that do, they move in a radial direction, toward or away from the sunspot umbra. Single BDs interact with other BDs, combining to fade away or brighten. The BDs that do not interact with other BDs tend to move less. Many of the properties of our BDs are similar to the extreme values of the IRIS BDs, e.g., they move slower on average and their sizes and lifetimes are on the higher end of the IRIS BDs. We infer that our penumbral BDs are the large-scale end of the distribution of BDs observed by IRIS.

  5. Inter-comparison of SMAP, SMOS and Aquarius L-band brightness temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verifying the calibration of the SMAP radiometer over land observations is an important mission requirement. Inter-comparison of L-band brightness temperature observations from different satellites (SMAP, SMOS and Aquarius) is a useful tool for radiometer calibration. Brightness temperatures observa...

  6. Suzaku observations of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2255: The northeast radio relic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, H.; Mizuno, M.; Ota, N.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; van Weeren, R. J.; Kawahara, H.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kawaharada, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Takizawa, M.; Vink, J.; Zandanel, F.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of deep 140 ks Suzaku X-ray observations of the north-east (NE) radio relic of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2255. The temperature structure of Abell 2255 is measured out to 0.9 times the virial radius (1.9 Mpc) in the NE direction for the first time. The Suzaku temperature map of the central region suggests a complex temperature distribution, which agrees with previous work. Additionally, on a larger-scale, we confirm that the temperature drops from 6 keV around the cluster center to 3 keV at the outskirts, with two discontinuities at r 5' (450 kpc) and 12' (1100 kpc) from the cluster center. Their locations coincide with surface brightness discontinuities marginally detected in the XMM-Newton image, which indicates the presence of shock structures. From the temperature drop, we estimate the Mach numbers to be ℳinner 1.2 and, ℳouter 1.4. The first structure is most likely related to the large cluster core region ( 350-430 kpc), and its Mach number is consistent with the XMM-Newton observation (ℳ 1.24: Sakelliou & Ponman 2006, MNRAS, 367, 1409). Our detection of the second temperature jump, based on the Suzaku key project observation, shows the presence of a shock structure across the NE radio relic. This indicates a connection between the shock structure and the relativistic electrons that generate radio emission. Across the NE radio relic, however, we find a significantly lower temperature ratio (T1/T2 1.44 ± 0.16 corresponds to ℳX-ray 1.4) than the value expected from radio wavelengths, based on the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism (T1/T2> 3.2 or ℳRadio> 2.8). This may suggest that under some conditions, in particular the NE relic of A2255 case, the simple diffusive shock acceleration mechanism is unlikely to be valid, and therefore, more a sophisticated mechanism is required.

  7. HI observations of low surface brightness galaxies : Probing low-density galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; vanderHulst, JM

    1996-01-01

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) 21-cm HI observations of 19 late-type low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Our main findings are that these galaxies, as well as having low surface brightnesses, have low HI surface densities, about a factor of

  8. Hitomi Observations of the LMC SNR N132D: Fast and Asymmetric Iron-rich Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D.; Hitomi Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) observations of N132D, a young, ~2500 year-old, X-ray bright, O-rich core-collapse supernova remnant in the LMC. Despite a very short observation of only 3.7 ksec, the SXS easily detects the line complexes of He-like S K and Fe K with 16-17 counts in each. The Fe K feature is measured for the first time at high spectral resolution, and we find that the Fe K-emitting material is highly redshifted at ~1000 km/s compared to the local LMC ISM, indicating (1) that it arises from the SN ejecta, and (2) that this ejecta is highly asymmetric, since no corresponding blue-shifted component is found. The S K-emitting material has a velocity consistent with the local LMC ISM, and is likely swept-up ISM material. These results are consistent with spatial mapping of these emission lines with XMM-Newton and Chandra, which show the Fe K concentrated in the interior of the remnant and the S K tracing the outer shell. Most importantly, they highlight the power of high-spectral-resolution imaging observations, and demonstrate the new window that has been opened with Hitomi and will be greatly widened with future missions such as the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) and Athena.

  9. Extreme flux states of NGC 4151 observed with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, P.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Walter, R.; Paltani, S.; Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Ferrigno, C.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2010-11-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral analysis of all INTEGRAL data obtained so far for the X-ray-bright Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. We also use all contemporaneous data from RXTE, XMM-Newton, Swift and Suzaku. We find a linear correlation between the medium- and hard-energy X-ray fluxes measured by INTEGRAL, which indicates an almost constant spectral index over 6 yr. The majority of INTEGRAL observations were made when the source was either at a very bright or very dim hard-X-ray state. We find that thermal Comptonization models applied to the bright state yields the plasma temperature of ~=50-70keV and its optical depth of ~=1.3-2.6, depending on the assumed source geometry. For the dim state, these parameters are in the ranges of ~=180-230 keV and ~=0.3-0.7, respectively. The Compton parameter is for all the spectra, indicating a stable geometry. Using this result, we can determine the reflection effective solid angles associated with the close and distant reprocessing media as and , respectively. The plasma energy balance, the weak disc reflection and a comparison of the UV fluxes illuminating the plasma to the observed ones are all consistent with an inner hot accretion surrounded by an outer cold disc. The disc truncation radius can be determined from an approximate equipartition between the observed UV and X-ray emission, and from the fitted disc blackbody model, as ~15 gravitational radii. Alternatively, our results can be explained by a mildly relativistic coronal outflow. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland and with participation of Russia and the US. E-mail: Lubiński@ncac.torun.pl (PL); aaz@camk.edu.pl (AAZ)

  10. Stripped Elliptical Galaxies as Probes of ICM Physics. III. Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 4552: Measuring the Viscosity of the Intracluster Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. P.; Roediger, E.; Machacek, M.; Forman, W. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Churazov, E.; Randall, S.; Su, Y.; Sheardown, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present results from a deep (200 ks) Chandra observation of the early-type galaxy NGC 4552 (M89), which is falling into the Virgo cluster. Previous shallower X-ray observations of this galaxy showed a remnant gas core, a tail to the South of the galaxy, and twin “horns” attached to the northern edge of the gas core. In our deeper data, we detect a diffuse, low surface brightness extension to the previously known tail, and measure the temperature structure within the tail. We combine the deep Chandra data with archival XMM-Newton observations to put a strong upper limit on the diffuse emission of the tail out to a large distance (10× the radius of the remnant core) from the galaxy center. In our two previous papers, we presented the results of hydrodynamical simulations of ram pressure stripping specifically for M89 falling into the Virgo cluster and investigated the effect of intracluster medium (ICM) viscosity. In this paper, we compare our deep data with our specifically tailored simulations and conclude that the observed morphology of the stripped tail in NGC 4552 is most similar to the inviscid models. We conclude that, to the extent the transport processes can be simply modeled as a hydrodynamic viscosity, the ICM viscosity is negligible. More generally, any micro-scale description of the transport processes in the high-β plasma of the cluster ICM must be consistent with the efficient mixing observed in the stripped tail on macroscopic scales.

  11. First Nustar Observations of the Bl Lac-Type Blazar Pks 2155-304: Constraints on the Jet Content and Distribution of Radiating Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madejski, G. M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR of the BL Lac-type blazar PKS 2155-304, augmented with soft X-ray data from XMM-Newton and γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, obtained in 2013 April when the source was in a very low flux state. A joint NuSTAR and XMM spectrum...

  12. High contrast observations of bright stars with a starshade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Warwick, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Starshades are a leading technology to enable the direct detection and spectroscopic characterization of Earth-like exoplanets. In an effort to advance starshade technology through system level demonstrations, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope was adapted to enable the suppression of astronomical sources with a starshade. The long baselines achievable with the heliostat provide measurements of starshade performance at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution, aspects critical to the validation of optical models. The heliostat has provided the opportunity to perform the first astronomical observations with a starshade and has made science accessible in a unique parameter space, high contrast at moderate inner working angles. On-sky images are valuable for developing the experience and tools needed to extract science results from future starshade observations. We report on high contrast observations of nearby stars provided by a starshade. We achieve 5.6 × 10- 7 contrast at 30 arcseconds inner working angle on the star Vega and provide new photometric constraints on background stars near Vega.

  13. RADIOASTRON OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR 3C273: A CHALLENGE TO THE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE LIMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kardashev, N. S.; Voitsik, P. A.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Sokolovsky, K. V. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Lobanov, A. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; Bach, U.; Kraus, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 (Germany); Johnson, M. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gurvits, L. I. [Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jauncey, D. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Ghigo, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Rt. 28/92, Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States); Ghosh, T.; Salter, C. J. [Arecibo Observatory, NAIC, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico, PR 00612 (United States); Petrov, L. Yu. [Astrogeo Center, 7312 Sportsman Drive, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States); Romney, J. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of 10{sup 11.5} K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of 10{sup 13} K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C 273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 μas (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of 10{sup 13} K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require a much higher Doppler factor than what is determined from jet apparent kinematics.

  14. Global Observations of the 630-nm Nightglow and Patterns of Brightness Measured by ISUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the distributions and occurrence mechanisms of the global local-midnight airglow brightness through FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL satellite imaging observations. We focus on the OI 630.0 nm nightglow emission at altitudes of ~250 km along equatorial space. The database used in this study included data from 2007 to 2008 under solar minimum conditions. The data were classified into four specified types in the statistical study. We found that the occurrence of equatorial brightness was often in the vicinity of the geographic equator and mostly at equinoxes with a tendency to move toward the summer hemisphere as the season changes. Conjugate brightness occurring simultaneously on both sides of the geomagnetic equator was observed predominantly in the northern winter. Furthermore, midnight brightness appeared to have lower luminosity from May to July. We suggest that the global midnight brightness associated with the locations and seasons was the result of several effects which include the influence of the thermospheric midnight temperature maximum (MTM, summer-to-winter neutral wind, and ionospheric anomalies.

  15. Timing and Spectral Properties of Bright Hard GRBs Observed by Suzaku-WAM

    OpenAIRE

    杉田, 聡司; Sugita, Satoshi; 吉田, 篤正; Yoshida, Atsumasa; 田代, 信; Tashiro, Makoto; 大野, 雅功; Ohno, Masanori; Suzaku/WAM team and HETE-2 team

    2010-01-01

    We report on a detailed comparison between short GRBs and spikes of long GRBs in timing and spectral properties using bright GRBs observed by Suzaku-WAM. We first performed spectral time lag analysis of 217 spikes in 102 bright GRBs. We found a clear proportional correlation between hard/soft lags and widths of spikes for long GRBs, which is smoothly connected with those of short GRBs. We next performed spike-resolved spectral analysis of 63 spikes for 12 long GRBs with known redshifts, using...

  16. Observation of Dissipative Bright Soliton and Dark Soliton in an All-Normal Dispersion Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel way for controlling the generation of the dissipative bright soliton and dark soliton operation of lasers. We observe the generation of dissipative bright and dark soliton in an all-normal dispersion fiber laser by employing the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR technique. Through adjusting the angle of the polarizer and analyzer, the mode-locked and non-mode-locked regions can be obtained in different polarization directions. Numerical simulation shows that, in an appropriate pump power range, the dissipative bright soliton and dark soliton can be generated simultaneously in the mode-locked and non-mode-locked regions, respectively. If the pump power exceeds the top limit of this range, only dissipative soliton will exist, whereas if it is below the lower bound of this range, only dark soliton will exist.

  17. Low-latitude midnight brightness in 630.0 nm limb observations by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Chen, C. H.; Lin, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Huba, J. D.; Chen, A. B.; Hsu, R. R.; Chen, Y. T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the intense airglow brightness often observed in the 630.0 nm limb images taken using Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings (ISUAL), onboard FORMOSAT-2 satellite, where the tangent plane of the measurement falls in the local midnight sector. Most of the images show only single brightness, but in some cases there could be multiple peaks, which sometimes appears to be centered on geographic equator and in some cases falls on either sides of the magnetic equator. In order to understand such intense emission in the near-midnight hours, the observations are simulated using SAMI2 (SAMI2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) model parameters based on the ISUAL viewing geometry. The simulations reproduced the measured airglow intensity pattern quite remarkably and suggested that the meridional neutral wind and the resulting plasma distribution are closely related with the observed brightness. The intensity and locations of the airglow brightness peaks could potentially be utilized to infer the strength of meridional neutral wind.

  18. Bright points and ejections observed on the sun by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Five-second observations of the solar corona carried out in the FeIX 171 Å line by the KORONAS-FOTON instrument TESIS are used to study the dynamics of small-scale coronal structures emitting in and around coronal bright points. The small-scale structures of the lower corona display complex dynamics similar to those of magnetic loops located at higher levels of the solar corona. Numerous detected oscillating structures with sizes below 10 000 km display oscillation periods from 50 to 350 s. The period distributions of these structures are different for P 150 s, which implies that different oscillation modes are excited at different periods. The small-scale structures generate numerous flare-like events with energies 1024-1026 erg (nanoflares) and with a spatial density of one event per arcsecond or more observed over an area of 4 × 1011 km2. Nanoflares are not associated with coronal bright points, and almost uniformly cover the solar disk in the observation region. The ejections of solar material from the coronal bright points demonstrate velocities of 80-110 km/s.

  19. Automatic detection and extraction of ultra-fine bright structure observed with new vacuum solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-02-01

    Solar magnetic structures exhibit a wealth of different spatial and temporal scales. Presently, solar magnetic element is believed to be the ultra-fine magnetic structure in the lower solar atmospheric layer, and the diffraction limit of the largest-aperture solar telescope (New Vacuum Solar Telescope; NVST) of China is close to the spatial scale of magnetic element. This implies that modern solar observations have entered the era of high resolution better than 0.2 arc-second. Since the year of 2011, the NVST have successfully established and obtained huge observational data. Moreover, the ultra-fine magnetic structure rooted in the dark inter-graunlar lanes can be easily resolved. Studies on the observational characteristics and physical mechanism of magnetic bright points is one of the most important aspects in the field of solar physics, so it is very important to determine the statistical and physical parameters of magnetic bright points with the feature extraction techniques and numerical analysis approaches. For identifying such ultra-fine magnetic structure, an automatically and effectively detection algorithm, employed the Laplacian transform and the morphological dilation technique, is proposed and examined. Then, the statistical parameters such as the typical diameter, the area distribution, the eccentricity, and the intensity contrast are obtained. And finally, the scientific meaning for investigating the physical parameters of magnetic bright points are discussed, especially for understanding the physical processes of solar magnetic energy transferred from the photosphere to the corona.

  20. WINDII airglow observations of wave superposition and the possible association with historical "bright nights"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Cho, Y.-M.

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal variations of airglow emission rate are prominent in all midlatitude nighttime O(1S) lower thermospheric data obtained with the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The pattern generally appears as a combination of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 whose phases propagate at different rates. Sudden localized enhancements of 2 to 4 days duration are sometimes evident, reaching vertically integrated emission rates of 400 R, a factor of 10 higher than minimum values for the same day. These are found to occur when the four wave components come into the same phase at one longitude. It is shown that these highly localized longitudinal maxima are consistent with the historical phenomena known as "bright nights" in which the surroundings of human dark night observers were seen to be illuminated by this enhanced airglow.Plain Language SummaryFor centuries, going back to the Roman era, people have recorded experiences of brightened skies during the night, called "bright nights." Currently, scientists study airglow, an emission of light from the high atmosphere, 100 km above us. Satellite observations of a green airglow have shown that it consists of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 around the earth. It happens that when the peaks of the different waves coincide there is an airglow brightening, and this article demonstrates that this event produces a bright night. The modern data are shown to be entirely consistent with the historical observations.

  1. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G. Engle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, δ Cep and β Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The wellknown problem presented by scattered light contamination in IUE spectra for bright stars, along with the excellent sensitivity & resolution combination offered by HST/COS, motivated this study, and the spectra obtained were much more rich and complex than we had ever anticipated. Numerous emission lines, indicating 104 K up to ~3 × 105 K plasmas, have been observed, showing Cepheids to have complex, dynamic outer atmospheres that also vary with the photospheric pulsation period. The FUV line emissions peak in the phase range φ ≈ 0.8-1.0 and vary by factors as large as 10×. A more complete picture of Cepheid outer atmospheres is accomplished when the HST/COS results are combined with X-ray observations that we have obtained of the same stars with XMM-Newton & Chandra. The Cepheids detected to date have X-ray luminosities of log LX ≈ 28.5-29.1 ergs/sec, and plasma temperatures in the 2–8 × 106 K range. Given the phase-timing of the enhanced emissions, the most plausible explanation is the formation of a pulsation-induced shocks that excite (and heat the atmospheric plasmas surrounding the photosphere. A pulsation-driven α2 equivalent dynamo mechanism is also a viable and interesting alternative. However, the tight phase-space of enhanced emission (peaking near 0.8-1.0 φ favor the shock heating mechanism hypothesis.

  2. X-Ray, UV and Optical Observations of Classical Cepheids: New Insights into Cepheid Evolution, and the Heating and Dynamics of Their Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.

    2012-06-01

    To broaden the understanding of classical Cepheid structure, evolution and atmospheres, we have extended our continuing secret lives of Cepheids program by obtaining XMM/Chandra X-ray observations, and Hubble space telescope (HST) / cosmic origins spectrograph (COS) FUV-UV spectra of the bright, nearby Cepheids Polaris, δ Cep and β Dor. Previous studies made with the international ultraviolet explorer (IUE) showed a limited number of UV emission lines in Cepheids. The well-known problem presented by scattered light contamination in IUE spectra for bright stars, along with the excellent sensitivity & resolution combination offered by HST/COS, motivated this study, and the spectra obtained were much more rich and complex than we had ever anticipated. Numerous emission lines, indicating 10^4 K up to ~3 x 10^5 K plasmas, have been observed, showing Cepheids to have complex, dynamic outer atmospheres that also vary with the photospheric pulsation period. The FUV line emissions peak in the phase range φ ∼ 0.8-1.0 and vary by factors as large as 10x. A more complete picture of Cepheid outer atmospheres is accomplished when the HST/COS results are combined with X-ray observations that we have obtained of the same stars with XMM-Newton & Chandra. The Cepheids detected to date have X-ray luminosities of log Lx ~ 28.5-29.1 ergs/sec, and plasma temperatures in the 2-8 x 10^6 K range. Given the phase-timing of the enhanced emissions, the most plausible explanation is the formation of a pulsation-induced shocks that excite (and heat) the atmospheric plasmas surrounding the photosphere. A pulsation-driven α^2 equivalent dynamo mechanism is also a viable and interesting alternative. However, the tight phase-space of enhanced emission (peaking near 0.8-1.0 φ) favor the shock heating mechanism hypothesis.

  3. The formation and disintegration of magnetic bright points observed by sunrise/IMaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, D.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Bellot Rubio, L. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Jurčák, J. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Martínez Pillet, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse, 2, D-37191 (Germany); Schmidt, W., E-mail: utz@iaa.es, E-mail: dominik.utz@uni-graz.at [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the physical parameters of magnetic bright points (MBPs) located in the quiet Sun (mainly in the interwork) during their lifetime is studied. First, we concentrate on the detailed description of the magnetic field evolution of three MBPs. This reveals that individual features follow different, generally complex, and rather dynamic scenarios of evolution. Next, we apply statistical methods on roughly 200 observed MBP evolutionary tracks. MBPs are found to be formed by the strengthening of an equipartition field patch, which initially exhibits a moderate downflow. During the evolution, strong downdrafts with an average velocity of 2.4 km s{sup –1} set in. These flows, taken together with the concurrent strengthening of the field, suggest that we are witnessing the occurrence of convective collapses in these features, although only 30% of them reach kG field strengths. This fraction might turn out to be larger when the new 4 m class solar telescopes are operational as observations of MBPs with current state of the art instrumentation could still be suffering from resolution limitations. Finally, when the bright point disappears (although the magnetic field often continues to exist) the magnetic field strength has dropped to the equipartition level and is generally somewhat weaker than at the beginning of the MBP's evolution. Also, only relatively weak downflows are found on average at this stage of the evolution. Only 16% of the features display upflows at the time that the field weakens, or the MBP disappears. This speaks either for a very fast evolving dynamic process at the end of the lifetime, which could not be temporally resolved, or against strong upflows as the cause of the weakening of the field of these magnetic elements, as has been proposed based on simulation results. It is noteworthy that in about 10% of the cases, we observe in the vicinity of the downflows small-scale strong (exceeding 2 km s{sup –1}) intergranular upflows

  4. Probing the Disk-Jet Connection of the Radio Galaxy 3C120 Observed With Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Jun; Reeves, James N.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Markowitz, Alex G.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Arimoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tsubuku, Yoshihiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Gallo, Luigi C.; Madejski, Greg M.; Terashima, Yuichi; Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /NASA, Goddard /Garching, Max Planck

    2007-01-03

    Broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are a rare type of radio-loud AGN, in which the broad optical permitted emission lines have been detected in addition to the extended jet emission. Here we report on deep (40ksec x 4) observations of the bright BLRG 3C 120 using Suzaku. The observations were spaced a week apart, and sample a range of continuum fluxes. An excellent broadband spectrum was obtained over two decades of frequency (0.6 to 50 keV) within each 40 ksec exposure. We clearly resolved the iron K emission line complex, finding that it consists of a narrow K{sub {alpha}} core ({sigma} {approx_equal} 110 eV or an EW of 60 eV), a 6.9 keV line, and an underlying broad iron line. Our confirmation of the broad line contrasts with the XMM-Newton observation in 2003, where the broad line was not required. The most natural interpretation of the broad line is iron K line emission from a face-on accretion disk which is truncated at {approx} 10 r{sub g}. Above 10 keV, a relatively weak Compton hump was detected (reflection fraction of R {approx_equal} 0.6), superposed on the primary X-ray continuum of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 1.75. Thanks to the good photon statistics and low background of the Suzaku data, we clearly confirm the spectral evolution of 3C 120, whereby the variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy. More strikingly, we discovered that the variability is caused by a steep power-law component of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 2.7, possibly related to the non-thermal jet emission. We discuss our findings in the context of similarities and differences between radio-loud/quiet objects.

