WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridges ships

  1. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  2. Statistical Analysis of Ship Collisions with Bridges in China Waterway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tong-yu; NIE Wu; LIU Ying-jie; WANG Li-ping

    2002-01-01

    Having carried out investigations on ship collision accidents with bridges in waterway in China, a database of ship collision with bridge (SCB) is developed in this paper. It includes detailed information about more than 200 accidents near ship's waterways in the last four decades, in which ships collided with the bridges. Based on the information a statistical analysis is presented tentatively. The increase in frequency of ship collision with bridges appears, and the accident quantity of the barge system is more than that of single ship. The main reason of all the factors for ship collision with bridge is the human errors, which takes up 70%. The quantity of the accidents happened during flooding period shows over 3~6 times compared with the period from March to June in a year. The probability follows the normal distribution according to statistical analysis. Visibility, span between piers also have an effect on the frequency of the accidents.

  3. Simulation of the Whole Process of Ship-Bridge Collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建成; 顾永宁

    2002-01-01

    The simulation of the whole ship-bridge collision process can be effectively carried out by nonlinear dynamic finiteelement method. Based on the simple description of the theory, a scenario of a 40000 DWT oil tanker colliding with abridge across the Yangtze River is designed for simulation. The technology of structure modeling and the determination ofrelated parameters are introduced. The deformation of the bulb bow, the history of collision force change, the exchange ofcollision energy and the stress distribution of the bridge pier are described in detail, which are of great value to bridge de-sign and bridge pier damage estimation, Some mechanical characters in the process of ship-bridge collision are described.More accurate results can be produced by finite element method than that by empirical formulas and simplified analyticalmethods.

  4. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2013-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented for analysis of the external dynamics of ship collisions against bottom supported flexible as well as rigid offshore structures such as wind turbine structures, quays and bridge piers. Based on the principles of conservation of momentum and energy algebraic...... plays an important role for reduction of the structural damage. For gravity based foundations it is shown that provided some limited foundation displacements can be allowed then the requirements to the shear sliding force capacity can be reduced significantly. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group....

  5. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Fan; Wancheng Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows...

  6. A study on ship impacting a flexible crashworthy device for protecting bridge pier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accident of a vessel impacting a bridge pier will cause serious disaster, such as destroyed bridge, sinking ship and polluting environment, the technology and method to protect bridge pier from ship collision have been widely investigated recently. Due to the huge kinetic energy of large-tonnage ship and the short time duration in the collision, the studies involve impact mechanics. A developed flexible crashworthy device has been developed to protect bridges, which consists of an outer steel-periphery, an inner steel-periphery and the rubber coating SWRCs(soft elements installed between them. When the SWRC crashworthy device is installed, the collision duration under low impact force is prolonged due to its high compliance, which results in the ship having enough time to turn its navigation direction and most of the remainder kinetic energy being carried off by the turned away ship. Consequently, both impact forces on the ship and on the bridge pier decrease markedly. This is the key reason as to why the SWRC crashworthy device can avoid the destruction of both the bridge and the ship. Based on our results of theoretical studies and numerical simulations, the present paper will propose an experiment-adopted a real ship to impact a flexible crashworthy device. The collision test has been performed 12 times with different speed, carrying capacity, and impact angle of the ship. After the experiments, the ship, flexible crashworthy device and the pier are not damaged. The experiments show that the flexible crashworthy device can turn away the impact ship, so that the ship moves along the outer part of the device, which reduces the ship impact force on the bridge pier obviously. It not only protects bridges but also avoids the damage to ships.

  7. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications.

  8. A framework to bridge the energy efficiency gap in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental concerns, emission regulations, fuel prices, and emission taxes increase the demand to improve energy efficiency in shipping. However, several barriers prevent the adoption of cost-effective energy saving measures. In this article a framework is offered to overcome the barriers encountered in shipping. 12 participants from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute have provided input to this study. The framework makes the barriers evident to ship owners and (energy) managers. It helps them to prioritize and overcome the critical barriers to improve energy efficiency in a consistent manner. Researchers and policy makers can also utilize the framework as it makes challenges to energy efficiency apparent. Finally, due to its generic structure it can be applied to industries other than shipping. - Highlights: • The article offers a framework for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. • The framework is developed based on input from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute. • The article presents challenges and barriers to energy efficiency in shipping. • Possible measures for overcoming barriers in shipping are suggested. • The framework is generic in nature and can be applied to other industries

  9. A Novel Ship-Bridge Collision Avoidance System Based on Monocular Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Zheng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the ship-bridge collision avoidance. A novel system for ship-bridge collision avoidance based on monocular computer vision is proposed in this study. In the new system, the moving ships are firstly captured by the video sequences. Then the detection and tracking of the moving objects have been done to identify the regions in the scene that correspond to the video sequences. Secondly, the quantity description of the dynamic states of the moving objects in the geographical coordinate system, including the location, velocity, orientation, etc, has been calculated based on the monocular vision geometry. Finally, the collision risk is evaluated and consequently the ship manipulation commands are suggested, aiming to avoid the potential collision. Both computer simulation and field experiments have been implemented to validate the proposed system. The analysis results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  10. Simulation and Reasonable Design of Bridge Steel Fenders to Reduce Ship Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Bifeng; WANG Junjie

    2006-01-01

    Steel fenders are increasingly used for ship-impact resistance structures in the design of navigable bridges.As an important approach to investigating this anti-impact structure effectiveness to reduce influences of vessel impact,simulation analyses are still not perfect yet.So this paper is intended to discuss several issues related to ship collision simulations,including steel constitutive relationship,connections between steel box and pile cap,contacts definition and friction consideration,and the determination of impact waterlines and angles.Consequently based on two examples of ship-steel fender-bridge structure systems,some conclusions about effectiveness and design of fenders to reduce ship impact are drawn.

  11. Numerical Simulation for Progressive Collapse of Continuous Girder Bridge Subjected to Ship Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田力; 黄飞

    2014-01-01

    The three-stage simulation method based on LS-DYNA was introduced in this study to simulate the pro-gressive collapse of a continuous girder bridge after a ship-bridge collision. The pile-soil dynamic interaction and the initial stress and deformation of the whole bridge before the collision were considered. By analyzing the damage, de-formation, stress distribution and collapse process of the whole bridge, the results show that the displacement response of the cap beam lags behind the pile cap. The response order of the whole bridge’s components depends on their dis-tances from the collision region. The plastic deformation of soil around piles has a positive effect on delaying the fur-ther increase in the displacement of piles. The impacted pier’s losing stability and its superstructure’s excessive defor-mation are the main reasons leading to the progressive collapse of the continuous girder bridge.

  12. Bridge-based sensing of NOx and SO2 emissions from ocean-going ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Bria, Carmen R. M.

    2016-07-01

    As emissions from nonroad mobile sources face increased regulatory scrutiny, a surprisingly few number of real-world, in-use measurements exist for these sources. This paper reports the first use of an open-path Remote Sensing Device (RSD) to measure emissions from ocean-going ships, including cruise ships. This noninvasive technique measured NOx and SO2 emission factors from 16 individually identified ocean-going ships as they passed under the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, B.C. and their exhaust plumes passed through the sensing beam of the RSD on a bridge directly above. Ship NOx emissions generally agreed with previous studies showing no emissions trends across vessel type. Ship SO2 emissions were reasonable based on expected Environmental Control Area fuel sulfur requirements and corresponded to 0.4-2.4% sulfur in the fuels. This method's specificity of individual vessel SO2 measurements suggests that this technique could be used as a tool to detect high sulfur fuel use in vessels.

  13. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  14. On the Bridge to Learn: Analysing the Social Organization of Nautical Instruction in a Ship Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontvedt, Magnus; Arnseth, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Research on simulator training has rarely focused on the way simulated contexts are constructed collaboratively. This study sheds light on how structuring role-play and fostering social interactions may prove fruitful for designing simulator training. The article reports on a qualitative study of nautical students training in a ship simulator. The…

  15. 涪陵乌江大桥复线桥船撞风险研究%Research on Ship Collision Risk of Double-line Bridge in Fuling Wujiang River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佰杨; 李嵩林

    2016-01-01

    对拟建涪陵乌江大桥复线桥进行船撞风险研究.根据该桥桥址处的水流速度,典型水位,通航船舶密度、航速,通航净空尺度,航迹线以及桥梁的极限抗船撞能力等,采用三概率积分法,确定该桥拱圈碰撞频率和倒塌频率.另外,依据行业风险水平和风险评价矩阵,并结合三概率积分法计算结果来确定该桥船撞风险等级.%The paper studies ship collision risk of double-line bridge in Fuling Wujiang River Bridge to be constructed.In accordance with water flow rate,typical water level,navigation density and speed of ships,net clearance dimension of navigation,track line and limit resistance of bridge to ship collision, etc.,the paper determines collision frequency and collapse frequency of arch ring of the bridge by means of the three probability integral method.In addition,the paper determines the risk grade of ship collision the bridge according to the risk level of industry and risk assessment matrix and in combination with the calculated results of the three probability integral method.

  16. Anti-Collision with Ship for Old Bridges%关于老桥防船撞的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国虞

    2011-01-01

    There are two main reasons for the old bridge collapse. One is flood and another is collision with ship. Nowadays ships though bridge span are increasing bigger and faster, so they would not be adapted to the active criterion. It has to be judge again. The force of ship collision and the resistance of pier are calculated according to the mass, velocity and the amount of these ships to decide the reconstruction of the bridge or the establishment of anti- collision facilities. This paper introduces the establishment of passive and active anti-collision facilities.%老桥坍塌,有两个主要原因,一是洪水,二是是被船撞塌。广东九江大桥被船撞塌,是我国被撞塌的桥梁中最大的一座,中小桥梁被撞塌的也有不少。桥梁跨过航线,就有机会被船撞,通过桥下的船越来越多、越来越大、越来越快。而建桥时采用的许多规范已经不适应现在的要求。因此需要进行相应的评估。按照新的通航船舶的质量(排水量等)、航速和通过量(频率),计算出撞击力和估算的撞击概率,决定是拆掉重建还是增加防撞设施。防撞设施有主动的和被动的两大类:主动的有:涂上红白漆450斜纹,显示通航孔、非通航孔和实时净空;灯标、航标和其中有一个雾天黄灯;进入禁航区的警号;航行服务系统(包括雷达和甚高频电话的VTS系统)等。被动的防撞设施亦称结构防撞设施。分为间接式和直接式,又各有多种。其中,我国的柔性粘滞耗能防撞装置就是一种直接式结构防撞设施,它能降低船撞力一半左右,在保护桥的同时也保护船和环境,从而有助于创建和谐社会。

  17. 桥墩防船撞设施研究%Study on Anti-collision Facilities of Bridge Pier against Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯勇; 侯刚

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the design of Guanzhou River special bridge anti-collision facilities, this paper analyzes the basic requirement of anti-collision facilities of piers, carries out comparison on performance of common anti-collision facilities in China as well as differences in economy of diverse anti-collision facilities, develops proper calculation method and briefs design of steel sheath for major piers of this bridge : It consists of multi-chamber sheath similar to the structure of a ship and rubber buffer layers between the sheath and piers that has the merits of energy absorption and less space occupation.%文章结合官洲河特大桥防撞设施设计实例,分析了桥墩防撞设施的基本要求,对我国常用的防撞设施作了性能比较,并对不同防撞设施进行了经济比较,提出了适用的计算方法,同时介绍了该桥主墩钢套箱设计情况:主要由类似船舶结构的多室构造套箱和套箱与桥墩间的橡胶弹性缓冲层构成,具有吸能好、占空间少等优点。

  18. Study of Mechanical Characteristics of Main Ship Channel Bridge of Hutong Changjiang River Bridge%沪通长江大桥主航道桥受力特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡所亭; 郭辉; 鞠晓臣

    2015-01-01

    沪通长江大桥主航道桥为主跨1 092 m的双塔三索面钢桁梁公铁两用斜拉桥,为验证该桥受力的合理性 ,分别建立该桥整体、局部精细化有限元模型 ,对其合理成桥状态、静活载效应、最不利荷载组合下主桁结构受力特征、桥面系受力特征等展开研究.结果表明:列车活载效应按无限长加载较有限长增加约10% ,主桁上弦强度和稳定控制区域为辅助跨跨中附近位置,下弦为辅助墩和桥塔位置.中 -活载集中力作用下 ,铁路桥面系应力由大到小依次为顶板、横梁、U肋、纵梁和底板.汽车活载作用下 ,公路桥面系桥面板与U肋连接焊缝处存在较明显应力集中 ,但量值不大;比较不同弧形缺口型式的活载应力水平 ,表明该桥弧形缺口形状设计较合理.%The main ship channel bridge of the Hutong Changjiang River Bridge is a rail-cum-road steel truss girder cable-stayed bridge with double pylons ,triple cable planes and with a main span of 1 092 m .To verify if the mechanical conditions of the bridge were reasonable ,the global and local refined finite element models for the bridge were respectively established and the mechan-ical characteristics of the main truss structures and floor systems of the bridge under the reasonable completed bridge state ,static live load effect and worst load combinations were studied .The re-sults of the study indicate that the loading of the train live load effect according to the infinite length increases by about 10% as compared to the loading according to the finite length . The strength and stability control areas of the upper chords of the main trusses are at the positions nearby the midspans of the auxiliary spans and the control areas of the lower chords are at the posi-tions of the auxiliary piers and pylons .Under the action of the concentrated forces of the China Railway Standard Live Load ,the stress of the railway floor system is in the top plate ,cross beams