  5. Anti-parallel filament flows and bright dots observed in the EUV with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. E.; Regnier, S.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Hi-C instrument imaged the million degree corona at the highest spatial and temporal resolution to date. The instrument imaged a complicated active region which contained several interesting features. Scientists at UCLan in the UK, in collaboration with other members of the Hi-C science team, studied two of these festures: anti-parallel filament flows and bright EUV dots. Plasma flows within prominences/filaments have been observed for many years and hold valuable clues concerning the mass and energy balance within these structures. Evidence of ';counter-steaming' flows has previously been inferred from these cool plasma observations but now, for the first time, these flows have been directly imaged along fundamental filament threads within the million degree corona (at 193 Å). We present observations of an active region filament observed with Hi-C that exhibits anti-parallel flows along adjacent filament threads. The ultra-high spatial and temporal resolution of Hi-C allow the anti-parallel flow velocities to be measured (70 - 80 km/s) and gives an indication of the resolvable thickness of the individual strands (0.8' × 0.1'). The temperature distribution of the plasma flows was estimated to be log T(K) = 5.45 × 0.10 using EM loci analysis. Short-lived, small brightenings sparkling at the edge of the active region, calle EUV Bright Dots (EBDs) were also investigated. EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength, but can however be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA suggesting a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV

  6. The merging cluster Abell 1758 revisited: multi-wavelength observations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durret, F.; Laganá, T. F.; Haider, M.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Cluster properties can be more distinctly studied in pairs of clusters, where we expect the effects of interactions to be strong. Aims: We here discuss the properties of the double cluster Abell 1758 at a redshift z ~ 0.279. These clusters show strong evidence for merging. Methods: We analyse the optical properties of the North and South cluster of Abell 1758 based on deep imaging obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) archive Megaprime/Megacam camera in the g' and r' bands, covering a total region of about 1.05 × 1.16 deg2, or 16.1 × 17.6 Mpc2. Our X-ray analysis is based on archive XMM-Newton images. Numerical simulations were performed using an N-body algorithm to treat the dark-matter component, a semi-analytical galaxy-formation model for the evolution of the galaxies and a grid-based hydrodynamic code with a parts per million (PPM) scheme for the dynamics of the intra-cluster medium. We computed galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) and 2D temperature and metallicity maps of the X-ray gas, which we then compared to the results of our numerical simulations. Results: The GLFs of Abell 1758 North are well fit by Schechter functions in the g' and r' bands, but with a small excess of bright galaxies, particularly in the r' band; their faint-end slopes are similar in both bands. In contrast, the GLFs of Abell 1758 South are not well fit by Schechter functions: excesses of bright galaxies are seen in both bands; the faint-end of the GLF is not very well defined in g'. The GLF computed from our numerical simulations assuming a halo mass-luminosity relation agrees with those derived from the observations. From the X-ray analysis, the most striking features are structures in the metal distribution. We found two elongated regions of high metallicity in Abell 1758 North with two peaks towards the centre. In contrast, Abell 1758 South shows a deficit of metals in its central regions. Comparing observational results to those derived from numerical

  7. Observations of Bright Comets in CARA Archives I: Years 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Gyula M.; Milani, Giannantonio; Vinante, Carlo; Ligustri, Rolando; Sostero, Giovanni; Trabatti, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    We have launched the Cometary Archives for Amateur Astronomers, CARA, aiming at coordinated collection of homogeneous, long-time based, continuous data set of bright comet observations. The project is based on a collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers. The archived quantity is a set of the photometric Afρ, measured in I, R or red continuum 647/10 nm filters. To derive coma profiles, Afρ is measured in at least different radii selected from a set of 50,000, 25,000, 12,500, 6,000 and 3,000 km. The data are free to download for registered users, special requests are available upon personal contact. We also provide aspecific code with a tutorial for the aperture photrometry of comets. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the observing methods, tools, software supports and web resources of project CARA.

  8. Neutron Star Equation of State Constraints from X-ray Observations of Recycled Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2014-08-01

    The surface thermal radiation from neutron stars can serve as a powerful probe of the extremely dense matter in their centers. For "recycled" millisecond pulsars in particular, realistic modeling of the rotation-induced thermal X-ray pulsations offers a promising approach toward constraining the elusive neutron star equation of state. In this talk, I will summarize existing observational studies of millisecond pulsars with XMM-Newton and Chandra and the exciting prospect of high-precision constraints on the neutron star mass-radius relation using the Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER).

  9. The Herschel Bright Sources (HerBS): sample definition and SCUBA-2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakx, Tom J. L. C.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Holland, W. S.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S.; Marchetti, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Omont, A.; Oteo, I.; Wardlow, J. L.; van der Werf, P.; Yang, C.

    2018-01-01

    We present the Herschel Bright Sources (HerBS) sample, a sample of bright, high-redshift Herschel sources detected in the 616.4 deg2 Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The HerBS sample contains 209 galaxies, selected with a 500 μm flux density greater than 80 mJy and an estimated redshift greater than 2. The sample consists of a combination of hyperluminous infrared galaxies and lensed ultraluminous infrared galaxies during the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. In this paper, we present Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) observations at 850 μm of 189 galaxies of the HerBS sample, 152 of these sources were detected. We fit a spectral template to the Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and 850 μm SCUBA-2 flux densities of 22 sources with spectroscopically determined redshifts, using a two-component modified blackbody spectrum as a template. We find a cold- and hot-dust temperature of 21.29_{-1.66}^{+1.35} and 45.80_{-3.48}^{+2.88} K, a cold-to-hot dust mass ratio of 26.62_{-6.74}^{+5.61} and a β of 1.83_{-0.28}^{+0.14}. The poor quality of the fit suggests that the sample of galaxies is too diverse to be explained by our simple model. Comparison of our sample to a galaxy evolution model indicates that the fraction of lenses are high. Out of the 152 SCUBA-2 detected galaxies, the model predicts 128.4 ± 2.1 of those galaxies to be lensed (84.5 per cent). The SPIRE 500 μm flux suggests that out of all 209 HerBS sources, we expect 158.1 ± 1.7 lensed sources, giving a total lensing fraction of 76 per cent.

  10. Intermediate-mass black holes and ultraluminous X-ray sources in the Cartwheel ring galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Moore, B.; Giordano, L.; Mayer, L.; Colpi, M.; Ripamonti, E.; Callegari, S.

    2008-01-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Cartwheel galaxy show similar to 17 bright X-ray sources (greater than or similar to 5 x 10(38) erg s(-1)), all within the gas-rich outer ring. We explore the hypothesis that these X-ray sources are powered by intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) accreting

  11. MAXI J1659-152: The shortest orbital period black-hole transient in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Belloni, T.

    2013-01-01

    MAXI J1659−152 is a bright X-ray transient black-hole candidate binary system discovered in September 2010. We report here on MAXI, RXTE, Swift, and XMM-Newton observations during its 2010/2011 outburst. We find that during the first one and a half week of the outburst the X-ray light curves disp...

  12. Recycling Matter in the Universe. X-Ray observations of SBS1150+599A (PN 6135.9+55.9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Tomsick, John; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Yungelson, Lev; Stasinska, Grazyna; Pena, Miriam; Richer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present X-ray observations of the close binary nucleus of the planetary nebula SBS 1150+599A obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. Only one component of the binary can be observed in optical-UV. New X-ray observations show that the previously invisible component is a very hot compact star. This finding allows us to deduce rough values for the basic parameters of the binary. With a high probability the total mass of the system exceeds Chandrasekhar limit and makes the SBS1150+599A one of the best candidate for a supernova type Ia progenitor.

  13. The Outer Limits of Galaxy Clusters: Observations to the Virial Radius with Suzaku, XMM,and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D.; Bautz, Marshall; George, Jithin; Mushotzky, Richard; Davis, David; Henry, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The outskirts of galaxy clusters, near the virial radius, remain relatively unexplored territory and yet are vital to our understanding of cluster growth, structure, and mass. In this presentation, we show the first results from a program to constrain the sate of the outer intra-cluster medium (ICM) in a large sample of galaxy clusters, exploiting the strengths of three complementary X-ray observatories: Suzaku (low, stable background), XMM-Newton (high sensitivity),and Chandra (good spatial resolution). By carefully combining observations from the cluster core to beyond r200, we are able to identify and reduce systematic uncertainties that would impede our spatial and spectral analysis using a single telescope. Our sample comprises nine clusters at z is approximately 0.1-0.2 fully covered in azimuth to beyond r200, and our analysis indicates that the ICM is not in hydrostatic equilibrium in the cluster outskirts, where we see clear azimuthal variations in temperature and surface brightness. In one of the clusters, we are able to measure the diffuse X-ray emission well beyond r200, and we find that the entropy profile and the gas fraction are consistent with expectations from theory and numerical simulations. These results stand in contrast to recent studies which point to gas clumping in the outskirts; the extent to which differences of cluster environment or instrumental effects factor in this difference remains unclear. From a broader perspective, this project will produce a sizeable fiducial data set for detailed comparison with high-resolution numerical simulations.

  14. Title: Detection of a 31.6 s pulse period for the supernova impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300, observed in ULX state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpano, S.; Haberl, F.; Maitra, C.

    2018-01-01

    The supernova impostor SN 2010da located in NGC 300, later identified as a likely Supergiant B[e] High-mass X-ray binary (Lau et al. 2016, ApJ, 830, 142 and Villar et al. 2016, ApJ, 830, 11), was observed in outburst during two long (139 and 82 ks) XMM-Newton observations performed on 2016 December 17 to 20. We report the discovery of a strong periodic modulation in the X-ray flux with a pulse period of 31.6 s and a very rapid spin-up, and confirm therefore that the compact object is a neutron star.

  15. Making limb and nadir measurements comparable: A common volume study of PMC brightness observed by Odin OSIRIS and AIM CIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benze, Susanne; Gumbel, Jörg; Randall, Cora E.; Karlsson, Bodil; Hultgren, Kristoffer; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Baumgarten, Gerd

    2018-01-01

    Combining limb and nadir satellite observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) has long been recognized as problematic due to differences in observation geometry, scattering conditions, and retrieval approaches. This study offers a method of comparing PMC brightness observations from the nadir-viewing Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument and the limb-viewing Odin Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). OSIRIS and CIPS measurements are made comparable by defining a common volume for overlapping OSIRIS and CIPS observations for two northern hemisphere (NH) PMC seasons: NH08 and NH09. We define a scattering intensity quantity that is suitable for either nadir or limb observations and for different scattering conditions. A known CIPS bias is applied, differences in instrument sensitivity are analyzed and taken into account, and effects of cloud inhomogeneity and common volume definition on the comparison are discussed. Not accounting for instrument sensitivity differences or inhomogeneities in the PMC field, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness (CIPS - OSIRIS) is -102 ± 55%. The differences are largest for coincidences with very inhomogeneous clouds that are dominated by pixels that CIPS reports as non-cloud points. Removing these coincidences, the mean relative difference in cloud brightness reduces to -6 ± 14%. The correlation coefficient between the CIPS and OSIRIS measurements of PMC brightness variations in space and time is remarkably high, at 0.94. Overall, the comparison shows excellent agreement despite different retrieval approaches and observation geometries.

  16. Observations of copolar correlation coefficient through a bright band at vertical incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnic, D. S.; Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an application of polarimetric measurements at vertical incidence. In particular, the correlation coefficients between linear copolar components are examined, and measurements obtained with the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'s and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s polarimetric radars are presented. The data are from two well-defined bright bands. A sharp decrease of the correlation coefficient, confined to a height interval of a few hundred meters, marks the bottom of the bright band.

  17. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    There are not many written worldwide references regarding unusual phenomena such as dust, unusual lights or unexplained objects orbiting the earth or the solar and extra solar systems. Regarding the external space few references exist . Regarding the a Lyrae many scientists were involve in the eighties with the possible existence of a planet next to this star. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega, D. J. Wilner et al 2002 ApJ 569.Near-infrared observations of Vega, at 2006 Philip M. Hinz et al. refers to possible companion planet round this star .In constellations Lyrae and Eridani,some authors refer to possible initial formation of planets and they mention the presence of dust formations orbiting around those stars.(A. N. Heinze, Philip M. Hinz, Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani,The Astrophysical Journal 688 (2008) 583. This paper is concerned with an unexplained or perhaps portion of dust, in the constellation of Lyrae, which appears and have been observed only in conventional photographic plaque.For this observation , simple equipment and amateur instruments are use.In the night of April the 2002, during an amatory observation in variable stars, in the RR Lyrae, pictures were taken in the mentioned deep space area as a normal weekly study procedure. The instruments used are, telescope Meade 10΄΄, illuminate reticle guiding, 12mm, photo camera Nikon F -100, and lenses,70mm, f =1,8.The film used was a Kodak X-pro,BW 400 ASA.The equatorial mount was motorized. A total of six pictures with an exposure 5-10 min were taken. While developing the film, on the fifth photogram, a bright (object?) - dust light appear which seems to be in adhesion with the Vega star . On consecutive months more pictures were taken, with conventional and digital exposures, without any repetition of the event. What is provoke illumination of this dust portion to have been present in a simple photographic film? This simple observation study is

  18. Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Observations of Star-Planet Interaction in HD 17156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, A.; Pillitteri, I.; Scandariato, G.; Lanza, A. F.; Sciortino, S.; Borsa, F.; Bonomo, A. S.; Claudi, R.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Micela, G.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Sozzetti, A.; Cosentino, R.; Maldonado, J.

    2015-09-01

    The large number of close-in Jupiter-size exoplanets prompts the question whether star-planet interaction (SPI) effects can be detected. We focused our attention on the system HD 17156, having a Jupiter-mass planet in a very eccentric orbit. Here we present results of the XMM-Newton observations and of a five month coordinated optical campaign with the HARPS-N spectrograph.10 We observed HD 17156 with XMM-Newton when the planet was approaching the apoastron and then at the following periastron passage, quasi-simultaneously with HARPS-N. We obtained a clear (≈ 5.5σ ) X-ray detection only at the periastron visit, accompanied by a significant increase of the {R}{HK}\\prime chromospheric index. We discuss two possible scenarios for the activity enhancement: magnetic reconnection and flaring or accretion onto the star of material tidally stripped from the planet. In any case, this is possibly the first evidence of a magnetic SPI effect caught in action.

  19. Absolute calibration of brightness temperature of the Venus disk observed by the Longwave Infrared Camera onboard Akatsuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi; Hayashitani, Akane; Yamada, Takeru; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Kouyama, Toru; Sato, Takao M.; Takamura, Mao; Iwagami, Naomoto; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Hashimoto, George L.; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Seiko; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Murakami, Shin-ya; Yamamoto, Yukio; Ogohara, Kazunori; Ando, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Kashimura, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Satoh, Takehiko; Hirose, Chikako; Hirata, Naru

    2017-10-01

    The Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki arrived at Venus in December 2015, and the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the spacecraft started making observations. LIR has acquired more than 8000 images during the first two Venusian years since orbit insertion without any serious faults. However, brightness temperature derived from LIR images contained an unexpected bias that related not to natural phenomena but to a thermal condition of the instrument. The bias could be partially eliminated by keeping the power supply unit for LIR always active, while the residual bias was simply correlated with the baffle temperature. Therefore, deep-space images were acquired at different baffle temperatures on orbit, and a reference table for eliminating the bias from images was prepared. In the corrected images, the brightness temperature was 230 K at the center of the Venus disk, where the effect of limb darkening is negligible. The result is independent of the baffle temperature and consistent with the results of previous studies. Later, a laboratory experiment with the proto model of LIR showed that when the germanium (Ge) lens was heated, its actual temperature was slightly higher than the temperature measured by a thermal sensor attached to the lens holder. The experiment confirmed that transitory baffle heating accounted for the background bias found in the brightness temperature observed by LIR.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Lowenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2sigma-significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (approx. 2sigma confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of sin(sup 2)(2theta) = 6.1 x 10(exp -11) from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  1. The brightness of the red giant branch tip. Theoretical framework, a set of reference models, and predicted observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.; Cassisi, S.; Salaris, M.; Pietrinferni, A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The brightness of the tip of the red giant branch is a useful reference quantity for several fields of astrophysics. An accurate theoretical prediction is needed for such purposes. Aims: We provide a solid theoretical prediction for the brightness of the tip of the red giant branch, valid for a reference set of standard physical assumptions, and mostly independent of numerical details. Methods: We examine the dependence on physical assumptions and numerical details for a wide range of metallicities and masses and based on two different stellar evolution codes. We adjust differences between the codes to treat the physics as identically as possible. After we have succeeded in reproducing the tip brightness between the codes, we present a reference set of models based on the most up to date physical inputs, but neglecting microscopic diffusion, and convert theoretical luminosities to observed infrared colours suitable for observations of resolved populations of stars and include analytic fits to facilitate their use. Results: We find that consistent use of updated nuclear reactions, including an appropriate treatment of the electron screening effects, and careful time-stepping on the upper red giant branch are the most important aspects to bring initially discrepant theoretical values into agreement. Small but visible differences remain unexplained for very low metallicities and mass values at and above 1.2 M⊙, corresponding to ages younger than 4 Gyr. The colour transformations introduce larger uncertainties than the differences between the two stellar evolution codes. Conclusions: We demonstrate that careful stellar modelling allows an accurate prediction for the luminosity of the red giant branch tip. Differences to empirically determined brightnesses may result either from insufficient colour transformations or from deficits in the constitutional physics. We present the best-tested theoretical reference values to date.

  2. XMM Observations of X-Ray Emission from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Stefan; Lewin, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Of the six proposed targets, only one observation was performed. The observation resulted in a 28ks observation of SN 1998S. At the time of writing the proposal, our target list only contained previously unknown X-ray supernovae. Between submission of the proposal and the actual observation, a Chandra DDT observation resulted in the detection of SN 1998S. Since SN 1998S was observed with Chandra five times before the XMM-Newton observation was made, the data did not yield enough new information to warrant a separate SN 1998S publication. The key science results of that observation were presented in a review article (by Immler and Lewin); the results were also presented at two conferences.

  3. On the Long-Term Variability of Jupiter's Winds and Brightness as Observed from Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging data of Jupiter were combined with wind profiles from Voyager and Cassini data to study long-term variability in Jupiter's winds and cloud brightness. Searches for evidence of wind velocity periodicity yielded a few latitudes with potential variability; the most significant periods were found nearly symmetrically about the equator at 0 deg., 10-12 deg. N, and 14-18 deg. S planetographic latitude. The low to mid-latitude signals have components consistent with the measured stratospheric temperature Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) period of-5 years, while the equatorial signal is approximately seasonal and could be tied to mesoscale wave formation, robustness tests indicate that a constant or continuously varying periodic signal near 4.5 years would appear with high significance in the data periodograms as long as uncertainties or noise in the data are not of greater magnitude. However, the lack of a consistent signal over many latitudes makes it difficult to interpret as a QQO-related change. In addition, further analyses of calibrated 410-nm and 953-nm brightness scans found few corresponding changes in troposphere haze and cloud structure on QQO timescales. However, stratospheric haze reflectance at 255-nm did appear to vary on seasonal timescales, though the data do not have enough temporal coverage or photometric accuracy to be conclusive. Sufficient temporal coverage and spacing, as well as data quality, are critical to this type of search.

  4. Assimilation of Global Radar Backscatter and Radiometer Brightness Temperature Observations to Improve Soil Moisture and Land Evaporation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Miralles, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Active radar backscatter (s?) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) to improve its simulations of soil moisture and land evaporation. To enable s? and TB assimilation, GLEAM is coupled to the Water Cloud Model and the L-band Microwave Emission from the Biosphere (L-MEB) model. The innovations, i.e. differences between observations and simulations, are mapped onto the model soil moisture states through an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The validation of surface (0-10 cm) soil moisture simulations over the period 2010-2014 against in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows that assimilating s? or TB alone improves the average correlation of seasonal anomalies (Ran) from 0.514 to 0.547 and 0.548, respectively. The joint assimilation further improves Ran to 0.559. Associated enhancements in daily evaporative flux simulations by GLEAM are validated based on measurements from 22 FLUXNET stations. Again, the singular assimilation improves Ran from 0.502 to 0.536 and 0.533, respectively for s? and TB, whereas the best performance is observed for the joint assimilation (Ran = 0.546). These results demonstrate the complementary value of assimilating radar backscatter observations together with brightness temperatures for improving estimates of hydrological variables, as their joint assimilation outperforms the assimilation of each observation type separately.

  5. Observational Signatures Of The Gamma Rays From Bright Blazars And Wakefield Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork; Canac, Nicolas; Tajima, Toshiki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2017-10-01

    Gamma-ray observations have detected a strong variability in blazar luminosity in the gamma ray over time scales as short as several minutes. We show, for the first time, that the correlation of spectrum with intensity is consistent with the behavior with luminosity of blazar SEDs along a blazar sequence for low synchrotron peak blazars. We show that the observational signatures of variability with ux are consistent with wakefield acceleration of electrons initiated by instabilities in the blazar accretion disk. This mechanism produces time variations as short as intervals of 100 seconds. The wakefield mechanism also predicts a reduction of electron spectral index with an increase in gamma-ray luminosity, which could be detected in higher energy observations well above the inverse Compton peak.

  6. Inter-comparison of SMAP, Aquarius and SMOS L-band brightness temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch on January 29, 2015. SMAP will make observations with an L-band radar and radiometer using a shared 6 m rotating reflector antenna. SMAP is a fully polarimetric radiometer with the center frequency of 1.41 GHz. The target accuracy o...

  7. Geomagnetically conjugate observations of ionospheric and thermospheric variations accompanied by a midnight brightness wave at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Kubota, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We conducted geomagnetically conjugate observations of 630-nm airglow for a midnight brightness wave (MBW) at Kototabang, Indonesia [geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0°S], and Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9°N), which are geomagnetically conjugate points at low latitudes. An airglow enhancement that was considered to be an MBW was observed in OI (630-nm) airglow images at Kototabang around local midnight from 2240 to 2430 LT on February 7, 2011. This MBW propagated south-southwestward, which is geomagnetically poleward, at a velocity of 290 m/s. However, a similar wave was not observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Chiang Mai. This is the first evidence of an MBW that does not have geomagnetic conjugacy, which also implies generation of MBW only in one side of the hemisphere from the equator. We simultaneously observed thermospheric neutral winds observed by a co-located Fabry-Perot interferometer at Kototabang. The observed meridional winds turned from northward (geomagnetically equatorward) to southward (geomagnetically poleward) just before the wave was observed. This indicates that the observed MBW was generated by the poleward winds which push ionospheric plasma down along geomagnetic field lines, thereby increasing the 630-nm airglow intensity. The bottomside ionospheric heights observed by ionosondes rapidly decreased at Kototabang and slightly increased at Chiang Mai. We suggest that the polarization electric field inside the observed MBW is projected to the northern hemisphere, causing the small height increase observed at Chiang Mai. This implies that electromagnetic coupling between hemispheres can occur even though the original disturbance is caused purely by the neutral wind.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  9. New observations and analysis of the bright semidetached eclipsing binary μ1 Sco

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Antwerpen, C.; Moon, T.

    2010-01-01

    Using new and published photometric observations of μ1 Sco (HR 6247), spanning 70 years, a period of 1.4462700(5) days was determined. It was found that the epoch of primary minimum suggested by Shobbrook at HJD 2449534.178 requires an adjustment to HJD 2449534.17700(9) to align all the available photometric data sets. Using the resulting combined data light curve, radial velocities derived from International Ultraviolet Explorer data and the modelling software PHOEBE, a new system solution for this binary was obtained. It appears that the secondary is close to, or just filling, its Roche lobe.

  10. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  11. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  12. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Löhnert, Ulrich; Caumont, Olivier; Haefele, Alexander; Pospichal, Bernhard; Martinet, Pauline; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Klein-Baltink, Henk; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Hocking, James

    2017-10-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes) require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background) and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O-B). Monitoring of O-B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O-B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB) measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O-B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O-B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square) for water vapour channels (22.24-30.0 GHz) are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ˜ 2-2.5 K) towards the high-frequency wing ( ˜ 0.8-1.3 K). Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O-B statistics for temperature channels show different

  13. Observation of bright-band height data from TRMM-PR for satellite communication in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurotimi, E. O.; Sokoya, O.; Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    The deleterious effects of rain on a satellite link operating at a frequency above 10 GHz can be estimated using various parameters such as rain rate, drop size distribution, and rain height. In order to accurately account for rain fade along satellite link, real-time measurement of rain height data are needed. In this paper, Bright-Band Height (BBH) and 0 °C isotherm height (ZDIH) over some selected stations in South Africa were processed and used to determine rain height based on the precipitation data of 5-year (2011-2015) collected by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) satellite. These results are then compared with the previous ITU-R P.839-2 and the recent ITU-R P.839-4. The results show that the BBH vary over the years and locations, and will mostly lie between 3.4557 and 4.2244 km. The average rain height observed also lies between 4.085 and 4.457 km across the studied locations. Comparison between the two versions of Recommendation P.839 showed that the ITU-R P.839-2 performs better with respect to three chosen locations such as Durban, Johannesburg, and Kimberley. However, the most recent version (ITU-R P.839-4) appears to be better in the case of a location like Cape Town. The overall results suggest the use of locally derived rain height values for rain attenuation prediction.

  14. Constraining SNe Enrichment Using X-ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, R.; Lowenstein, M.

    2012-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy yields accurate measurements of metal enrichment in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The large reservoir of metals in clusters of galaxies provides a unique way to probe the total number and fraction of supernovae (SNe) types that enrich the ICM integrated over the cluster life-time by directly modeling high spectral resolution X-ray observations using various nucleosynthesis models. The XSPEC model, snapec, offering the possibility to use these vast reservoir of metals in clusters of galaxies to probe the supernovae rates and thereby test the SNe type Ia progenitor models. We will present the evolution of SNe type Ia rate obtained from the XMM-Newton observations of clusters of galaxies to constrain the possible SNe type Ia progenitors.

  15. Deep X-ray Observations of Four Eclipsing Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Maura

    2013-10-01

    We request deep XMM-Newton observations of four eclipsing binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). All four MSPs have been detected with Chandra and show orbital modulation consistent with intrabinary shock emission. The requested observations will enable us to model this variability over more than two full orbits and derive constraints on the binary geometry and pulsar wind density and magnetization. We will also be able to fit multi-component spectra to determine the contributions from the MSPs themselves and from the intrabinary shock. These studies will lead to a better understanding of the growing population of these exotic objects. They will also provide important constraints on the ablation and recycling processes so critical to MSP evolution scenarios.

  16. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  18. NICER observation of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Misson of Opportunity as an attached payload aboard the International Space Station (ISS), launch in August 2016. The NICER is planned to study the interior composition and structure within neutron stars via high precise measurement of their stellar mass and radius, also to investigate dynamic and energetic behaviors of their activities. This mission will enable pulsar rotation-resolved spectroscopy in the 0.2--12 keV energy band with large collection area (about twice of the XMM-Newton observatory for soft X-ray timing), precise time-tagging resolution (~200 nsec, 25 times better than RXTE), and high sensitivity (about 2e-14 erg/s/cm2 in the 0.5--10 keV, 5-sigma for 10 ksec exposure). As one of prime goals of the mission, we will describe the science planning of the NICER magnetar observations. The NICER is expected to provide monitoring of fainter magnetar sources which cannot be performed by Swift due to its little collective area. Deep observations of quiescent magnetars and high-B radio pulsars can be also performed with the NICER to study their spectral similarity as a key to investigate the connection between these two sub-classes. Finally, ToO programs are suitable to follow-up the magnate outburst relaxation down to much fainter flux level. We will introduce the NICER strategy of the magnetar observation.

  19. Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters and ROSAT Observations of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results on the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 were published in the proceedings of the first ROSAT symposium. NGC 1407 is embedded in diffuse X-ray-emitting gas which is extensive enough that it is likely to be related to the surrounding group of galaxies, rather than just NGC 1407. Spectral data for NGC 1407 (AO2) and IC 1459 (AO3) are also included in a complete sample of elliptical galaxies I compiled in collaboration with David Davis. This allowed us to construct the first complete X-ray sample of optically-selected elliptical galaxies. The complete sample allows us to apply Malmquist bias corrections to the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosities. I continue to work on the implications of this first complete X-ray sample of elliptical galaxies. Paul Eskridge Dave Davis and I also analyzed three long ROSAT PSPC observations of the small (but not dwarf) elliptical galaxy M32. We found the X-ray spectra and variability to be consistent with either a Low Mass X-Ray Binary (LMXRB) or a putative 'micro"-AGN.

  20. Long-term observations minus background monitoring of ground-based brightness temperatures from a microwave radiometer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Angelis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs offer the capability to provide continuous, high-temporal-resolution observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer (PBL with low maintenance. This makes MWR an ideal instrument to supplement radiosonde and satellite observations when initializing numerical weather prediction (NWP models through data assimilation. State-of-the-art data assimilation systems (e.g. variational schemes require an accurate representation of the differences between model (background and observations, which are then weighted by their respective errors to provide the best analysis of the true atmospheric state. In this perspective, one source of information is contained in the statistics of the differences between observations and their background counterparts (O–B. Monitoring of O–B statistics is crucial to detect and remove systematic errors coming from the measurements, the observation operator, and/or the NWP model. This work illustrates a 1-year O–B analysis for MWR observations in clear-sky conditions for an European-wide network of six MWRs. Observations include MWR brightness temperatures (TB measured by the two most common types of MWR instruments. Background profiles are extracted from the French convective-scale model AROME-France before being converted into TB. The observation operator used to map atmospheric profiles into TB is the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb. It is shown that O–B monitoring can effectively detect instrument malfunctions. O–B statistics (bias, standard deviation, and root mean square for water vapour channels (22.24–30.0 GHz are quite consistent for all the instrumental sites, decreasing from the 22.24 GHz line centre ( ∼  2–2.5 K towards the high-frequency wing ( ∼  0.8–1.3 K. Statistics for zenith and lower-elevation observations show a similar trend, though values increase with increasing air mass. O

  1. Initial observations of high-charge, low-emittance electron beams at HIBAF (High Brightness Accelerator FEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Feldman, R.B.; Carsten, B.E.; Feldman, D.W.; Sheffield, R.L.; Stein, W.E.; Johnson, W.J.; Thode, L.E.; Bender, S.C.; Busch, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    We report our initial measurements of bright (high-charge, low-emittance) electron beams generated at the Los Alamos High Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) Facility. Normalized emittance values of less than 50 {pi} mm-mrad for charges ranging from 0.7 to 8.7 nC were obtained for single micropulses at a y-waist and at an energy of 14.7 MeV. These measurements were part of the commissioning campaign on the HIBAF photoelectric injector. Macropulse measurements have also been performed and are compared with PARMELA simulations. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  3. High-energy observations of the state transition of the X-ray nova and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of extensive high-energy observations of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318 performed with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst in 2003 January, was observed in February in a spectral state dominated by a soft......, typical of a black-hole binary in the so-called High/Soft State. We then followed the evolution of the source outburst over several months using the INTEGRAL Galactic Centre survey observations. The source became active again at the end of March: it showed a clear transition towards a much harder state...... of the black hole X-ray novae class which populate our galactic bulge and we discuss its properties in the frame of the spectral models used for transient black hole binaries....

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2XMM AGN X-ray and mid-IR luminosities (Mateos+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Rovilos, E.; Hernan-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X.; Blain, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.

    2017-11-01

    Our AGN sample was drawn from the wide-angle BUXS (Mateos et al. 2012MNRAS.426.3271M). BUXS is a large, complete, flux-limited sample of X-ray bright (f4.5-10keV>6x10-14erg/s/cm2) AGN detected with the XMM-Newton observatory at 4.5-10 keV energies. The survey is based on 381 high Galactic latitude (|b|>20°) XMM-Newton observations having good quality for serendipitous source detection that were used to derive extragalactic source count distributions at intermediate X-ray fluxes (Mateos et al. 2008A&A...492...51M). BUXS contains 255 AGN, after removal of Galactic stars and known BL Lacs (<3 per cent), detected over a total sky area of 44.43 deg2. (1 data file).

  5. The changing source of X-ray reflection in the radio-intermediate Seyfert 1 galaxy III Zw 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A. G.; Waddell, S. G. H.; Gallo, L. C.

    2018-03-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the radio-intermediate, X-ray bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, III Zw 2, obtained with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift over the past 17 yr. The source brightness varies significantly over yearly time-scales, but more modestly over periods of days. Pointed observations with XMM-Newton in 2000 and Suzaku in 2011 show spectral differences despite comparable X-ray fluxes. The Suzaku spectra are consistent with a power-law continuum and a narrow Gaussian emission feature at ˜6.4 keV, whereas the earlier XMM-Newton spectrum requires a broader Gaussian profile and soft-excess below ˜2 keV. A potential interpretation is that the primary power-law emission, perhaps from a jet base, preferentially illuminates the inner accretion disc in 2000, but the distant torus in 2011. The interpretation could be consistent with the hypothesized precessing radio jet in III Zw 2 that may have originated from disc instabilities due to an ongoing merging event.

  6. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  7. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2017-11-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  8. Observations of the Ultraviolet-bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre; Latour, Marilyn; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the UV-bright star Y453 in M4. Model fits to the star’s optical spectrum yield {T}{eff} ˜ 56,000 K. Fits to the star’s FUV spectrum, obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal it to be considerably hotter, with {T}{eff} ˜ 72,000 K. We adopt {T}{eff} = 72,000 ± 2000 K and {log}g = 5.7 ± 0.2 as our best-fit parameters. Scaling the model spectrum to match the star’s optical and near-infrared magnitudes, we derive a mass {M}* =0.53+/- 0.24 {M}⊙ and luminosity {log}L/{L}⊙ =2.84+/- 0.05, consistent with the values expected of an evolved star in a globular cluster. Comparing the star with post-horizontal-branch evolutionary tracks, we conclude that it most likely evolved from the blue horizontal branch, departing the asymptotic giant branch before third dredge-up. It should thus exhibit the abundance pattern (O-poor and Na-rich) characteristic of the second-generation (SG) stars in M4. We derive the star’s photospheric abundances of He, C, N, O, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni. CNO abundances are roughly 0.25 dex greater than those of the cluster’s SG stars, while the Si and S abundances match the cluster values. Abundances of the iron-peak elements (except for iron itself) are enhanced by 1-3 dex. Rather than revealing the star’s origin and evolution, this pattern reflects the combined effects of diffusive and mechanical processes in the stellar atmosphere.

  9. Si III OV Bright Line of Scattering Polarized Light That Has Been Observed in the CLASP and Its Center-to-Limb Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kano, Ryohei; Kubo, Masahito; Noriyuki, Narukage; Kisei, Bando; Hara, Hirohisa; Yoshiho, Suematsu; Goto, Motouji; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; hide

    2017-01-01

    The CLASP (Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro- Polarimeter) rocket experiment, in addition to the ultraviolet region of the Ly alpha emission line (121.57 nm), emission lines of Si III (120.65 nm) and OV (121.83 nm) is can be observed. These are optically thin line compared to a Ly alpha line, if Rarere captured its polarization, there is a possibility that dripping even a new physical diagnosis chromosphere-transition layer. In particular, OV bright light is a release from the transition layer, further, three P one to one S(sub 0) is a forbidden line (cross-triplet transition between lines), it was not quite know whether to polarization.

  10. Anti­-parallel Filament Flows and Bright Dots Observed in the EUV with Hi-­C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline E.; Regnier, Stephane; Walsh, Robert; Winebarger, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Hi-C obtained the highest spatial and temporal resolution observations ever taken in the solar EUV corona. Hi-C reveals dynamics and structure at the limit of its temporal and spatial resolution. Hi-C observed various fine-scale features that SDO/AIA could not pick out. For the first time in the corona, Hi-C revealed magnetic braiding and component reconnection consistent with coronal heating. Hi-C shows evidence of reconnection and heating in several different regions and magnetic configurations with plasma being heated to 0.3 - 8 x 10(exp 6) K temperatures. Surprisingly, many of the first results highlight plasma at temperatures that are not at the peak of the response functions.

  11. Spectral analysis of 1H 0707-495 with XMM-Newton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dauser, T.; Svoboda, Jiří; Schartel, N.; Wilms, J.; Dovčiak, Michal; Ehle, M.; Karas, Vladimír; Santo-Lleó, M.; Marshall, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 422, č. 3 (2012), s. 1914-1921 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole s * active galaxies * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics (ASU-R) Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  12. XMM-Newton evidence of shocked ISM in SN 1006: indications of hadronic acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miceli, M.; Bocchino, F.; Decourchelle, A.; Maurin, G.; Vink, J.; Orlando, S.; Reale, F.; Broersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Shock fronts in young supernova remnants are the best candidates for being sites of cosmic ray acceleration up to a few PeV, though conclusive experimental evidence is still lacking. Aims. Hadron acceleration is expected to increase the shock compression ratio, providing higher postshock

  13. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  14. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sooner. More science news Help us find a cure. Give to BrightFocus BrightFocus Updates BrightFocus Foundation Lauds Bill Gates Alzheimer’s Initiative “BrightFocus Foundation lauds today’s historic announcement by ...

  15. Observational and theoretical study of the point sources of very high energy gamma-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyk, Iurii

    2017-04-01

    The study of the sky using the most energetic photons plays a crucial role in detecting and exploring high-energy phenomena in the Universe. Observations conducted over recent years with new ground-based and space-borne gamma-ray instruments reveal that the universe is full of extreme accelerators, i.e., objects with surprisingly high efficiency for acceleration of electrons. In particular such an efficient acceleration is observed in gamma-ray-loud binary (GRLB) systems. GRLBs are a newly identified class of X-ray binaries in which interaction of an outflow from the compact object with the wind and radiation emitted by a companion star leads to the production of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission. Only five such systems have been firmly detected as persistent or regularly variable TeV gamma-ray emitters. All GRLBs detected in the TeV energy range contain a hot, young star and exhibit variable or periodic emission at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum. Details of the physical mechanism of the high-energy activity of GRLBs are not clear yet. Broad multi-wavelength observations are crucial to reveal the characteristic energies of the relativistic wind and better understanding of the nature of these sources. It looks quite possible that all these systems can be understood within the "hidden pulsar" model, and the observed differences are due to the different sizes of the system. In my work, I concentrate on the X-ray and gamma-ray emission observed from gamma-ray binaries PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61 303 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Swift, Chandra and Fermi observatories. In PSR B1259-63, the compact source is a young 48 ms radio pulsar orbiting Be-type star with period of 3.4 years. During my studies, I have been intensively involved in the analysis of the results of two multi-wavelength campaigns organized in 2010 and 2014 during the periastron passages in this system. These observations reveal complex spectral variability of the source as it passes

  16. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  17. High-resolution Near-infrared Observations of a Small Cluster Associated with a Bright-rimmed Cloud in W5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rieko; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Fukuda, Naoya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kusune, Takayoshi; Pickles, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    We carried out near-infrared (IR) observations to examine star formation toward the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 12, of which the main exciting star is O7V star in W5-W. We found a small young stellar object (YSO) cluster of six members embedded in the head of SFO 12 facing its exciting star, aligned along the UV radiation incident direction from the exciting star. We carried out high-resolution near-IR observations with the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system and revealed that three of the cluster members appear to have circumstellar envelopes, one of which shows an arm-like structure in its envelope. Our near-IR and {L}\\prime -band photometry and Spitzer IRAC data suggest that formation of two members at the tip side occurred in advance of other members toward the central part, under our adopted assumptions. Our near-IR data and previous studies imply that more YSOs are distributed in the region just outside the cloud head on the side of the main exciting star, but there is little sign of star formation toward the opposite side. We infer that star formation has been sequentially occurring from the exciting star side to the central part. We examined archival data of far-infrared and CO (J=3-2) which reveals that, unlike in the optical image, SFO 12 has a head-tail structure that is along the UV incident direction. This suggests that SFO 12 is affected by strong UV from the main exciting star. We discuss the formation of this head-tail structure and star formation there by comparing with a radiation-driven implosion (RDI) model.

  18. High School Observations of AGN Using the GTN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, Kevin M.; Jordan, R.; Perkins, A.; Adkins, J.; Cominsky, L.

    2008-03-01

    Students at Deer Valley High School in Antioch, California have undertaken an AGN monitoring program using telescopes of the Global Telescope Network (GTN) and SkyNet. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by GLAST to support the science of high energy astrophysics missions, specifically GLAST, Swift and XMM-Newton. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University. SkyNet is a network of small telescopes managed from the University of North Carolina to catch gamma ray burst afterglows. A primary motivator behind both networks is education. In the program outlined here, high school students will schedule, reduce and analyze observations of active galaxies in order to determine if any microflaring activity has occurred. Students will compare their results with previous studies reported in the literature and then report their own results at the Contra Costa County Science and Engineering Fair. This work will give the students direct experience with several aspects of scientific research, including literature searches, data acquisition and analysis, and reporting of results.

  19. Distant clusters of galaxies in the 2XMM/SDSS footprint: follow-up observations with the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Schwope, A.; Takey, A.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters at high redshift are important to test cosmological models and models for the growth of structure. They are difficult to find in wide-angle optical surveys, however, leaving dedicated follow-up of X-ray selected candidates as one promising identification route. Aims: We aim to increase the number of galaxy clusters beyond the SDSS-limit, z 0.75. Methods: We compiled a list of extended X-ray sources from the 2XMMp catalogue within the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Fields without optical counterpart were selected for further investigation. Deep optical imaging and follow-up spectroscopy were obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope, Arizona (LBT), of those candidates not known to the literature. Results: From initially 19 candidates, selected by visually screening X-ray images of 478 XMM-Newton observations and the corresponding SDSS images, 6 clusters were found in the literature. Imaging data through r,z filters were obtained for the remaining candidates, and 7 were chosen for multi-object (MOS) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic redshifts, optical magnitudes, and X-ray parameters (flux, temperature, and luminosity) are presented for the clusters with spectroscopic redshifts. The distant clusters studied here constitute one additional redshift bin for studies of the LX-T relation, which does not seem to evolve from high to low redshifts. Conclusions: The selection method of distant galaxy clusters presented here was highly successful. It is based solely on archival optical (SDSS) and X-ray (XMM-Newton) data. Out of 19 selected candidates, 6 of the 7 candidates selected for spectroscopic follow-up were verified as distant clusters, a further candidate is most likely a group of galaxies at z 1.21. Out of the remaining 12 candidates, 6 were known previously as galaxy clusters, one object is a likely X-ray emission from an AGN radio jet, and for 5 we see no clear evidence for them to be high-redshift galaxy clusters. Based on

  20. The XXL Survey. XIII. Baryon content of the bright cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, D.; Ettori, S.; Coupon, J.; Gastaldello, F.; Pierre, M.; Melin, J.-B.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; McCarthy, I. G.; Adami, C.; Chiappetti, L.; Faccioli, L.; Giles, P.; Lavoie, S.; Lefèvre, J. P.; Lieu, M.; Mantz, A.; Maughan, B.; McGee, S.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Sadibekova, T.; Smith, G. P.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    cosmic microwave background and cluster counts should translate into an even lower baryon fraction, which poses a major challenge to our current understanding of galaxy clusters. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.The Master Catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A2

  1. Simultaneous X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Radio Observations of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, P.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lynch, R. S.; Spitler, L. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Bower, G. C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Gourdji, K.; Kaspi, V. M.; Law, C. J.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Michilli, D.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    We undertook coordinated campaigns with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Arecibo radio telescopes during Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton observations of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 to search for simultaneous radio and X-ray bursts. We find 12 radio bursts from FRB 121102 during 70 ks total of X-ray observations. We detect no X-ray photons at the times of radio bursts from FRB 121102 and further detect no X-ray bursts above the measured background at any time. We place a 5σ upper limit of 3 × 10‑11 erg cm‑2 on the 0.5–10 keV fluence for X-ray bursts at the time of radio bursts for durations < 700 ms, which corresponds to a burst energy of 4 × 1045 erg at the measured distance of FRB 121102. We also place limits on the 0.5–10 keV fluence of 5 × 10‑10 and 1 × 10‑9 erg cm‑2 for bursts emitted at any time during the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, respectively, assuming a typical X-ray burst duration of 5 ms. We analyze data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and place a 5σ upper limit on the 10–100 keV fluence of 4 × 10‑9 erg cm‑2 (5 × 1047 erg at the distance of FRB 121102) for gamma-ray bursts at the time of radio bursts. We also present a deep search for a persistent X-ray source using all of the X-ray observations taken to date and place a 5σ upper limit on the 0.5–10 keV flux of 4 × 10‑15 erg s‑1 cm‑2 (3 × 1041 erg s‑1 at the distance of FRB 121102). We discuss these non-detections in the context of the host environment of FRB 121102 and of possible sources of fast radio bursts in general.

  2. X-ray observations of complex temperature structure in the cool-core cluster A85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, David E.; Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Skillman, Sam [Kavli Fellow, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    X-ray observations were used to examine the complex temperature structure of A85, a cool-core galaxy cluster. Temperature features can provide evidence of merging events which shock heat the intracluster gas. Temperature maps were made from both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. The combination of a new, long-exposure XMM observation and an improved temperature map binning technique produced the highest fidelity temperature maps of A85 to date. Hot regions were detected near the subclusters to the south and southwest in both the Chandra and XMM temperature maps. The presence of these structures implies A85 is not relaxed. The hot regions may indicate the presence of shocks. The Mach numbers were estimated to be ∼1.9 at the locations of the hot spots. Observational effects will tend to systematically reduce temperature jumps, so the measured Mach numbers are likely underestimated. Neither temperature map showed evidence for a shock in the vicinity of the presumed radio relic near the southwest subcluster. However, the presence of a weak shock cannot be ruled out. There was tension between the temperatures measured by the two instruments.