  19. 粉房湾长江大桥船撞风险分析与设防标准研究%Risk Analysis and Protection Criteria Study of Ship Collision of Fenfangwan Changjiang River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿波; 徐龙

    2012-01-01

    为确定粉房湾长江大桥设防船撞力标准,采用美国AASHTO规范方法和三概率参数积分路径方法对该桥进行船撞风险分析,计算桥梁的碰撞概率和年倒塌频率,并与可接受的风险准则进行比较;确定船撞设计代表船型,采用LS-DYNA软件对船舶碰撞桥梁进行数值模拟分析.分析结果表明:该桥在2010年、2020年和2050年通航密度下的船撞风险分别为4.05×10-6、2.02×10-5、7.06×10-5;P3、P4主墩的船撞设计代表船型均为5 000吨级;近期P3、P4主墩的设防船撞力可分别取38.68 MN和27.57 MN,远期可分别取38.68 MN和24.19 MN,P3、P4主墩抗力均满足船撞设防标准.%To determine the protection criteria for ship collision forces of Fenfangwan Changjiang River Bridge, the ship collision risk of the bridge was analyzed, the collision probability and the annual bridge collapse probability were calculated by the AASHTO method'and the three-probability parameter integral path method, and the analysis and calculation were compared to the acceptable risk criteria. The representative types of ships used for the ship collision design were determined and the software LS-DYNA was used to carry out numerical simulation of the ships colliding against the bridge. The results of the analysis indicate that the ship collision risk of the bridge under the shipping-density in the years 2010, 2020 and 2050 are respectively 4. 05 X 10-6 , 2. 02 × 10-5 and 7. 06 × 10-5. The representative types of the ships colliding against the main piers P3 and P4 of the bridge are of the 5 000 tonnage, the ship collision force protection of the piers in the near future can be determined as 38. 68 MN and 27. 57 MN and in the far future can be 38. 68 MN and 24. 19 MN, which will all satisfy the protection criteria of the ship collision of the piers.

  20. Ship-bridge collision force mechanism and composite anti-collision system%船桥碰撞力理论分析及复合材料防撞系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟庆; 方海; 祝露; 韩娟; 吴志敏

    2013-01-01

    考虑桥墩刚度与船艏刚度,采用质点弹簧模型,建立了船桥碰撞动力方程,分析了桥墩与船艏的相对刚度、碰撞接触时间对峰值撞击力的影响规律,修正了我国《公路桥涵设计通用规范》中漂浮物撞击力公式。研制了新型纤维增强复合材料防撞系统,开展了冲击性能试验,实现了相关桥梁防船撞工程应用。结果表明:当桥船相对刚度之比小于50时,峰值撞击力随桥船相对刚度的增大呈对数形式增大;当桥船相对刚度之比大于等于50时,峰值撞击力可近似按欧洲统一规范取值。碰撞接触时间与船舶质量、船艏刚度相关。复合材料防撞系统能有效延长船桥碰撞接触时间,大幅削减撞击力,从而有效保护桥墩结构安全,减轻船舶受损程度,具有显著的技术经济优势。%The governing equation of ship-bridge collision, considering the influence of pier stiffness and ship stiffness, was proposed by using the mass-spring model.The effects of bridge-ship relative stiffness and contact time on the peak impact force were analyzed.The impact force formula of flot-sam in the General Code for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts was revised.Meanwhile, an innovative fiber reinforced composite anti-collision system was developed.The corresponding impact tests were conducted.Furthermore, this composite anti-collision system is applied in the practical bridge anti-collision engineering.The results show that when the bridge-ship relative stiffness is less than 50 , the peak impact force logarithmically increases to the increase in the bridge-ship relative stiffness;otherwise, the peak impact force can be approximately calculated according to European Standard.The contact time is related to the mass and stiffness of ship.The composite anti-collision system can effectively prolong the contact time of ship-bridge collision and decrease the impact force substantially;therefore the

  1. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  2. 驶经桥墩船体非定常水动力相互作用数值预报%Numerical prediction of the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction between a ship and a bridge pier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨曦; 邹早建; 王化明

    2012-01-01

    应用CFD软件对船舶通过桥区时的船体-桥墩水动力相互作用进行数值研究,通过使用动网格技术及UDF进行船舶运动过程中的网格更新,对船舶沿直线航线匀速驶经桥墩时的非定常粘性流场进行数值模拟,对桥墩诱导的船体非定常水动力进行数值预报,其中假设船舶航速很小,因而自由面兴波的影响可以忽略.以一艘集装箱船和一个垂直柱体桥墩模型为例,选取不同的船体-桥墩横向距离进行了数值计算,得到了作用在船体上的横向力和转首力矩时历曲线,分析了船体-桥墩横向距离对船体非定常水动力的影响.%A general-purpose CFD software is applied to study the hydrodynamic interaction between a bridge pier and a ship passing through the bridge area along a straight course at constant speed. By using the dynamic mesh technique and UDF to update the mesh, the unsteady viscous flow around the ship is numerically simulated and the unsteady hydrodynamic force on the hull induced by the pier is predicted. The ship speed is assumed to be small, so that the effect of free surface elevation is negligible. Numerical calculations are performed for a container ship and a vertical column as a simplified pier model at various distances between the ship and the pier. The time histories of the lateral force and yaw moment are obtained. The influence of the distance between the ship and the pier is analyzed.

  3. The Reliability Analysis of Ship Collision with Thin-Walled High Bridge Pier Based on the Finite Element%基于概率有限元的船撞薄壁高桥墩可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包龙生; 李亮; 于玲; 石玉洪; 张肇红

    2011-01-01

    目的 对大跨径连续刚构桥薄壁高墩施工期间船撞荷载作用下进行可靠性计算及敏感性分析,得到薄壁高墩在船撞荷载下的可靠概率.方法 采用ANSYS有限元软件提供的APDL语言与求解可靠度的Monte-Carlo法相结合,通过对随机输入变量的抽样,对船舶撞击薄壁高墩进行可靠性计算,并对设计参数进行敏感性分析.结果 在置信度为95%时,薄壁高墩在船撞荷载作用下的可靠性为100%;船撞荷载的变异性对最大应力的相关系数最大为0.2916.结论 利用Monte-Carlo法中的拉丁超立方抽样方法计算桥梁的可靠度能够真实反映出桥梁的可靠性,该方法具有较高的效率和使用价值.%This paper aims at analyzing the reliability and sensitivity of ship collision with thin-walled high pier during the span continuous rigid frame bridge construction. And the structural failure caused by the potential risk can be calculated. Combined the APDL language in the finite element software ANSYS with Montecarlo method about reliability solution, the reliability of ship against thin-walled high pier was calculated and the parameters' sensitivity was analyzed through the sampling of random input variables. In the confidence level of 95% ,the reliability of the thin-walled high pier with ship collision loads is 100%. And the variation of ship collision loads on the correlation coefficient of maximum stress is 0.2916, which is the biggest. The reliability of the bridge calculated by Latin hypercube sampling method of Montecarlo method can reflect reliability of the bridge truly. The method has high efficiency and value.

  4. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  5. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  6. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  7. 78 FR 45056 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. The deviation is necessary to... pre-game and post game football traffic. The Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal...

  8. 77 FR 25079 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to... Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the closed position provides...

  9. 78 FR 26249 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA, and the University Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to...

  10. 77 FR 33307 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to.... The Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the...

  11. 78 FR 55214 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA.... Chittenden lock immediately upstream or inland of the bridge on the Lake Washington Ship Canal. This...

  12. Design of Static Transfer Switch for Ship Based on LC Bridge-Type Convertor Circuit%基于LC桥式换流的船用静态切换开关设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 刘正海; 杨峰权; 祝义华; 童敏杰; 周凯; 林录云

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet severe requirements of ship for power quality, static transfer switch (STS) is a dual power switching system. STS mainly contains the LC bridge-type auxiliary resonant convertor circuit, the circuit of digital trigger and the control circuit of DSP. This paper puts forward a new LC bridge-type auxiliary convertor circuit. To prevent the injection of remaining power on resonant bypass into the load, the main SCR is used to absorb excess power on the resonant capacitor, and without using serial feedback diode, the feedback of power can be executed which reduces the power consumption. In order to avoid the rapid rise in the resonant current, a proper power resistor is added between capacitor and inductor on the resonant bypass of the circuit. A large number of experiments show that the design can complete the switch within 8 ms and it can be up to a continuous power supply requirements.%为了满足船舶设备对供电质量的苛刻要求,研发设计了一种针对双路电源切换的船用静态切换开关系统.静态切换开关装置由LC谐振换电流模块、数字触发模块、DSP数字控制系统模块等组成.设计了一套全新的LC桥式谐振辅助换电流电路,为了避免谐振旁路上的多余电量流入负载,利用主用晶闸管吸收多余电量,同时不必串联反馈二极管但是却又能达到馈能的效果,降低了系统的功耗;为了避免谐振电流急速上升,将一个适当阻值的功率电阻串联在谐振旁路电容与电感之间.通过大量的实验证明,系统切换工作完全可以控制在8 ms以内,完成了连续供电的要求.

  13. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  14. Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  15. Shipping Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  16. Scheme of Pressure Boost and Floating Aid for Steel Open Caisson of Main Ship Channel Bridge of Hutong Changjiang River Bridge%沪通长江大桥主航道桥钢沉井增压助浮方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余允锋; 邱琼海; 王立忠

    2015-01-01

    The main ship channel bridge of the Hutong Changjiang River Bridge is a double-py-lon continuous steel truss girder cable-stayed bridge with span arrangement (140+462+1 092+462+140) m .T he foundations for the main piers of the bridge are all the open caissons ,of w hich the plan dimensions of the caisson top of the main pier No .29 are 86 .9 m × 58 .7 m and in the plan of the caisson ,24 well holes are arranged .The total height of the caisson of the pier is 115 m and the lower part of the caisson is the steel caisson that is 56 m in height .In the state of free floating , the draught of the steel caisson is 12 .5 m ,the caisson can not be floated out of the shipyard be-cause of the deep draught and has the risk of grounding in the floating .To reduce the draught of the caisson and to keep the pressure in the air cabins of the caisson stable ,the scheme of pressure boost and floating aid for the caisson was proposed ,that was ,12 well holes in the caisson were symmetrically closed to make the well holes the sealed cabins .Meanwhile ,the active pressure boost system was arranged and the air was injected into the cabins from the tops of the closing cov-er plates of the well holes .The pressure boost system was composed of the air compressor ,main air pipes ,branch air pipes ,extension air pipes ,air pressure meters ,check valves ,stop valves and liquid level sensors .By the measures of injecting the air for pressure boost and releasing the air for pressure reduction ,the air pressure in each cabin was controlled .With the scheme of the pressure boost and floating aid ,the steel open caisson of the pier was finally floated out from the shipyard to the pier site only in 3 h and the effect of the scheme implementation was sound .%沪通长江大桥主航道桥为(140+462+1 092+462+140 ) m双塔连续钢桁梁斜拉桥 ,该桥主墩均采用沉井基础 ,其中 ,29号主墩沉井顶平面尺寸为86 .9 m × 58 .7 m ,平面布置24个井孔 ,高115m,下部钢沉井高56

  17. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  18. Scheme Comparison on Ship Anti-collision System for the Main Pier of Guan River Super Large Bridge in the Newly-built Lianyungang-Yancheng Railway%新建连盐铁路灌河特大桥主墩防船撞系统方案比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周衍领

    2016-01-01

    Combined with the characteristics of the main pier structure in the water of Guan River Super Large Bridge in the newly-built Lianyungang-Yancheng Railway,as well as the meteorological,hydrological and geological conditions of the bridge location,navigable condition,and the harbor planning,three kinds of schemes on ship anti-collision system are de-signed for Guan River Super Large Bridge.The above schemes are introduced in detail,and the advantages and disadvanta-ges of each scheme are analyzed and compared.By scheme comparison,a ship anti-collision system suited for the charac-teristics of the structure of Guan River Super Large Bridge is finally determined.%结合新建连盐铁路灌河特大桥水中主墩结构特点,以及桥位处气象、水文、地质条件、通航条件、港口规划,为灌河特大桥设计了3种防船撞系统方案,对各防船撞系统方案进行了详细介绍,并进行了优缺点分析和对比。通过方案对比,最终确定了一种适合连盐铁路灌河特大桥结构特点的防船撞系统。

  19. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  20. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  1. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  2. 船舶与桥梁结构防撞消能器碰撞非线性有限元数值仿真研究%Numerical Simulation Research of Nonlinear Finite Element on the Collision between Ship and Energy Dissipater for Bridge Structure Anti-collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍建强; 丁青; 李德慧; 邓磊

    2012-01-01

    船桥碰撞是在巨大碰撞荷载作用下的一种复杂的非线性动态响应过程.非线性有限元技术能够较好地解决船桥碰撞问题.简述该技术的基本原理,以碰撞仿真的基本理论为基础,数值仿真模拟船舶与桥梁结构防撞消能器进行正向碰撞过程,并对碰撞过程中的碰撞力演化、能量转化和防撞消能器的塑性变形的整个时间历程进行详细描述和全面细致的仿真模拟.非线性有限元技术比传统的准静态理论提供更为精确的结果.所提供的防撞消能器的塑性变形(即撞击深度)对设计有重要参考价值.%The collision between ship and bridge is a complicated nonlinear dynamic-response process. Nonlinear finite element technique can well solve the problem of ship-bridge collision. This paper briefly describes the basic principle of this technique. Based on the basic theory of collision simulation, the process of straight collision between the ship and the energy dissipater of bridge structure anti-collision is simulated. The whole time-course concerning the collision force, energy transformation and the plastic deformation of energy dissipater of anti-collision is detailed described and simulated meticulously all-round. Compared with the results produced by the traditional quasi-static theory, the results by nonlinear finite element technique is more accurate. The plastic deformation (collision depth) of energy dissipater of bridge structure anti-collision provided in this paper is of important value to the design.