  3. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  4. Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, F.; Aloisio, R.; Amans, J.; Amato, E.; Antonelli, L. A.; Aramo, C.; Armstrong, T.; Arqueros, F.; Asano, K.; Ashley, M.; Backes, M.; Balazs, C.; Balzer, A.; Bamba, A.; Barkov, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Benbow, W.; Bernlöhr, K.; Beshley, V.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Bilinsky, A.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Blanch, O.; Blasi, P.; Blazek, J.; Boisson, C.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonavolontà, C.; Bonnoli, G.; Braiding, C.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Bregeon, J.; Brown, A. M.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Burton, M.; Burtovoi, A.; Busetto, G.; Böttcher, M.; Cameron, R.; Capalbi, M.; Caproni, A.; Caraveo, P.; Carosi, R.; Cascone, E.; Cerruti, M.; Chaty, S.; Chen, A.; Chen, X.; Chernyakova, M.; Chikawa, M.; Chudoba, J.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conforti, V.; Contreras, J. L.; Costa, A.; Cotter, G.; Covino, S.; Covone, G.; Cumani, P.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ammando, F.; D'Urso, D.; Daniel, M.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cesare, G.; De Franco, A.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; De Lisio, C.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; De Palma, F.; Del Santo, M.; Delgado, C.; della Volpe, D.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Di Venere, L.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.; Dumas, D.; Dwarkadas, V.; Díaz, C.; Ebr, J.; Egberts, K.; Einecke, S.; Elsässer, D.; Eschbach, S.; Falceta-Goncalves, D.; Fasola, G.; Fedorova, E.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Ferrand, G.; Fesquet, M.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Filipovíc, M. D.; Fioretti, V.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Franco, F. J.; Freixas Coromina, L.; Fujita, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Förster, A.; Gadola, A.; Garcia López, R.; Garczarczyk, M.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giuliani, A.; Glicenstein, J.; Gnatyk, R.; Goldoni, P.; Grabarczyk, T.; Graciani, R.; Graham, J.; Grandi, P.; Granot, J.; Green, A. J.; Griffiths, S.; Gunji, S.; Hakobyan, H.; Hara, S.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, M.; Helo, J. C.; Hinton, J.; Hnatyk, B.; Huet, J.; Huetten, M.; Humensky, T. B.; Hussein, M.; Hörandel, J.; Ikeno, Y.; Inada, T.; Inome, Y.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, T.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Iori, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Janecek, P.; Jankowsky, D.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Katagiri, H.; Kimeswenger, S.; Kimura, S.; Knödlseder, J.; Koch, B.; Kocot, J.; Kohri, K.; Komin, N.; Konno, Y.; Kosack, K.; Koyama, S.; Kraus, M.; Kubo, H.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kushida, J.; La Palombara, N.; Lalik, K.; Lamanna, G.; Landt, H.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lee, S.; Lees, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leto, G.; Lindfors, E.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; Lopez, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; López-Coto, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maier, G.; Malaguti, G.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, S.; Marcowith, A.; Martí, J.; Martínez, M.; Martínez, G.; Masuda, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Melioli, C.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moderski, R.; Mohammed, M.; Montaruli, T.; Moralejo, A.; Mori, K.; Morlino, G.; Morselli, A.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Mundell, C.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nagayoshi, T.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nievas-Rosillo, M.; Nikołajuk, M.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogues, L.; Nosek, D.; Novosyadlyj, B.; Nozaki, S.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Okumura, A.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orlati, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Palacio, J.; Palatka, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Pavy, S.; Pe'er, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.; Petruk, O.; Pisarski, A.; Pohl, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Principe, G.; Prouza, M.; Pueschel, E.; Pühlhofer, G.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rameez, M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodríguez Vázquez, J. J.; Romano, P.; Romeo, G.; Rosado, J.; Rousselle, J.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Sadeh, I.; Safi-Harb, S.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Sanchez, D.; Sangiorgi, P.; Sano, H.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Sawada, M.; Schioppa, E. J.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schussler, F.; Sergijenko, O.; Servillat, M.; Shalchi, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Siejkowski, H.; Sillanpää, A.; Simone, D.; Sliusar, V.; Sol, H.; Stanič, S.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stefanik, S.; Stephan, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, M.; Takeda, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Terada, Y.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Thoudam, S.; Tokanai, F.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Townsley, C.; Travnicek, P.; Trichard, C.; Trifoglio, M.; Tsujimoto, S.; Vagelli, V.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vassiliev, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Vigorito, C.; Vorobiov, S.; Vrastil, M.; Vázquez Acosta, M. L.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Ward, J. E.; Watson, J. J.; Weinstein, A.; White, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilcox, P.; Williams, D. A.; Wischnewski, R.; Wojcik, P.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yang, L.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshiike, S.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zacharias, M.; Zampieri, L.; Zanin, R.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.; Zhdanov, V.; Ziegler, A.; Zorn, J.

    2017-05-01

    We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7-3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti)correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in particular X-rays and CO/H i emission. We present a series of simulated images of RX J1713.7-3946 for CTA based on a set of observationally motivated models for the gamma-ray emission. In these models, VHE gamma rays produced by high-energy electrons are assumed to trace the nonthermal X-ray emission observed by XMM-Newton, whereas those originating from relativistic protons delineate the local gas distributions. The local atomic and molecular gas distributions are deduced by the NANTEN team from CO and H i observations. Our primary goal is to show how one can distinguish the emission mechanism(s) of the gamma rays (i.e., hadronic versus leptonic, or a mixture of the two) through information provided by their spatial distribution, spectra, and time variation. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the capabilities of CTA to achieve various proposed scientific goals by observing this important cosmic particle accelerator.

  5. Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7−3946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F. [CEA/IRFU/SAp, CEA Saclay, Bat 709, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aloisio, R.; Amato, E. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Amans, J. [LUTH and GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, PSL Research University, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190, Meudon (France); Antonelli, L. A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via di Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Aramo, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, ed. G, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Armstrong, T. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arqueros, F.; Barrio, J. A. [Grupo de Altas Energías, Universidad Complutense de Madrid., Av Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashi-wanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ashley, M. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Backes, M. [University of Namibia, Department of Physics, 340 Mandume Ndemufayo Ave., Pioneerspark Windhoek (Namibia); Balazs, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Balzer, A. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bamba, A. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Barkov, M. [Riken, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Benbow, W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02180 (United States); Bernlöhr, K., E-mail: sano@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nakamori@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2017-05-10

    We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7−3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti)correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in particular X-rays and CO/H i emission. We present a series of simulated images of RX J1713.7−3946 for CTA based on a set of observationally motivated models for the gamma-ray emission. In these models, VHE gamma rays produced by high-energy electrons are assumed to trace the nonthermal X-ray emission observed by XMM-Newton , whereas those originating from relativistic protons delineate the local gas distributions. The local atomic and molecular gas distributions are deduced by the NANTEN team from CO and H i observations. Our primary goal is to show how one can distinguish the emission mechanism(s) of the gamma rays (i.e., hadronic versus leptonic, or a mixture of the two) through information provided by their spatial distribution, spectra, and time variation. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the capabilities of CTA to achieve various proposed scientific goals by observing this important cosmic particle accelerator.

  6. The WEBT campaign on the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 in 2013. An analysis of the enigmatic synchrotron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Stamerra, A.; Villata, M.; Larionov, V. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Arévalo, M. J.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bachev, R.; Benítez, E.; Bozhilov, V. V.; Borman, G. A.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carnerero, M. I.; Carosati, D.; Chigladze, R. A.; Damljanovic, G.; Di Paola, A.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Efimova, N. V.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Giroletti, M.; González-Morales, P. A.; Grinon-Marin, A. B.; Grishina, T. S.; Hiriart, D.; Ibryamov, S.; Klimanov, S. A.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Kurtenkov, A. A.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionova, E. G.; Lázaro, C.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Leto, P.; Markovic, G.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Morozova, D. A.; Mújica, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Ohlert, J. M.; Ovcharov, E. P.; Paiano, S.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Prandini, E.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sadun, A. C.; Semkov, E.; Sigua, L. A.; Strigachev, A.; Tammi, J.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; Velasco, S.; Vince, O.

    2015-11-01

    A multifrequency campaign on the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 was organized by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) in 2013 April-August, involving 19 optical, two near-IR, and three radio telescopes. The aim was to study the source behaviour at low energies during and around the high-energy observations by the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescopes in April-July. We also analyse the UV and X-ray data acquired by the Swift and XMM-Newton satellites in the same period. The WEBT and satellite observations allow us to detail the synchrotron emission bump in the source spectral energy distribution (SED). In the optical, we found a general bluer-when-brighter trend. The X-ray spectrum remained stable during 2013, but a comparison with previous observations suggests that it becomes harder when the X-ray flux increases. The long XMM-Newton exposure reveals a curved X-ray spectrum. In the SED, the XMM-Newton data show a hard near-UV spectrum, while Swift data display a softer shape that is confirmed by previous Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. Polynomial fits to the optical-X-ray SED show that the synchrotron peak likely lies in the 4-30 eV energy range, with a general shift towards higher frequencies for increasing X-ray brightness. However, the UV and X-ray spectra do not connect smoothly. Possible interpretations include: (i) orientation effects, (ii) additional absorption, (iii) multiple emission components, and (iv) a peculiar energy distribution of relativistic electrons. We discuss the first possibility in terms of an inhomogeneous helical jet model.

  7. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio-Galaxy Cygnus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A,focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN...... and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law (Γ~1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of NH~1.6x1023 cm-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (>10ke......V (90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power-law plus reflection modelleaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast(15,000-26,000km/s), high column-density (NW>3x1023 cm-2), highly ionized (ξ~2,500 erg cm/s-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also...

  8. X-Ray Observations of Magnetar SGR 0501+4516 from Outburst to Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Y.-L.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetars are neutron stars having extreme magnetic field strengths. Study of their emission properties in quiescent state can help understand effects of a strong magnetic field on neutron stars. SGR 0501+4516 is a magnetar that was discovered in 2008 during an outburst, which has recently returned to quiescence. We report its spectral and timing properties measured with new and archival observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. We found that the quiescent spectrum is best fit by a power-law plus two blackbody model, with temperatures of kT low ∼ 0.26 keV and kT high ∼ 0.62 keV. We interpret these two blackbody components as emission from a hotspot and the entire surface. The hotspot radius shrunk from 1.4 km to 0.49 km since the outburst, and there was a significant correlation between its area and the X-ray luminosity, which agrees well with the prediction by the twisted magnetosphere model. We applied the two-temperature spectral model to all magnetars in quiescence and found that it could be a common feature among the population. Moreover, the temperature of the cooler blackbody shows a general trend with the magnetar field strength, which supports the simple scenario of heating by magnetic field decay.

  9. Multiwavelength Observations of a TeV-Flare from W Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Buckley, J. H.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Le Bohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Pian, E.; Vercellone, S.; Donnarumma, I.; D'Ammando, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Pasanen, M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Tetradze, S. D.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Kotiranta, M.; Cucchiara, A.; Romano, P.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Heidt, J.; Benitez, E.; Hiriart, D.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Mujica, R.; Dultzin, D.; Lopez, J. M.; Mommert, M.; Sorcia, M.; de la Calle Perez, I.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from an intensive multiwavelength campaign on the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object W Com (z = 0.102) during a strong outburst of very high energy gamma-ray emission in 2008 June. The very high energy gamma-ray signal was detected by VERITAS on 2008 June 7-8 with a flux F(>200 GeV) =(5.7 ± 0.6) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1, about three times brighter than during the discovery of gamma-ray emission from W Com by VERITAS in 2008 March. The initial detection of this flare by VERITAS at energies above 200 GeV was followed by observations in high-energy gamma rays (AGILE; E γ>= 100 MeV), X-rays (Swift and XMM-Newton), and at UV, and ground-based optical and radio monitoring through the GASP-WEBT consortium and other observatories. Here we describe the multiwavelength data and derive the spectral energy distribution of the source from contemporaneous data taken throughout the flare.

  10. X-ray Observations of the Radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PMN J0948+0022

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Markoff, Sera; Parker, Michael; Miller, Jon M.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the 200-ks NuSTAR observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) AGN, PMN J0948+0022, executed simultaneously with an 80-ks XMM-Newton observation in 2016. PMN J0948+0022 was chosen because it is one of seven known, powerfully-jetted radio-loud (RL) NLS1s that have been observed with Fermi. We will detail our progress toward meeting the following campaign objectives with the analysis of these datasets: (1) Confirming the presence of the soft excess and look for any evidence of reflection, either in Fe K emission or the Compton hump above 10 keV; (2) Determining the correct spectral model across the entire X-ray bandpass (e.g., Comptonization vs. blurred reflection for the soft excess); (3) Measuring the coronal parameters (temperature, optical depth, compactness) by constraining the high-energy cutoff of the power-law and the low-energy UV/optical data simultaneously; (4) Looking for any correlations between the corona, jet and accretion properties by examining radio and Fermi monitoring of the source contemporaneous with the X-ray and UV/optical data and comparing fits to pure disk/corona models vs. jet models; (5) Furthering our understanding of the jet emission mechanism(s) in RLNLS1s by adding new information to the SED modeling of this source.

  11. A spectroscopic atlas of bright stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for amateur astronomers interested in practical spectroscopy or spectrography, this reference book identifies more than 70 (northern hemisphere) bright stars that are suitable observational targets. It provides finder charts for locating these sometimes-familiar stars.

  12. The Compton Hump and Variable Blue Wing in the Extreme Low-Flux NuSTAR Observations of 1H0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, E.; Fabian, A.C.; Lohfink, A. M.; Parker, M. L.; Walton, D. J.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Matt, G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy, 1H0707-495, has been well observed in the 0.3-10 kiloelectronvolt band, revealing a dramatic drop in flux in the iron K-alpha band, a strong soft excess, and short time-scale reverberation lags associated with these spectral features. In this paper, we present the first results of a deep 250-kilosecond NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) observation of 1H0707-495, which includes the first sensitive observations above 10 kiloelectronvolts. Even though the NuSTAR observations caught the source in an extreme low-flux state, the Compton hump is still significantly detected. NuSTAR, with its high effective area above 7 kiloelectronvolts, clearly detects the drop in flux in the iron K-alpha band, and by comparing these observations with archival XMM-Newton observations, we find that the energy of this drop increases with increasing flux. We discuss possible explanations for this, the most likely of which is that the drop in flux is the blue wing of the relativistically broadened iron K-alpha emission line. When the flux is low, the coronal source height is low, thus enhancing the most gravitationally red-shifted emission.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MGRO J2019+37 region radio and IR observations (Paredes+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J. M.; Marti, J.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.; Munoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Moldon, J.; Peracaula, M.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Zabalza, V.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bordas, P.; Romero, G. E.; Ribo, M.

    2009-09-01

    This table contains information about all radio sources detected with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) in Khodad (India) in the MGRO J2019+37 region. The observations were carried out at 610MHz (49cm wavelength) in July 2007. An hexagonal pattern of 19 pointings was designed in order to cover the region of 2.5 square degree centered on the MGRO J2019+37 peak of emission. The list of sources was determined using the SExtractor automatic procedure over our 5" resolution radio mosaic. Only sources with peak ux density higher than about ten times the local noise after primary beam correction were included. There are 42 of the 362 detected radio sources inside the area imaged in the near-infrared Ks-band. A total of 6 out of these 42 sources have a near-infrared counterpart candidate within 0.6" of their radio position. On the other hand, a total of 41 of the 362 radio sources are located in fields observed in X-rays. In this case, 5 of the 41 radio sources have an X-ray counterpart candidate within 5" (the typical uncertainty for XMM-Newton). Both, the Ks magnitude and the X-ray flux, are listed when available. (1 data file).

  14. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous z< 1 X-ray determinations. Furthermore, f abs at z=0.1{--}0.5 and {log}({L}{{x}}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 43.6{--}44.3 agrees with observational measurements/trends obtained over larger redshift intervals. We report a significant anti-correlation of R with {L}{{X}} (confirmed by our companion paper on stacked spectra) with considerable scatter around the median R values.

  15. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  16. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival. X-ray data from XMM-NEWTON. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of ...

  17. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband...... spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼ 0.5-100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality greater than or similar to 10 keV observations, together...... density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of NH greater than or similar to 5 x 1024 cm-2. The range of 2-10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the bestfitting models is L2-10,int = (0.8-1.7) x 1042 erg s-1, consistent...

  18. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. II. The development of the intra-group medium in a spiral-rich group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Zezas, A.; Nulsen, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mamon, G. A. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095 CNRS and UMPC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L {sub X,} {sub bolo} = 1.87{sub −0.66}{sup +1.03}×10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}), low-temperature (0.30{sub −0.05}{sup +0.07} keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6{sub −3.3}{sup +3.9}× 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale H I tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  19. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. II. The Development of the Intra-group Medium in a Spiral-rich Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Giacintucci, S.; Zezas, A.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Nulsen, P.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L X, bolo = 1.87+1.03-0.66×1041 erg s-1), low-temperature (0.30+0.07-0.05 keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6+3.9-3.3× 109 M ⊙ of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale {H} {I} tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  20. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  1. A Changing Wind Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Pittard, Julian M.; Parkin, Elliot Ross; Rauw, Gregor; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hillier, D. John

    2018-02-01

    We report on the first detection of a global change in the X-ray emitting properties of a wind–wind collision, thanks to XMM-Newton observations of the massive Small Magellenic Cloud (SMC) system HD 5980. While its light curve had remained unchanged between 2000 and 2005, the X-ray flux has now increased by a factor of ∼2.5, and slightly hardened. The new observations also extend the observational coverage over the entire orbit, pinpointing the light-curve shape. It has not varied much despite the large overall brightening, and a tight correlation of fluxes with orbital separation is found without any hysteresis effect. Moreover, the absence of eclipses and of absorption effects related to orientation suggests a large size for the X-ray emitting region. Simple analytical models of the wind–wind collision, considering the varying wind properties of the eruptive component in HD 5980, are able to reproduce the recent hardening and the flux-separation relationship, at least qualitatively, but they predict a hardening at apastron and little change in mean flux, contrary to observations. The brightness change could then possibly be related to a recently theorized phenomenon linked to the varying strength of thin-shell instabilities in shocked wind regions. Based on XMM-Newton and Chandra data.

  2. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2017-06-09

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  3. A Spatial Study of X-ray Properties in Superbubble 30 Dor C with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; SANO, Hidetoshi; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Shohei; Fujii, Kosuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2015-08-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are believed to be most likely accelerators of cosmic-rays (CRs) in an energy range less than 3×10^15 eV. Thus SNRs emit synchrotron X-rays by high-energy electrons. Sano et al. (2014) investigated spatially-resolved X-ray spectral properties of a shell-type SNR RX1713.77-3946 which shows strong non-thermal X-ray emissions. A large variation in the photon index is found and the photon index tends to be hard with increasing an interstellar gas density, suggesting that CR electrons are efficiently accelerated in denser interstellar gas environments. Few studies have focused on a photon index variation in superbubbles which possess 100-1000 pc diameter shells of swept-up interstellar materials containing hot (~10^6 K) shock-heated gas. The superbubble 30 Dor C in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the best targets for examining the photon index variation, because 30 Dor C is by far strong non-thermal X-ray emissions, and thus provides an ideal laboratory for probing non-thermal emission mechanisms in the supperbubble. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the superbubble with a high spatial resolution of on the order of 10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the west region of 30 Dor C can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the east region can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. The photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10^-7 erg/s/cm^2, respectively. The temperature of the thermal component ranges from ~0.1 to ~0.3 keV. We will discuss an interaction between the hot gas and an interstellar gas using mutiwavelength data.

  4. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  5. INTEGRAL observations of the GeV blazar PKS 1502+106 and the hard X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy Mkn 841

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, E.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Beckmann, V.; Eckert, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Pursimo, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Türler, M.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchin, V.; Hudec, R.; Maraschi, L.; Raiteri, C. M.; Soldi, S.; Treves, A.; Villata, M.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Extragalactic nuclear activity is most effectively explored with observations at high energies, where the most extreme flux and spectral variations are expected to occur, because of changes in either the accretion flow or the kinematics of the plasma. In active galactic nuclei of blazar type, these variations are the most dramatic. Aims: By following blazar outbursts from their onset and correlating the observed variations at many different wavelengths, we can reconstruct the behavior of the plasma and map out the development of the flare within the jet. Methods: The advent of the Fermi satellite has allowed the start of a systematic and intensive monitoring program of blazars. Blazar outbursts are very effectively detected by the LAT instrument in the MeV-GeV domain, and these can be promptly followed up with other facilities. Based on a Fermi LAT detection of a high MeV-GeV state, we observed the blazar PKS 1502+106 with the INTEGRAL satellite between 9 and 11 August 2008. Simultaneous Swift observations were also accomplished, as well as optical follow-up at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results: The IBIS instrument onboard INTEGRAL detected a source at a position inconsistent with the optical coordinates of PKS 1502+106, but consistent with those of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mkn 841, located at 6.8 arcmin south-west of the blazar, which is therefore responsible for all the hard X-ray flux detected by IBIS. At the location of the blazar, IBIS sets an upper limit of ~ 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 on the 15-60 keV flux, which is consistent with a model of inverse Compton scattering accounting for the soft X-ray and gamma-ray spectra measured by Swift XRT and Fermi LAT, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum during the outburst indicates substantial variability in the characteristic energy of the inverse Compton component in this blazar. The hard X-ray state of the Seyfert appears to be nearly unchanged with respect to the past. On the other hand, its soft X-ray flux (0

  6. NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) monitoring in support of XMM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-03-01

    Dr. Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) in support of upcoming XMM Newton observations. The XMM observations will take place 2017 March 13 06:21 through March 14 10:34 UT. Walter writes: "NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) is a compact eclipsing system with a 5.5 hour period. It was a normal Fe II nova that, upon reaching quiescence, took on the appearance of a super-soft source in the optical high state, which suggests an extremely high mass accretion rate. The optical spectrum is dominated by hot permitted lines of O VI, N V, C IV, and He II. Some nova-like variables have similar spectra, though generally without the hot emission lines. Primary eclipse is broad - nearly 40% of the orbit - and deeper at shorter wavelengths, which suggests the eclipse of a hot accretion disk. Primary eclipse depth is about 1 mag at V. There appears to be a shallow secondary eclipse.The primary aim [of the XMM observations] is to detect and characterize the eclipse at X-ray and UV wavelengths. We will obtain low cadence BVRI/JHK observations with SMARTS/Andicam. We request AAVSO support to obtain continuous photometric time series simultaneous with the XMM observation. Any filters are acceptable, but standard Johnson B, V or Cousins R, I are preferred. Clear filters are acceptable. Time resolution better than 5 minutes and uncertainties (outside of eclipse) <0.02 mag are preferred. The best ephemeris I have is: minimum light at JD 55956.822 + 0.219109E. This is based on data from 2013-2015." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  7. On the Brightness of Supernova Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Before 1998 the universe expansion was thought to be slowing down. After 1998 the universe expansion is thought to be accelerating up. The key evidence came from the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia in 1998. Astronomers found that the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia is fainter than expected. Astronomers believe this means that the universe expansion is accelerating up. In this paper it is argued that if the ionized gas in the universe space is taken into account, then the brightness of the high redshift supernova Ia should be fainter than expected. The universe expansion does not need to be accelerating up. The exotic form of energy (dark energy) does not need to be introduce

  8. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Collett, T. E. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Furlanetto, C.; Nightingale, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M. S. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); More, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti, E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia—LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification and Year 1 observations. The Science Verification data span approximately 250 sq. deg. with a median i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 23.0. The Year 1 data span approximately 2000 sq. deg. and have an i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 22.9. As these data sets are both wide and deep, they are particularly useful for identifying strong gravitational lens candidates. Potential strong gravitational lens candidate systems were initially identified based on a color and magnitude selection in the DES object catalogs or because the system is at the location of a previously identified galaxy cluster. Cutout images of potential candidates were then visually scanned using an object viewer and numerically ranked according to whether or not we judged them to be likely strong gravitational lens systems. Having scanned nearly 400,000 cutouts, we present 374 candidate strong lens systems, of which 348 are identified for the first time. We provide the R.A. and decl., the magnitudes and photometric properties of the lens and source objects, and the distance (radius) of the source(s) from the lens center for each system.

  9. Coordinated NuSTAR and Swift observations of SU Lyncis: a hard X-ray bright symbiotic star with weak optical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo; Mukai, Koji; Luna, Gerardo Juan Manuel; Sokoloski, Jennifer; Nelson, Thomas; Lucy, Adrian B.

    2018-01-01

    The variable M giant SU Lyncis was recently identified as the optical counterpart of a hard, thermal X-ray source. Also considering the fact that the star displays weak high-excitation emission, it was classified as a symbiotic system purely powered by accretion without accompanying nuclear fusion. This discovery revealed the existence of a subclass of symbiotics which is "invisible" to optical surveys and thus underestimated since these surveys favour the identification of systems with more intense emission lines that arise when shell-burning is present. At the same time, this discovery opens up a new window to investigate accretion and evolution of symbiotic systems. Here we report on the X-ray and UV properties of SU Lyncis derived from simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. The investigation is focused on the strong photometric variability in UV and on the X-ray spectral characterization, which is associated with a hot thermal plasma with sub-solar abundance and suffering the effects of a relatively dense local absorber. The results are discussed in the context of the accretion geometry and mass of the white dwarf, and the imposed limits to the reflection fraction.

  10. HI Surface brightness mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Peterson, Jeff; Bandura, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    We propose to scan the 2dF survey field with Parkes multibeam in driftscan mode to make a map to cross correlate with galaxy redshifts. This allows a statistical detection of HI large scale structure out to z=0.15. In this cross correlation, the HI in ALL galaxies contributes, not only the bright ones, which significantly boosts the sensitivity. The proposed 40 hours on the fields result in a forecasted 20 sigma detection. The survey volume is 10 million cubic megaparsec, which contain 10^15 solar masses of hydrogen.

  11. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-08-07

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. © 2014 ARVO.

  12. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    observatories around the world were pointing their instruments at this mysterious source in the sky, named GRB 031203, in the attempt to decipher its nature. Also ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, joined the hunt and observed the source in detail, using its on-board European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC). The fading X-ray emission from GRB 031203 - called the `afterglow' - is clearly seen in XMM-Newton's images. But much more stunning are the two rings, centred on the afterglow, which appear to expand thousand times faster than the speed of light. Dr. Simon Vaughan, of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, leads an international team of scientists studying GRB 031203. He explains that these rings are what astronomers call an `echo'. They form when the X-rays from the distant gamma-ray burst shine on a layer of dust in our own Galaxy. "The dust scatters some of the X-rays, causing XMM-Newton to observe these rings, much in the same way as fog scatters the light from a car's headlights," said Vaughan. Although the afterglow is the brightest feature seen in XMM-Newton's images, the expanding echo is much more spectacular. "It is like a shout in a cathedral," Vaughan said. "The shout of the gamma-ray burst is louder, but the Galactic reverberation, seen as the rings, is much more beautiful." The rings seem to expand because the X-rays scattered by dust farther from the direction of GRB 031203 take longer to reach us than those hitting the dust closer to the line of sight. However, nothing can move faster than light. "This is precisely what we expect because of the finite speed of light," said Vaughan. "The rate of expansion that we see is just a visual effect." He and his colleagues explain that we see two rings because there are two thin sheets of dust between the source of the gamma-ray burst and Earth, one closer to us creating the wider ring and one further away where the smaller ring is formed. Since they know precisely at what speed the X-ray light travels in space

  13. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  14. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also ... Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 8701, Beijing 100 080, China.

  15. Multiwavelength Observations of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134 in Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, N. I.; Böttcher, M.; de la Calle, I.; Agudo, I.; Aller, M.; Aller, H.; Bach, U.; Benítez, E.; Buemi, C. S.; Escande, L.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Jorstad, S. G.; Joshi, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Li, Y.; López, J. M.; Lott, B.; Madejski, G.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Raiteri, C. M.; Roberts, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Villata, M.; Wylezalek, D.

    2011-07-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of the ultraluminous blazar-type radio loud quasar PKS 0528+134 in quiescence during the period 2009 July-December. Four Target-of-Opportunity observations with the XMM-Newton satellite in the 0.2-10 keV range were supplemented with optical observations at the MDM Observatory, radio and optical data from the GLAST-AGILE Support Program of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope and the Very Long Baseline Array, additional X-ray data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (2-10 keV) and from Suzaku (0.5-10 keV) as well as γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the 100 MeV-200 GeV range. In addition, publicly available data from the SMARTS blazar monitoring program and the University of Arizona/Steward Observatory Fermi Support program were included in our analysis. We found no evidence of significant flux or spectral variability in γ-rays and most radio bands. However, significant flux variability on a timescale of several hours was found in the optical regime, accompanied by a weak trend of spectral softening with increasing flux. We suggest that this might be the signature of a contribution of unbeamed emission, possibly from the accretion disk, at the blue end of the optical spectrum. The optical flux is weakly polarized with rapid variations of the degree and direction of polarization, while the polarization of the 43 GHz radio core remains steady, perpendicular to the jet direction. Optical spectropolarimetry of the object in the quiescent state suggests a trend of increasing degree of polarization with increasing wavelength, providing additional evidence for an unpolarized emission component, possibly thermal emission from the accretion disk, contributing toward the blue end of the optical spectrum. Over an extended period of several months, PKS 0528+134 shows moderate (amplitude constructed four spectral energy distributions (SEDs) corresponding to the times of the XMM-Newton observations. We find that even in the

  16. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  17. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  18. Model Atmospheres and Spectral Irradiance Library of the Exoplanet Host Stars Observed in the MUSCLES Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    We propose to compute state-of-the-art model atmospheres (photospheres, chromospheres, transition regions and coronae) of the 4 K and 7 M exoplanet host stars observed by HST in the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, the nearest host star Proxima Centauri, and TRAPPIST-1. Our semi-empirical models will fit theunique high-resolution panchromatic (X-ray to infrared) spectra of these stars in the MAST High-Level Science Products archive consisting of COS and STIS UV spectra and near-simultaneous Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ground-based observations. We will compute models with the fully tested SSRPM computer software incorporating 52 atoms and ions in full non-LTE (435,986 spectral lines) and the 20 most-abundant diatomic molecules (about 2 million lines). This code has successfully fit the panchromatic spectrum of the M1.5 V exoplanet host star GJ 832 (Fontenla et al. 2016), the first M star with such a detailed model, and solar spectra. Our models will (1) predict the unobservable extreme-UV spectra, (2) determine radiative energy losses and balancing heating rates throughout these atmospheres, (3) compute a stellar irradiance library needed to describe the radiation environment of potentially habitable exoplanets to be studied by TESS and JWST, and (4) in the long post-HST era when UV observations will not be possible, the stellar irradiance library will be a powerful tool for predicting the panchromatic spectra of host stars that have only limited spectral coverage, in particular no UV spectra. The stellar models and spectral irradiance library will be placed quickly in MAST.

  19. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    And Johnson SB parameters are observed to be best in discriminating the Johnson SB distribution of infrared brightness temperatures of deep convective systems for each season. Due to these properties of Johnson SB function, it can be utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep ...

  20. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is observed that Johnson SB function is the best continuous distribution function in explaining the histogram of infrared brightness temperatures of the convective clouds. The best fit is confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic. Johnson SB's distribution of histogram of infrared brightness temperatures clearly ...

  1. Surface photometry of bulge dominated low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    1999-01-01

    We present results of broad band BVRI observations of a sample of galaxies with a low surface brightness (LSB) disk and a bulge. These galaxies are well described as exponential disks and exponential bulges with no preferred value for either scale length or central surface brightness. The median B

  2. Inter-Calibration of Passive Microwave Satellite Brightness Temperatures Observed by F13 SSM/I and F17 SSMIS for the Retrieval of Snow Depth on Arctic First-Year Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave satellite brightness temperatures (TB that were observed by the F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I and the subsequent F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS were inter-calibrated using empirical relationship models during their overlap period. Snow depth (SD on the Arctic first-year sea ice was further retrieved. The SDs derived from F17 TB and F13C TB which were calibrated F17 TB using F13 TB as the baseline were then compared and evaluated against in situ SD measurements based on the Operational IceBridge (OIB airborne observations from 2009 to 2013. Results show that Cavalieri inter-calibration models (CA models perform smaller root mean square error (RMSE than Dai inter-calibration models (DA models, and the standard deviation of OIB SDs in the 25 km pixels is around 6 cm on first-year sea ice. Moreover, the SDs derived from the calibrated F17 TB using F13 TB as the baseline were in better agreement than the F17 SDs as compared with OIB SDs, with the biases of −2 cm (RMSE of 5 cm and −9 cm (RMSE of 10 cm, respectively. We conclude that TB observations from F17 SSMIS calibrated to F13 SSM/I as the baseline should be recommended when performing the sensors’ biases correction for SD purpose based on the existing algorithm. These findings could serve as a reference for generating more consistent and reliable TB, which could help to improve the retrieval and analysis of long-term snow depth on the Arctic first-year sea ice.

  3. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  4. GRO J1744-28, search for the counterpart: infrared photometry and spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosling, A.J.; Bandyopadhyay, R.M.; Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Farrell, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Using VLT/ISAAC, we have detected two candidate counterparts to the bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28, one bright and one faint, both within the X-ray error circles found using XMM-Newton and Chandra. In determining the spectral types of the counterparts we applied three different extinction corrections;

  5. On the Nature of the mHz X-Ray QPOs from ULX M82 X-1: Evidence for Timing-Spectral (anti) Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its energy spectral power-law index. These quantities are known to correlate in stellar mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibiting Type-C QPOs (approx 0.2-15 Hz). The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of its mHz QPOs as Type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling and identify observations in which M82 X-1 was at least as bright as source 5. Using only those observations, we detect QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which the energy spectral power-law index varied from 1.7-2.2. Interestingly, we find evidence for an anti-correlation (Pearsons correlation coefficient = -0.95) between the power-law index and the QPO centroid frequency. While such an anti-correlation is observed in StMBHs at high Type-C QPO frequencies (approx 5-15 Hz), the frequency range over which it holds in StMBHs is significantly smaller (factor of approx 1.5-3) than the QPO range reported here from M82 X-1 (factor of 6). However, it remains possible that contamination from source 5 can bias our result. Joint Chandra/XMM-Newton observations in the future can resolve this problem and confirm the timing-spectral anti-correlation reported here.

  6. THE SECOND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE TRANSIENT IN M31: CHANDRA, HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, AND XMM OBSERVATIONS, AND EVIDENCE FOR AN EXTENDED CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    XMMU J004243.6+412519 is a transient X-ray source in M31, first discovered 2012 January 15. Different approaches to fitting the brightest follow-up observation gave luminosities 1.3-2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, making it the second ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in M31, with a probable black hole accretor. These different models represent different scenarios for the corona: optically thick and compact, or optically thin and extended. We obtained Chandra ACIS and Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of this object as part of our transient monitoring program, and also observed it serendipitously in a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation. We identify an optical counterpart at J2000 position 00:42:43.70 +41:25:18.54; its F435W ({approx}B band) magnitude was 25.97 {+-} 0.03 in the 2012 March 7 observation, and >28.4 at the 4{sigma} level during the 2012 September 7 observation, indicating a low-mass donor. We created two alternative light curves, using the different corona scenarios, finding linear decay for the compact corona and exponential decay for the extended corona; linear decay implies a disk that is >5 mag brighter than we observed. We therefore favor the extended corona scenario, but caution that there is no statistical preference for this model in the X-ray spectra alone. Using two empirical relations between the X-ray to optical ratio and the orbital period, we estimate a period of {approx}9-30 hr; this period is consistent with that of the first ULX in M31 (18{sup +5}{sub -6} hr)

  7. The nature of solar brightness variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Cameron, R. H.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2017-09-01

    Determining the sources of solar brightness variations1,2, often referred to as solar noise3, is important because solar noise limits the detection of solar oscillations3, is one of the drivers of the Earth's climate system4,5 and is a prototype of stellar variability6,7—an important limiting factor for the detection of extrasolar planets. Here, we model the magnetic contribution to solar brightness variability using high-cadence8,9 observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction (SATIRE)10,11 model. The brightness variations caused by the constantly evolving cellular granulation pattern on the solar surface were computed with the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS)/University of Chicago Radiative Magnetohydrodynamics (MURaM)12 code. We found that the surface magnetic field and granulation can together precisely explain solar noise (that is, solar variability excluding oscillations) on timescales from minutes to decades, accounting for all timescales that have so far been resolved or covered by irradiance measurements. We demonstrate that no other sources of variability are required to explain the data. Recent measurements of Sun-like stars by the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT)13 and Kepler14 missions uncovered brightness variations similar to that of the Sun, but with a much wider variety of patterns15. Our finding that solar brightness variations can be replicated in detail with just two well-known sources will greatly simplify future modelling of existing CoRoT and Kepler as well as anticipated Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite16 and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO)17 data.

  8. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Sabri, Nor Hazmin; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  9. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  10. The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii. I. The high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, G.; Ness, J. U.; Hernanz, M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period. Aims: In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability. Methods: We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007. Results: The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova. Based on

  11. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832-093

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Hord, Ben J.; de Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Rahoui, Farid; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, Shuo; Hong, Jaesub; Garvin, Amani M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2017-10-01

    We present a hard X-ray observation of the TeV gamma-ray binary candidate HESS J1832-093, which is coincident with the supernova remnant G22.7-0.2, using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Non-thermal X-ray emission from XMMU J183245-0921539, the X-ray source associated with HESS J1832-093, is detected up to ˜30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index {{Γ }}=1.5+/- 0.1. A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245-0921539 is {50}-20+40 % (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin period or binary orbit modulation yields no significant signal to a pulse fraction limit of {f}ppower spectrum to suggest active accretion from a binary system. While further evidence is required, we argue that the X-ray and gamma-ray properties of XMMU J183245-0921539 are most consistent with a non-accreting binary generating synchrotron X-rays from particle acceleration in the shock formed as a result of the pulsar and stellar wind collision. We also report on three nearby hard X-ray sources, one of which may be associated with diffuse emission from a fast-moving supernova fragment interacting with a dense molecular cloud.

  12. Orbital Phase-Resolved X-ray Observations of the Black-Widow Pulsar J1446-4701

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    PSR J1446--4701 is a recently discovered radio and gamma-ray recycled pulsar in a tight binary (binary period P_b = 6.6 hr, a sin i = 1.7 R_⊙). The relativistic pulsar wind at such close proximity is expected to evaporate the low mass companion (M_{min}= 0.019 M_⊙), which should lead to an orbital phase dependence of the multiwavelength emission of this Black Widow pulsar (BWP) system. We observed the system with XMM-Newton EPIC (0.3--10 keV) and Optical Monitor (B,V) for 60 ks, covering about 2.5 binary orbits, to look for the orbital variability of its flux and spectrum. The EPIC data do not show a significant orbital variability of the flux, perhaps due to a low orbital inclination. However, the orbital phase-resolved spectral analysis allowed us to separate two spectral components: thermal pulsar polar-cap emission (kT=0.18±0.02 keV, R=216±60 m), detected throughout the orbit, and a hard power-law component (Γ = 1.4±0.6), detected only for the half-orbit around superior conjunction of the pulsar. We infer the hard non-thermal component to be the intra-binary shock emission. We did not detect an optical counterpart with the optical monitor, which sets some strong constraints on the companion. In the context of similar BWPs, we discuss the pulsar's high energy emission characteristics and intra-binary shock energetics.

  13. Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, L E; Spehar, B

    1993-10-01

    Changes of annulus luminance in traditional disk-and-annulus patterns can be perceived to be either reflectance or illuminance changes. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of varying annulus reflectance. In Experiment 1, we placed test and standard patch-and-surround patterns in identical Mondrian patchworks. Only the luminance of the test surround changed from trial to trial, appearing as reflectance variation under constant illumination. Lightness matches were identical to brightness matches, as expected. In Experiment 2, we used only the patch and surround (no Mondrian). Instructions said that the illumination would change from trial to trial. Lightness and brightness-contrast data were identical; illumination gradients were indistinguishable from reflectance gradients. In Experiment 3, the patterns were the same, but the instructions said that the shade of gray of the test surround would change from trial to trial. Lightness matches were identical to brightness matches, again confirming the ambiguity of disk-and-annulus patterns.

  14. The Extended X-ray Nebula of PSR J1420-6048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    The vicinity of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1420-6038 has undergone extensive study in the search for counterparts, revealing the energetic young pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and its surrounding wind nebula as a likely candidate for at least part of the emission from this bright and extended gamma-ray source. We report on new Suzaku observations of PSR J1420-6048, along with analysis of archival XMM Newton data. The low background of Suzaku permits mapping of the extended X-ray nebula, indicating a tail stretching {approx} 8 minutes north of the pulsar. The X-ray data, along with archival radio and VHE data, hint at a pulsar birthsite to the North, and yield insights into its evolution and the properties of the ambient medium. We further explore such properties by modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the extended nebula.

  15. Bright Light Treatment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bright light treatment is a treatment modality that leads elevation of mood due to attenuation in depressive symptoms, regulation in circadian rhythm activity, increase the effect of antidepressants and amelioration in sleep quality. Bright light treatment is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder because of high response rates. Additionally, bright light treatment being extended to other conditions, including non-seasonal mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral syndromes is likely to have a far reached use. Side effects are often temporary and can generally be overcome by reducing exposure time. The central focus on this paper is to review the action mechanisms, efficacy, usage areas, the ways of administration and side effects of the light treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 177-188

  16. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  17. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Diverse Long-Term Variability of Five Candidate High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Coley, Joel B.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2017-01-01

    We present an investigation of long-term modulation in the X-ray light curves of five little-studied candidate high-mass X-ray binaries using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (SWIFT-BAT). IGR J14488-5942 and AX J1700.2-4220 show strong modulation at periods of 49.6 and 44 days, respectively, which are interpreted as orbital periods of Be star systems. For IGR J14488-5942, observations with the Swift X-ray Telescope show a hint of pulsations at 33.4 seconds. For AX J1700.2-4220, 54 second-pulsations were previously found with XMM-Newton. Swift J1816.7-1613 exhibits complicated behavior. The strongest peak in the power spectrum is at a period near 150 days, but this conflicts with a determination of a period of 118.5 days by La Parola et al. AX J1820.5-1434 has been proposed to exhibit modulation near 54 days, but the extended BAT observations suggest modulation at slightly longer than double this at approximately 111 days. There appears to be a long-term change in the shape of the modulation near 111 days, which may explain the apparent discrepancy. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1906+090,which was previously proposed to be a Be star system with an orbital period of approximately 30 days from pulse timing, shows peaks in the power spectrum at 81 and 173 days. The origins of these periods are unclear, although theymight be the orbital period and a superorbital period respectively. For all five sources, the long-term variability, together with the combination of orbital and proposed pulse periods, suggests that the sources contain Be starmass donors.

  19. Non-parametric deprojection of NIKA SZ observations: Pressure distribution in the Planck-discovered cluster PSZ1 G045.85+57.71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppin, F.; Adam, R.; Comis, B.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Arnaud, M.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; D'Addabbo, A.; De Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the thermodynamic properties of clusters of galaxies at intermediate and high redshift can bring new insights into the formation of large-scale structures. It is essential for a robust calibration of the mass-observable scaling relations and their scatter, which are key ingredients for precise cosmology using cluster statistics. Here we illustrate an application of high resolution (data obtained with the NIKA camera, which is a dual-band (150 and 260 GHz) instrument operated at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We deproject jointly NIKA and Planck data to extract the electronic pressure distribution from the cluster core (R 0.02 R500) to its outskirts (R 3 R500) non-parametrically for the first time at intermediate redshift. The constraints on the resulting pressure profile allow us to reduce the relative uncertainty on the integrated Compton parameter by a factor of two compared to the Planck value. Combining the tSZ data and the deprojected electronic density profile from XMM-Newton allows us to undertake a hydrostatic mass analysis, for which we study the impact of a spherical model assumption on the total mass estimate. We also investigate the radial temperature and entropy distributions. These data indicate that PSZ1 G045.85+57.71 is a massive (M500 5.5 × 1014M⊙) cool-core cluster. This work is part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing the treatment of the NIKA2 tSZ large program dedicated to the follow-up of SZ-discovered clusters at intermediate and high redshifts. This study illustrates the potential of NIKA2 to put constraints on thethermodynamic properties and tSZ-scaling relations of these clusters, and demonstrates the excellent synergy between tSZ and X-ray observations of similar angular resolution.

  20. Time variability of X-ray sources in the M 31 centre field

    OpenAIRE

    Stiele, H.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Freyberg, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present an extension to our XMM-Newton X-ray source catalogue of M 31, containing 39 newly found sources. In order to classify and identify more of the sources we search for X-ray time variability in XMM-Newton archival data of the M 31 centre field. As a source list we used our extended catalogue based on observations covering the time span from June 2000 to July 2004. We then determined the flux or at least an upper limit at the source positions for each observation. Deriving the flux ra...

  1. Network based sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dan; Pulvermacher, R.; Davis, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and are currently testing an autonomous 2 channel photometer designed to measure the night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths over a multi-year campaign. The photometer uses a robust silicon sensor filtered with Hoya CM500 glass. The Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The Sky Brightness monitor consists of two units, the remote photometer and a network interface. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a free space range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with day time recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the network interface transmits data via standard POP Email protocol. A second version is under development for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber for data transmission. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We will also discuss the calibration methods used for standardization and temperature compensation. This system is expected to be deployed in the next year and be operated by the International Dark Sky Association SKYMONITOR project.

  2. Limitations of the Oriented Difference of Gaussian Filter in Special Cases of Brightness Perception Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Ashish; Roy, Sourya; Mallick, Arijit; Ghosh, Kuntal

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussian (ODOG) filter of Blakeslee and McCourt has been successfully employed to explain several brightness perception illusions which include illusions of both brightness-contrast type, for example, Simultaneous Brightness Contrast and Grating Induction and the brightness-assimilation type, for example, the White effect and the shifted White effect. Here, we demonstrate some limitations of the ODOG filter in predicting perceived brightness by comparing the ODOG responses to various stimuli (generated by varying two parameters, namely, test patch length and spatial frequency) with experimental observations of the same. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The population of X-ray supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipović, M. D.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Pietsch, W.; Points, S. D.; Chu, Y.-H.; Dickel, J.; Ehle, M.; Williams, R.; Greiner, J.