  3. 78 FR 39591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle... the University Bridge, mile 4.3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The... elevation of Lake Washington. The current operating schedule for all three bridges is set out in 33 CFR...

  4. 76 FR 69131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... the operation of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal... Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, for vessel traffic for a 14 day period to facilitate...

  5. 78 FR 40960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle....3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The deviation is necessary to... 2.6, and the University Bridge, mile 4.3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle,...

  6. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  7. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  8. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  9. 桥式抓斗卸船机小车运行方向动态位移的改进%Improved measures against dynamic displacement of bridge grab ship unloader in trolley running direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟; 肖苏; 陈富强; 王景洲

    2011-01-01

    The great dynamic displacement of the grab ship unloader in trolley running direction can easily lead to serious accident of machinery steel structure at port, and the paper presents the case at the raw material port of the Baoshan iron and steel plant, in which the reinforcement and reconstruction is successfully implemented after the shaking in the trolley running direction of the 1 200 t/h ship unloader increases.%抓斗卸船机小车运行方向动态大位移极易造成港口机械钢结构恶性事故的发生,介绍了宝钢原料码头1200t/h卸船机小车运行方向晃动增大后实施加固改造的成功案例.

  10. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  11. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  12. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  13. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  14. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  15. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.......In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  16. Programmevaluierung Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

  17. Evacuation from ships : account for ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Bles, W.

    1999-01-01

    A transnational BriteEuram programme on evacuation of passengers from ships is presented. Recent disasters on ferries of the roll-on/roll-off type have led to higher requirements for safety. These requirements are formulated in terms of overall performance rather than performance of a number of isol

  18. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1971-01-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficie

  19. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington...

  1. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  2. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  3. Running Safety of Trains under Vessel-Bridge Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the sensor placement of the health monitoring system, the dynamic behavior of the train-bridge system subjected to vessel-collision should be studied in detail firstly. This study thus focuses on the characteristics of a train-bridge system under vessel-bridge collision. The process of the vessel-bridge collision is simulated numerically with a reliable finite element model (FEM. The dynamic responses of a single car and a train crossing a cable-stayed bridge are calculated. It is shown that the collision causes significant increase of the train’s lateral acceleration, lateral wheelset force, wheel unloading rate, and derailment coefficient. The effect of the collision on the train’s vertical acceleration is much smaller. In addition, parametric studies with various train’s positions, ship tonnage, and train speed are performed. If the train is closer to the vessel-bridge collision position or the ship tonnage is larger, the train will be more dangerous. There is a relatively high probability of running danger at a low speed, resulting from longer stay of the train on the bridge. The train’s position, the ship tonnage, and the train speed must be considered when determining the most adverse conditions for the trains running on bridges under vessel-bridge collision.

  4. Do Waveless Ships Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe; Chapman, Jon; vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Consider two-dimensional ideal and low-speed flow past a ship modeled as a semi-infinite body with constant draft. In the 1970s, on the basis of numerical evidence, it was conjectured that ships with a single front face will always generate a wake. Later in the 1980s, seemingly waveless ships with bulbous profiles were discovered. And finally, conflicting evidence in the 1990s suggested that the waves were in fact present, but simply too small to be recognized. In this talk, we will show how recent techniques in exponential asymptotics can be used in order to study the ship-wave problem. In particular, we will show how the formation of waves near a ship are a necessary consequence of singularities in ship's geometry, such as those corresponding to sharp corners or stagnation points. Finally, we will show how the theory can be applied in order to prove that certain ship profiles will or will not produce a wake in the low-speed limit.

  5. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  6. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  9. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  10. Ship bow waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOBLESSE Francis; DELHOMMEAU Gerard; LIU Hua; WAN De-cheng; YANG Chi

    2013-01-01

    The bow wave generated by a ship hull that advances at constant speed in calm water is considered.The bow wave only depends on the shape of the ship bow (not on the hull geometry aft of the bow wave).This basic property makes it possible to determine the bow waves generated by a canonical family of ship bows defined in terms of relatively few parameters.Fast ships with fine bows generate overturning bow waves that consist of detached thin sheets of water,which are mostly steady until they hit the main free surface and undergo turbulent breaking up and diffusion.However,slow ships with blunt bows create highly unsteady and turbulent breaking bow waves.These two alternative flow regimes are due to a nonlinear constraint related to the Bernoulli relation at the free surface.Recent results about the overturning and breaking bow wave regimes,and the boundary that divides these two basic flow regimes,are reviewed.Questions and conjectures about the energy of breaking ship bow waves,and free-surface effects on flow circulation,are also noted.

  11. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  14. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  15. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  16. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  17. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  18. The right whale mandatory ship reporting system: a retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Gregory K; Adams, Jeffrey D; Asaro, Michael J; Cole, Timothy V N; Moore, Katie S; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Zoodsma, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, the United States sought and received International Maritime Organization-endorsement of two Mandatory Ship Reporting (MSR) systems designed to improve mariner awareness about averting ship collisions with the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Vessel collisions are a serious threat to the right whale and the program was among the first formal attempts to reduce this threat. Under the provisions of the MSR, all ships >300 gross tons are required to report their location, speed, and destination to a shore-based station when entering two key right whale habitats: one in waters off New England and one off coastal Georgia and Florida. In return, reporting ships receive an automatically-generated message, delivered directly to the ship's bridge, that provides information about right whale vulnerability to vessel collisions and actions mariners can take to avoid collisions. The MSR has been in operation continuously from July 1999 to the present. Archived incoming reports provided a 15-plus year history of ship operations in these two locations. We analyzed a total of 26,772 incoming MSR messages logged between July 1999 and December 2013. Most ships that were required to report did so, and compliance rates were generally constant throughout the study period. Self-reported vessel speeds when entering the systems indicated that most ships travelled between 10 and 16 (range = 5-20 +) knots. Ship speeds generally decreased in 2009 to 2013 following implementation of vessel speed restrictions. The number of reports into the southern system remained relatively constant following a steady increase through 2007, but numbers in the northern system decreased annually beginning in 2008. If reporting is indicative of long-term patterns in shipping operations, it reflects noteworthy changes in marine transportation. Observed declines in ship traffic are likely attributable to the 2008-2009 economic recession, the containerized shipping industry

  19. Ship Analysis and Detection in High-resolution Pol-SAR Imagery Based on Peak Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng-bin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of false alarm in the ship detection, a method base on proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone is proposed. By comparing the proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone, which is available from Krogager decomposition, the ships and interfering targets are identified and analyzed. The effectiveness of this method is justified with C-band full-polarization data from RADARSAT-2. The result show that this method can discriminate ships from interfering targets such as island, water-break, nautical platforms and bridges, thus reducing the false alarm rate of ship targets detection in SAR images.

  20. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...... on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter in results...... and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  1. Granny s Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琼; Dorothy; Dunn

    2000-01-01

    Throughout~*the Depression years~1,mybrothers,sisters and I often heard our grannysay,“One of these days,my ship is comingin.”Of course Granny s ship was just a~*dream—her escape from the reality of beingpoor~2 most of her life.But to us it was veryreal.~*Our family got by with the barest of ne-cessities;there rarely was enough left over forspecial desires.~3 So if we wished for other

  2. The right whale mandatory ship reporting system: a retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K. Silber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the United States sought and received International Maritime Organization-endorsement of two Mandatory Ship Reporting (MSR systems designed to improve mariner awareness about averting ship collisions with the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis. Vessel collisions are a serious threat to the right whale and the program was among the first formal attempts to reduce this threat. Under the provisions of the MSR, all ships >300 gross tons are required to report their location, speed, and destination to a shore-based station when entering two key right whale habitats: one in waters off New England and one off coastal Georgia and Florida. In return, reporting ships receive an automatically-generated message, delivered directly to the ship’s bridge, that provides information about right whale vulnerability to vessel collisions and actions mariners can take to avoid collisions. The MSR has been in operation continuously from July 1999 to the present. Archived incoming reports provided a 15-plus year history of ship operations in these two locations. We analyzed a total of 26,772 incoming MSR messages logged between July 1999 and December 2013. Most ships that were required to report did so, and compliance rates were generally constant throughout the study period. Self-reported vessel speeds when entering the systems indicated that most ships travelled between 10 and 16 (range = 5–20 + knots. Ship speeds generally decreased in 2009 to 2013 following implementation of vessel speed restrictions. The number of reports into the southern system remained relatively constant following a steady increase through 2007, but numbers in the northern system decreased annually beginning in 2008. If reporting is indicative of long-term patterns in shipping operations, it reflects noteworthy changes in marine transportation. Observed declines in ship traffic are likely attributable to the 2008–2009 economic recession, the

  3. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    and time, the values for richness and heterogeneity in benthic macrofauna were generally higher at ship wreck sites than at close proximity natural sites. Rationale of using biotic factors as indicators of modification of submarine biotopes due to ship...

  4. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  5. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  6. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  7. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  8. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined ...

  9. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

    2008-01-01

    The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

  10. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Yun; Lin, Yan

    2013-09-01

    A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM), the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM) of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

  11. V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song" - Bridge of Song; Singing aboard ship; Brides Farewell; Kihnu Island Wedding Songs; 17 Estonian Wedding Songs; Three Estonian Game Songs; Four Estonian Lullabies. Estonian Radio Choir / Toomas Kapten. Finlandia 4509 96937-2; 56:52 DDD; "People of Kalevala" - God protect us from war; Vespian Winter; Eagle Flew From the North East; Plague Memory; Vainamoinen's Words of Wisdom; The Seventeenth Rune of Kalevala. National Male Choir of Estonia. Finlandia 0630 12245-2; 56:52 DDD

  12. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  13. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  14. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  15. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  16. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  17. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    ship hull during ship-ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load-deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic energy...... to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free-free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations of the struck...

  18. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  20. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  1. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  2. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2009-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  3. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

  4. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...... is given in the appendices. The project is planned to take three years from the start. There are 28 tasks and the total volume is 18 personyears, or 6.3 MFIM. A scientific approach will be used in performing the tasks and some of them may be subjects for post graduate studies. A close co-operation between...

  5. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    of the struck ship hull during ship–ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load–deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic...... is confined to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free–free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations...

  6. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  7. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  8. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  9. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  10. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  11. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  12. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

  13. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  14. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  15. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  17. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  18. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  19. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activi

  20. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activ

  1. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  2. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  3. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  4. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed......The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  5. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  6. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  7. Distributed and Redundant Design of Ship Monitoring and Control Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jun-dong; SUI; Jiang-hua

    2002-01-01

    The world trend in ship automation is to integrate the monitoring, intelligent control and systematic management of the instruments and equipments both on bridge and in engine room. The paper presents a design scheme of the ship integrated monitoring and operating system based on two layers distributed and redundant computer network. The lower layer network is the field bus network connected mainly by CAN bus; the upper one is the PC local network in TCP/IP protocol, which consisted of a database server, monitoring and operating computers, industrial computers and a set of switches. Distributed schemes are fully applied to both software and hardware. This paper specifically describes the composition, software distribution and redundant technology of the upper local network and gives some important sample codes for the implement of the redundant and distributed design. The technologies here have been proved in the many applications and it may be applied to other industrial fields.

  8. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  9. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  10. Primary particles in ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  11. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  12. Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kataria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew-centered design case-study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room that helps the crew co-ordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information that is shared, and the problems experienced. The results of seafarer interviews are presented in the paper to explore on-board inter-departmental communication.