    2016-01-01

    galaxies (LMC, SMC, M31, and M33) reveals an intriguing excess of bright objects in the LMC. Finally, we confirm that 30 Doradus and the LMC Bar are offset from the main disc of the LMC to the far and near sides, respectively. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  4. Binocular Coordination in Reading When Changing Background Brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köpsel Anne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contradicting results concerning binocular coordination in reading have been reported: Liversedge et al. (2006 reported a dominance of uncrossed fixations, whereas Nuthmann and Kliegl (2009 observed more crossed fixations in reading. Based on both earlier and continuing studies, we conducted a reading experiment involving varying brightness of background and font. Calibration was performed using Gabor patches presented on grey background. During the experimental session, text had to be read either on dark, bright, or grey background. The data corroborates former results that showed a predominance of uncrossed fixations when reading on dark background, as well as those showing a predominance of crossed fixations, when reading on bright background. Besides these systematic shifts, the new results show an increase in unsystematic variability when changing the overall brightness from calibration to test. The origins of the effects need to be clarified in future research.

  5. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  6. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  7. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832–093

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    −093, is detected up to ~30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index . A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245−0921539 is (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin...

  8. The Photometric Brightness Variation of Geostationary Orbit Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haingja Seo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photometric observation is one of the most effective techniques for determining the physical characteristics of unknown space objects and space debris. In this research, we examine the change in brightness of the Communication, Ocean, Meteorological Satellite-1 (COMS-1 Geostationary Orbit Satellite (GEO, and compare it to our estimate model. First, we calculate the maximum brightness time using our calculation method and then derive the light curve shape using our rendering model. The maximum brightness is then calculated using the induced equation from Pogson's formula. For a comparison with our estimation, we carried out photometric observation using an optical telescope. The variation in brightness and the shape of the light curve are similar to the calculations achieved using our model, but the maximum brightness shows a slightly different value from our calculation result depending on the input parameters. This paper examines the photometric phenomenon of the variation in brightness of a GEO satellite, and the implementation of our approach to understanding the characteristics of space objects.

  9. DEEP X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD RADIO PULSAR J1119-6127 AND SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ho, W. C. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Shannon, R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 2210 (Australia); Gonzalez, M. E., E-mail: ncy@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2012-12-10

    High-magnetic-field radio pulsars are important transition objects for understanding the connection between magnetars and conventional radio pulsars. We present a detailed study of the young radio pulsar J1119-6127, which has a characteristic age of 1900 yr and a spin-down-inferred magnetic field of 4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G, and its associated supernova remnant G292.2-0.5, using deep XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures of over 120 ks from each telescope. The pulsar emission shows strong modulation below 2.5 keV with a single-peaked profile and a large pulsed fraction of 0.48 {+-} 0.12. Employing a magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere model, we find that the observed pulse profile can be produced by a single hot spot of temperature 0.13 keV covering about one-third of the stellar surface, and we place an upper limit of 0.08 keV for an antipodal hot spot with the same area. The non-uniform surface temperature distribution could be the result of anisotropic heat conduction under a strong magnetic field, and a single-peaked profile seems common among high-B radio pulsars. For the associated remnant G292.2-0.5, its large diameter could be attributed to fast expansion in a low-density wind cavity, likely formed by a Wolf-Rayet progenitor, similar to two other high-B radio pulsars.

  10. First NuSTAR Observations of the BL Lac-Type Blazar PKS 2155-304: Constraints on the Jet Content and Distribution of Radiating Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G. M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madsen, K. K.; Chiang, J.; Balokovic, M.; Paneque, D.; Furniss, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Urry, C. M.; Sikora, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the first hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR of the BL Lac-type blazar PKS2155-304, augmented with soft X-ray data from XMM-Newton and gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, obtained in 2013April when the source was in a very low flux state. A joint NuSTAR and XMM spectrum, covering the energy range 0.5-60 keV, is best described by a model consisting of a log-parabola component with curvature Beta = -0.3(+0.2 -0.1) and a (local) photon index 3.04 +/- 0.15 at photon energy of 2 keV, and a hard power-law tail with photon index 2.2 +/- 0.4. The hard X-ray tail can be smoothly joined to the quasi-simultaneous gamma-ray spectrum by a synchrotron self-Compton component produced by an electron distribution with index p 2.2. Assuming that the power-law electron distribution extends down to gamma (sub min) = 1 and that there is one proton per electron, an unrealistically high total jet power of Lp approximately 10 (exp 47) erg s(sub -1) is inferred. This can be reduced by two orders of magnitude either by considering a significant presence of electron-positron pairs with lepton-to-proton ratio n(sub e+e-/n(sub p) approx. 30, or by introducing an additional, low-energy break in the electron energy distribution at the electron Lorentz factor gamma br1 approx. 100. In either case, the jet composition is expected to be strongly matter-dominated

  11. Ensemble X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei at intermediate and long time lags

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnetti, Fausto; Middei, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We present a variability analysis for a sample of 2700 active galactic nuclei extracted from the latest release of the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue. The structure function of this sample increases up to rest-frame time lags of about 5 years. Moreover, comparing observations performed by the XMM-Newton and ROSAT satellites, we are able to extend the X-ray structure function to 20 years rest-frame, showing a further increase of variability without any evidence of a plateau. Our res...

  12. Broadband bright twin beams and their upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhova, Maria V.; Germanskiy, Semen; Horoshko, Dmitri B.; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh.; Kolobov, Mikhail I.; Leuchs, Gerd; Phillips, Chris R.; Prudkovskii, Pavel A.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the observation of broadband (40 THz) bright twin beams through high-gain parametric down-conversion in an aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The output photon number is shown to scale exponentially with the pump power and not with the pump amplitude, as in homogeneous crystals. Photon-number correlations and the number of frequency/temporal modes are assessed by spectral covariance measurements. By using sum-frequency generation on the surface of a non-phasematched crystal, we measure a cross-correlation peak with the temporal width 90 fs.

  13. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  14. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  15. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  16. Global View of the Bright Material on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; DeSanctis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Tosi, F.; Li, J.-Y.; Longobardo, A.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Palomba, E.; Capaccioni, F.; hide

    2014-01-01

    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive and one of the brightest asteroids of the main-belt. Here we give a global view of the bright material (BM) units on Vesta. We classified the BMs according to the normal visual albedo. The global albedo map of Vesta allows to be divided the surface into three principal types of terrains: bright regions, dark regions and intermediate regions. The distribution of bright regions is not uniform. The mid-southern latitudes contain the most bright areas, while the northern hemisphere is poor in bright regions. The analysis of the spectral parameters and the normal visual albedo show a dependence between albedo and the strength (depth) of ferrous iron absorption bands, strong bands correspond with high albedo units. Vesta's average albedo is 0.38, but there are bright material whose albedo can exceed 0.50. Only the E-Type asteroids have albedos comparable to those of the BMs on Vesta. The Dawn mission observed a large fraction of Vesta's surface at high spatial resolution, allowing a detailed study of the morphology and mineralogy of it. In particular, reflectance spectra provided by the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR), confirmed that Vesta's mineralogy is dominated by pyroxenes. All Vesta spectra show two strong absorption bands at approx 0.9 and 1.9 micron, typical of the pyroxenes and associated with the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  17. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  18. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  19. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  20. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  1. Clusters of Galaxies: An X-ray Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F.

    There has been extensive recent progress in X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies with the analysis of the entire ASCA database and recent new results from Beppo-SAX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton. The temperature profiles of most clusters are isothermal from 0.05--0.6 Rviral, contrary to theoretical expectations and early results from ASCA. Similarly, the abundance profiles of Fe are roughly constant outside the central regions. The luminosity-temperature relation for a very large sample of clusters show that LX∝ T3 over the whole observable luminosity range at low redshift, but the variance increases at low luminosity, explaining the previously claimed steepening at low luminosity. Recent accurate cluster photometry in red and infrared passbands have resulted in much better correlations of optical and X-ray properties, but there is still larger scatter than one might expect between total light and X-ray temperature and luminosity. The velocity dispersion and the X-ray temperature are strongly correlated, but the slope of the relation is somewhat steeper than expected. The surface brightness profiles of clusters are very well fit by the isothermal β model out to large radii and show scaling relations, outside the central regions, consistent with a Λ-dominated Universe. At high masses the gas mass fraction of clusters is quite uniform and is consistent with the low WMAP value of Ωm. The recent analysis of cluster mass-to-light ratio and the mass-to-light ratio of stars indicates that the ratio of gas to stellar mass is ˜10:1 in massive clusters. There is an apparent decrease in gas mass fraction and increase in stellar mass fraction at lower mass scales, but the very flat surface brightness of the X-ray emission makes extension of this result to large scale lengths uncertain. The normalization of the scaling of mass with temperature, derived from measurements of density and temperature profiles and assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, is lower than predicted from

  2. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  3. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  4. Optical Sky Brightness at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S.; Storey, J. W. V.; Burton, M. G.

    2006-08-01

    Dome C, Antarctica is a prime site for astronomical observations in terms of climate, wind speeds and turbulence. The infrared and terahertz sky backgrounds are the lowest of any inhabited place on Earth. However, at present little is known about the optical sky brightness and atmospheric extinction. Using a variety of modelling techniques together with data from the South Pole, we estimate the brightness of the night sky including the contributions from scattered sunlight, moonlight, aurorae, airglow, zodiacal light and artificial sources. We compare our results to another prime astronomical site, Mauna Kea. We find moonlight has significantly less effect at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Aurorae are expected to have a minor impact at both sites, and zodiacal light is expected to be less at Dome C than at Mauna Kea. Airglow emissions at Dome C are expected to be similar to those at temperate sites. With proper planning, artificial sources of light pollution should be non-existent. The overall atmospheric extinction, or opacity, is expected to be the minimum possible. We conclude that Dome C is a very promising site not only for infrared and terahertz astronomy, but for optical astronomy as well..

  5. Unusual Black Hole Binary LMC X-3: A Transient High-mass X-Ray Binary That Is Almost Always On?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor J.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.; Valencic, Lynne A.

    2017-11-01

    We have analyzed a rich, multimission, multiwavelength data set from the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) LMC X-3, covering a new anomalous low state (ALS), during which the source flux falls to an unprecedentedly low and barely detectable level, and a more normal low state. Simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical monitoring data from Swift are combined with pointed observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) and light curves from the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI) instrument to compare the source characteristics during the ALS with those seen during the normal low state. An XMM-Newton spectrum obtained during the ALS can be modeled using an absorbed power law with {{Γ }}=1.41+/- 0.65 and a luminosity of 7.97× {10}33 erg s-1 (0.6-5 keV). The Swift X-ray and UV light curves indicate an X-ray lag of ˜8 days as LMC X-3 abruptly exits the ALS, suggesting that changes in the mass accretion rate from the donor drive the X-ray lag. The normal low state displays an asymmetric profile in which the exit occurs more quickly than the entry, with minimum X-ray flux a factor of ˜4300 brighter than during the ALS. The UV brightness of LMC X-3 in the ALS is also fainter and less variable than during normal low states. The existence of repeated ALSs in LMC X-3, as well as a comparison with other BHXBs, implies that it is very close to the transient/persistent X-ray source dividing line. We conclude that LMC X-3 is a transient source that is almost always “on.”

  6. Rapid Cooling Of The Neutron Star In The Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Mendez, M.; Cackett, E. M.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T. M.; Brown, E. F.; Degenaar, N.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  7. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in the Quiescent Super-Eddington Transient XTE J1701--462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Méndez, Mariano; Cackett, Edward M.; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso M.; Brown, Edward F.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Lewin, Walter H. G.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade the observing of cooling neutron star transients after long-duration (year or longer) outbursts has entered as a new approach to constraining the properties of matter inside neutron stars. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the super-Eddington neutron star transient

  8. Interaction of the WAT Source in A3395 with the Intracluster Medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Using X-ray observations from Chandra and XMM-Newton and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we have examined the merging environment of the bimodal cluster Abell 3395. From X-ray data we have produced thermodynamic maps of the cluster. The Wide Angle ...

  9. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil

  10. Detailed high-energy characteristics of AXP 1RXS J170849-400910: Probing the magnetosphere using INTEGRAL, RXTE, and XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.

    2008-01-01

    1RXS J170849-400910 is one of four anomalous X-ray pulsars which emit persistent luminous radiation in soft X-rays (10 keV) as well as in hard X-rays (>10 keV). In this paper we present detailed spectral and temporal characteristics over the whole X-ray band. For this purpose data have been used

  11. XMM-Newton discovery of 2.6 s pulsations in the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, P.; Tiengo, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Israel, G.L.; De Luca, A.; Götz, D.; Rea, N.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.

    2009-01-01

    After nearly a decade of quiescence, the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41 reactivated on 2008 May 28 with a bursting episode followed by a slowly decaying enhancement of its persistent emission. To search for the still unknown spin period of this SGR taking advantage of its high flux state, we

  12. The bright optical afterglow of the long GRB 001007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, J.M.C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present optical follow up observations of the long GRB 001007 between 6.14 hours and similar to468 days after the event. An unusually bright optical afterglow (OA) was seen to decline following a steep power law decay with index alpha = -2.03 +/- 0.11, possibly indicating a break in the light ...

  13. Time series analysis of bright galactic X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We analyze 70 to 110 day data sets from eight bright galactic X-ray binaries observed by WATCH/Eureca, in search of periodic variations. We obtain new epochs for the orbital variation of Cyg X-3 and 4U 1700-37, and confirmation of a dip in Cyg X-1 at superior conjunction of the X-ray star. No evi...

  14. Herschel SPIRE fourier transform spectrometer: calibration of its bright-source mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nanyao; Polehampton, Edward T.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Benielli, Dominique; Fulton, Trevor; Hopwood, Rosalind; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David A.; Schulz, Bernhard; Sidher, Sunil; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board the ESA Herschel Space Observatory has two detector setting modes: (a) a nominal mode, which is optimized for observing moderately bright to faint astronomical targets, and (b) a bright-source mode recommended for sources significantly brighter than 500 Jy, within the SPIRE FTS bandwidth of 446.7-1544 GHz (or 194-671 microns in wavelength), which employs a reduced detector responsivity and out-of-phase analog signal amplifier/demodulator. We address in detail the calibration issues unique to the bright-source mode, describe the integration of the bright-mode data processing into the existing pipeline for the nominal mode, and show that the flux calibration accuracy of the bright-source mode is generally within 2 % of that of the nominal mode, and that the bright-source mode is 3 to 4 times less sensitive than the nominal mode.

  15. A New Method to Constrain Supernova Fractions Using X-ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Loewenstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112.We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% plus or minus 5.4% to 37.1% plus or minus 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 plus or minus 0.34) x 10(exp 9), to (1.28 plus or minus 0.43) x 10(exp 9), fromsnapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kiloparsecs of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

  16. A NEW METHOD TO CONSTRAIN SUPERNOVA FRACTIONS USING X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112. We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% {+-} 5.4% to 37.1% {+-} 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 {+-} 0.34) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to (1.28 {+-} 0.43) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9}, from snapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kpc of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

  17. A New Method to Constrain Supernova Fractions Using X-Ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Loewenstein, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112. We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% ± 5.4% to 37.1% ± 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 ± 0.34) × 109 to (1.28 ± 0.43) × 109, from snapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kpc of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

  18. Observational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries: the case of LSS 3074

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucq, F.; Gosset, E.; Rauw, G.; Manfroid, J.; Mahy, L.; Mennekens, N.; Vanbeveren, D.

    2017-05-01

    -American Observatory (Chile). CTIO is a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (USA). Also based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA). Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A133

  19. The return to quiescence of Aql X-1 following the 2010 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campana, S.; Brivio, F.; Degenaar, N.; Mereghetti, S.; Wijnands, R.; D'Avanzo, P.; Israel, G.L.; Stella, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aql X-1 is the most prolific low-mass X-ray binary transient hosting a neutron star. In this paper we focus on the return to quiescence following the 2010 outburst of the source. This decay was monitored thanks to 11 pointed observations taken with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift. The decay from

  20. The Variable Quiescent X-Ray Emission of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J1701-462

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, J.; Wijnands, R.; Cackett, E. M.; Degenaar, N.; Mendez, M.; Altamirano, D.; Brown, E. F.; Belloni, T. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    We have monitored the cooling of the neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and XMM-Newton since the source entered quiescence in 2007 after an exceptionally luminous 19-month outburst. A recent Chandra observation made almost 1200 days into quiescence

  1. The NuSTAR ULX program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, William W.; Stern, Daniel; Craig, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the first large program of broadband ULX observations with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku, yielding high-quality spectra and timing measurements from 0.3-30 keV in 6 ULXs, providing powerful information for understanding the accretion modes and nature of the central BHs...

  2. Discovery of high-frequency iron K lags in Ark 564 and Mrk 335

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, E.; Fabian, A.C.; Cackett, E.M.; Uttley, P.; Wilkins, D.R.; Zoghbi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We use archival XMM-Newton observations of Ark 564 and Mrk 335 to calculate the frequency-dependent time lags for these two well-studied sources. We discover high-frequency Fe K lags in both sources, indicating that the red wing of the line precedes the rest-frame energy by roughly 100 and 150 s for

  3. A Soft X-Ray Reverberation Lag in the AGN ESO 113-G010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cackett, E.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Zoghbi, A.; Kara, E.; Reynolds, C.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation lags have recently been discovered in a handful of nearby, variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we analyze a ~100 ks archival XMM-Newton observation of the highly variable AGN, ESO 113-G010, in order to search for lags between hard, 1.5-4.5 keV, and soft, 0.3-0.9 keV, energy

  4. NuSTAR unveils a compton-thick 2 quasar in MrK 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, P.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) 3-40 keV observations of the optically selected Type 2 quasar (QSO2) SDSS J1034+6001 or Mrk 34. The high-quality hard X-ray spectrum and archival XMM-Newton data can be fitted self-consistently with a reflection-dominated continuum...

  5. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered By NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition...

  6. Discovery of a tidal disruption event candidate from the 2XMM catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell S.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stars approaching a supermassive black hole (SMBH can be tidally disrupted and subsequently accreted, providing a unique way to find and study inactive SMBHs. We report on our discovery of a new tidal disruption event candidate, 2XMMi J184725.1-631724, with unprecedented ultrasoft X-ray spectra near the flare peak. It lies toward the center of an inactive galaxy at z = 0.0353. It was detected serendipitously in two XMM-Newton observations separated by 211 days, with the flux increasing by a factor of ∼9. The source was not detected in X-rays by ROSAT in 1992, indicating a long-term variability factor of >64; neither by Swift in 2011, implying a flux decay factor of >12 since the last XMM-Newton observation. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectra are dominated by a strong cool thermal disk (>80%, tens of eV with the luminosity appearing to follow the L ∝ T4 relation, often seen in the thermal state of the BH X-ray binaries. Both XMM-Newton observations show large variability on timescales of hours. This can be explained as due to fast variations in the mass accretion rate, maybe caused by the shocks during the tidal disruption of the star.

  7. Optical microvariability of bright type 2 quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednikova, Jana; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego Onsurbe, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    We present results from a project focused on searching optical microvariabilty (also known as ``intra-night'' variability) in type 2 - obscured - quasars. Optical microvariability can be described as very small changes in the flux, typically in the order of hundredths of magnitude, which can be observed on timescales of hours. Such studies have been so far conducted for samples of blazars and type 1, unobscured, AGNs, where the optical microvariability was detected with success. We have focused on obscured targets which would pose a challenge to the AGN standard model. In the present work, however, we have observed a sample of three bright (g mag < 17) type 2 quasar, based on the catalog of type 2 quasars from SDSS of Reyes et al. (2008). The observations were carried out with the 1.5 meter telescope at San Pedro Martir observatory in Mexico. The sample was observed during an observation period of four days in Johnsons V filter, resulting in at least two continuous intervals of observations per target during the observational run. We have obtained differential light curves for our sources as well as for the comparison stars. They were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA), which has been repeatedly used in the past for studies of unobscured targets. Based on the results from the statistical analysis, we show that at least two out of three observed targets appear to be variable on time scales of hours. So far, this is the first study which confirmed existence of optical microvariability in type 2 quasars.

  8. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  9. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  10. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  11. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF 3FGL J2039.6–5618: A CANDIDATE REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvetti, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Belfiore, A.; Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Delvaux, C.; Greiner, J.; Becker, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Pallanca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the unassociated γ-ray source 3FGL J2039.6−5618 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The source γ-ray properties suggest that it is a pulsar, most likely a millisecond pulsar, for which neither radio nor γ-ray pulsations have been detected. We observed 3FGL J2039.6−5618 with XMM-Newton and discovered several candidate X-ray counterparts within/close to the γ-ray error box. The brightest of these X-ray sources is variable with a period of 0.2245 ± 0.0081 days. Its X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law with photon index Γ{sub X} = 1.36 ± 0.09, and hydrogen column density N{sub H} < 4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −2}, which gives an unabsorbed 0.3–10 keV X-ray flux of 1.02 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Observations with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector discovered an optical counterpart to this X-ray source, with a time-averaged magnitude g′ ∼ 19.5. The counterpart features a flux modulation with a period of 0.22748 ± 0.00043 days that coincides, within the errors, with that of the X-ray source, confirming the association based on the positional coincidence. We interpret the observed X-ray/optical periodicity as the orbital period of a close binary system where one of the two members is a neutron star. The light curve profile of the companion star, which has two asymmetric peaks, suggests that the optical emission comes from two regions with different temperatures on its tidally distorted surface. Based upon its X-ray and optical properties, we consider this source as the most likely X-ray counterpart to 3FGL J2039.6−5618, which we propose to be a new redback system.

  12. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  13. The very faint hard state of the persistent neutron star X-ray binary SLX 1737-282 near the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Ponti, G.; De Marco, B.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Haberl, F.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the spectral and temporal properties of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SLX 1737-282, which is located only ∼1° away from Sgr A*. The system is expected to have a short orbital period, even within the ultracompact regime, given its persistent nature at low X-ray luminosities and the long duration thermonuclear burst that it has displayed. We have analysed a Suzaku (18 ks) observation and an XMM-Newton (39 ks) observation taken 7 yr apart. We infer (0.5-10 keV) X-ray luminosities in the range of 3-6 × 1035ergs-1, in agreement with previous findings. The spectra are well described by a relatively cool (kTbb = 0.5 keV) blackbody component plus a Comptonized emission component with Γ ∼ 1.5-1.7. These values are consistent with the source being in a faint hard state, as confirmed by the ∼20 per cent fractional root-mean-square amplitude of the fast variability (0.1-7 Hz) inferred from the XMM-Newton data. The electron temperature of the corona is ≳7 keV for the Suzaku observation, but it is measured to be as low as ∼2 keV in the XMM-Newton data at higher flux. The latter is significantly lower than expected for systems in the hard state. We searched for X-ray pulsations and imposed an upper limit to their semi-amplitude of 2 per cent (0.001-7 Hz). Finally, we investigated the origin of the low-frequency variability emission present in the XMM-Newton data and ruled out an absorption dip origin. This constraint the orbital inclination of the system to ≲65° unless the orbital period is longer than 11 h (i.e. the length of the XMM-Newton observation).

  14. Suzaku Observation of A1689: Anisotropic Temperature and Entropy Distributions Associated with the Large-scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaharada, Madoka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Matsushita, Kyoko; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hamana, Takashi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya

    2010-05-01

    We present results of new, deep Suzaku X-ray observations (160 ks) of the intracluster medium (ICM) in A1689 out to its virial radius, combined with complementary data sets of the projected galaxy distribution obtained from the SDSS catalog and the projected mass distribution from our recent comprehensive weak and strong lensing analysis of Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. Faint X-ray emission from the ICM around the virial radius (r vir ~ 15farcm6) is detected at 4.0σ significance, thanks to the low and stable particle background of Suzaku. The Suzaku observations reveal anisotropic gas temperature and entropy distributions in cluster outskirts of r 500 connected to an overdense filamentary structure of galaxies outside the cluster. The gas temperature and entropy profiles in the NE direction are in good agreement, out to the virial radius, with that expected from a recent XMM-Newton statistical study and with an accretion shock heating model of the ICM, respectively. On the contrary, the other outskirt regions in contact with low-density void environments have low gas temperatures (~1.7 keV) and entropies, deviating from hydrostatic equilibrium. These anisotropic ICM features associated with large-scale structure environments suggest that the thermalization of the ICM occurs faster along overdense filamentary structures than along low-density void regions. We find that the ICM density distribution is fairly isotropic, with a three-dimensional density slope of -2.29 ± 0.18 in the radial range of r 2500 lensing analysis shows that the hydrostatic mass is lower than the spherical-lensing one (~60%-90%), but comparable to a triaxial halo mass within errors, at intermediate radii of 0.6r 2500 lensing mass, and ~30%-40% around the virial radius. Although these constitute lower limits when one considers the possible halo triaxiality, these small relative contributions of thermal pressure would require additional

  15. Space Brightness Evaluation for a Daylit Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maruyama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems for lighting design is how to reduce an electric energy. One way to solve this problem is use of daylight, but little is known how to perceive a brightness of a room illuminated by daylight come in through a window and artificial light. Although the horizontal illuminance increases because of daylight, we would not perceive the room as bright as brightness estimated by the illuminance. The purpose of this study is to measure the space brightness for daylit room and to propose a evaluation method. The experiment was conducted with a couple of miniature office rooms, standard room and test room. Test room has several types of windows and standard room has no window. Subject was asked to evaluate the brightness of the test room relative to the standard room with method of magnitude estimation. It was found that brightness of daylit room did not increase simply with horizontal illuminance. Subject perceived a daylit room darker than a room illuminated only by the artificial light even if horizontal illuminance of these room was same. The effect of daylight on space brightness would vary with the window size and intensity of daylight or artificial light.

  16. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  17. Analysis of Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect mass–observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Šuhada, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-02-26

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from similar to 6 deg(2) of the XMM-Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>= 10(42) erg s(-1)) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y-500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8 sigma significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y-500 signal that is (17 +/- 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass-observable

  18. Tolerance of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianti, R. A.; Priaminiarti, M.; Syahraini, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    Image enhancement brightness and contrast can be adjusted on lateral cephalometric digital radiographs to improve image quality and anatomic landmarks for measurement by Steiner analysis. To determine the limit value for adjustments of image enhancement brightness and contrast in lateral cephalometric digital radiography for Steiner analysis. Image enhancement brightness and contrast were adjusted on 100 lateral cephalometric radiography in 10-point increments (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30). Steiner analysis measurements were then performed by two observers. Reliabilities were tested by the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and significance tested by ANOVA or the Kruskal Wallis test. No significant differences were detected in lateral cephalometric analysis measurements following adjustment of the image enhancement brightness and contrast. The limit value of adjustments of the image enhancement brightness and contrast associated with incremental 10-point changes (-30, -20, -10, 0, +10, +20, +30) does not affect the results of Steiner analysis.

  19. Aquarius L3 Polar-Gridded Weekly Brightness Temperature and Sea Surface Salinity V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set consists of weekly gridded Level-3 products of Aquarius L-band radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS)...

  20. SMEX02 AMSR-E Level 3 Daily Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) level 3 daily gridded brightness temperatures, spatially subsetted to...

  1. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  2. Snap-shot survey of compact, radio-bright SNRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2008-09-01

    We propose to observe a set of radio-bright remnants (SNRs) previously unobserved in X-rays. The SNRs have flat, non-thermal spectra suggesting efficient particle acceleration at the shock front. We also expect to find new pulsars or neutron stars within these remnants. These makes the selected SNRs good candidates for future TeV and GeV detections. The selected SNRs are also compact enough to be imaged within the ACIS-I field of view.

  3. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2017-10-01

    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Brightness Temperatures of Saturn's Disk and Rings at 400 and 700 Micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, S E; Hildebrand, R H; Keene, J

    1980-11-14

    Saturn was observed in two broad submillimeter photometric bands with the rings nearly edge-on. The observed brightness temperatures fall below the predictions of atmospheric models constructed from data at shorter wavelenths, indicating the presence of an opacity source besides pressure-broadened hydrogen lines in the submillimeter region. In combination with earlier measurements at larger inclination angles, these results yield a 400-micrometer brightness temperature for the rings of approximately 75 K.

  5. Effect of Interior Chromaticness on Space Brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenari Takada

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To design a lighting environment, horizontal illuminance is generally used as the brightness of a room. But it is reported that a subjective brightness does not always match the horizontal illuminance. For example, the room furnished with high saturated colored objects is perceived brighter than the room furnished with achromatic objects, even though the horizontal illuminance is the same. To investigate a effect of interior chromaticness on space brightness, we conducted the experiment in four miniature rooms that were different in terms of chromaticness of interior decorating surfaces, but kept lightness of surfaces constant. Subjects were asked to set the illuminance of reference room, that is furnished with achromatic objects, to equate the brightness of the test room, that is with chromatic objects. Four of seven subjects needed less illuminance to get the equality of space brightness if the test room had a saturated objects. The illuminance ratio of test to reference room was about 1.4. Other three subjects set the illuminance of reference room almost equal to test room. Thus, there are differences between individuals so further work would be needed to estimate the quantitative effect of interior chromaticness on space brightness.

  6. An isolated, bright cusp aurora at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinrade, J.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Tao, C.; Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Grocott, A.; Gray, R. L.; Grodent, D.; Kimura, T.; Nichols, J. D.; Arridge, C. S.; Radioti, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Pryor, W. R.; Melin, H.; Baines, K. H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Saturn's dayside aurora displays a number of morphological features poleward of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014 (day 165), where for 2 h, Saturn's FUV aurora faded almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 10 and 15 LT and moved poleward to a minimum colatitude of 4°. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of 2 h. Interestingly, the spot constituted the entirety of the northern auroral emission, with no emissions present at any other local time—including Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing and solar wind encounter, indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere was likely to have been embedded in a rarefaction region, resulting in an expanded magnetosphere configuration during the interval. We infer that the spot was sustained by reconnection either poleward of the cusp or at low latitudes under a strong component of interplanetary magnetic field transverse to the solar wind flow. The subsequent poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the possible modulation of the feature by planetary period rotating current systems.

  7. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  8. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew Michael; Mathews, Allison M.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Avilez, Ian; Beale, Luca; Bittle, Lauren E.; Bordenave, David; Finn, Molly; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Hughes, Paul; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Lewis, Hannah; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Liu, Mengyao; McNair, Shunlante; Murphy, Edward; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Richardson, Whitney; Song, Yiqing; Troup, Nicholas; Villadsen, Jackie; Wenger, Trey V.; Wilson, Robert Forrest

    2018-01-01

    We present updates from the ninth year of operation of Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) including new club content, continued assessments, and our seventh annual Star Party. DSBK is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. DSBK’s most fundamental program is an 8-10 week long after-school Astronomy camp at surrounding local elementary schools, where each week introduces new concepts through interactive hands-on activities. Over the past two summers, we have traveled to four rural Virginia locations to bring week-long Astronomy camps to otherwise overlooked elementary school districts. These programs aim to inspire a curiosity for science and include inquiry based activities in topics ranging from the electromagnetic spectrum to the classification and evolution of galaxies. We strive to be self-reflective in our mission to inspire scientific curiosity in the minds of underserved demographics. In this effort, we continually assess the effectiveness of each activity through feedback in student-kept journal pages and observed excitement levels. This self-reflection has initiated the development of new curriculum. In addition, differing from our normal collaboration with local elementary schools, we have found great success partnering with local youth organizations, who may better represent DSBK's target demographics and have infrastructure to support incoming outreach groups.

  9. Bright visible light emission from graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  10. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  11. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  12. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Puccetti, S. [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ricci, C. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N{sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}. The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L{sub 2–10,int} = (0.8–1.7) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1.

  13. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  14. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  15. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  16. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture....... Large apertures result in high order transverse modes, filamentation and spatio-temporal instabilities, all of which degrade spatial coherence and therefore brightness. We shall describe a combined assault on three fronts: (1) minimise aperture size required for a given power by maximising the facet...... damage threshold, (2) for a given aperture, minimise self-focusing and filamentation by minimising the effective nonlinear coefficient (the alpha parameter), and (3) for a given aperture and nonlinear coefficient, develop optical cavities and propagation structures to suppress filamentation and high...

  17. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  18. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Achromatic form perception is based on luminance, not brightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, S; Cavanagh, P

    1992-10-01

    Two figures were examined, one a subjective disk and the other a cup whose shape was revealed by shadows. The figures were presented in a single color on a background of a different color, and the observers adjusted the radiance of one color until, in the first case, the vividness of the subjective contour reached a minimum (minimum subjective contour) or, in the second case, the impression of depth that is due to shadows disappeared (shadow disappearance). The results for these two tasks followed the data for minimum flicker matches (made with the same stimuli) much more closely than those for direct brightness matching. We therefore claim that achromatic form perception in general and subjective contour and shadow perception in particular are based on the intensity dimension measured by flicker photometry, not on that measured by brightness matching. Finally, in agreement with these findings, bleaching of short-wavelength sensitive cones did not affect settings for subjective contours, shadows, or flicker photometry but did affect brightness matching.

  20. Origin of low surface brightness galaxies: a dynamical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Prerak; Banerjee, Arunima

    2017-11-01

    Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (LSBs), inspite of being gas rich, have low star formation rates and are therefore low surface brightness in nature. We calculate QRW, the 2-component disc stability parameter as proposed by Romeo & Wiegert, as a function of galactocentric radius R for a sample of five LSBs, for which mass models, as obtained from HI 21cm radio-synthesis observations and R-band photometry, were available in the literature. We find that the median value of Q_{RW}^{min}, the minimum of QRW over R, lies between 2.6 and 3.1 for our sample LSBs, which is higher than the median value of 1.8 ± 0.3 for Q_{RW}^{min} for a sample of high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs) as obtained in earlier studies. This clearly shows that LSBs have more stable discs than HSBs, which could explain their low star formation rates and, possibly, their low surface brightness nature. Interestingly, the calculated values of QRW decrease only slightly (median Q_{RW}^{min} ˜ 2.3-3) if the discs were taken to respond to the gravitational potential of the dark matter halo only, but reduce by ˜ a factor of 2-3 (median Q_{RW}^{min} ˜ 0.7-1.5) if they respond to their self-gravity alone. This implies that the dark matter halo is crucial in regulating disc stability in LSBs, which may have important implications for models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  1. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    material collected by former Soviet Union robots and Apollo astronauts. With the completion of the first round of lunar exploration by human beings, the study of lunar microwave brightness tempe- rature was completely forgotten. Accompanied by a new upcoming era of lunar exploration and the development of science and ...

  2. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  3. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  4. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  5. The gamma-ray emitting radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004-447. I. The X-ray View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikenbohm, A.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Markowitz, A.; Chang, C. S.; Carpenter, B.; Elsässer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Mannheim, K.; Müller, C.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Trüstedt, J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the TANAMI multiwavelength progam, we discuss new X-ray observations of the γ-ray and radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy (γ-NLS1) PKS 2004-447. The active galaxy is a member of a small sample of radio-loud NLS1s detected in γ-rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. It stands out for being the radio-loudest and the only southern-hemisphere source in this sample. We present results from our X-ray monitoring program comprised of Swift snapshot observations from 2012 through 2014 and two new X-ray observations with XMM-Newton in 2012. Supplemented by archival data from 2004 and 2011, our data set allows for a careful analysis of the X-ray spectrum and variability of this peculiar source. The (0.5-10) keV spectrum is described well by a power law (Γ ~ 1.6), which can be interpreted as non-thermal emission from a relativistic jet. The source exhibits moderate flux variability on timescales of both months and years. Correlated brightness variations in the (0.5-2) keV and (2-10) keV bands are explained by a single variable spectral component, such as the one from the jet. A possible soft excess seen in the data from 2004 cannot be confirmed by the new XMM-Newton observations taken during low-flux states. Any contribution to the total flux in 2004 is less than 20% of the power-law component. The (0.5-10) keV luminosities of PKS 2004-447 are in the range of (0.5-2.7) × 1044 erg s-1. A comparison of the X-ray properties among the known γ-NLS1 galaxies shows that in four out of five cases the X-ray spectrum is dominated by a flat power law without intrinsic absorption. These objects are moderately variable in their brightness, while spectral variability is observed in at least two sources. The major difference across the X-ray spectra of γ-NLS1s is the luminosity, which spans a range of almost two orders of magnitude from 1044 erg s-1 to 1046 erg s-1 in the (0.5-10) keV band.

  6. Three-dimensional vortex-bright solitons in a spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sandeep; Adhikari, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate stable and metastable vortex-bright solitons in a three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled three-component hyperfine spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using numerical solution and variational approximation of a mean-field model. The spin-orbit coupling provides attraction to form vortex-bright solitons in both attractive and repulsive spinor BECs. The ground state of these vortex-bright solitons is axially symmetric for weak polar interaction. For a sufficiently strong ferromagnetic interaction, we observe the emergence of a fully asymmetric vortex-bright soliton as the ground state. We also numerically investigate moving solitons. The present mean-field model is not Galilean invariant, and we use a Galilean-transformed mean-field model for generating the moving solitons.

  7. Brightness map of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI IRC All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, J.; Ueno, M.; Kwon, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Ishihara, D.; Ishiguro, M.; Usui, F.; Ootsubo, T.; Mukai, T.

    2010-11-01

    The first Japanese infrared space mission AKARI successfully scanned the whole sky with its two main instruments, the Infrared Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS). The AKARI All-Sky Survey provides us with an invaluable opportunity to examine the zodiacal emission (ZE) over the entire sky in the leading as well as the trailing direction of the Earth's motion. We describe our efforts to reduce the ZE brightness map from the AKARI's survey in the 9 μm waveband. Compared with the interplanetary dust cloud model of Kelsall et al. (1998), the map requires an increase of the contribution of the resonance ring component to the ZE brightness by about 20%. We paid special attention to the north and south ecliptic pole brightnesses. The symmetry plane's inclination and longitude of ascending node need to be modified from those in Kelsall et al. (1998) to reach a best fit to the observed pole brightness difference.

  8. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    -class instrument of its kind that is open to all astronomers. PRIMA parts arrived at the summit at Paranal at the end of July and were integrated and tested during the following month. On 2 September 2008, as a first milestone, starlight from two VLTI 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes was fed into the PRIMA system, and interference fringes were detected on PRIMA's Fringe Sensor Unit. Three days later the system was routinely using active tracking on the fringes, compensating for atmospheric turbulence. First light - or, in the case of interferometric instruments, first fringes - actually occurred ahead of the ambitious schedule set out by lead engineer Francoise Delplancke: "There were many activities that all had to be successful simultaneously for this to happen, but the assembly, integration, and verification went smoothly - I was pleased by how easy and reliable the fringe tracking was, for our first try." All PRIMA sub-systems [3] have been installed successfully for use with two Auxiliary Telescopes and will now be submitted to intensive commissioning tests before being offered to the community of users for routine observations [4].

  9. Determination of the coronal properties of luminous quasars at cosmological redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, E.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D.; Celotti, A.

    2017-10-01

    Several precise measurements of high-energy cutoffs in the X-ray spectra of bright local AGN have been reported recently. These measurements can be also done for luminous quasars at cosmological redshifts. The shift of the high-energy cutoff to lower energies, in the observer frame, compensates for the relative faintness of the source, allowing an estimate of the coronal temperature analogous to the ones done for local, low luminosity but very bright AGN. We present the analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the luminous radio-quiet quasar QSO B2202-209 (z=0.53; L(2-10 keV)= 1.93× 10^{45} erg/s). Assuming a Comptonization model, we estimated a coronal temperature of kT_{e} = (42± 3) keV and KT_{e}=(56 ± 3) keV for a spherical and a slab geometry, respectively, for B2202-209. The unusual X-ray loudness of this quasar (α_{OX} = 1.00 ± 0.02) and the exceptionally strong optical [O III] line, that we found, can be explained by a nearly edge-on disc, leading to a reduction in the observed ultraviolet continuum light.

  10. Thin Sea-ice Thickness Retrievals from SMAP Brightness Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayler, E. J.; Smith, R.

    2016-12-01

    The retrieval of thin sea-ice thicknesses has been developed for data from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture - Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, employing the transition of observed surface emissivity from open water to thick sea ice. This technique is now applied to brightness temperature data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission, addressing the instrument differences between the SMOS Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) and the SMAP scanning radiometer. This study demonstrates the utility of SMAP data for addressing a critical data gap for numerical prediction in polar regions, particularly as operational modeling advances toward coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere modeling.

  11. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Methods Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10∶14 light∶dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Results Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1∶1 or 7∶7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. Conclusions The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1∶1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical

  12. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  13. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  14. Lightness and brightness judgments of coplanar retinally noncontiguous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, J A; Shevell, S K

    1993-12-01

    Several experiments reveal that judgments of lightness and brightness of an achromatic surface depend, in part, on the luminances of other surfaces perceived to share the same depth plane, even if the surfaces are well separated on the retina. Two Mondrians, simulated on a CRT, were viewed through a haploscope. The more highly illuminated Mondrian contained a comparison patch and appeared nearer than the more dimly illuminated Mondrian, which contained the test patch. By independently varying the disparity of the test patch, observers could make the test patch appear to be in the depth plane of either the dimly or the highly illuminated Mondrian. Observers set the luminance of the test patch to match that of the comparison patch. The test was set as high as 15% more luminous when it was perceived in the depth plane of the highly illuminated rather than the dimly illuminated Mondrian. Both brightness and lightness judgments were affected by the perceived depth of the test, although the lightness judgments of inexperienced observers sometimes were dominated by local-contrast matching.

  15. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  16. Human CD56bright NK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Cuapio, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells can be subdivided into various subsets based on the relative expression of CD16 and CD56. In particular, CD56(bright)CD16(-/dim) NK cells are the focus of interest. They are considered efficient cytokine producers endowed with immunoregulatory properties, but they can also become...... cytotoxic upon appropriate activation. These cells were shown to play a role in different disease states, such as cancer, autoimmunity, neuroinflammation, and infection. Although their phenotype and functional properties are well known and have been extensively studied, their lineage relationship with other...... NK cell subsets is not fully defined, nor is their precise hematopoietic origin. In this article, we summarize recent studies about CD56(bright) NK cells in health and disease and briefly discuss the current controversies surrounding them....

  17. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  18. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  19. Colors and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta as Seen by the Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, S. E.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has been in orbit around the asteroid Vesta since July, 2011. The on-board Framing Camera has acquired thousands of high-resolution images of the regolith-covered surface through one clear and seven narrow-band filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. It has observed bright and dark materials that have a range of reflectance that is unusually wide for an asteroid. Material brighter than average is predominantly found on crater walls, and in ejecta surrounding caters in the southern hemisphere. Most likely, the brightest material identified on the Vesta surface so far is located on the inside of a crater at 64.27deg S, 1.54deg . The apparent brightness of a regolith is influenced by factors such as particle size, mineralogical composition, and viewing geometry. As such, the presence of bright material can indicate differences in lithology and/or degree of space weathering. We retrieve the spectral and photometric properties of various bright terrains from false-color images acquired in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). We find that most bright material has a deeper 1-m pyroxene band than average. However, the aforementioned brightest material appears to have a 1-m band that is actually less deep, a result that awaits confirmation by the on-board VIR spectrometer. This site may harbor a class of material unique for Vesta. We discuss the implications of our spectral findings for the origin of bright materials.

  20. TC4 AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TC4 AMPR Brightness Temperature (TB) dataset consists of brightness temperature data from July 19, 2007 through August 8, 2007. The Tropical Composition, Cloud...

  1. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Daiki; Suganami, Haruka; Hosoba, Minoru; Ohno, Kazuko; Emoto, Yutaka; Tabata, Yoshito; Matsui, Norihisa

    2013-03-01

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u'v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2 according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors .

  2. Hα imaging for BeXRBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haberl, F.

    2017-11-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) hosts a large number of high-mass X-ray binaries, and in particular of Be/X-ray Binaries (BeXRBs; neutron stars orbiting OBe-type stars), offering a unique laboratory to address the effect of metalicity. One key property of their optical companion is Hα in emission, which makes them bright sources when observed through a narrow-band Hα filter. We performed a survey of the SMC Bar and Wing regions using wide-field cameras (WFI@MPG/ESO and MOSAIC@CTIO/Blanco) in order to identify the counterparts of the sources detected in our XMM-Newton survey of the same area. We obtained broad-band R and narrow-band Hα photometry, and identified ~10000 Hα emission sources down to a sensitivity limit of 18.7 mag (equivalent to ~B8 type Main Sequence stars). We find the fraction of OBe/OB stars to be 13% down to this limit, and by investigating this fraction as a function of the brightness of the stars we deduce that Hα excess peaks at the O9-B2 spectral range. Using the most up-to-date numbers of SMC BeXRBs we find their fraction over their parent population to be ~0.002 - 0.025 BeXRBs/OBe, a direct measurement of their formation rate.

  3. Constraints on the parameters of radiatively decaying dark matter from the dark matter halo of the Milky Way and Ursa Minor

    CERN Document Server

    Boyarsky, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Boyarsky, Alexey; Nevalainen, Jukka; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Using the recent XMM-Newton PN blank sky data, we improve the earlier restrictions on parameters of the warm dark matter (DM) in the form of sterile neutrino (by as much as the order of magnitude at masses ~ 3.5 kev). The results are obtained from non-observing DM decay line in the X-ray spectrum of the Milky Way. We also present similar constraint coming from the recent XMM-Newton observation of Ursa Minor -- dark, X-ray quiet dwarf spheroidal. Although this observation has relatively poor statistics, the constraints are comparable to those, recently obtained using observations of Large Magellanic Cloud or M31. This confirms recent proposal that dwarf satellites of the MW are very interesting candidates for the DM search and should be studied dedicatedly on this purpose.