  13. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

  14. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  15. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  16. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  17. Studying Network design in Container linter shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

  18. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  19. Concrete bridge prioritization system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselring, Debbie Anne

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

  20. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  1. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

  2. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  3. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  4. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  5. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  6. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    of transshipments on the most important sailing routes. The proposed methods in this thesis, aimed at liner shipping network design, integrate competitiveness such that the fuel consumption per transported container is reduced without increasing the transit times.A well-designed route net is decisive for container...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  7. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  8. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  9. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  10. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  11. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  12. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  13. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  14. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    condition and higher-order accurate numerical approximations. The equations presented facilitate both Neumann-Kelvin and double-body linearizations. The body boundary condition on the ship hull is approximated by a static and dynamic moving pressure distribution. The pressure distribution method is used...... forward speed and lock entrance of a TEU 12.000 Container Carrier. These calculations reveal that the pressure distribution model is a too simple approximation of the body boundary condition and that it has the limitations of a flat-ship approximation. It is necessary to investigate more accurate...... approximations of the body boundary condition, which does not compromise the overall computational efficiency....

  15. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  16. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyou Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express physical characteristics of ship's course, speed and acceleration. The given AIS dynamic information can be applied to calculate the parameters of ship's vector function and then the interpolation model for ship motion vectors is developed to estimate the lost ship dynamic information at any given moment. Experiment results show that the ship motion vector function is able to depict the characteristics of ship motions accurately and the model can estimate not only the ship's position but also ship's course and speed at any given moment with limited differences.

  17. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  18. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  19. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable more...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  20. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  1. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  2. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...

  3. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  4. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  5. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

  6. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  7. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  8. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  9. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  10. 桥式抓斗卸船机振动给料控制系统节能降耗改造%Transformation of Energy-saving and Lower Consumption about Vibration Feeding System of Bridge-type Grab Ship Unloader

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱国栋

    2011-01-01

    卸船机振动给料系统作为重要的物料转接环节,如何实现更合理的控制,直接关系到生产效率和节能降耗工作,文章将重点介绍在PLC程序中对该设备控制的优化改造.%The vibration feeding system of ship unloader serves as an important part of the material transit.The way to achieve better control is directly related to the production efficiency, energy-saving and lower consumption.This paper focuses on the optimization transformation of this device in the PLC program.

  11. Probability of detection using ShipIR/NV-IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitekunas, David A.; Holst, Gerald C.; Ramaswamy, Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Existing FLIR detection models such as NVThermIP and NV-IPM, from the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), use only basic inputs to describe the target and background (area of the target, average and RMS temperatures of both the target and background). The objective of this work is to try and bridge the gap between more sophisticated FLIR detection models (of the sensor) and high-fidelity signature models, such as the NATO-Standard ShipIR model. A custom API is developed to load an existing ShipIR scenario model and perform the analysis from any user-specified range, altitude, and attack angle. The analysis consists of computing the total area of the target (m2), the average and RMS variation in target source temperature, and the average and RMS variation in the apparent temperature of the background. These results are then fed into the associated sensor model in NV-IPM to determine its probability of detection (versus range). Since ShipIR computes and attenuates the spectral source radiance at every pixel, the black body source and apparent temperatures are easily obtained for each point using numerical iteration (on temperature), using the spectral attenuation and path emissions from MODTRAN (already used by ShipIR to predict the apparent target and background radiance). In addition to performing the above calculations on the whole target area, a variable threshold and clustering algorithm is used to analyse whether a sub-area of the target, with a higher contrast signature but smaller size, is more likely to be detected. The methods and results from this analysis should provide the basis for a more formal interface between the two models.

  12. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  13. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  14. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  15. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europ...

  16. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...... between 0.8-2.8%, which is about the same accuracy as for the measurements. The methods developed are intended to support the performance monitoring system SeaTrend® developed by FORCE Technology (FORCE (2008))....

  17. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  18. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  19. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

  20. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oi......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  1. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  2. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  3. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  4. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    of the structural design. For a tanker vessel or other vessels carrying hazardous cargo, damage is not acceptable if it results in cargo outflow with disastrous consequences to the environment. Likewise, the foundering of a passenger vessel can be disastrous with loss of many human lives. A major challenge......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...

  5. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  6. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  7. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  8. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  9. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  10. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  11. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  12. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  13. Ice Nucleation from Ship Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Weber, D.; Tuomi, J.; Pettersson, J.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric ice particles play a significant role in many atmospheric processes and are central to the role of clouds in determining the global radiative balance. Atmospheric ice originates when Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) lower the free energy barrier to phase transformation. The Earth's polar regions are well isolated from the middle and lower latitudes and thus have limited access to INP, and therefore small changes in terms of regional sources or large scale transport of particulate may have significant impacts on polar ice cloud formation. Here we describe field measurements of INP collected in the Port of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The port is the largest Scandinavian seaport and thus has heavy and diverse ocean vessel traffic. Unique to this study was the ability to isolate the INP contribution directly from the ship traffic by utilizing a sampling method that nearly simultaneously captured transiting ship plumes and the background aerosol. A small but potentially significant increase in IN from marine vessels was observed over two consecutive years. The results have implications for Arctic and global climate in the context of growing global commerce and trans-polar transport.

  14. Diagnosis of Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A sudden severe winter for dry bulk shipping market Since the second half of last year,dry bulk shipping market experienced a sudden and dramatical change which caught everyone off guard in just a few months'time.As the wind vane of dry bulk shipping market,BDI index(Baltic index)has been climbing higher and higher from the middle of 2005.It began to nearly shoot up into the 2007.

  15. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  16. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

  17. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  18. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  20. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  1. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  2. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  3. Bridge of Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lying gleaming white under a brooding sky,the Lhasa River Railway Bridge forms a gate to Lhasa City.Built as a part of Qinghai-Tibet Railway,on July 1,2011, the highest altitude railway in the world has been in service for five years. Lhasa,Tibet

  4. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  5. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  6. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  7. The End of National Shipping Policy? A Historical Perspective on Shipping Policy in a Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar K Sletmo

    2001-01-01

    National shipping policy has a long history and is firmly engraved in the economic and political psyche of many nations. This paper, which is centred on history rather than the future, asks whether globalisation implies the end of national shipping policy. While deregulation of world shipping started long before globalisation became a recognised force in trade and trade policies, globalisation will inevitably reinforce liberal trends in shipping. However, there are still many who argue that s...

  8. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  9. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  10. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  11. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  13. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  14. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  15. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  16. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  17. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  18. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    on externalities. One of those is the ship loading process. Based on the stowage plan received by liner shippers, terminal operators plan the execution of load and discharge operations. In this paper we present a literature review for the Ship Loading Problem, where stowage and loading sequencing and scheduling...

  19. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  20. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

  1. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

  2. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  3. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

  4. Another Version of the Shipping Agency Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangShaoyun

    2004-01-01

    BEIJING—On January 7, Penavico Shanghai held in Beijing an agreement signing ceremony with Wallem Shipping (HK) Co., Ltd of the Wallem (Group) Corporation for the joint establishment of a joint venture corporation named Pen-Wallem Shipping Co., Ltd.This is the first sino-foreign joint venture corporation

  5. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  6. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  8. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  9. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  10. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

  11. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  12. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKATH UNISSA

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

  13. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  14. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL......The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has...

  16. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  17. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  18. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  19. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school or an educational institution under Section 13 of...

  20. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  1. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  2. 75 FR 3272 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: January 12, 2009. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  3. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct four...: August 30, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department...

  4. 77 FR 57637 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of administrative requirements in mandatory...

  5. 78 FR 58596 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... session of the Assembly --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of...

  6. 77 FR 70525 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  7. 76 FR 70529 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will...: November 7, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  8. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct.... Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  9. 75 FR 10546 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: March 2, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  10. 78 FR 45592 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2013. Marc Zlomek, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  11. 77 FR 28923 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  12. 77 FR 27832 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Governing Board --Protection of vital shipping lanes --External relations: --Relations with the...

  13. 76 FR 82026 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: December 22, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  14. 77 FR 47490 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct open.... Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING...

  15. 77 FR 64576 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will... . Dated: October 15, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  16. The Problems of Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Panasiuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the environmental impact of shipping and air pollution caused by ships. The paper presents the development of regulations on air pollution caused by ships and describes the efficiency of methods for reducing emissions.

  17. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  18. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  19. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde from shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marbach

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the GOME high-pass filtered data. This might indicate that the used emission inventories are too low and/or that the in-plume chemistry taking place in the narrow path of the shipping lanes are not well represented at the rather coarse model resolution.

  20. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    CERN Document Server

    Rabaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as $U^{-1}$ at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of $19.47\\degree$ independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number $Fr = U/\\sqrt{gL} \\simeq 0.5$, where $L$ is the hull ship length.

  1. Insight of The New Shipping Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Last year,the financial crisis sourced in USA caused shipping market to decline.All at once,global economy's environment,industrial structure,capital value and supply chain structure changed greatly,marking the beginning of world economic fission.Great fission brings chances of great consolidation.Just one year after the financial crisis broke out,shipping industry participants are standing at the point of consolidation,considering a light,strong,clear strategy for this new shipping and trade industrial trend.

  2. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA)

  3. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaud, Marc; Moisy, Frédéric

    2013-05-24

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as U(-1) at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of 19.47° independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number Fr=U/√[gL]~/=0.5, where L is the hull ship length. PMID:23745883

  4. Ship motion pattern directed VTOL letdown guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines ship motion pattern directed letdown guidance strategies for landing a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off-line computer simulation of the shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. A sum of seventy sinusoids representation is used to model the ship motion time histories. The touchdown performance of a nonimal constant-rate-of-descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes.

  5. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel...... while ensuring that given transit time limits for the carried cargo is satisfied, and considering the layover time for containers transshipping between services. Workshift times and cost are included ensuring that changing the port visit time will not introduce an addition cost for the port operations...

  6. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  7. A new method for ship inner shell optimization based on parametric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM, is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc. The standard optimization procedure of ship ISP optimization based on parametric ISP model is put forward, and an efficient optimization approach for typical transport ship is developed based on this procedure. This approach takes the section area of ISP and the other dominant parameters as variables, while all the design requirements such as propeller immersion, fore bottom wave slap, bridge visibility, longitudinal strength etc, are made constraints. The optimization objective is maximum volume of cargo oil tanker/cargo hold, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization model. This method is applied to the optimization of a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and it is proved to be effective, highly efficient, and engineering practical.

  8. A new method for ship inner shell optimization based on parametric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Yun; Lin, Yan; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM), is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP) model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc. The standard optimization procedure of ship ISP optimization based on parametric ISP model is put forward, and an efficient optimization approach for typical transport ship is developed based on this procedure. This approach takes the section area of ISP and the other dominant parameters as variables, while all the design requirements such as propeller immersion, fore bottom wave slap, bridge visibility, longitudinal strength etc, are made constraints. The optimization objective is maximum volume of cargo oil tanker/cargo hold, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization model. This method is applied to the optimization of a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and it is proved to be effective, highly efficient, and engineering practical.

  9. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar

    2006-01-01

    This text book is intended for studies in wind engineering, with focus on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line ?like civil engineering type of structures. It contains the background assumptions and hypothesis as well as the development of the computational theory that is necessary for the prediction of wind induced fluctuating displacements and cross sectional forces. The simple cases of static and quasi-static structural response calculations are for the sake of completeness also included. The text is at an advanced level in the

  10. Operational data of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahasi, Hiroki; Kyouya, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Watahiki, Masayuki

    1999-03-01

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, `MUTSU`, experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship`s motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  11. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  12. ULTIMATE TORSIONAL STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF CONTAINER SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE MATHAI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Container ships with wide hatch openings are thin walled open sections and have low torsional stiffness. Hence response arising from torsional loads is significant and subsequently the torsional analysis of container ship is necessary. Using the ANSYS software, the progressive collapse behaviour of a typical container vessel undertorsion was analysed. The effect of torsional moment on the ultimate strength of ship hull subjected to design vertical shear force was also determined. Full hull between the bulkheads was modeled with fully restrained warping displacement at the unloaded end. When pure torsion is applied, the hull corner regions are typically the most highly stressed areas, which may collapse. Thus, scantlings of the hull corner region should be sufficient for ship hulls with large deck openings. The ultimate strength based safety factor under pure torsion for the vessel, is 4.5, which is reduced by 30% when subjected to design vertical shear force also.

  13. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  14. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  15. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    to place the ship (unmanned) in about 50 m of water where deep-water swells may have an average wave period of 6–15 s. The ship would be “tuned” to have large motion response, particularly in heave and pitch. In short waves, the ship could serve as a platform for secondary energy absorption. The idea...... to scrap naval vessels in 2002 was $33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...

  16. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Information Information for Travelers Cruise Ship Industry Meetings & Announcements July 2016 VSP Document Revision and ... 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Communicable Disease Prevention 4.0 Gastrointestinal Illness Surveillance 5.0 Potable Water 6. ...

  17. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  18. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  19. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  20. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050) scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especial...

  1. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Corbett; D. A. Lack; J. J. Winebrake; Harder, S; J. A. Silberman; Gold, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understa...

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamental understanding of MIC processes in ship ballast tanks (SBTs) as a basis for the development of effective counterstrategies that offer an appropriate protection against MIC attack. Local conditions...

  3. China's Guess of Ship Financinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2012-01-01

    As the financial crisis intensifies, many western ship owners and monetary sectors focus their attention on China's capital. , There are not only good expectations but also fierce criticisms.Thus, how on earth will China's shipping capital meet the challenges of the world? Like pulling the chestnut out of fire, how to seize the business opportunity concealed in the crisis in order to draw on advantages and avoid disadvantages?

  4. SNS Inner Plug Shipping Cask Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations were performed to evaluate the dose rates outside the shipping cask containing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) inner plug assembly. The analysis consisted of simulating the proton beam interaction with the SNS target, activation calculations with the determined neutron flux levels and assumed SNS operation schedule, and calculation of the decay gamma-rays propagation through the inner plug and shipping cask. Several materials were considered for the inner plug. The results provide guidance for the finalization of the plug design

  5. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    ship collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full......-sale ship grounding accidents, the bottom raking damage to tankers and the bottom damage distribution for high-speed vessels are also presented. The propesed method may be considered as an improvement of the classical Minorsky method....

  6. Holistic control of ship noise emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli Davide; Gaggero Tomaso; Rizzuto Enrico; Schenone Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of anthropogenic activities at sea is recently gaining more and more attention. As regards shipping, emissions from ships into the environment of various nature (engine exhaust gases, anti-fouling paints leaching, ballast exchange, releases at sea of oil and other noxious liquid or solid cargoes, of sewage and of garbage) have been recognized as sources of pollution and therefore controlled and limited since a long time. The subject of noise emission...

  7. Arctic Shipping Emissions in the Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Vihanninjoki, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be ...

  8. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bielić, Toni; Ivanišević, Dalibor; Gundić, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introduci...

  9. MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river since the year 2013. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping fuel sulfur content regulations with in-situ measurements of shipping emissions). Furthermore, simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  10. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Qing Lin; Tim Smith; Michael Hughes

    2012-01-01

    This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL). In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, re...

  11. Ship Scheduling and Cost Analysis for Route Planning in Liner Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chan Ting; Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

    2003-01-01

    Liner shipping companies can benefit significantly by improving ship scheduling and cost analysis in service route planning by systematic methods. This paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) model for ship scheduling and identifies cost items relevant to the planning of a service route, which can help planners make better scheduling decisions under berth time-window constraints, as well as estimate more accurately voyage fixed costs and freight variable costs in liner service route plannin...

  12. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  13. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  14. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup;

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining...

  16. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  17. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method t

  18. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  19. 76 FR 82027 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... against noise on board ships; --Provisions for the reduction of noise from commercial shipping and...

  20. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall...

  1. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  2. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  3. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  4. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  5. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  6. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor

  7. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  8. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a sensitive region in terms of climate change and a rich natural resource for global economic activity. Arctic shipping is an important contributor to the region's anthropogenic air emissions, including black carbon – a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow. These emissions are projected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. To understand the impacts of these increased emissions, scientists and modelers require high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories that can be used for regional assessment modeling. This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. Short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing; a first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase climate forcing due to Arctic ships by at least 17% compared to warming from these vessels' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  9. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  10. Design and hydrodynamic performance of trimaran displacement ships

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet the demands for increasing the speed and improving the seakeeping behaviour of commercial and naval ships, this thesis investigates a new type of ship configuration - The Trimaran Displacement Ship, it features a slender centre hull and two small side hulls. The design methodology and hydrodynamic performance of this new ship concept has been investigated through design studies, model experiments and theoretical analysis. Potential advantages of the trimaran ship are, l...

  11. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  12. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  13. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  14. Greening international shipping through private governance: A case study of the Clean Shipping Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuisan, L.; Leeuwen, van J.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to generate insights into both private governance and partnerships within the shipping industry, but also tries to improve understanding of the complex process of institutionalisation. This is achieved through acase study of the Clean Shipping Project, a public/private partnership

  15. Monitoring compliance with sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel by in situ measurements of ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, L.; Mathieu-Üffing, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Schmolke, S.; Seyler, A.; Wittrock, F.

    2015-09-01

    In 1997 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted MARPOL Annex VI to prevent air pollution by shipping emissions. It regulates, among other issues, the sulfur content in shipping fuels, which is transformed into the air pollutant sulfur dioxide (SO2) during combustion. Within designated Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA), the sulfur content was limited to 1 %, and on 1 January 2015, this limit was further reduced to 0.1 %. Here we present the set-up and measurement results of a permanent ship emission monitoring site near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA. Trace gas measurements are conducted with in situ instruments and a data set from September 2014 to January 2015 is presented. By combining measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 with ship position data, it is possible to deduce the sulfur fuel content of individual ships passing the measurement station, thus facilitating the monitoring of compliance of ships with the IMO regulations. While compliance is almost 100 % for the 2014 data, it decreases only very little in 2015 to 95.4 % despite the much stricter limit. We analysed more than 1400 ship plumes in total and for months with favourable conditions, up to 40 % of all ships entering and leaving Hamburg harbour could be checked for their sulfur fuel content.

  16. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  17. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  18. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  19. Cathodic Protection of the Yaquina Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Laylor, H.M.; Cryer, C.B.

    2001-02-01

    The Yaquina Bay Bridge in Newport, Oregon, was designed by Conde B. McCullough and built in 1936. The 3,223-foot (982 m) structure is a combination of concrete arch approach spans and a steel through arch over the shipping channel. Cathodic protection is used to prevent corrosion damage to the concrete arches. The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) installed a carbon anode coating (DAC-85) on two of the north approach spans in 1985. This anode was operated at a current density of 6.6 mA/m2(0.6 mA/ft2). No failure of the conductive anode was observed in 1990, five years after application, or in 2000, 15 years after application. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 20 mils (0.5 mm) thick were applied to half the south approach spans beginning in 1990. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes 15 mils (0.4 mm) thick were applied to the remaining spans in 1996. These anodes were operated at a current density of 2.2 mA/m2(0.2 mA/ft2). In 1999, four zones on the approach spans were included in a two-year field trial of humectants to improve zinc anode performance. The humectants LiNO3 and LiBr were applied to two zones; the two adjacent zones were left untreated as controls. The humectants substantially reduced circuit resistance compared to the controls.

  20. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  1. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  2. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  3. Performance of Ship Assistance Program for Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study identify inhibiting factors that make the program Inka Mina did not reach goal. The study uses regression analysis and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results indicate that the strong correlation between the number of aid ships with determining factors such as the potential for fisheries, the number of fishermen, the amount of production, the number of ship, number of KUB, and the fishing port. Regression analysis results indicate that amount of aid ships in a region is in accordance with the elements set out in the technical guidance. However, a strong correlation does not necessarily determine the success of this program, because there are other factors that have not been considered (qualitative factors , such as culture one day fishing on coastal communities, people's habits (gear and type of size, transfer knowledge, and other factors. Assessment for this problem, government should consider the culture aspect.

  4. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  5. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  6. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network...... of representatives for major stakeholders in international trade, whom evaluate it positively and are willing to invest, develop and test the prototype of the Shipping Information Pipeline....

  7. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  8. National Bridge Inventory - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI (NTAD 2015) is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 610,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate...

  9. Complex Testing of the Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of examining bridges. AB road bridge, founded on the columns by the Karpoš system and damaged due to erosive action of the river, is given as an example. The first tests of the bridge are conducted on the impact load of V 300, because of the appearance of longitudinal cracks. The results of the columns testing are presented in this paper, as well as the rehabilitation measures thus increasing the load capacity of the column.

  10. General design of Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xigang; Yuan Hong; Pei Minshan; Dai Jie; Xu Lin

    2009-01-01

    The main span of Sutong Bridge is a double-pylon, double-plane cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder, which has the world's longest central span of 1 088 m within cable-stayed bridges. To overcome problems caused by severe meteorological conditions, perplexing hydrological conditions, deep buried bedrock and higher navigation level, many new technics and methods were created. Keys including structural system, steel box girder, stayed cable, tower, pier, tower foundation, collision avoidance system, wind-resistance, seismic-resistance, structural nonlinear response and structural static stability were presented individually in this paper.

  11. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker;

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  12. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  13. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy...

  14. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy;

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  15. Designing for High-Speed Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Røed, Bjarte Knappen

    2007-01-01

    Fast patrol boats are high-speed vessels operated by the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). These ships are 36,5 meters long, have a beam of 6,2 meters and operate at high speed (32 knots – 16,5 meters per second) in very restricted waters. The fast patrol boats are war ships and navigation tasks performed by the crews are different from those in civilian high-speed craft. A team of five persons navigate the fast patrol boats, and navigation is based on traditional means such as visual observations...

  16. Research on an Integrated Modeling Method of Virtual Ship Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yuan; Yao Zhao; Jun Yan

    2011-01-01

    A new method of virtual ship assembly modeling which integrates ship three-dimensional design and ship construction planning was described in this paper.A workflow model of simulation modeling based on the virtual ship assembly process was also established; furthermore,a method of information transformation between the ship three-dimensional design and ship construction plan was formulated.To meet the requirements of information sharing between different systems in the ship virtual assembly,a simulation database was created by using the software engineering design method and the relational data model.With the application of this database,the information of ship three-dimensional design,construction planning,and virtual assembly can be integrated into one system.Subsequently,this new method was applied as a tool to simulate the virtual assembly of a ship,and the results guarantee its rationality and reliability.

  17. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  18. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwook

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI) technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  19. The Higgs Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Roland E

    2013-01-01

    The particle recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva is almost certainly a Higgs boson, the long-sought completion of the Standard Model of particle physics. But this discovery, an achievement by more than six thousand scientists (including students), is actually much more than a mere capstone of the Standard Model. It instead represents a bridge from the Standard Model to exciting discoveries of the future, at higher energies or in other experiments, and to the properties of matter at very low temperatures. The mere existence of a particle with zero spin implies a need for new physics, with the most likely candidate being supersymmetry, which requires that every known particle has a superpartner yet to be discovered. And phenomena similar to the Higgs are seen in superconducting metals and superfluid gases at low temperatures, which extend down to a millionth or even a billionth of a degree Kelvin. So the discovery of a Higgs boson has a central place in our attempts both to achieve a tr...

  20. Application of Stud Welding in Ship-welding Beam%螺柱焊在船舶焊接卡马中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏建; 夏文亚; 何源

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了螺柱焊焊接工艺及其在船舶焊接卡马中的应用,并结合实船使用情况,对螺柱式焊接卡马和普通焊接卡马在工效和成本方面进行了对比分析。%This paper is introduced stud welding and its application in ship-welding beam, combining with the ship building applied to give a comparative analysis of the efifciency and cost of welding stud beam and common welding bridge.

  1. Application of Stud Welding in Ship-welding Beam%螺柱焊在船舶焊接卡马中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏建; 夏文亚; 何源

    2015-01-01

    This paper is introduced stud welding and its application in ship-welding beam, combining with the ship building applied to give a comparative analysis of the efifciency and cost of welding stud beam and common welding bridge.%本文介绍了螺柱焊焊接工艺及其在船舶焊接卡马中的应用,并结合实船使用情况,对螺柱式焊接卡马和普通焊接卡马在工效和成本方面进行了对比分析。

  2. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew;

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  3. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  4. Maritime trade and merchant shipping: The shipping/trade-ratio from the 1870s until today.

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Jari; Tenold, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of countries’ market shares in world shipping over the last 150 years. The analysis is based upon a new and purpose-built indicator: the shipping/trade-ratio. This indicator presents the relationship between the merchant marine of a country and the country’s role in world trade. Analysis of the shipping/trade-ratio identifies two important developments. First, although the share of the world fleet registered in Europe has dropped significantly, Europe’s ro...

  5. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Shipping Marketing and Safety Orientation: The Case of Greek Tanker Shipping Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Plomaritou, Evi; Konsta, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    If you are not sure where you are, how will you find out where to go? The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the KPIs and the shipping marketing as well as the usefulness of KPIs in shipping companies performance evaluation. The paper brings the importance of KPIs closer to the reader and examines their definition, purpose and role in the shipping company. The first part is devoted to literature review on KPIs. The second part examines the relationship among the KPIs,...

  6. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  7. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...

  8. Applications of overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtschneider, H.

    1987-06-01

    In large scale surface mines of the capacities required today, a cross-pit operation with overburden conveyor bridges is the most economical method of overburden removal and disposal. In order to provide the production capacity required in surface mining equipment by the GDR brown coal industry, VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk undertook the design and manufacture of standard overburden conveyor bridges for cut heights of 34 m, 45 m and 60 m. All three base types may be equipped to match the site specific geological and geotechnical conditions, and to meet customer's demands. Specifications of the bridges are given as well as details of conveyor belt speeds, modifications to the standards, and number manufactured. Design problems faced with the 60 m bridge are discussed, together with details of the superstructure, method of operation, transportation rates, structural steel used, assembly and power supply. 5 refs.

  9. Bridge Culture of Langde Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Langde, a village in Leishan County ofsouthwestern Guizhou province, is known for itslarge number of unique bridges bearing the distinctdesign style of the Miao ethnic group. Animpressive variety of well-preserved ancient

  10. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha. M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further ischemia. Materials & Methods: It is a prospective study performed from 2012- 2015 in cardiac centers available around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. A total number of 2015 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated to detect myocardial bridges. With the informed consent the relevant data was collected from the patients and analyzed. Results: The prevalence of myocardial bridges was 3.17%. Among the 2015 patients 70.7% are males and 29.2% are females. Among 64 myocardial bridge positive cases 62.5% were male and 37.5% were female patients. Regarding coronary dominance 84% were right dominant and 14.4% were left dominant and 1.6% are balanced. The percentage incidence of myocardial bridging according to dominance was 3.01% for right dominant patients, 4.12% for left dominant patients and 3.1% for balanced dominant patients. In all the myocardial bridge positive cases they were located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD. According to diagnosis the patients with normal coronaries were 22.6%, patients with MILD CAD were 17.9%, patients with single vessel disease were 23.4%, patients with two vessel disease were 14.7% and the patients with triple vessel disease were 21.3%. The 64 myocardial bridging cases were grouped in to three groups according to their age. Incidence of double bridges was observed in 3 cases of which 66.7% males & 33.3% in females. Conclusion: These results show that Andhra Pradesh population are

  11. The stories of two bridges in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Public participation in bridge building was promoted by un habitat in the village of Mankrong. The neighbouring village did not participate in the construction of their bridge. The first flooding washed the second bridge down while the "participative bridge" stood up....

  12. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle;

    1997-01-01

    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...

  13. Stability of liquid crystalline bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    1999-02-01

    The stability of cylindrical bridges of the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl in an immiscible liquid bath was investigated in the nematic and smectic A phases. In the nematic phase the bridge was found to destabilize at a length-to-diameter (slenderness) ratio R similar to that of ordinary Newtonian fluids. On the other hand, the Bingham behavior of the smectic A phase, i.e., an apparent yield stress, enabled the formation of stable columns with R well in excess of π.

  14. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  15. Ship-shore packet switched communications system

    OpenAIRE

    Buddenberg, Rex A.

    1986-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis presents an architecture for ship-shore sea service communications. Starting with the ARPANET packet switching model (TCP/IP), Network and Logical Link layers are defined which deal with the following problems... http://archive.org/details/shipshorepackets00budd Lieutenant Commander, United States Coast Guard

  16. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    . As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action,slamming...

  17. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...

  18. Shielding Analysis of the 5320 Shipping Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nathan, S. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 5320 shipping cask meets Federal regulations for maximum radiation dose rates when loaded with the intended plutonium oxide cargo. It should be emphasized that the 5320 is an existing cask, and therefore this work represents confirmatory analysis rather than design analysis.

  19. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund;

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a fundamenta

  1. Press freight and shipping guide: Sochi 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This "Press freight and shipping guide" is intended for accredited members of the media. This guide provides a practical insight about how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia, for use in connection with the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

  2. Business Rules Explicitation in Inland Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Gerjen van; Versendaal, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Planning of transport through inland shipping is complex, highly dynamic and very specific. Existing software support is focusing on road transport planning and/or is merely a visual representation of shipments to be manually assigned to particular vessels. As a result inland shipment planning is ti

  3. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  4. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  5. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  6. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  7. Low emission fuel cell ship. Environmental account of fuel cell powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipping is the dominant mode of global transport, accounting for total global anthropogenic NOx and SOx emissions of 10-14% and 4-6% respectively. Future environmental requirements signalled for shipping may exceed the possibilities within current conventional technology. The work presented document the environmental benefits of using fuel cells compared to diesel engines. The work describes the general principles for modelling emissions to air for ships. The model was calibrated by measurements onboard an offshore supply vessel and a car carrier. For the offshore vessel, the FC model includes 100% of onboard power delivered by FC's. For the car carrier, the FC replaces the auxiliary engines. FC type modelled was a high temperature FC running on natural gas. The work quantifies yearly reduction in atmospheric emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx and PM. Our results show that the installation of fuel cells in ships will improve the environmental performance significantly (e.g. global warming and acidification). (author)

  8. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.;

    2014-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere are of concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate. In coastal areas, ship emissions can be a significant anthropogenic source. In this study we investigated the contribution from ship emissions to the total particle number and mass concentrations...... at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...

  9. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, O

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. PMID:25168183

  10. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  11. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  12. 78 FR 75484 - Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ38 Federal Management Regulation (FMR); Shipping Household Goods AGENCY: Office of... shipping means the reimbursement rate the Federal employee receives for moving his/her own HHG or...

  13. Ship export increased by 70% in first half of year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to custom house statistics, China kept its momentum in ship export in the first half of the year, which totaled 357964 ships or a value of 3.4 billion US dollars, averaging 500 million dollars per month, up 66.8% from the same period of previous year. But ship import also increased significantly in the first half of the year, totaling 2393 ships or a value of 246 million US dollars, up 36% from the same period of last year.

  14. Ship hull plating weld misalignment effects when subjected to tension

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, M. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    CIVINS Precision fabrication of ships is advancing. Welding is ubiquitous in ship construction and military standards have specified tolerances for joining plates in naval combatants. Precision manufacturing will allow the production of ships with smaller hull plate misalignments. A benefit from this could be improved ship survivability when subjected to underwater explosions. Slip Line Fracture Mechanics interacting with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) gives insight into the deformation, ne...

  15. Scenario analysis for supply chain integration in container shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, J.S.L.; Van de Voorde, E.

    2011-01-01

    Competition in the business world nowadays is largely between supply chains, rather than individual players only. The same situation exists in container shipping. The study looks into container shipping from an integrated perspective and investigates the nature and level of supply chain integration in container shipping. Based on empirical examinations of the world's top 30 container shipping lines, a scenario analysis is conducted. The paper aims to present the scenario analysis for examinin...

  16. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES OF SHIPS IN NARROW WATERWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xie-dong; Wu Xiu-heng

    2003-01-01

    The collision of ships in narrow waterway may occur for a variety of reasons. The hydrodynamic forces between two ships change the maneuvering characteristics of ships greatly. So based on the boundary element method, this paper proposes a calculation method for hydrodynamic interaction forces between ships under meeting and passing conditions in narrow waterway. The results from this method are compared with the existing results obtained from other theoretical approaches, and they are in good agreement.

  17. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  18. Research on Double Collision Avoidance Mechanism of Ships at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiuYing Bi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When power driven vessels encounter at sea, they need to avoid collision. The definition of right vessel may mislead ships officers think his or her direct navigating has absolute power with this special ship. This paper will define DCPA symbols; give the cause and the method of double collision avoidance mechanism of ships at sea.

  19. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  20. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  1. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground rea

  2. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping characteristics... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics... shipments of agreed size. (b) Guaranteed shipping characteristics. (1) The contracting officer shall...

  4. 77 FR 54648 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an...; --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life; --Work program of the...

  5. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee, certificate... handling, storage, shipping, cleaning, and preservation of materials and equipment to be used in...

  6. 78 FR 32699 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  7. 46 CFR 4.06-40 - Specimen handling and shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... collection procedures of § 16.113 of this chapter and the chain of custody requirements of 49 CFR part 40... and 4. 06-30 are promptly shipped to a laboratory complying with the requirements of 49 CFR part 40... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specimen handling and shipping. 4.06-40 Section...

  8. 77 FR 52105 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an...; --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life; --Work program of the...

  9. 75 FR 75532 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an.../imo . Dated: November 24, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  10. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life...

  11. 78 FR 14400 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life; --Work program of the Committee and...

  12. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping containers; cleaning and... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored...

  13. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  14. 77 FR 22057 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  15. 78 FR 17466 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  16. 75 FR 27614 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Maritime Law Institute: --Protection of vital shipping lanes. --External relations: --Report on the...

  17. 76 FR 58330 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct five... vital shipping lanes --Report of the Council to the Assembly on the work of the Organization since...

  18. 75 FR 27856 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  19. 77 FR 52106 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  20. 76 FR 36613 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an.../imo . Dated: June 14, 2011. Greg O'Brien, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  1. 78 FR 32698 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Consideration of the report of the Technical Co-operation Committee --Protection of vital shipping...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  3. 46 CFR 128.410 - Ship's service refrigeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship's service refrigeration systems. 128.410 Section 128.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... service refrigeration systems. No self-contained unit either for air-conditioning or for...

  4. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships; Reacteurs. Navires a propulsion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  5. 78 FR 77772 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... --Consideration of the impact on the Arctic of emissions of Black Carbon from international shipping --Review of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct...

  6. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  7. High efficiency 200 TEU container ship developed by CSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three years operation, the large, energy-efficient, environment-friendly 200 TEU container ship Changjiang developed by China Changjiang National Shipping Group Corporation (CSC) has become an important force in the fleet of container ships in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China.

  8. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities...

  9. Experimental Assessment of Underwater Radiated Sound of Different Ship Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SONIC project is to develop tools to investigate and mitigate the effects of underwater noise generated by shipping. One way to study the contribution of shipping noise to the background noise in the seas is to produce shipping noise maps. The SONIC project delivers the required techn

  10. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  11. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been publish...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  13. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  14. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  15. Towards a different view on ship design: The development of ships observed through a social‐technological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruinessen, T.M.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Hopman, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The research this paper reports on aims to develop a design and engineering strategy for complex ships in between incremental and radical innovation. The majority of European ship-design industry concentrates on the development of complex, one-off ‘specials’ for the offshore industry, like dredgers, drill ships, pipelaying ships, et cetera. This industry is complex, not just in terms of the industrial structure but also in the terms of the object. To control the complexity the industry uses l...

  16. Numerical Simulation on Ship Bubbly Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiping Fu; Pengcheng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Based on a volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in the general computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT6.3.26,the viscous flow with free surface around a model-scaled KRISO container ship(KCS)was first numerically simulated.Then with a rigid-lid-free-surface method,the underwater flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model to simulate the bubbly wake around the KCS hull.The realizable k-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the ship bubbly wake.The air entrainment model,which is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface,and the solving method were verified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.

  17. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...... for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  18. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...... treatment has to be supplemented with methods for detailed stress evaluation and for structural strength assessment before a complete structural reliability analysis can be carried out....

  19. Underwater Explosion Damage of Ship Hull Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rarnajeyathilagam

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Underwater explosion is a major threat to ships and submarines in a war environment. The prediction of the mode and the extent of the failure is an essential step in designing for shock loading. The localised failure in a hull panel is severe compared to the global response of the ship. In this study, an attempt has been made to predict the response and failure modes of three types of hull panels (flat, concave, and convex. The shock loading on the hull panel has been estimated based on the Taylor's plate theory. The numerical analysis has been carried out using the CSAIGENSA (DYNA3D code that employs nonlinear finite element model.

  20. Worry and its correlates onboard cruise ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined job-specific worry, as well as possible predictors of such worry, namely job-specific self-efficacy and supervisor dispositionism. 133 non-supervising crew members at different departments onboard upmarket cruise ships filled in a questionnaire during one of their journeys. Findings show that employees report moderate amounts of job-specific worry and the galley crew reports significantly greater amounts of worry than the other departments. Results also indicate that cruise ship crews worry somewhat more than workers in the land based service sector. Furthermore it was found that supervisor dispositionism, i.e. supervisors with fixed mindsets, was related to greater amounts of worry among the crew. Surprisingly, job-specific self-efficacy was unrelated to job-specific worry.

  1. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  2. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  3. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  4. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering the n...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  5. Wind Turbine Propulsion of Boats and Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Bøckmann, Eirik

    2010-01-01

    Increasing focus on reduction of CO2 emissions, and the possibility of future severe shortage of oil have sparked renewed interest in wind as supplementary propulsion of merchant ships. Several alternative solutions are considered, like kites, conventional soft sails, rigid sails, Flettner rotors, and wind turbines. A tempting aspect of wind turbine propulsion is that it can provide propulsive force when sailing directly upwind, something that is impossible with the other mentioned forms of w...

  6. Teaching of Naval Architecture and Ship Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    freely select their courses. In the paper this system is briefly outlined and the teaching of naval achitecture and offshore engineering within this system described. In contrast to many other universities ship design is taught for students relatively early in their study. This course and the advantages...... and disadvantages of it will be discussed. Finally, a few reflections on teaching naval architecture in the future will be made, including subjects likedecision support and reliability....

  7. Measure of effectiveness for amphibious ship loading

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A critical factor in the success of an amphibious operation is how well the load plan supports the landing plan. The current manual system for ship load planning is time consuming and subject to error. A computer system currently under development by a contractor will decrease planning time and reduce mistakes by automating many details of the planning process. A method to assess the quality of load plans and make comparisons among the...

  8. Ship model propeller manufacturing by using RPT

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzi, Tomaso; Benedetti, Lanfranco

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing process of ship model components (i.e. rudders, propellers, fins, brackets, etc.), can be a time consuming and expensive procedure. For these reasons in the last 10 years, the research community in collaboration with the industries has developed new manufacturing techniques aimed at reducing the prototyping cost and provide rapidly models ready to be tested; moreover, a significant reduction of the necessary surface treatments and hand finishing has been achieved. In the present...

  9. 新型桥墩防撞装置研究%Research on New Type of Bridge Pier Anti-collision Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯跃鹏

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, ship-bridge collision accidents occur frequently .The increasing number of ship col-lision accidents has put forward a new urgent requirement to the study of anti-ship collision .The current situation of ship-bridge collision research was introduced , using LS-DYNA software , established a ship impacting bridge pier computational model , and conducted the numerical simulation of bridge pier with and without anti-collision device respectively , compared the results of the evolution of the impact force , displacement deformation and energy ab-sorption , and carried out the detailed analysis of the result , obtained the corresponding conclusions about the effect of anti-collision.The research results have certain reference significance to the design of anti-collision device of bridge structure in the future .%近年来船舶撞击桥墩的事故频繁发生,日益增多的船撞桥事故对桥梁防船撞研究提出了新的迫切要求。介绍了船桥碰撞研究现状,运用LS-DYNA软件建立了船舶撞击桥墩的计算模型。分别对无防护装置和有防护装置进行了数值模拟,对比其碰撞力演变、桥墩位移变形和能量吸收等结果;并对其进行了详细分析,得到了关于防撞效果的相应结论。研究结果对今后桥梁结构的防撞装置设计有一定的参考意义。

  10. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special......-traditionalized societies—a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines...

  11. CHINESE SHIP REPAIRING INDUSTRY GROWS UP WITH PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In recent years,China has been in theheyday of ship repairing,Hence the relatedenterprises develop rapidly. With the rapid development of theship repairing industry,problems come outalso,such as project payment,ship repair-ing quality,shiP repairing safetymanagement.Such challenges are the risksto the ship repairing industry.Any slip ofthis kind could disrupt the ship repairingenterprises.Hence,how to avoid or mini-mize those risks and protect the interestsof the ship repairing enterprises is an im-portant task to them. 1.The matter of arrears is a common

  12. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  13. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  14. Bridge Number and Conway Products

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ryan C.

    2007-01-01

    Schubert proved that, given a composite link $K$ with summands $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, the bridge number of $K$ satisfies the following equation: $$\\beta(K)=\\beta(K_{1})+\\beta(K_{2})-1.$$ In ``Conway Produts and Links with Multiple Bridge Surfaces", Scharlemann and Tomova proved that, given links $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, there is a Conway product $K_{1}\\times_{c}K_{2}$ such that $$\\beta(K_{1}\\times_{c} K_{2}) \\leq \\beta(K_{1}) + \\beta(K_{2}) - 1$$ In this paper, we define the generalized Conway prod...

  15. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  16. Is myocardial bridging a bridge connecting to cardiovascular events?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Coronary arteries and their major branches usually course on the surface of the heart in the subepicardial tissue. However, a muscle hber overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery was defined as myocardial bridging (MB), and subsequently the artery coursing within the myocardium is called a tunneled artery.

  17. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  18. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  19. Cluster Analysis and Fuzzy Query in Ship Maintenance and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jianhua; He, Qinming; Zhao, Yinggang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Qi

    Cluster analysis and fuzzy query win wide-spread applications in modern intelligent information processing. In allusion to the features of ship maintenance data, a variant of hypergraph-based clustering algorithm, i.e., Correlation Coefficient-based Minimal Spanning Tree(CC-MST), is proposed to analyze the bulky data rooting in ship maintenance process, discovery the unknown rules and help ship maintainers make a decision on various device fault causes. At the same time, revising or renewing an existed design of ship or device maybe necessary to eliminate those device faults. For the sake of offering ship designers some valuable hints, a fuzzy query mechanism is designed to retrieve the useful information from large-scale complicated and reluctant ship technical and testing data. Finally, two experiments based on a real ship device fault statistical dataset validate the flexibility and efficiency of the CC-MST algorithm. A fuzzy query prototype demonstrates the usability of our fuzzy query mechanism.

  20. The influence of ship's stability on safety of navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzu-Pazara, R.; Duse; Varsami, C.; Andrei, C.; Dumitrache, R.

    2016-08-01

    Ship's stability is one of the most important and complex concept about safety of ship and safety of navigation and it is governed by maritime law as well as maritime codes. The paper presents the importance of ship's intact stability as part of the general concept of ship's seaworthiness. There is always a correlation between ship’ stability and safety of ship and safety of navigation. Loss of ship's stability is presented as a threat to safety of navigation. We are going to present the causes that lead to ship stability failure and their impact on safety of navigation. A study of various ship stability casualties in heavy weather conditions are going to be presented, the causes are going to be analyzed and the possible ways of stability failures are assessed. Vessel's intact stability is a fundamental component of seaworthiness so it is in the interest of all owners/operators to learn about this topic and ensure that their vessel possesses a satisfactory level of stability in order to ensure its safety as well as that of the people on board the ship. Understanding ship's stability, trim, stress, and the basics of ship's construction is a key to keeping a ship seaworthy. The findings of this study can be beneficial to the maritime safety administrations to adopt decision-making on maritime safety management, but it is also important to carry out statistics and analysis of marine casualties to help to adopt proper safety management measures. Moreover, the study can be a useful guidance for masters and officers on board vessel in order to understand the factors that contribute to ship stability failure during the voyage not only in port during loading operations and to take preventive measures to avoid to put the ship in such a dangerous situations.

  1. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on architectural application of FRP's derived from the authors architectural practice.

  2. Instability of the capillary bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Gounseti; Hoepffner, Jerome

    2014-11-01

    Capillary adhesion is a physical mechanism that maintains two bodies in contact by capillarity through a liquid ligament. The capillary bridge is an idealization of this capillary adhesion. In this study we first focus on the classical case of the stability of the capillary bridge. Secondly we study a slightly more complex configuration, imagining a flow in the capillary bridge as in the case of the dynamics of the neck of a liquid ligament, in its withdrawal under the effect of capillarity. Inspired by the experiments on soap films of Plateau, the configuration analyzed consists of an initially axisymmetric, mass of fluid held by surface tension forces between two parallel, coaxial, solid pipes of the same diameter. The results presented are obtained by numerical simulations using the free software, Gerris Flow Solver. We first focus on the capillary Venturi. In the static configuration the stability diagram of the capillary bridge obtained is in perfect agreement with the results of Lev A. Slobozhanin. In the dynamic case we develop a matlab code based on the one dimensional equations of Eggers and Dupont. The comparison of the bifurcation diagram obtained and the numerical simulations shows a good agreement.

  3. Bridge Aesthetics and Structural Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In bridges the overall form must be chosen with due respect to the transmission of forces if efficient structures shall be created, The design must therefore be governed by experienced structural engineers - in some cases assisted by aesthetic advisers on specific issues. Some basic requirements...

  4. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  5. Architectural engineering of FRP bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP's) in architectural and structural bridge design. The challenges and opportunities that come with this relatively new material are discussed. An inventory is made of recent engineers' solutions in FRP, followed by a discussion on archit

  6. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  7. Dynamic identification of paradela historic railway bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Luís F.; Valente, Isabel; Guimarães, Paulo; Vazquez, Kevin; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2013-01-01

    Paradela Bridge is a metallic bridge located along the bank of the Tua River in northern Portugal. While the bridge is not currently in service, its structure is representative of many metallic truss structures built across the country between the 19th and the 20th century. The construction of the Paradela Bridge was completed in 1886 and served for about 120 years connecting northern Portugal. Tua Line belongs to the Douro area that UNESCO recently declared as world heritage. This work acqui...

  8. Transition Slabs of Integral Abutment Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Dreier, Damien; Muttoni, Aurelio; BURDET, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, an increasing number of bridges with integral abutment have been built in Switzerland. This type of bridge offers various advantages over standard bridges with abutments, equipped with expansion joints and bearings that require regular inspection and maintenance. One main concern of integral abutment bridges is related to the soil-structure interaction, in particular between the transition slab and the embankment. To avoid any expansion joints, transition slabs are dire...

  9. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  10. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels... position). I plan to (give proposed course of action). Over. (3) (Coast station), this is (vessel's...

  11. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  12. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  13. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  14. Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah B; Merchant, Nathan D; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N; Parks, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the whale. Using mixed models, we assess the effects of ship noise on seven parameters of their feeding behaviours. Independent variables included the presence or absence of ship noise and the received level of ship noise at the whale. We found significant effects on foraging, including slower descent rates and fewer side-roll feeding events per dive with increasing ship noise. During 5 of 18 ship passages, dives without side-rolls were observed. These findings indicate that humpback whales on Stellwagen Bank, an area with chronically elevated levels of shipping traffic, significantly change foraging activity when exposed to high levels of ship noise. This measureable reduction in within-dive foraging effort of individual whales could potentially lead to population-level impacts of shipping noise on baleen whale foraging success. PMID:27512131

  15. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  16. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks and...... Gaussian processes (GP). The data presented is a publicly available full-scale data set, with a whole range of features sampled over a period of 2 months. We further discuss interpretations of the operational data in relation to the underlying physical system....

  17. On the atmospheric internal ship waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑建国

    1997-01-01

    The analytical solutions of the atmospheric internal ship waves induced by three-dimensional terrain are obtained by solving the atmospheric wave equation. The solutions show that the waves consist of the untrapped and trapped parts. The patterns of the diverging wave and transverse wave in the untrapped parts are mainly determined by the shape and orientation of the terrain. This kind of wave may transport the wave energy to the upper atmosphere. The patterns of trapped lee waves are decided by the atmospheric conditions such as stratification, mean wind speeds and wind shear.

  18. Shipping Firm to Offer Funeral Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊妹

    2001-01-01

    Japan’s largest shipping company, Nippon Yusen KK, plans to offer a new funeral ash-scattering service in a bid to (释义见19页文) capitalize on demand fuelled by the high ccst of cemeteries in Japan, a financial daily said Sunday. 日本最大的海运公司Nippon Yusen KK打算提供新的骨灰海葬服务,以求赢利。日本的公墓的价格居高不下,刺激了骨灰海葬的需求。一份金融日报星期日称。

  19. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkhead...... the damage of four large scale tests and an accidental grounding with errors less than 10%. Moreover, it is illustrated by an example that the model evaluation of a grounding scenario is sufficientlty fast to be used in a probabilistic framework in a Formal safety Assessment....

  20. Low Costs on the European Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gr. Ionescu

    2012-01-01

    The freight rates and second hand prices in the dry bulk market seem to be stationary. By unit root tests, an established tool fortesting for random walk in economic time series, the random walk hypothesis can be rejected in most cases for the freight rate samples. This result is in contrast to the findings of a number of papers. However, the results confirm classical shipping market that indicate stationary in freight rates, which is not the case if the freight rates follow a random walk. By...

  1. Special closure for radioactive shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program was to develop a special lid closure for radioactive material shipping containers, typically steel drums. Three closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to protect 1000 lb when dropped 30 ft. The three designs were (1) a 6-in. lid extension (skirt), (2) a 6-in. inner lid, and (3) c-clamps used at the container/lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the 6-in. lid extension is recommended

  2. Comprehensive Real-Time Bridge Health Monitoring System of Tongtai Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Su-su; Gao Yong-tao; Pan Dan-guang

    2015-01-01

    Tongtai Bridge is the world’s largest suspension curve-girder-skew-arch bridge, which is located in Zhangjiakou, China. The understanding of mechanics characteristics is limited to such complex bridges, so it is necessary to establish reliable health monitoring system to investigate the static and dynamic responses and monitor the safety of the bridge. A comprehensive real-time bridge health monitoring system is establish, which includes four aspects: sensor system, data acquisition and trans...

  3. Effects of ship`s vibration and motion on plant parameters. Report on sea trials of nuclear ship MUTSU made first in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship`s vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship`s vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship`s vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship`s motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, {epsilon}-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author).

  4. EX1201: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20100214 and 20120223

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1201 is the 2012 shakedown mission of NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer (EX) and will perform system patch tests of the vessel’s Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar....

  5. Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall: fender forces and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of govern

  6. Advanced Demonstration of Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ernst, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Passive radiation detection is a key tool for detecting illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small vessels where attenuation is of less concern. Passive imaging provides: discrimination between localized (threat) and distributed (non-threat) sources, removal of background fluctuations due to nearby shorelines and structures, source localization to an individual craft in crowded waters, and background subtracted spectra. Unfortunately, imaging methods cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller water craft where passive inspections are most valuable. In this project we performed tests and improved the performance of an instrument (developed earlier under, “Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections”) that uses automated tracking of a target vessel in visible-light images to generate a 3D radiation map of the target vessel from data obtained using a gamma-ray imager.

  7. Emission of toxic organic microcontaminants from ship's engines: first measurements on three cruising ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, H.; Rhemrev, M.M.; Houtzager, M.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken within the framework of Lloyd's Register's Marine Exhaust Emissions Research Programme. Phase II of this research programme [] evaluated exhaust emissions from ships in service under steady state and transient modes of operation and incorporated measurements of CO, CO2, 02,

  8. New Concept for Durable Concrete Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Damek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This master’s thesis covers the design of a post-tensioned concrete bridge in Trondheim municipality in Norway, in collaboration with Statens vegvesen (SVV). The concept of the bridge is inspired by Egg-Graben-Brücke in Austria, which was designed and built without steel reinforcement in the bridge deck. The idea is to eliminate steel reinforcement which can corrode in the bridge deck. The total length of the bridge is 73 meters and it is divided into 3 spans. The crosssection ...

  9. Key technology of ship product data exchange based on STEP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Dong-yan; YANG Jing-tong; QIU Chang-hua; XUE Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, in order to implement the share and exchange of the ship product data, a new kind of global function model is established. By researching on the development and trend of the application of ship STEP (standard for the exchange of product model data) standards, the AIM (application interpreted model) of AP216 is developed and improved as an example, aiming at the characteristics and practical engineering of ship industry in our country. The data exchange interfaces are formed based on STEP in the CAD/CAM for the ship by all function modules and shared databases under the global function model. The share and exchange of all information and data are solved in the design, manufacture and all life-cycle of ship products among different computer application systems. The research work makes foundation for the ship industry informatization.

  10. Ship detection in Polarimetric SAR based on Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuwu Su

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Support Vector Machine (SVM based method for ship detection in Polarimetric SAR (POLSAR is proposed in this study. Because of similarities of ship and man-made structures on land in scattering mechanisms, land and sea are first segmented by SVM according to polarimetric features and texture features; The SVM-based Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE-SVM approach is adopted to improve the performance of the segmentation algorithm. Then ship targets are extracted from sea by SVM classifier; Threshold-based rules and SVM-based rules are established for discriminating ship from non-ship target at last. The experiments are carried out on POLSAR data from Radarsat-2. For the available SAR images, the average accuracy of ship detection is over 95%.

  11. Probabilistic Analysis of Anti-ship Missile Defence Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Dutta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective missile defence systems are primary requirement for naval ships to counter lethal anti-ship cruise missile attacks in today’s naval warfare scenario. Anti-ship ballistic missiles would further add worry to ship missile defence. The paper discusses a probabilistic analysis of missile defence system effectiveness by considering a simple scenario of a single ship defence with multiple interceptors against a single non-maneuvering missile attack. The ship’s interceptor hard kill lethality is taken as the measures of effectiveness in the analysis. The paper discusses effect of different firing policies, multi-sensor and layered defence to achieve maximum ship survivability.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 123-129. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3532

  12. Innovative Practice- Shipping Magnate CY Tung's Road to Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷炜键

    2012-01-01

      CY Tung was the pioneer of innovation and the practioner of innovative theories in modern shipping, regardless of his huge oil tanker building, container transport, institutional management or resource integration. Tung, the shipping industry have called the pioneer of innovation, Tung's road to success is a story and history of continuous innovation. In his shipping career, adhering to the innovative concept, multi-use new shipping technology, and management practice, Tung had built a team with the ability to innovate. Tung’s group, by integrating its human resources, contacts and production resources ultimately established himself in the highly competitive international shipping market and achieved his legendary of the world shipping tycoon.

  13. Safety test report for the SKN-AGM shipping package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Jeon, J. E.; Kim, J. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Safety evaluation for the SKN-AGM shipping package to transport safely radioactive material, which is produced at New KORI Nuclear Power Plant, was carried out. The safety tests were performed by using the test model of the SKN-AGM shipping package. In the safety test results for the SKN-AGM shipping package, the radioactive contents within the SKN-AGM shipping package did not loss or dispersal. Leak Test was performed after drop test and penetration test, the measured leakage rate was lower than 10{sup -3} atm {center_dot} cm{sup 3}/s. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is maintained. Therefore, it shows that the integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is well maintained under a bottom drop, a bottom slope drop, and a penetration condition

  14. Safety test report for the SKN-AGM shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety evaluation for the SKN-AGM shipping package to transport safely radioactive material, which is produced at New KORI Nuclear Power Plant, was carried out. The safety tests were performed by using the test model of the SKN-AGM shipping package. In the safety test results for the SKN-AGM shipping package, the radioactive contents within the SKN-AGM shipping package did not loss or dispersal. Leak Test was performed after drop test and penetration test, the measured leakage rate was lower than 10-3 atm · cm3/s. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is maintained. Therefore, it shows that the integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is well maintained under a bottom drop, a bottom slope drop, and a penetration condition

  15. The world's first supply ship powered by natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the newly developed natural gas powered supply ship ''Viking Energy'', which reduces the emission of NOx by 200 tonnes per year. The shipping company has for many years been working on the developing of environmentally friendly ships with less fuel consumption. The gas is stored in liquid form at a temperature of 160 oC. The engines can run on gas or diesel as needed. These dual-fuel engines offers great flexibility, which is very desirable since liquid natural gas is not widely available along the coast. This type of engine has been used in power stations and on offshore platforms, but not in ships. The operating conditions are quite different for ships than for power stations. So far, both investment and operating costs are higher than for conventional ships

  16. Stability criterion and its calculation for sail-assisted ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yihuai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability criterion and its calculation are the crucial issue in the application of sail-assisted ship. How- ever, there is at present no specific criterion and computational methods for the stability of sail-assisted ship. Based on the stability; requirements for seagoing ships, the stability criterion of the sail-assisted ships is suggested in this paper. Furthermore, how to calculate the parameters and determine some specific coefficients for the ship stability; calculation, as well as how to redraw stability! curve are also discussed in this paper. Finally, to give an illustration, the proposed method is applied on a sail assisted-ship model with comments and recommendations for improvement.

  17. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Incorporating Additional Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

    to tramp ship routing and scheduling. This includes modelling approaches, solution methods as well as an analysis of the current status and future direction of research within tramp ship routing and scheduling. We argue that rather than developing new solution methods for the basic routing and scheduling......In tramp shipping, ships operate much like taxies, following the available demand. This contrasts liner shipping where vessels operate more like busses on a fixed route network according to a published timetable. Tramp operators can enter into long term contracts and thereby determine some...... of their demand in advance. However, the detailed requirements of these contract cargoes can be subject to ongoing changes, e.g. the destination port can be altered. For tramp operators, a main concern is therefore the efficient and continuous planning of routes and schedules for the individual ships. Due...

  18. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam-Bee Goh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification societies are one of key organizations that promote the highest standards in ship safety and quality shipping. The paper reviews the ship classification industry and identifies what the classification societies can do to add value to the maritime industry more effectively. To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish some of the key factors which should be considered when formulating an overall business strategy for the growth of the classification services business. The findings from the study are discussed with the strategic options and choices. A classification services industrial value chain analysis together with ship management and operation is undertaken to explore the opportunities for classification societies. These findings also provide guidance to policy-makers who design and seek to implement more effective international shipping policies.

  19. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  20. Bridge Anti-collision Management of Hanzhuang Canal%韩庄运河段桥梁防撞管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传科

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the bridge anti-collision management. With the increase of bridge collision accidents and the increase of potential risk, it is necessary to strengthen the ship management. Aiming at the problems in bridge anti-collision management, the paper puts forward the active anti-collision method from personnel, environment, ship and the management of waters around bridge, and gives the relevant prevention management measures to prevent accidents.%文章对船舶防止撞桥管理问题进行了探讨。在内河船舶撞桥事故数量不断增加、潜在风险越来越大的情况下,加强船舶管理是十分必要的。文章就防止船舶撞击桥梁问题,从人员、环境、船舶、桥梁水域管理等方面找出主动防撞方法,提出相关防范管理措施,防止事故发生。

  1. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  2. Geoacoustic inversion with ships as sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert A; Knobles, David P

    2005-02-01

    Estimation of geoacoustic parameters using acoustic data from a surface ship was performed for a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were recorded from hydrophones in a bottom mounted, horizontal line array (HLA). The techniques developed to produce the geoacoustic inversion are described, and an efficient method for geoacoustic inversion with broadband beam cross-spectral data is demonstrated. The performance of cost functions that involve coherent or incoherent sums over frequency and one or multiple time segments is discussed. Successful inversions for the first sediment layer sound speed and thickness and some of the parameters for the deeper layers were obtained with the surface ship at nominal ranges of 20, 30, or 50 water depths. The data for these inversions were beam cross-spectra from four subapertures of the HLA spanning a little more than two water depths. The subaperture beams included ten frequencies equally spaced in the 120-200 Hz band. The values of the geoacoustic parameters from the inversions are validated by comparisons with geophysical observations and with the parameter values from previous inversions by other invesigators, and by comparing transmission loss (TL) measured in the experiment with modeled TL based on the inverted geoacoustic parameters.

  3. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15–25% and Western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  4. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2009-03-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15-25%) and Western Europe (5-15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5-6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  5. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2008-10-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over western North America (contribution 15 25%) and western Europe (5 15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5 6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  6. Design Space Exploration and Optimization Using Modern Ship Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Adam

    2014-01-01

    CIVINS Modern Naval Architects use a variety of computer design tools to explore feasi- ble options for clean sheet ship designs. Under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division (NSWCCD) has created computer tools for ship design and analysis purposes. This paper presents an overview of some of these tools, speci cally the Advanced Ship and Submarine Evaluation Tool (ASSET) version 6.3 and the Integrated Hull Design Environm...

  7. Competitive Advantage in Liner Shipping: A Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Photis M Panayides; Kevin Cullinane

    2002-01-01

    Liner shipping is a rather unique and idiosyncratic sector of the shipping industry. As such, it has attracted much attention from both researchers and policy makers. The purpose of this special issue of the International Journal of Maritime Economics is to investigate current thought in liner shipping economics and strategy. The papers included address what are and have been the major concerns of practitioners and academics, viz. market structure and regulation as well as vessel deployment a...

  8. Radiation protection studies for the SHiP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Strabel, Claudia Christina; Vincke, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The enlarged scope of the recently proposed experiment to search for Heavy Neutral Leptons, SPSC-EOI-010, is a general purpose fixed target facility which in the initial phase is aimed at a general Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) as well as tau neutrino physics. This report summarizes radiation protection considerations for the SHiP facility and the primary beam extraction for SHiP.

  9. Civil Engineering for the SHiP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, John Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The enlarged scope of the recently proposed experiment to search for Heavy Neutral Leptons, SPSC-EOI-010, is a general purpose fixed target facility which in the initial phase is aimed at a general Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) as well as tau neutrino physics. This report represents an annex to the SHiP Technical Proposal summarizing the civil engineering considerations for SHiP.

  10. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of almost 25000 observation of the wave height from ships in the North Atlantic shows that the encountered wave height distribution is significantly lower than the distribution provided by the classification societies for structural assessment. The joint probability distribution for ...... that the ship will maintain the service speed even in relatively severe sea. The distribution derived could be used to incorporate the effect of weather routing in a long term analysis of the wave loads on a ship....

  11. Arctic shipping and China : Governance structure and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalti Þór Hreinsson 1984

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study China’s shipping ambitions in the Arctic and the pertinent governing instruments. Arctic shipping poses significant challenges for Arctic governance with increased access to its oceans for shipping companies. Arctic transit is driven by demanding world markets in the West and the rising economic powers of the East, looking for the most cost-efficient routes. Rapid ice melt leads to better access for vessels, but other obstacles await those interested in Arc...

  12. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M Eguíluz; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that ...

  13. Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Ships with Forward Speed in Shallow Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.HASANADIL; DUANWen-yang; WANGYu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of depth and forward speed on hydrodynamic coefficients of ships are presented in this paper. A modified simple Green function technique was used to calculate 2D coefficients while strip theory was used to calculate 3D coefficients. Numerical results are provided for hydrodynamic coefficients of parabolic hull ship. It is found out that both depth and forward speed have considerable effects on hydrodynamic coefficients of ship.

  14. Passengers’ Evacuation in Ships Based on Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gan-Nan Yuan; Li-Na Zhang; Li-Qiang Liu; Kan Wang

    2014-01-01

    A new intelligent model to simulate evacuation behavior in ships called neighborhood particle swarm optimization is proposed. This model determines the rules of behavior and velocity updating formulas to solve staff conflicts. The individuals in evacuation are taken as particles in PSO and update their behaviors by individual attributes, neighborhood attributes, and social attributes. Putting the degree of freedom movement of ships into environment factor and using the real Ro-Ro ship informa...

  15. The residual strength of a ship after an internal explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Surko, Stephen William

    1988-01-01

    CIVINS An internal airblast from a missile explosion produces tearing, holing and dishing of ship's structural plating. In order to analyze the residual strength of a ship after an internal explosion, a typical ship compartment was considered to be composed of flat square plates subjected to uniaxial compression, and the damage effects were examined independently. The holing was considered to be a centrally located circle. Plastic limit load analysis of a flat plate indicates that ultimate...

  16. Capital structure : an analysis of the shipping market

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Christian Melsom

    2011-01-01

    Capital structure in shipping has proven to be complex. The market is known for high volatility and the financial funding alternatives have changed as a result of these cycles. This master thesis introduces the shipping market with focus on the dry bulk and tanker segments. It then discusses capital structure theory and relates it to shipping. These theories form the basis of the analysis. Evaluating the segments does not give a clear answer to the best way of financing given the mar...

  17. Strategy and hegemony in chemical tanker shipping, 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Tenold, Stig; Murphy, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses the emergence of chemical shipping as a specialized shipping segment. In the 1950s and 1960s seaborne transport of chemicals was characterized by rapid technological development. This was based on the introduction of parcel tankers, which could carry chemicals in bulk. Norwegian shipping companies were among the pioneers in this trade. By the early 1970s the two leading Norwegian companies had built up substantial market shares, but were challenged by finan...

  18. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  19. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  20. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Randall D.

    1993-08-01

    Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.