  4. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsing-Cheng Yu; Xie-Hong Tsai; An-Chun Luo; Ming Wu; Sei-Wang Chen

    2015-01-01

    When viewing three-dimensional (3D) images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the ph...

  5. Aqueous origins of bright salt deposits on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Bright materials have been reported in association with impact craters on Ceres. The abundant Na2CO3 and some ammonium salts, NH4HCO3 and/or NH4Cl, were detected in bright deposits within Occator crater with Dawn near infrared spectroscopy. The composition and appearance of the salts suggest their aqueous mobilization and emplacement after formation of the crater. Here we consider origins of the bright deposits through calculation of speciation in the H-C-N-O-Na-Cl water-salt type system constrained by the mass balance of observed salts. Calculations of chemical equilibria show that initial solutions had the pH of ∼10. The temperature and salinity of solutions could have not exceeded ∼273 K and ∼100 g per kg H2O, respectively. Freezing models reveal an early precipitation of Na2CO3·10H2O followed by minor NaHCO3. Ammonium salts precipitate near eutectic from brines enriched in NH4+, Cl- and Na+. A late-stage precipitation of NaCl·2H2O is modeled for solution compositions with added NaCl. Calculated eutectics are above 247 K. The apparently unabundant ammonium and chloride salts in Occator's deposits imply a rapid emplacement without a compositional evolution of solution. Salty ice grains could have deposited from post-impact ballistic plumes formed through low-pressure boiling of subsurface solutions. Hydrated and ammonium salts are unstable at maximum temperatures of Ceres' surface and could decompose through space weathering. Occator's ice-free salt deposits formed through a post-depositional sublimation of ice followed by dehydration of Na2CO3·10H2O and NaHCO3 to Na2CO3. In other regions, excavated and exposed bright materials could be salts initially deposited from plumes and accumulated at depth via post-impact boiling. The lack of detection of sulfates and an elevated carbonate/chloride ratio in Ceres' materials suggest an involvement of compounds abundant in the outer solar system.

  6. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  7. A complete sample of long bright Swift gamma ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Salvaterra, Ruben; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fugazza, Dino; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Melandri, Andrea; Nava, Lara; Sbarufatti, Boris; Vergani, Susanna

    2013-06-13

    Complete samples are the basis of any population study. To this end, we selected a complete subsample of Swift long bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The sample, made up of 58 bursts, was selected by considering bursts with favourable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up observations and with the 15-150 keV 1 s peak flux above a flux threshold of 2.6 photons cm(-2) s(-1). This sample has a redshift completeness level higher than 90 per cent. Using this complete sample, we investigate the properties of long GRBs and their evolution with cosmic time, focusing in particular on the GRB luminosity function, the prompt emission spectral-energy correlations and the nature of dark bursts.

  8. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Loukitcheva, Maria [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Shimojo, Masumi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Solanki, Sami K. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany); White, Stephen M., E-mail: k.iwai@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  9. Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Gosnell, T.R.; Roberts, J.P.; Lester, C.S.; Gibson, R.B.; Harper, S.E.; Tallman, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems are being used to explore the interaction of intense coherent ultraviolet radiation with matter. Applications of current systems include generation of picosecond x-ray pulses, investigation of possible x-ray laser pumping schemes, studies of multiphoton phenomena in atomic species, and time-resolved photochemistry. These systems, based on the amplification of subpicosecond pulses in small aperture (/approximately/1 cm/sup 2/) XeCl or KrF amplifiers, deliver focal spot intensities of /approximately/10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/. Scaling to higher intensities, however, will require an additional large aperture amplifier which preserves near-diffraction-limited beam quality and subpicosecond pulse duration. We describe here both a small aperture KrF system which routinely provides intensities >10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/ to several experiments, and a large aperture XeCl system designed to deliver /approximately/1 J subpicosecond pulses and yield intensities on target in excess of 10/sup 19/W/cm/sup 2/. We also discuss the effects of two-photon absorption on large-aperture, high-brightness excimer lasers. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Christensen, U.; Kneissl, T.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Schaefer, T.; Russell, C. T.; Applin, D. M.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Keller, H. U.; O'Brien, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Ripken, J.; Schenk, P. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Thangjam, G. S.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5, 6, 7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the ‘snow line’, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  11. Probing the connection between the accretion disk, outflows and the jet in 3C111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Recent XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of 3C111 demonstrated the presence of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with v~0.1c and their relation with the accretion disk. Independent studies found that X-ray dips are followed by ejection of superluminal radio knots, therefore providing a proof of the disk-jet connection. We acquired evidence that UFOs are preferentially present between X-ray dips and new knots, possibly indicating also a link between disk outflows and the jet. The goal of this XMM-Newton proposal is to confirm this evidence. Given the strong correlation with X-rays, we will use an ongoing optical monitoring campaign to trigger a 90ks observation within two days of a dip to detect a UFO and we request a possible additional 60ks >15 days after to compare with the non-dipped state.

  12. The Quiet HMXB Candidates HD 14633 and HD 15137

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Roberts, M. S. E.; Boyajian, T. S.; De Becker, M.; Marsh, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The runaway O-type binaries HD 14633 and HD 15137 were likely ejected from the cluster of their birth by supernovae explosions in close binaries. Neither star is a known X-ray source, but they likely contain neutron stars and may be weak stellar wind accretion systems. Hence the two binaries have been classified as "quiet HMXBs". Here we present new optical spectra of these spectroscopic binaries and reassess their orbits. We also present preliminary results from recent XMM-Newton observations, intended to detect the hard power-law spectrum from accreting or quiescent neutron star companions and reveal the evolutionary history of these intriguing runaways. This work is based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA and Lehigh University.

  13. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center Hard X-ray Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission has been discovered within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements in the surrounding ∼50 pc imply a much lighter population of IPs with 〈MWD〉≈0.5H...... estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with 〈MWD〉≈0.9M⊙, consistent with that of the CV population in general and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy...

  14. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  15. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  16. MAXI J1659-152: the shortest orbital period black-hole binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.

    Following the detection of a bright new X-ray source, MAXI J1659-152, a series of observations was triggered with almost all currently flying high-energy missions. We report here on XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL and RXTE observations during the early phase of the X-ray outburst of this transient black......-hole candidate. We confirm the dipping nature in the X-ray light curves. We find that the dips recur on a period of 2.4139+/-0.0005 hrs, and interpret this as the orbital period of the system. It is thus the shortest period black-hole X-ray binary known to date. Using the various observables, we derive...... the properties of the source. The inclination of the accretion disk with respect to the line of sight is estimated to be 60-75 degrees. The companion star to the black hole is possibly a M5 dwarf star, with a mass and radius of about 0.15 M_sun and 0.23 R_sun, respectively. The system is rather compact (orbital...

  17. The fastest disk wind in APM 08279+5255 and its acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, K.; Done, C.; Odaka, H.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-10-01

    The luminous high-z quasar APM 08279+5255 has the most powerful ultra-fast outflow (UFO), which is claimed as the fastest disk wind with velocity of 0.7c. This extreme velocity is very important for constraining the physical mechanism to launch the UFOs because only magnetic driving mechanism can accelerate the winds up to velocities above 0.3c, at which radiation drag effects prevent radiation driving. We reanalyze all the observed data of this source with our spectral model of highly ionized disk winds constructed by 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulation. This was applied to an archetypal disk wind in PDS 456, and successfully reproduced all the spectra observed with Suzaku in spite of their strong spectral variability. By applying our spectral model to APM 08279+5255, all the spectra observed with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku are explained with less extreme outflow velocities of 0.1-0.2c. In our analysis, the high energy absorption features, which were previously interpreted as absorption lines with extremely fast velocities, are produced by iron-K absorption edges from moderately ionized clumps embedded in the highly ionized wind. We also investigate the broadband SED, and find that it is X-ray weak and UV bright, which prefers the radiation driving.

  18. The Hard X-Ray Emission of the Blazar PKS 2155-304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Haritma; Chen, Liang; Misra, R.; Sahayanathan, S.; Gu, M. F.; Kushwaha, P.; Dewangan, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    The synchrotron peak of the X-ray bright High Energy Peaked Blazar PKS 2155-304 occurs in the UV-EUV region and hence its X-ray emission (0.6-10 keV) lies mostly in the falling part of the synchrotron hump. We aim to study the X-ray emission of PKS 2155-304 during different intensity states in 2009-2014 using the XMM-Newton satellite. We studied the spectral curvature of all of the observations to provide crucial information on the energy distribution of the nonthermal particles. Most of the observations show curvature or deviation from a single power law and can be well modeled by a log parabola model. In some of the observations, we find spectral flattening after 6 keV. In order to find the possible origin of the X-ray excess, we built the Multiband Spectral Energy distribution. We find that the X-ray excess in PKS 2155-304 is difficult to fit in the one zone model but, could be easily reconciled in the spine/layer jet structure. The hard X-ray excess can be explained by the inverse Comptonization of the synchrotron photons (from the layer) by the spine electrons.

  19. X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the old gamma-ray pulsar J1836+5925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash; Pavlov, George; Blake, Joseph

    PSR J1836+5925 is a bright gamma-ray source with a long observational history in various energy bands. Its radio-quietness, and non-detection of X-ray pulsations in previous observations have hindered a detailed analysis of this source. At the characteristic age of 1.83 Myr, it is one of the oldest non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars known, making it a useful object for understanding evolution of high-energy emission from rotation powered pulsars. In our 80 ks XMM-Newton observation of this pulsar, we detected unambiguous 5.77 Hz pulsations, consistent with its known gamma-ray ephemeris and assessed a low X-ray pulsed fraction of ˜ 0.34. In the 0.15 - 10 keV phase-integrated spectrum, non-thermal emission with the photon index Gamma ≈ 1.8 ± 0.2 dominates above 0.7 keV, whereas at lower energies, the spectrum requires a dominant kT = 63 ± 5 eV blackbody or, alternatively, a 24 ± 3 eV neutron star atmosphere model. We will also present the phase-resolved analysis of the pulsar spectrum and phase-matched X-ray and gamma-ray pulse profiles. Finally, we will discuss the implications of our results for thermal and magnetospheric emission of rotation powered pulsars.

  20. Inferring Compton-thick AGN candidates at z > 2 with Chandra using the >8 keV rest-frame spectral curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, L.; Koss, M.; Schawinski, K.; Cardamone, C.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Salvato, M.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Treister, E.

    2017-10-01

    To fully understand cosmic black hole growth, we need to constrain the population of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at the peak of cosmic black hole growth (z ˜1-3). Sources with obscuring column densities higher than 1024 atoms cm-2, called Compton-thick (CT) AGNs, can be identified by excess X-ray emission at ˜20-30 keV, called the 'Compton hump'. We apply the recently developed Spectral Curvature (SC) method to high-redshift AGNs (2 method parametrizes the characteristic 'Compton hump' feature cosmologically redshifted into the X-ray band at observed energies method, and bright sources fit using their full spectrum with X-ray spectroscopy. In the Chandra Deep Field-South, we measure a CT fraction of 17^{+19}_{-11} per cent (3/17) for sources with observed luminosity >5 × 1043erg s-1. In the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS), we find an observed CT fraction of 15^{+4}_{-3} per cent (40/272) or 32 ± 11 per cent when corrected for the survey sensitivity. When comparing to low redshift AGNs with similar X-ray luminosities, our results imply that the CT AGN fraction is consistent with having no redshift evolution. Finally, we provide SC equations that can be used to find high-redshift CT AGNs (z > 1) for current (XMM-Newton) and future (eROSITA and ATHENA) X-ray missions.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MIR brightness contrast of Saturn's rings (Fujiwara+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, H.; Morishima, R.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-11-01

    Brightness maps for Saturn's rings at 8.8, 9.7, 10.5, 11.7, 12.5, 17.7, 18.8, 20.5, and 24.5 micron observed with Subaru Telescope/COMICS in 2008 and at 12.5 and 24.5 micron in 2005 are provides as fits files. (2 data files).

  2. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  3. Joint Spectral Analysis for Early Bright X-ray Flares of -Ray Bursts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A joint spectral analysis for early bright X-ray flares that were simultaneously observed with Swift BAT and XRT are present. Both BAT and XRT lightcurves of these flares are correlated. Our joint spectral analysis shows that the radiations in the two energy bands are from the same spectral component, which can be well ...

  4. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen......, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight...... ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based...

  5. Variable multimodal light microscopy with interference contrast and phase contrast; dark or bright field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, T; Piper, J

    2014-07-01

    Using the optical methods described, specimens can be observed with modified multimodal light microscopes based on interference contrast combined with phase contrast, dark- or bright-field illumination. Thus, the particular visual information associated with interference and phase contrast, dark- and bright-field illumination is joined in real-time composite images appearing in enhanced clarity and purified from typical artefacts, which are apparent in standard phase contrast and dark-field illumination. In particular, haloing and shade-off are absent or significantly reduced as well as marginal blooming and scattering. The background brightness and thus the range of contrast can be continuously modulated and variable transitions can be achieved between interference contrast and complementary illumination techniques. The methods reported should be of general interest for all disciplines using phase and interference contrast microscopy, especially in biology and medicine, and also in material sciences when implemented in vertical illuminators. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Automatic Identification of Solar X-Ray Bright Points in Hinode X-Ray Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Cirtain, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We have automated a method that is used to find point sources in Chandra X-ray telescope data, to identify solar bright points in Hinode X-ray data. This tool, called lextrct, first identifies candidate sources that are brighter than the surrounding background. The algorithm also allows selected pixels to be excluded from the source-finding, thus allowing saturated pixels (from flares and/or active regions) to be ignored. We then use lextrct to fit the sources to two-dimensional, elliptical Gaussians. The size and orientation give an approximation of the shape of the bright points. We are in the process of analyzing observations through the Al_poly filter with a four-second exposure time, to obtain a catalogue of bright points, which will include their sizes, lifetimes, intensities, and position on the solar disk

  7. A combined optical and X-ray study of unobscured type 1 active galactic nuclei - I. Optical spectra and spectral energy distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ward, Martin; Done, Chris; Gelbord, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    We present modelling and interpretation of the continuum and emission lines for a sample of 51 unobscured type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). All of these AGNs have high-quality spectra from both XMM-Newton and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We extend the wavelength coverage where possible by adding simultaneous ultraviolet data from the OM onboard XMM-Newton. Our sample is selected based on low reddening in the optical and low gas columns implied by their X-ray spectra, except for one case, the broad absorption line quasar PG 1004+130. They also lack clear signatures for the presence of a warm absorber. Therefore, the observed characteristics of this sample are likely to be directly related to the intrinsic properties of the central engine.

  8. NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z <0.5 Type 2 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -ray observatory NuSTAR, along with archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data, we study the broad-band X-ray spectra of nine optically selected (from the SDSS), candidate Compton-thick (N-H > 1.5 x 10(24) cm(-2)) type 2 quasars (CTQSO2s); five new NuSTAR observations are reported herein, and four have been previously......STAR-detected type 2 quasars are representative of other Compton-thick candidates, we make a correction to the N-H distribution for optically selected type 2 quasars as measured by Chandra and XMM-Newton for 39 objects. With this approach, we predict a Compton-thick fraction of f(CT) = 36(-12)(+14)%, although higher...

  9. The flux-dependent X-ray time lags in NGC 4051

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alston, W.N.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray time lags for the highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051, based on a series of XMM-Newton observations taken in 2009. We investigate the Fourier frequency dependent time lags in the light curves between the 0.3-1.0 keV and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands as a function

  10. Bright sneezes and dark coughs, loud sunlight and soft moonlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, L E

    1982-04-01

    Synesthetic metaphors (such as "the dawn comes up like thunder") are expressions in which words or phrases describing experiences proper to one sense modality transfer their meanings to another modality. In a series of four experiments, subjects used scales of loudness, pitch, and brightness to evaluate the meanings of a variety of synesthetic (auditory-visual) metaphors. Loudness and pitch expressed themselves metaphorically as greater brightness; in turn, brightness expressed itself as greater loudness and as higher pitch. Although loudness thus shared with brightness a metaphorical connection, pitch and brightness showed a connection that was closer and that applied more generally to different kinds of visual brightness. The ways that people evaluate synesthetic metaphors emulate the characteristics of synesthetic perception, thereby suggesting that synesthesia in perception and synesthesia in language both may emenate from the same source-from a phenomenological similarity in the makeup of sensory experiences of different modalities.

  11. Types and Distribution of Bright Materials in 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Schroder, S. E.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A strong case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1]. As such, we have over a century of detailed sample analysis experience to call upon when formulating hypotheses regarding plausible lithologic diversity on Vesta. It thus came as a surprise when Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) first revealed distinctly localized materials of exceptionally low and high albedos, often closely associated. To understand the nature and origin of these materials, and how they inform us of the geological evolution of Vesta, task forces began their study. An initial step of the scientific endeavor is to develop a descriptive, non-genetic classification of objects to use as a basis for developing hypotheses and observational campaigns. Here we present a catalog of the types of light-toned deposits and their distribution across Vesta. A companion abstract [2] discusses possible origins of bright materials and the constraints they suggest for vestan geology.

  12. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, C., E-mail: claudia.monte@ba.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Perri, M. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Richards, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  13. Broad band spectral energy distribution studies of Fermi bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, C.; Giommi, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Gasparrini, D.; Rainò, S.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Perri, M.; Richards, J.

    2011-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has already opened a new era for gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument on board Fermi, presents a significant improvement in sensitivity over its predecessor EGRET, due to its large field of view and effective area, combined with its excellent timing capabilities. The preliminary results of the Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis performed on a sample of bright blazars are presented. For this study, the data from the first three months of data collection of Fermi have been used. The analysis is extended down to radio, mm, near-IR, optical, UV and X-ray bands and up to TeV energies based on unprecedented sample of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations by GASP-WEBT.

  14. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica

    2012-07-28

    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods.

  15. Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Hu, Ziying; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Tormo, Alejandro Diaz; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Wang, Boxiang; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Structural colors enable the creation of a spectrum of nonfading colors without pigments, potentially replacing toxic metal oxides and conjugated organic pigments. However, significant challenges remain to achieve the contrast needed for a complete gamut of colors and a scalable process for industrial application. We demonstrate a feasible solution for producing structural colors inspired by bird feathers. We have designed core-shell nanoparticles using high-refractive index (RI) (~1.74) melanin cores and low-RI (~1.45) silica shells. The design of these nanoparticles was guided by finite-difference time-domain simulations. These nanoparticles were self-assembled using a one-pot reverse emulsion process, which resulted in bright and noniridescent supraballs. With the combination of only two ingredients, synthetic melanin and silica, we can generate a full spectrum of colors. These supraballs could be directly added to paints, plastics, and coatings and also used as ultraviolet-resistant inks or cosmetics.

  16. Light-dark asymmetries in the Craik-Cornsweet-O'Brien illusion and a new model of brightness coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulden, B; Kingdom, F

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of a matching technique, the magnitude of induced brightness in bars bordered with Craik-Cornsweet-O'Brien (CCOB) edges was investigated as a function of the width and amplitude of those edges. Data were collected for stimuli with the sloping part of the edge on both the inside and outside of the bar, and also for stimuli with both positive-going and negative-going edges. The results confirmed previous reports that induced brightness was greater for CCOB stimuli with negative-going, as opposed to positive-going, edges and greater for CCOB stimuli whose edges contained outer, as opposed to inner gradients. A model of brightness coding is offered to provide an explanation for the specific anisotropies observed, as well as the general effects of stimulus amplitude and width on induced brightness. The model assumes that a symbolic description of brightness is generated separately from each of a number of different-sized 2DG (second difference of a Gaussian) filters, and the resulting brightness profile obtained by averaging across the separate descriptions. The ability of other brightness models to account for the data is also discussed.

  17. Kappa-effect and brightness oscillations of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugzhda, Y. D.; Roth, M.; Herzberg, W.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the theory of visibility and darkening functions for the brightness oscillations of stars is outlined. For this the non-grey approximation is used and the effect of opacity disturbances on stellar brightness oscillations is explored for different types of stars. An explanation of the Procyon paradox is proposed. Special features of the brightness oscillations are discussed. The effect of opacity fluctuations on the damping of p-mode oscillations is considered. Furthermore, the photospheric kappa-mechanism is discussed.

  18. Detection of X-rays from the jet-driving symbiotic star Hen 3-1341

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I. F.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Hen 3-1341 is a symbiotic binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star that is one of about ten symbiotics that show hints of jets. The bipolar jets have been detected through displaced components of emission lines during its outburst from 1998 to 2004. These components disappeared when Hen 3-1341 reached quiescence. On February 23, 2012, Hen 3-1341 started a new outburst with the emergence of new bipolar jets on March 3, 2012. Aims: We observed Hen 3-1341 during quiescence with XMM-Newton in March 2010 with an effective exposure time of 46.8 ks and with Swift on March 8-11, 2012 as ToO observations with an effective exposure time of 10 ks in order to probe the interaction of the jet with the ambient medium and also the accretion onto the white dwarf. Methods: We fitted the XMM-Newton X-ray spectra with XSPEC and examined the X-ray and UV light curves. Results: We report the detection of X-ray emission during quiescence from Hen 3-1341 with XMM-Newton. The spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed one-temperature plasma or an absorbed blackbody. We did not detect Hen 3-1341 during our short Swift exposure. Neither periodic or aperiodic X-ray nor UV variability were found. Conclusions: Our XMM-Newton data suggest that interaction of the residual jet with the interstellar medium might survive for a long time after outbursts and might be responsible for the observed X-ray emission during quiescence. Additional data are strongly needed to confirm these suggestions.

  19. Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuations for WFC3/IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John

    2009-07-01

    We aim to characterize galaxy surface brightness fluctuations {SBF}, and calibrate the SBF distance method, in the F110W and F160W filters of the Wide Field Camera 3 IR channel. Because of the very high throughput of F110W and the good match of F160W to the standard H band, we anticipate that both of these filters will be popular choices for galaxy observations with WFC3/IR. The SBF signal is typically an order of magnitude brighter in the near-IR than in the optical, and the characterisitics {sensitivity, FOV, cosmetics} of the WFC3/IR channel will be enormously more efficient for SBF measurements than previously available near-IR cameras. As a result, our proposed SBF calibration will allow accurate distance derivation whenever an early-type or bulge-dominated galaxy is observed out to a distance of 150 Mpc or more {i.e., out to the Hubble flow} in the calibrated passbands. For individual galaxy observations, an accurate distance is useful for establishing absolute luminosities, black hole masses, linear sizes, etc. Eventually, once a large number of galaxies have been observed across the sky with WFC3/IR, this SBF calibration will enable accurate mapping of the total mass density distribution in the local universe using the data available in the HST archive. The proposed observations will have additional important scientific value; in particular, we highlight their usefulness for understanding the nature of multimodal globular cluster color distributions in giant elliptical galaxies.

  20. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval