WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridge railings

  1. Crashworthy railing for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1999-01-01

    Bridge railing systems in the United States have historically beers designed based on static load criteria given in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation 0fficials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. In the past decade, full-scale vehicle crash testing has been recognized as a more appropriate and reliable method of evaluating...

  2. Railing systems for use on timber deck bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald K. Faller; Michael A. Ritter; Barry T. Rosson; Sheila R. Duwadi

    1999-01-01

    Bridge railing systems in the United States have historically been designed based on static load criteria given in the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. In the past decade, full-scale vehicle crash testing has been recognized as a more appropriate and reliable method of evaluating bridge railing acceptability. In 1989. AASHTO published the Guide...

  3. Plans for crash-tested bridge railings for longitudinal wood decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; R. K. Faller; P. D. Hilbrich Lee; B. T. Rosson; S. R. Duwadi

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, bridge railing design criteria have moved away from static-load design and have focused on full-scale crash testing as a more appropriate and reliable means of evaluating bridge railings. The five bridge railing plans presented reflect the results of a cooperative research project between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of Nebraska...

  4. Plans for crash-tested wood bridge railings for concrete decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Barry T. Rosson; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Sheila Rimal. Duwadi

    1998-01-01

    As part of a continuing cooperative research between the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF); the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), several crashworthy wood bridge railings and approach railing transitions have been adapted for use on concrete bridge decks. These railings meet testing and...

  5. Track-Bridge Longitudinal Interaction of Continuous Welded Rails on Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking arch bridges, including deck, half-through, and through arch bridges (short for DAB, HTAB, and TAB as examples, mechanics analysis models of longitudinal interaction between continuously welded rails (short for CWRs and arch bridges are established. Based on the finite element method (FEM, the longitudinal interaction calculation software of CWR on arch bridges has been developed. Focusing on an HTAB, the tension, compression, and deflection conditions are calculated and analyzed. The results show that the mechanics analysis models of three types of arch bridges can truly reflect the real state of the structure; the calculation software can be used for systematic research of the CWR on arch bridge; as for HTAB, temperature difference of arch rib has a small effect on rail tension/compression, and arch bridge can be simplified as a continuous beam for rail tension/compression additional force calculation; in calculation of deflection conditions of HTAB, it is suggested that train loads are arranged on half span and full span and take the direction of load entering bridge into account. Additionally, the deflection additional force variation of CFST basket handle arch bridge is different from that of ordinary bridge.

  6. Development and implementation of a bridge management system for South African road and rail authorities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a bridge management system (BMS) developed in South Africa for various road and rail authorities including the South African National Road Agency, Spoornet (the South African rail authority), the Cape Town City Council...

  7. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a digital lock-in amplifier algorithm. We have also explored compensating for the lift-off effect of the eddy current sensor due to vibrations by using the summing signal of the detection coils to measure the lift-off distance. The dominant component of the summing signal is a constant resulting from direct coupling from the excitation coil, which can be experimentally determined. The remainder of the summing signal, which decreases as the lift-off distance increases, is induced by the secondary eddy current. This dependence on the lift-off distance is used to calibrate the differential signal, allowing for a more accurate characterization of the defects. Simulated experiments on a sample rail have been performed using a computer controlled X-Y moving table with the X-axis mimicking the train's motion and the Y-axis mimicking the train's vibrational bumping. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new detection method.

  8. MASH TL-3 crash testing and evaluation of the TxDOT T631 Bridge Rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Texas Type T631 bridge rail was developed as a low-cost, flexible bridge rail system for TL-2 : applications. Many of the features used for the system tested at MwRSF for TL-3 were incorporated into the : design developed for this project for MAS...

  9. Crash test and evaluation of the TxDOT T631 bridge rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In August 2010, Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) developed and crash tested a low-cost, energy-absorbing bridge rail for the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) TL-3 applications. This low-cost bridge rail was designed to be compatibl...

  10. Plans for crash-tested bridge railings for longitudinal wood decks on low-volume roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Steve. Bunnell; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Barry T. Rosson

    1998-01-01

    The plans for crashworthy bridge railings for low-volume roads were developed through a cooperative research program involving the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL); the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (MwRSF); and the Forest Service, National Forest System, Engineering. Three railings were developed and successfully...

  11. Advanced bridge safety initiative : phase 2, task 2 - effects of curb and railing inclusion on rating factors of reinforced concrete flat slab bridges using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Maine Department of Transportation (Maine DOT) owns a number of existing reinforced concrete slab : bridges that utilize the standard Maine concrete bridge rail. At issue is the additional stiffening and strengthening : that the curb and this rai...

  12. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  13. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintakunta, Satish R. [Engineering and Software Consultants, Inc., 14123 Robert Paris Ct., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Boone, Shane D. [Federal Highway Administration, Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  14. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and...

  15. Analysis of the dominant vibration frequencies of rail bridges for structure-borne noise using a power flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The use of concrete bridges in urban rail transit systems has raised many concerns regarding low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-borne noise due to the vibration of bridges when subjected to moving trains. Understanding the mechanism that determines the dominant frequencies of bridge vibrations is essential for both vibration and noise reduction. This paper presents a general procedure based on the force method to obtain the power flows within a coupled vehicle-track-bridge system, the point mobility of the system and the dynamic interaction forces connecting various components. The general coupling system consists of multi-rigid-bodies for the vehicles, infinite Euler beams representing the rails, two-dimensional or three-dimensional elements of the concrete bridges, and spring-dashpot pairs to model the wheel-rail contacts, the vehicle suspensions, the rail pads and the bridge bearings. The dynamic interaction of the coupled system is solved in the frequency domain by assuming the combined wheel-rail roughness moves forward relative to the stationary vehicles. The proposed procedure is first applied to a rail on discrete supports and then to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge. The computed results show that the wheel-rail contact forces, the power flows to the rail/bridge subsystem and the accelerations of the bridge are primarily dominated by the contents around the natural frequency of a single wheel adhered to the elastically supported rail. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same rigid body, then δmnab(ω) can be expressed as δmnab(ω)=-{(}/{Mlω}, where Ml is the mass of the lth rigid body. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same infinite rail, δmnab(ω) can be expressed as [8] δmnab(ω)=-j{((e-je)}/{4EIk}, where xm and xn are the x-coordinates of the mth and nth spring

  16. Performance and analysis of concrete bridge railing using conventional and composite reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The principal objectives of this study are to assess the structural adequacy, strength, and overriding potential of the railing section used by the Department using both the current NCHRP 350 guidelines and the newly approved ones, and to evaluate th...

  17. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  18. The development of crashworthy rails for fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb bridge deck system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) honeycomb panels offer an efficient and rapid replacement to : concrete decks. The system consists of FRP honeycomb sandwich panels with adequate guardrails. Although : FRP bridge deck panels have already been designed ...

  19. The development of crashworthy rails for fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb bridge deck system : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) honeycomb panels offer an efficient and rapid : replacement to concrete decks. The system consists of FRP honeycomb sandwich panels : with adequate guardrails. Although FRP bridge deck panels have already been designed ...

  20. Campaign monitoring of railroad bridges in high-speed rail shared corridors using wireless smart sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This research project used wireless smart sensors to develop a cost-effective and practical portable structural health monitoring : system for railroad bridges in North America. The system is designed for periodic deployment rather than as a permanen...

  1. Determining Effects of Wagon Mass and Vehicle Velocity on Vertical Vibrations of a Rail Vehicle Moving with a Constant Acceleration on a Bridge Using Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mızrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations are vital for derailment safety and passenger comfort which may occur on rail vehicles due to the truck and nearby conditions. In particular, while traversing a bridge, dynamic interaction forces due to moving loads increase the vibrations even further. In this study, the vertical vibrations of a rail vehicle at the midpoint of a bridge, where the amount of deflection is expected to be maximum, were determined by means of a 1 : 5 scaled roller rig and Newmark-β numerical method. Simulations for different wagon masses and vehicle velocities were performed using both techniques. The results obtained from the numerical and experimental methods were compared and it was demonstrated that the former was accurate with an 8.9% error margin. Numerical simulations were performed by identifying different test combinations with Taguchi experiment design. After evaluating the obtained results by means of an ANOVA analysis, it was determined that the wagon mass had a decreasing effect on the vertical vibrations of the rail vehicle by 2.087%, while rail vehicle velocity had an increasing effect on the vibrations by 96.384%.

  2. Evaluation of Bridges Subjected to Military Loading and Dynamic Hydraulic Effects: Review of Design Regulations, Selection Criteria, and Inspection Procedures for Bridge Railing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Concrete continuous o Steel o Steel continuous o Prestressed concrete o Prestressed concrete continuous o Wood or Timber o Masonry ERDC/GSL TR-11...tested concrete parapet. ................................................................................................. 57 Table 18. Crash Tested F...Shape Concrete Barrier. .................................................................................. 75 Table 19. Crash tested timber bridge

  3. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  4. Enterprise Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Chak, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  5. Death by side rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Whitbread, Luana

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of side rail use in chronic care units and the reduction of side rail use following education. An audit conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2007 looked at the number of side rails that were used and the reasons for this use. An educational presentation titled "Death by Side Rail" was provided for nurses and healthcare aides. Side rail use decreased by 60% from a prevalence of 90% of the population with side rails up on their beds. The primary reason for side rail use by nurses was determined to be "habit." Nurses no longer put up side rails out of habit, and they now assess the situation prior to the consideration of side rail use.

  6. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process...

  7. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  8. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  9. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Šamec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.

  10. Analysis of Lateral Rail Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This report deals with the analysis of lateral rail strength using the results of experimental investigations and a nonlinear rail response model. Part of the analysis involves the parametric study of the influence of track parameters on lateral rail...

  11. Learning Devise for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Sakti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  12. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  13. Modern Methods of Rail Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Kozyreva, Olga A.; Usoltsev, Aleksander A.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Shevchenko, Roman A.

    2017-10-01

    Existing methods of rail welding, which are enable to get continuous welded rail track, are observed in this article. Analysis of existing welding methods allows considering an issue of continuous rail track in detail. Metallurgical and welding technologies of rail welding and also process technologies reducing aftereffects of temperature exposure are important factors determining the quality and reliability of the continuous rail track. Analysis of the existing methods of rail welding enable to find the research line for solving this problem.

  14. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  15. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  16. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  17. Bronze railing from Mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Miloje R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The hoard containing components of bronze railing was discovered in trench 7 during excavations at Mediana in 2000. Railing consists of cancelli and herms with busts of deities between them. Railing was constructed in such a way that it was possible to disassemble and reassemble it. Three cancelli one fragmented semicancellus cast together with herm and herms, one with bust of Aesculapius and other with bust of Luna. It could be concluded that railing consisted of two segments with passage between them. Male deities were represented on the left segment of the railing and female deities on the right segment. Detailed analysis revealed that Aesculapius as well as Luna bear strong mark of classical Greek and Hellenistic art, which experienced some kind of renaissance in the time of Constantine I. It is very probable that we can recognize the portrait of Faustina, Constantine’s wife in the portrait of Luna. According to the historical events the railing could have been produced before 325 AD when Constantine definitively accepted Christianity at Council of Nicaea. It is difficult to say where the railing had been produced. It had been most probably brought to Mediana during the stay of emperor Julian in Niš in 361. The sculptures found in one room of the villa with peristyle had probably been brought at the same time. The apse of triclinium of this villa had most likely been arranged as small shrine with bronze railing at its entrance. The railing was buried in 378 after battle of Adrianople and invasion of Goths in diocese Dacia.

  18. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  19. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  20. Clapper Rail Report 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report discussing the current population status of the California Clapper Rail in the San Francisco Bay and a comparison of habitat suitability in various marshes...

  1. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). DATES: A notice of the first meeting... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 10581... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA40 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee...

  2. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 35403] Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and Patriot Rail Corp. (Patriot), have jointly filed a verified notice of exemption to...

  3. Strain-Based Evaluation of a Steel Through-Girder Railroad Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Daumueller, Andrew N.; Jáuregui, David V.

    2012-01-01

    In the state of New Mexico (USA), passenger rail began in 2008 between Belen and Santa Fe on the Rail Runner, following the acquisition of about 100 miles of existing rail and related infrastructure. Many of the bridges on this route are over 100 years old and contain fatigue prone details. This study focuses on a steel through-girder bridge along this corridor. To accurately evaluate these structures for load carrying capacity and fatigue, an accurate analytical model is required. Accordingl...

  4. Wheel/rail interface optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, wheel/rail interface optimisation, and particularly the problems of wheel and rail profile design are considered. The research task pursued by this thesis engenders investigation of a range of problems. First, geometric properties of contact between wheel and rail are investigated.

  5. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  6. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair of... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds...

  7. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  8. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresund...... Tunnel, approximately 25,000 of them critical to the regional work market. Even though the risk analysis states that the likelihood of a long-term closure (100C days) is very low Danish and Swedish transport authorities have demanded that the infrastructure operator conducts a survey of the preparedness...... in its final report to the Danish and Swedish transport authorities while drawing upon experiences from two recent comparable cases of infrastructure disruptions: The Champlain Bridge (2009) and the Forth Road Bridge (2015)....

  9. 75 FR 43611 - U S Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board U S Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal On August 7, 2008, U S Rail Corporation (U S Rail), an existing class III short line...) of new rail line at a 28-acre site (the Brookhaven Rail Terminal or BRT) located in the Town of...

  10. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). DATES: The..., intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23, 2013). The Committee will hold its first... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee...

  11. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  12. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  13. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  14. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  15. Rails - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds310

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are the detections of Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), Sora (Porzana carolina), and California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) from 13 survey points...

  16. Friction in wheel - rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, R.I.

    2010-01-01

    In the autumn, railroad traffic is often interrupted due to the occurrence of slippery tracks. The Dutch main operator (NS) and the infrastructure manager (ProRail) struggle with repeated delays. The layer between wheel and rail causing this phenomenon has not yet been identified, but can be

  17. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  18. A Decision Methodology and Organizational Structure for Determining the Mission Essentiality of Rail Service to U.S. Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    lowing: 1. Most base rail facilities were built when 50- to 78-ton capacity railcars were the norm . Today 180-ton 34 capacity rail hopper cars are...57’ A81713 Antenna Tlr Mtd 2𔄀.3 103.3 143.0 12830 2 - 57’ C22469 Bridge Ferry End Bay 507.5 144.0 124.0 51600 1 - 5/’ C22606 Bridge Terry Interior

  19. Optimum Design of Multilayer Asphalt Surfacing Systems for Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Orthotropic steel decks are widely utilized in long span bridges, movable bridges and shorter span road and rail bridges due to their favourable properties. These properties are low deadweight, large plastic reserves in case of overload and aesthetic advantages. Nowadays, more than 1000 orthotropic

  20. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental goals. And along with improved and new opportunities for intercity passenger and high- speed rail... high-speed rail; improving freight rail. Policy Questions and Comments: As noted above in the plan... high-speed passenger rail investments? How do we find sustainable sources of funding among Federal...

  1. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  2. The rail diesel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, M. [Swiss Federal Railways, Bern (Switzerland). Rail Environmental Center; Schwarz, H. [Deutsche Bahn AC, Berlin (Germany). Railway Environmental Centre; Kollamthodi, S. [AEA Technology Environment, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This rail diesel study examined measures and strategies to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) emissions from the European rail fleet. The study examined the feasibility of using operational and technical measures to the current diesel-based fleet, and in addition provided cost benefit estimates for applying various strategies to the existing fleet over the next 5 years. The study reviewed the use of diesel traction units and developed forecast projections for the uptake and use of diesel traction units up to the year 2020. Technical and operational measures for reducing emissions were assessed, along with life cycle costs. Air quality modelling was conducted to estimate the contributions of different types of railway locations in relation to ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and particulate matter. Results of the study suggested that emission reduction technologies emissions limits will be achieved by using internal engine design measures rather than through the use of exhaust after-treatment equipment. It was concluded that modern diesel combustion technology, optimized air cooling, and improved injection and charging technology will be used in combination with low sulfur fuel to reduce emissions. However, engine and vehicle purchase costs will increase by between 5 and 13 per cent, while maintenance expenditure is expected to increase by up to 10 per cent. 5 figs.

  3. 78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... notice recommends that track owners and railroads: (1) Evaluate the design and construction of existing... and seating the bridge and then moving the slide lock rails into the locked position. Once the slide lock rails were fully engaged, a signal to proceed would be displayed. Following the derailment, the...

  4. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sudden Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Myocardial Bridge Related terms: myocardium, coronary arteries, myocardial ischemia Your ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  5. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  6. High speed rail distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Texas Central Partners are in the process of developing a high speed rail line connecting : Houston and Dallas, Texas. Ultimately, plans are for 8 car trains that accommodate 200 people per : vehicle scheduled every 30 minutes. In addition, Texas...

  7. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    Taking its point of departure in the mobilities paradigm, this paper applies a theoretical framework of narratives and storytelling to analyse and describe the rationales behind implementation of light rail in the case of Bergen light rail in Norway. Through the analysis it is demonstrated that t...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  8. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Examples of structural repairs a) repairs to culvert wing walls, abutment walls as well as deck slab, b) replacement of existing steel bridge handrails with precast concrete rails, c) repairs to bridge abutment by means of externally reinforced concrete... general problem of reinforcement corrosion. New precast reinforced concrete railings were proposed in instances were vandalism had occurred; • Bearings were generally in a good condition; • Selected road safety elements were also identified for repair...

  9. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  10. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Cheng

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  11. Dynamic Response of Wheel-Rail Interaction at Rail Weld in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a main part of continuously welded rail track, rail weld widely exists in high-speed railway. However, short-wave irregularities can easily initiate and develop in rail weld due to the limitation of welding technology and thus rail weld has been a main high-frequency excitation and is responsible for deterioration of track components. This work reports a 3D finite element model of wheel-rail rolling contact which can simulate dynamic wheel-rail interaction at arbitrary contact geometry up to 400 km/h. This model is employed to investigate dynamic response of wheel-rail interaction at theoretical and measured rail weld, including wheel-rail force and axle-box acceleration. These simulation results, combined with Quality Index (QI method, are used to develop a quantitative expression, which can be easily applied for evaluating rail weld deterioration based on measured rail profiles and axle-box acceleration.

  12. Structure and Properties of Thermite Welds in Premium Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Thermite welds were used to join combinations of premium rails and AREA Controlled Cooled Carbon rails (i.e., standard rails). The premium rails comprised head-hardened rails and CrMo, CrV and Cr alloy rails. A major objective was to determine the fe...

  13. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in

  14. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Board Action. SUMMARY: Subject to... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for U. S. Rail Corporation (U. S. Rail) to construct and operate a...

  15. Welding technology for rails. Rail no setsugo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Uchino, K.; Sugino, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Inst. of Yawata Works); Ueyama, K. (JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The rail joining technology is indispensable for making long welded rails. Flush butt welding, gas welding, enclosed arc welding, and thermit welding are used properly as the welding methods. A method for improving the joint reliability by controlling the residual stress distribution of welded joint is investigated to prepare high carbon component weld metal similar to the rail. Problems with each of the welding methods and the newly developed technology to solve the problems are outlined. Composition of the coating is improved also, and a high C system welding rod is developed which has satisfactory weldability. High performance and high efficient new enclosed arc welding technology not available by now is developed which utilizes high carbon welding metal as a new EA welding work technology, and put to practical use. As a result of this study, useful guides are obtained for the establishment of satisfactory thermit welding technology. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of rail infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This project resulted in three products: a comprehensive "Sustainable Rail Checklist," a rail planning GIS database, and a web GIS tool that integrates sustainability metrics and facilitates a rapid assessment before a formal NEPA process is implemen...

  17. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail Depreciation...

  18. ADA final rule : rail system accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This document evaluates the benefits, costs, and other impacts of a DOT rulemaking related to : the accessibility of commuter rail transportation and intercity passenger rail service. In keeping with Executive Order 12866, Executive Order 13563, and ...

  19. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  20. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  1. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA...

  2. Ruby on Rails: Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    This compact guide from O'Reilly teaches you the basics of Ruby on Rails, the super-productive new way to develop full-featured web applications. Discover how to install and use both the Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework. More advanced material shows you just how fast Ruby on Rails can go.

  3. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for...

  4. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.233 Rail joints. Each non-insulated rail joint located... than joint bars and the bonds shall be maintained in such condition to ensure electrical conductivity. ...

  5. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  6. Characterization of Stormwater Runoff from a Light Rail Transit Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Raja Umer; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Memon, Sheeraz; Sukhbaatar, Chinzorig; Paule, Ma Cristina; Lee, Bum-Yeon; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2015-09-01

    The monitoring of stormwater runoff from Light Rail Transit (LRT) facilities is insufficient in many regions around the world. In this study, runoff quality and quantity were monitored during operational and non-operational LRT phases during 2010-2013. The event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants showed little statistical variability during both phases. The antecedent dry day (ADD) showed a strong to moderate positive correlation with most pollutant EMCs during the non-operational phase. The existence and magnitude of the first flush from LRT runoff was found to be similar to those from other transportation land uses. The comparison of LRT runoff data with an adjacent road bridge site showed that the pollutant EMC and unit load were 2 to 9 times higher from the road bridge. It was suggested that LRT automated operation and the elevated track makes this transportation mode a viable option for the management of non-point source pollution.

  7. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhiping; Zhu, Kunteng; He, Xianfeng; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Lingkun; Lou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM). Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track i...

  8. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  9. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  10. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  11. Implementation of a bridge management system in the municipal environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available productivity, improved living conditions and greater prosperity (International Infrastructure Management Manual (IIMM) 2006). In South Africa, since the 1994 elections, the three tiers of government have been focusing on the delivery of basic services... were both critical in a structural sense. During the course of the visual inspection six bridges that require further investigation were identified. These are: 1. PW-81_02B - Dibanisa Road over rail, Swartkops 2. QB-83_01B - Baxter Street bridge...

  12. A single ended low Noise Rail to Rail CMOS Preamplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Trampitsch, G

    2007-01-01

    The CMOS scaling process that is mainly driven by the need to improve digital performance poses critical problems in terms of dynamic range to analog design. Conventional preamplifier-architectures that are considered as optimum design practice have proven useful for many decades. To overcome some of the new constraints a variety of components is available. This increases the number of necessary masks and therefore the cost of circuit fabrication. In order to cope with the constraints of today's low supply voltages a rail to rail charge sensitive preamplifier designed in a 0.13 mum process is presented. A comparison is made of the proposed design with conventional architectures. Design parameters like output swing ability, gain, bandwidth, power consumption and noise performance are investigated. Finally, experimental results from a prototype submission are presented.

  13. 77 FR 58624 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Crab Orchard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Progressive Rail Incorporated--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Lines of Crab Orchard & Egyptian Railroad Company Progressive Rail Incorporated (PGR), a Class III rail... & Egyptian Railroad Company (COER) and to operate 12.23 miles of COER's rail lines in Williamson County, Ill...

  14. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  15. Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves on Railroad Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    UMTA's Office of Rail Technology research programs aim to improve urban rail transportation systems safety. This rail-transit research study attempts to develop an onboard, separate and independent obstacle-detection system--Surface Electromagnetic W...

  16. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  17. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION: 30-day...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board... notice the Board is requesting comments on the following information collection: Title: Rail Depreciation...

  18. Light rail implementation : Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not

  19. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  20. 76 FR 22747 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holdings, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ..., Inc. (CSXT), in Georgiana, Ala., and milepost 581.3 at Andalusia, Ala.; \\3\\ and Docket No. FD 35489... the selling carrier's agreement with Andalusia & Conecuh Railroad Company to lease and operate a rail line in Andalusia. The parties intend to consummate the transaction on or after May 8, 2011. Rail...

  1. Research data supporting the paper "Integrated fibre-optic sensor networks as tools for monitoring strain development in bridges during construction"

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Liam J.; Gibbons, Niamh; Middleton, Campbell; Elshafie, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Strain data collected during the casting and curing of a concrete deck on a single span half-through composite rail-over-rail bridge near Stafford UK. The data was collected for the ME01 project being carried out in the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge. The ME01 project is a fibre optic instrumentation and dynamic monitoring programme at Norton Bridge, UK, part of the Stafford Area Improvements Programme (Staffordshire Alliance). The strain data was collected using fib...

  2. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  3. A low-voltage Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  4. Buckling analysis of continuous welded rail track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous welded rail track, compared to jointed track not only reduces maintenance costs, but also increases life time of track components and the comfort of passengers. Since expansion of the rails is hardly possible in CWR-track, a temperature increase will result in high compressive stresses

  5. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...... of infrastructure’. Ultimately, this work seeks to shed light on a number of ideas for future light rail research and practice....

  6. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  7. 49 CFR 172.508 - Placarding and affixing placards: Rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placarding and affixing placards: Rail. 172.508..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.508 Placarding and affixing placards: Rail. (a) Each person offering a hazardous material for transportation by rail shall affix to the rail car...

  8. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1... § 1146.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be... has been a substantial, measurable deterioration or other demonstrated inadequacy in rail service...

  9. 49 CFR 213.352 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...

  10. 75 FR 4703 - Track Safety Standards; Continuous Welded Rail (CWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Rail (CWR) AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... condition'' as they are used with regard to continuous welded rail (CWR). DATES: Effective Date: This final...-prone condition'' exists ``when the actual rail temperature is above the actual rail neutral temperature...

  11. 49 CFR 229.79 - Third rail shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third rail shoes. 229.79 Section 229.79....79 Third rail shoes. When locomotives are equipped with both third rail and overhead collectors, third-rail shoes shall be deenergized while in yards and at stations when current collection is...

  12. Developing course lecture notes on high-speed rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-15

    1. Introduction a. World-wide Development of High-Speed Rail (Japan, Europe, China) b. High-speed Rail in the U.S. 2. High-Speed Rail Infrastructure a. Geometric Design of High Speed Rail i. Horizontal Curve ii. Vertical Curve iii. Grade and Turnout ...

  13. Analysis of minimum rail size in heavy axle load environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of increasing axle loads on rail integrity are examined in this paper. In the present context, rail integrity refers to the prevention and control of rail failures. Rail failures usually occur because cracks or defects develop and grow fr...

  14. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  15. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail security coordinator. 1580.201 Section 1580... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION..., including heavy rail transit, light rail transit, automated guideway, cable car, inclined plane, funicular...

  16. Improving of operating ability of wheels and rail tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George TUMANISHVILI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of wheels and rails due to wear and rolling contact fatigue is one of the main problems in the railway transport. The values of creepage, sliding distance and wear rate of wheels and rails at rolling of a wheel on the rail greatly depend on geometric characteristics of working profiles of wheels and rails and location of wheels relative to rails. In the present work the functional requirements of various parts of profiles of wheels and rails and dominating kinds of their damage in various operating conditions are considered and a new profile of a wheel and device for fastening of rails are offered.

  17. 76 FR 75600 - Port Rail Link, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Union Pacific Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Port Rail Link, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Lines of Union Pacific Railroad Company and The Lake Charles Harbor and Terminal District Port Rail Link, Inc... lease from Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) and operate a 2.3-mile rail line between mileposts 9.45...

  18. 49 CFR 37.83 - Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of remanufactured rail vehicles by public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remanufacture of rail vehicles and purchase or lease of remanufactured rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.83... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) This section applies to any public entity operating a rapid or...

  19. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  20. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  1. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...

  2. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  3. Pulmonary embolism after long duration rail travel: economy class syndrome or rail coach syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S K; Chopra, S; Calton, R

    2011-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism after long duration air travel is well described. However it can also occur following a long duration rail or road transport. We present a case of 43 year old male who developed deep venous thrombosis and acute pulmonary embolism after a long rail journey. We propose to call it as rail coach syndrome and stress the need for taking the same preventive measures as recommended for airline passengers.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    OpenAIRE

    Velinets, V. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail ...

  5. High speed rail : challenges for the high speed rail project in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ringstad, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This Master Thesis has focus on parts of the public transport system in Norway. The main topic in this thesis is: What variables must be calculated for the decision concerning the construction and implementation of the Norwegian High Speed Rail project, and how are the variables calculated? High Speed Rail does not have a single standard definition. High Speed Rail definition, given in the European Union definition, Directive 96/48 is suitable for many different systems of rolling stock...

  6. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V......A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Velinets

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  8. Impact of the rail-pad multi-discrete model upon the prediction of the rail response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, T.; Leu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Wheel/rail vibration has many technical effects such as wear of the rolling surfaces, rolling noise, settlement of the ballast and subgrade etc. This vibration is depending on the rail pad characteristic and subsequently, it is important to have an accurate overview on the relation between the rail pad characteristic and the level of the wheel/rail vibration. To this end, much theoretical and experimental research has been developed in the past, and for the theoretical approach the track model, in general, and, particularly, the rail pad model is of crucial importance. Usually, the rail pad model is discrete model one, neglecting the length of the rail pad. This fact is questionable because the sleepers span is only 4 times the rail pad length. Using the rail pad discrete model, the rail response is overestimated when the frequency of the excitation equals the pinned-pinned resonance frequency. In this paper, a multi-discrete model for the rail pad, consisting in many Kelvin-Voigt parallel systems, is inserted into an analytical model of the track. The track model is reduced to a rail taken as infinite Timoshenko beam, discretely supported via rail pad, sleeper and ballast. The influence of the number of Kelvin-Voigt systems of the rail pad model on the rail response is analysed.

  9. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  10. Rail Engineering and Education Symposium Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    The objective of this project is to develop curricular materials for the Rail Engineering and Education : Symposia held in the summers of 2012 and 2014. : Description of Activities : The main approach to accomplish the activity is to develop and deli...

  11. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  12. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  13. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  14. California Clapper Rail Survey 1978-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) was conducted from December 1978 through July 1979 in the San Francisco, Monterey and Morro...

  15. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  16. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of rail corrugation on the behaviour of rail fastenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Shang, Hongxia; Xiao, Xinbiao; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation of the effects of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of metro rail fastenings, obtained from extensive experiments conducted on site and from simulations of train-track dynamics. The results of tests conducted with a metro train operating on corrugated tracks are presented and discussed first. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the metro train and a slab track was developed using multi-body dynamics modelling and the finite element method to simulate the effect of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of rail fastenings. In the model, the metro train is modelled as a multi-rigid body system, and the slab track is modelled as a discrete elastic support system consisting of two Timoshenko beams for the rails, a 3D solid finite element (FE) model for the slabs, periodic discrete viscoelastic elements for the rail fastenings that connect the rails to the slabs, and uniformly viscoelastic elements for the subgrade beneath the slabs. The proposed train-track model was used to investigate the effects of rail corrugation on the dynamic behaviour of the metro track system and fastenings. An FE model for the rail fastenings was also developed and was used to calculate the stresses in the clips, some of which rupture under the excitation of rail corrugation. The results of the field experiments and dynamics simulations provide an insight into the root causes of the fracture of the clips, and several remedies are suggested for mitigating strong vibrations and failure of metro rail fastening systems.

  18. Three-dimensional Finite Element Modelling of Composite Slabs for High Speed Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlilo, Nhlanganiso; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-12-01

    Currently precast steel-concrete composite slabs are being considered on railway bridges as a viable alternative replacement for timber sleepers. However, due to their nature and the loading conditions, their behaviour is often complex. Present knowledge of the behaviour of precast steel-concrete composite slabs subjected to rail loading is limited. FEA is an important tool used to simulate real life behaviour and is widely accepted in many disciples of engineering as an alternative to experimental test methods, which are often costly and time consuming. This paper seeks to detail FEM of precast steel-concrete slabs subjected to standard in-service loading in high-speed rail with focus on the importance of accurately defining material properties, element type, mesh size, contacts, interactions and boundary conditions that will give results representative of real life behaviour. Initial finite element model show very good results, confirming the accuracy of the modelling procedure

  19. Sexing California Clapper Rails using morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Rohmer, Tobias M.

    2009-01-01

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) have monomorphic plumage, a trait that makes identification of sex difficult without extensive behavioral observation or genetic testing. Using 31 Clapper Rails (22 females, 9 males), caught in south San Francisco Bay, CA, and using easily measurable morphological characteristics, we developed a discriminant function to distinguish sex. We then validated this function on 33 additional rails. Seven morphological measurements were considered, resulting in three which were selected in the discriminate function: culmen length, tarsometatarsus length, and flat wing length. We had no classification errors for the development or testing datasets either with resubstitution or cross-validation procedures. Male California Clapper Rails were 6-22% larger than females for individual morphological traits, and the largest difference was in body mass.  Variables in our discriminant function closely match variables developed for sexing Clapper Rails of Gulf Coast populations. However, a universal discriminant function to sex all Clapper Rail subspecies is not likely because of large and inconsistent differences in morphological traits among subspecies. 

  20. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.

    2016-11-01

    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  1. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

  2. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  3. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  4. Analyses of rail vehicle dynamics in support of development of the wheel rail dynamics research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-30

    The development of experimental facilities for rail vehicle testing at the DOT High Speed Ground Test Center is being complemented by analytical studies. The purpose of this effort has been to gain insight into the dynamics of rail vehicles to guide ...

  5. Theoretical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Rail Damper to Minimize Short-Pitch Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cologne-egg fastening systems applied in metro lines, which can be subjected to rail corrugation, are considered in this paper. To understand the mechanism of the formation and development of rail corrugation, dynamic models of the wheel and the track with Cologne-egg fastening system in the frequency domain are developed to analyse the wheel and track vibration behaviour. A field test is also analysed to verify the validity of the mechanism. Using these experimental and theoretical results, the vibration mode of the rail that is responsible for rail corrugation is determined. Based on the results, a novel rail damper that can suppress the track pinned-pinned resonance and smooth the track receptance is presented to minimize short-pitch rail corrugation. It is ultimately found from theoretical simulation and experimental investigation that the application of the rail damper is a long-term and effective method of controlling short-pitch rail corrugation in metro lines.

  6. Effects of rail materials and axle loads on the wear behavior of wheel/rail steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of rail steels were tested to investigate the wear behaviors of wheel–rail materials under three kinds of axle loads. Results indicate that the increase in axle load not only significantly enlarges the wear loss but also enlarges the depth and the length of the fatigue cracks. However, with the decreases in the hardness ratios, some ripples are exhibited on the surface, and the wear surfaces become much rougher; the subsurface analyses deliver the presence of extremely rough surface, and the deformation depths are irregular. The relationship between the total wear loss of the wheel/rail system and the hardness ratio indicates that the hardness ratio of wheel/rail steels has slight impact on the total wear loss at a low axle load; however, the decrease in the hardness ratio enlarges the total wear loss significantly at a high axle load. In summary, a quenched rail should be chosen for the heavy-haul railway, and the hardness of the wheel steel should be raised to a degree close to the rail. However, a hot rolled rail is much suitable for the high-speed railway, and the wheel hardness should be smaller than the rail.

  7. Effect of Wheel/Rail Loads on Concrete Tie Stresses and Rail Rollover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    As a result of vertical and lateral wheel/rail forces, high contact stresses can develop at the interface between the rail base and tie. Under certain conditions, these stresses can exceed the strength of the concrete tie and result in deterioration ...

  8. A low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor adapter circuit suitable for input rail-to-rail operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Nikša; Zogović, Milena; Banjević, Mirjana; Zimmermann, Horst

    2010-11-01

    In this article, a low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) input signal adapter (ISA) suitable for input rail-to-rail operation of various types of analogue basic building blocks is presented. The adapter acts as a pre-stage with infinite input resistance and linear transfer characteristics. Its input signal is translated into the region fitting the operating range of the following stage. The generality of the proposed method is proven through the application of the ISA in different types of analogue basic building blocks designed in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. They are the following: below-negative-rail-to-above-positive-rail voltage-controlled transconductor, quasi rail-to-rail voltage-controlled resistor (VCR), rail-to-rail operational amplifier (OA) and quasi rail-to-rail second generation current conveyor. The proposed negative resistance quasi rail-to-rail VCR and rail-to-rail OA have been used in a Sallen and Key band-pass filter. All of these analogue basic building blocks and their applications in the form of the Sallen and Key band-pass filter operate from a single supply of 1.5 V. Simulation results confirm the predictions of the analysis performed.

  9. Bridge management systems: An asset management tool for road structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , Class of structure, Detour length, etc... ? Secondary to optimisation process Condition Asset Value ? CSIR 2012 Slide 47 ? Based on the DEPRECIATED REPLACEMENT COST method. ? Asset Value derived from the following: ? Replacement cost... ? Percentage depreciation ? Maintenance cost AV = (RC x d) - MC Where: AV = Asset Value in Rand RC = Replacement Cost in Rand d = Percentage Depreciation MC= Maintenance Cost in Rand Case Study 1 Burman Road/Rail Bridge D = 4 spall Burman Road...

  10. Numerical Investigation on Wheel-Rail Dynamic Vibration Excited by Rail Spalling in High-Speed Railway

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiyun Wang; Wanming Zhai; Kaikai Lv; Zaigang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Spalling in contact surface of rail is a typical form of rolling contact fatigue, which is a difficult problem to solve in railway. Once the spalling occurs in the rail, the wheel-rail dynamic interaction will become more severe. The wheel-rail dynamic interaction is investigated based on the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics in this paper, where the excitation modes of the rail spalling failure are taken into consideration for high-speed wheel-rail system. A modified excitation model ...

  11. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiar L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A. This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  12. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  13. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  14. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., telephone (202) 493-6399; or Ms. Elisabeth Galotto, Trial Attorney, Office of Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200 New... rail gap, defective joint bolts, disturbed ballast, surface deviations, gap between tie plates and rail...

  15. Wheel load cycle tag for rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has determined that there is a research need to collect and analyze statistical usage : data to help ascertain the cumulative load-induced fatigue on rail track segments. The estimation of rail segment burden...

  16. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail. ...

  17. 76 FR 25278 - Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed..., will be starting construction of the new Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge on July 1, 2011 (with in... traffic. The rule will only limit entry into certain areas of the river for safety; the other section of...

  18. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  19. Characterization of deformed pearlitic rail steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Dimitrios; Meyer, Knut Andreas; Ahlström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Pearlitic steels are commonly used for railway rails because they combine good strength and wear properties. During service, the passage of trains results in a large accumulation of shear strains in the surface layer of the rail, leading to crack initiation. Knowledge of the material properties in this region is therefore important for fatigue life prediction. As the strain is limited to a thin surface layer, very large strain gradients can be found. This makes it very difficult to quantify changes in material behavior. In this study hardness measurements were performed close to the surface using the Knoop hardness test method. The orientation of the pearlitic lamellas was measured to give an overview of the deformed microstructure in the surface of the rail. Microstructural characterization of the material was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the changes in the microstructure due to the large deformation. A strong gradient can be observed in the top 50 μm of the rail, while deeper into the rail the microstructure of the base material is preserved.

  20. 77 FR 12366 - JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey-Operation Exemption-Rail Line in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey-- Operation Exemption--Rail Line in Salem County, N.J. JP Rail, Inc. d/b/a Southern Railroad Company of New Jersey (JP Rail), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  1. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  2. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  3. 49 CFR 213.237 - Inspection of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of rail. 213.237 Section 213.237..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection § 213.237 Inspection of rail. (a) In addition... made of all rail in Classes 4 through 5 track, and Class 3 track over which passenger trains operate...

  4. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The outer edge of a wheel tread shall not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each...

  5. 49 CFR 1147.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1147.1... 11102 FOR SERVICE INADEQUACIES § 1147.1 Prescription of alternative rail service. (a) General. Alternative rail service will be prescribed under 49 U.S.C. 11102(a), 11102(c) or 10705(a) if the Board...

  6. 49 CFR 236.711 - Bond, rail joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond, rail joint. 236.711 Section 236.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bond, rail joint. A metallic connection attached to adjoining rails to insure electrical conductivity. ...

  7. 78 FR 76098 - Rail Transportation of Grain, Rate Regulation Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X Rail Transportation of Grain, Rate Regulation Review AGENCY... shippers and provide effective protection against unreasonable freight rail transportation rates. DATES.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 2, 2006, the Board held a hearing in Rail Transportation of Grain, Docket...

  8. A big data analysis approach for rail failure risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by

  9. 49 CFR 172.510 - Special placarding provisions: Rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special placarding provisions: Rail. 172.510..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.510 Special placarding provisions: Rail. (a... EXPLOSIVES 1.1 or EXPLOSIVES 1.2 placards affixed to the rail car; (2) Materials classed in Division 2.3...

  10. 49 CFR 266.15 - Requirements for State Rail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for State Rail Plan. 266.15 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR LOCAL RAIL SERVICE UNDER SECTION 5 OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.15 Requirements for State Rail Plan. (a) State planning process. The...

  11. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through 5...

  12. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) ...............................................................................................5 High Speed Rail In...conventional steel wheel on steel rail technology, or magnetic levitation (in which superconducting magnets levitate a train above a guide rail...transported.14 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Maglev train technology was developed in the United States in the 1960s. It uses electromagnets to suspend

  13. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface... solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act of 2008 amended the U.S. Code to restrict the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The...

  14. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface...) over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act also added three new statutory... the Board, a solid waste rail transfer facility need not comply with State laws, regulations, orders...

  15. On-line high-speed rail defect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    This report presents the results of phase 2 of the project On-line high-speed rail defect detection aimed at improving the reliability and the speed of current defect detection in rails. Ultrasonic guided waves, traveling in the rail running di...

  16. 49 CFR 234.235 - Insulated rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulated rail joints. 234.235 Section 234.235 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.235 Insulated rail joints. Each insulated rail joint used...

  17. 49 CFR 236.59 - Insulated rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulated rail joints. 236.59 Section 236.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.59 Insulated rail joints. Insulated rail joints shall be maintained...

  18. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...

  19. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  20. Dynamic characteristics of old railway steel bridges in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maha M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic response of existing railway bridges is influenced by many factors including structural properties, railway traffic speed, and train-to-bridge frequency. Excessive vibrations cause passengers’ discomfort, rail elements deterioration, higher derailment risks, fatigue deformation problems, stress amplification, and eventually high maintenance costs. In such cases, applied remedies include limiting traffic speed or changing bridge mass or stiffness. Traffic induced vibrations can also be mitigated by enhancing structural damping through application of Tuned Mass Dampers. Egypt has one of the oldest railway transportation network with several steel bridges crossing the Nile River, in addition to several canals. In a running project, dynamic properties of selective bridges on the Egyptian railway networks infrastructures are investigated through extensive field testing. The considered bridges cover a wide range of structural properties including simply-supported and continuous bridges, spans ranging between 40 to 90 m, single and double track lines, and open timber bridges. Field tests results are studied; hence, key factors affecting bridge dynamic characteristics are discussed and highlighted. Moreover, results are compared with those extracted from finite element analyses. The project aims at evaluating the possibility of excessive vibration problems while considering different values of train velocities. In the current study, focus is given to two example bridges. Field and numerical results are exhibited and discussed. Eventually, possibility of excessive vibration problems are determined considering different values of train velocities. It was observed that available formulas in current design codes do not capture warping and torsional modes that present fundamental modes for truss bridges. In addition, existing railway bridges do not satisfy serviceability limit states when considering high speed trains.

  1. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  2. Theoretical Examination Of The Longitudinal Behaviour Of Embedded Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    The longitudinal behaviour of embedded rails significantly differs from that of ballasted or slab tracks with direct rail fastenings. As the ambient temperature rises and falls, rails expand and contract, thereby imposing stress on the channel and embedding compound. In the article the author presents the creation of a method that makes the calculation and the inspection of embedded rails simpler and closer to the everyday engineering mentality. The design process includes an analysis of the displacement and normal forces along a rail axis.

  3. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  4. 49 CFR 213.337 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (9) Engine burn fracture means a progressive fracture originating in spots where driving wheels have... rail to 30 m.p.h. until joint bars are applied; thereafter, limit speed to 50 m.p.h. When a search for... used in this section— (1) Transverse fissure means a progressive crosswise fracture starting from a...

  5. GasRail USA. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, David [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Hedrick, John [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Bourn, Gary [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Kubesh, John [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2000-07-13

    Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) began a cooperative research program (GasRail USA) aimed at demonstrating the environmental and economic benefits of using natural gas as a locomotive fuel in California and other parts of the United States in September 1993. Reduced exhaust emissions were the primary focus of this program.

  6. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  7. High-speed Rail & air transport competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, N; Nash, C.; Pels, E.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops a methodology to assess infrastructure investments and their effects on transport equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub-and-spoke legacy airlines and regional low-cost

  8. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been ...

  9. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of

  10. Immersive visualization of rail simulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The prime objective of this project was to create scientific, immersive visualizations of a Rail-simulation. This project is a part of a larger initiative that consists of three distinct parts. The first step consists of performing a finite element a...

  11. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  12. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  13. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and shipping information for certain rail... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Freight Rail Including Freight Railroad Carriers, Rail Hazardous Materials Shippers, Rail Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.103 Location and shipping information...

  14. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

  15. Acces to railway stations and its potential in increasing rail use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2008-01-01

    The propensity to travel by rail, and not, for example by car, can be considered to be a factor of the rail service offered, the access to it and the characteristics of the population served. Efforts to increase rail use usually focus on the rail service itself while the accessibility of the rail

  16. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  17. Numerical Investigation on Wheel-Rail Dynamic Vibration Excited by Rail Spalling in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalling in contact surface of rail is a typical form of rolling contact fatigue, which is a difficult problem to solve in railway. Once the spalling occurs in the rail, the wheel-rail dynamic interaction will become more severe. The wheel-rail dynamic interaction is investigated based on the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics in this paper, where the excitation modes of the rail spalling failure are taken into consideration for high-speed wheel-rail system. A modified excitation model of rail spalling failure is proposed. It can enable the investigations on two kinds of excitation modes in wheel-rail system due to the rail spalling, including the pulse and the harmonic excitation modes. The excitation mode can be determined by the ratio of the spalling length to its critical length. Thus, the characteristics of wheel-rail dynamic vibration excited by two kinds of excitation are simulated in detail. Consequently, the limited value of the spalling length is suggested for high-speed railway.

  18. Random Vibration Analysis of Train Moving over Slab Track on Bridge under Track Irregularities and Earthquakes by Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the random vibration and the dynamic reliability of operation stability of train moving over slab track on bridge under track irregularities and earthquakes by the pseudoexcitation method (PEM. Each vehicle is modeled by multibody dynamics. The track and bridge is simulated by a rail-slab-girder-pier interaction finite element model. The coupling equations of motion are established based on the wheel-rail interaction relationship. The random excitations of the track irregularities and seismic accelerations are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudoexcitations by PEM. The time-dependent power spectral densities (PSDs of the random vibration of the system are obtained by step-by-step integration method, and the corresponding dynamic reliability is estimated based on the first-passage failure criterion. A case study is then presented in which a high-speed train moves over a slab track resting on a simply supported girder bridge. The PSD characteristics of the random vibration of the bridge and train are analyzed, the influence of the wheel-rail-bridge interaction models on the random vibration of the bridge and train is discussed, and furthermore the influence of train speed, earthquake intensity, and pier height on the dynamic reliability of train operation stability is studied.

  19. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  20. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.

    2017-09-01

    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 - 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  1. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Analysis of a Rail Gun Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    similar, at least superficially, to ball lightning . This observation prompted a review of ball lightning phenomena to determine if the mechanisms...responsible for the propagation of ball lightning might be relevant for rail gun arcs. Unfortunately, due to the rare and unpredictable occurrence...of ball lightning , there is little experimental data available. The "data" which does exist consists of descriptions, or photographs at best, of

  3. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Adler; Chris Nash; Eric Pels

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers, maximize profit functions via prices, frequency and train/plane sizes, given infrastructure provision and costs and environmental charges. The methodology is subsequently applied to all 27 Europea...

  4. Software Testing using Ruby on Rails framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jurglič, Matic

    2014-01-01

    In the world of modern web applications and open source technologies there is a rising in popularity of using test driven development methodologies in software development. The main advantages of writing tests are easier error discovery, more effective development process, and consequently higher product quality. This thesis describes common testing techniques and focuses on usage in Ruby on Rails framework, which has a vibrant open source community with a culture that strongly emphasizes...

  5. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jianxi Wang; Zhiqiang Ren; Jinjie Chen; Long Chen

    2017-01-01

      This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail...

  6. Interactions between rail and road safety in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W; Addison, John D

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an investigation into ways in which the safety risks of travel on road and rail interact with each other in Great Britain, other than through physical contact such as at level crossings. The two main foci of the paper are: (1) an analysis of the 'whole journey' risks of journeys for which the national rail system is the main mode, but which also include stages by other transport modes to provide access to the railway system; and (2) an analysis of the effect on safety risk of inter-modal transfers between rail and road. On (1), walking to and from stations was estimated to account on average for 65% of the overall door-to-door risk of being killed on rail journeys; the rail system itself accounts for 21% of the risk, and other access modes account for the remaining 14%. The average distance walked to and from stations is 0.9 km per rail journey, and this walking accounts for 5% of all walking nationally. On (2), it was found that increasing rail fares to fund railway safety measures may lead passengers to switch from rail to car, but for most sensible rail safety measures, the additional risks from such diversions are small compared with the intended rail safety benefits. However, for high-cost rail safety measures funded by passengers, the additional risks from diversions may be of the same order as the intended safety benefits. The last section of the paper explores the effects of variations in the casualty rates of rail users as pedestrians and car users, because their road risks may be different from those of all road users. Such variations could alter the detailed conclusions of the paper, but the scale of such effects appears to be modest.

  7. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  8. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  9. 78 FR 36017 - MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-Operation Exemption-Hilco SP Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-- Operation Exemption--Hilco SP Rail, LLC MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad (MCM), a noncarrier... agreement with Hilco SP Rail, LLC (Hilco).\\1\\ MCM states that there are no mileposts on the Line. \\1\\ Hilco...

  10. Fatigue life investigation of UIC 54 rail profile for high speed rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurubaran, P.; Afendi, M.; Nur Fareisha, M. A.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Haftirman, I.; Rahman, M. T. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study is to investigate the fatigue life of high speed rail in Malaysia. This paper describes about the experimental and simulation analysis investigation on fatigue life of rail profile UIC 54 using bulk specimen according to ASTM E 466-15 standard. The Fatigue life testing was performed in the fatigue testing machine (Instron 8800) 100 kN. Meanwhile, the fatigue life analysis was performed in ANSYS Workbench 14.5. Furthermore, the stress levels for experimental testing were applied as 16.7%, 25%, 35%, 50%, 58.3%, 66.77% and 75% with machine frequency of 20 Hz. Apart from that, the total fatigue life cycles for rail profile UIC 54 were acquired from both experimental and simulation. The fatigue life S-N curves were plotted and validated with the results of the simulation analysis with experimental results.

  11. Improving Rail Wear and RCF Performance using Laser Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, S.R.; Fretwell-Smith, S.; Goodwin, P.S.; Smith, L.; Lewis, R.; Aslam, M.; Fletcher, D.I.; Murray, K.; Lambert, R.

    2016-01-01

    Laser cladding has been considered as a method for improving the wear and RCF performance of standard grade rail. This paper presents results of small scale tests carried out to assess the wear and RCF performance of rail which had been laser clad. Using the laser cladding process premium metals can be deposited on to the working surface of standard rail with the aim of enhancing the wear and RCF life of the rail. Various laser clad samples were tested using a twin-disc method. The candidate ...

  12. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which...... is disposed close to the inner side of the screw web of an outer rail, preferably two stop pins disposed opposite each other close to the inner side of the screw webs of the outer rail, where each stop pin furthermore is provided with a support flange for supporting an end part of the reinforcement web...... of the intermediate rail. The fastening means of the outer rail may thus include one, two or more stop pins, and one or more resilient lock pins. Hereby may be achieved provision of a tool-free assembly method for the sectional rail system and that by screwing on plate covering close to the edge part...

  13. A Big Data Analysis Approach for Rail Failure Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ali; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrzad; Hajizadeh, Siamak; Núñez, Alfredo; Babuska, Robert; Dollevoet, Rolf; Li, Zili; De Schutter, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks. We measure the visual length of the squats and use them to model the failure risk. For the assessment of the rail failure risk, we estimate the probability of rail failure based on the growth of squats. Moreover, we perform severity and crack growth analyses to consider the impact of rail traffic loads on defects in three different growth scenarios. The failure risk estimations are provided for several samples of squats with different crack growth lengths on a busy rail track of the Dutch railway network. The results illustrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Modelling of dynamic contact length in rail grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Shaodan; Li, Jianyong; Zarembski, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Rails endure frequent dynamic loads from the passing trains for supporting trains and guiding wheels. The accumulated stress concentrations will cause the plastic deformation of rail towards generating corrugations, contact fatigue cracks and also other defects, resulting in more dangerous status even the derailment risks. So the rail grinding technology has been invented with rotating grinding stones pressed on the rail with defects removal. Such rail grinding works are directed by experiences rather than scientifically guidance, lacking of flexible and scientific operating methods. With grinding control unit holding the grinding stones, the rail grinding process has the characteristics not only the surface grinding but also the running railway vehicles. First of all, it's important to analyze the contact length between the grinding stone and the rail, because the contact length is a critical parameter to measure the grinding capabilities of stones. Moreover, it's needed to build up models of railway vehicle unit bonded with the grinding stone to represent the rail grinding car. Therefore the theoretical model for contact length is developed based on the geometrical analysis. And the calculating models are improved considering the grinding car's dynamic behaviors during the grinding process. Eventually, results are obtained based on the models by taking both the operation parameters and the structure parameters into the calculation, which are suitable for revealing the process of rail grinding by combining the grinding mechanism and the railway vehicle systems.

  15. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  16. High-speed rail-coming to America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Ossian

    2009-01-01

    The United States lags many parts of the world when it comes to high-speed rail. But investing in high-speed rail could help us through current problems. Funds- $8 billion-in the economic stimulus package passed by Congress are designated for high-speed rail. Other funds in the pipeline total approximately $15.5 billion. High-speed rail can relieve congestion, free up national airspace, provide reliable transportation and positive economic development, create jobs, and is more energy efficient than other modes of travel.

  17. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  18. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  19. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  20. Application of trapped rail vehicles in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This paper introduced a KCY-6/900 trapped rail vehicle which is composed of main components, such as drive unit, car body unit, rail and guided wheel unit, electric control, and traffic signal and communication system. During a trial in a mine, it ran 423 times with a total material load of 1504 tonnes. The paper states that the tendency is to develop a conventional trapped vehicle for technical improvement in old mines, a narrow trapped rail vehicle for small cross-section openings and a flexible self-driven trapped rail vehicle with autocontrol and mechanization of loading points.

  1. Strain-Based Evaluation of a Steel Through-Girder Railroad Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Daumueller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of New Mexico (USA, passenger rail began in 2008 between Belen and Santa Fe on the Rail Runner, following the acquisition of about 100 miles of existing rail and related infrastructure. Many of the bridges on this route are over 100 years old and contain fatigue prone details. This study focuses on a steel through-girder bridge along this corridor. To accurately evaluate these structures for load carrying capacity and fatigue, an accurate analytical model is required. Accordingly, four models were developed to study the sensitivity of a bridge in New Mexico to floor-system connection fixity and the ballast. A diagnostic load test was also performed to evaluate the accuracy of the finite-element models at locations of maximum moments. Comparisons between the simulated and measured bridge response were made based on strain profiles, peak strains, and Palmgren-Miner’s sums. It was found that the models including the ballast were most accurate. In most cases, the pinned ended models were closer to the measured strains. The floor beams and girders were relatively insensitive to the ballast and end conditions of the floor-system members, whereas the stringers were sensitive to the modeling of the ballast.

  2. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter

    2010-05-15

    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  3. Bridging consent: from toll bridges to lift bridges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoppers Bartha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to share human biological samples, associated data and results across disease-specific and population-based human research biobanks is becoming increasingly important for research into disease development and translation. Although informed consent often does not anticipate such cross-domain sharing, it is important to examine its plausibility. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of bridging consent between disease-specific and population-based research. Comparative analyses of 1 current ethical and legal frameworks governing consent and 2 informed consent models found in disease-specific and population-based research were conducted. Discussion Ethical and legal frameworks governing consent dissuade cross-domain data sharing. Paradoxically, analysis of consent models for disease-specific and population-based research reveals such a high degree of similarity that bridging consent could be possible if additional information regarding bridging was incorporated into consent forms. We submit that bridging of consent could be supported if current trends endorsing a new interpretation of consent are adopted. To illustrate this we sketch potential bridging consent scenarios. Summary A bridging consent, respectful of the spirit of initial consent, is feasible and would require only small changes to the content of consents currently being used. Under a bridging consent approach, the initial data and samples collection can serve an identified research project as well as contribute to the creation of a resource for a range of other projects.

  4. Keeping rail on track: preliminary findings on safety culture in Australian rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Verna; Rainbird, Sophia; Dorrian, Jill; Paterson, Jessica; Cattani, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    'Safety culture' is identified in the literature as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces. How can rail organizations ensure that consistently effective work health and safety cultures are maintained across the diversity of their operations? This paper reports on research that is currently underway in the Australian rail industry aimed at producing a Model of Best Practice in Safety Culture for the industry. Located in rail organizations dedicated to the mining industry as well as urban rail and national freight operations, the research examines the constructs of organizational culture that impact on the development and maintenance of healthy and safe workplaces. The research uses a multi-method approach incorporating quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus groups, interviews and document analysis) methods along with a participative process to identify interventions to improve the organization and develop plans for their implementation. The research uses as its analytical framework the 10 Platinum Rules, from the findings of earlier research in the New South Wales (Australia) mining industry, Digging Deeper. Data collection is underway at the time of writing and preliminary findings are presented at this stage. The research method may be adapted for use as a form of organizational review of safety and health in organizational culture.

  5. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  6. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  7. Movable bridge maintenance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Movable bridges have particular maintenance issues, which cost considerably more than those of fixed bridges, : mostly because of the complex interaction of the mechanical, electrical and structural components. In order to track : maintenance and ope...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-ping Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived according to energy principle. By regarding rail irregularity as a series of multipoint, different-phase random excitations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are obtained by pseudoexcitation method. Taking a nine-span simply supported beam bridge traveled by a train consisting of 8 vehicles as an example, the vertical random vibration responses of the system are investigated. Firstly, the suitable number of discrete frequencies of rail irregularity is obtained by numerical experimentations. Secondly, the reliability and efficiency of pseudoexcitation method are verified through comparison with Monte Carlo method. Thirdly, the random vibration characteristics of train-slab track-bridge interaction system are analyzed by pseudoexcitation method. Finally, applying the 3σ rule for Gaussian stochastic process, the maximum responses of train-slab track-bridge interaction system with respect to various train speeds are studied.

  9. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  10. Low Adhesion in the Wheel-Rail Contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion, or adhesion coefficient, is given by the ratio of the longitudinal tangential (i.e., braking or traction) force over the normal force at the wheel-rail contact. The tangential force that a braking or tractive railway wheel can exert on a rail is limited by the friction coefficient

  11. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  12. Recent changes in costs of shipping forest products by rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine C. Jackson

    1988-01-01

    Costs for shipping lumber, plywood, and paper by rail are used by the USDA Forest Service in periodic timber assessments to measure the average cost of transporting forest products from producing locations to the point of final consumption. The Staggers Rail Act of 1980 authorized deregulation of the Nation's railroads. The purposes of this study were to determine...

  13. Cleveland-Columbus-Cincinnati high-speed rail study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In the past five years, the evaluation of different high-speed rail (HSR) studies in the Midwest has resulted in a realization that high speed rail, with speeds greater than 110 miles per hour, is too expensive in the short term to be implemented in ...

  14. Florida High Speed Rail Authority - 2003 report to the legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Since its last full report to the Legislature in January 2002, the Florida High Speed Rail Authority (FHSRA) has continued to fulfill the duties defined in the Florida High Speed Rail Authority Act, Section 341.8201 to 341.842, Florida Statutes. The ...

  15. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  16. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  17. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  18. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In these notes the fundamentals of the mechanics of rail/wheel contact and deterministic vehicle dynamics is explained. Chapter 1 describes the kinematics and dynamics of rail/wheel contact. Chapter 2 explains why vehicle dynamics must be treated as a nonlinear dynamic problem and how the model...

  19. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  20. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and locomotives shall be maintained in functional condition. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57...

  2. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... locally generated electricity (currently coalbased, but partially switchable to renewable energy in the future). The critical requirement, however, is to determine exactly how much freight, and specifically which freight, can switch to rail. In order to identify the freight flows that will exploit rail's economic fundamentals, a market ...

  3. 46 CFR 72.40-5 - Where rails required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business of the vessel, as in the case of a sport fishing vessel, other arrangements may be specifically..., excursion vessels, and vessels of a similar type, the space below the top of the rail shall be fitted with suitable wire mesh or the equivalent. Depending upon the type of construction, the lower rail courses may...

  4. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  5. Control Measurements of Crane Rails Performed by Terrestrial Laser Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregar, Klemen; Možina, Jan; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Kogoj, Dušan; Marjetič, Aleš; Štebe, Gašper; Savšek, Simona

    2017-07-20

    This article presents a method for measuring the geometry of crane rails with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Two sets of crane rails were divided into segments, their planes were adjusted, and the characteristic rail lines were defined. We used their profiles to define the positional and altitude deviations of the rails, the span and height difference between the two rails, and we also verified that they complied with the Eurocode 3 standard. We tested the method on crane rails at the hydroelectric power plant in Krško and the thermal power plant in Brestanica. We used two scanning techniques: "pure" TLS (Riegel VZ-400) and "hybrid" TLS (Leica MS50) scanning. This article's original contribution lies in the detailed presentation of the computations used to define the characteristic lines of the rails without using the numeric procedures from existing software packages. We also analysed the influence of segment length and point density on the rail geometry results, and compared the two laser scanning techniques. We also compared the results obtained by terrestrial laser scanning with the results obtained from the classic polar method, which served as a reference point for its precision.

  6. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal | Goo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheel/rail squeal noise of trains is one of the challenging problems of trains, but a successful model for the squeal problem has not been presented until now. In this study, a new approach was presented to investigate the basic mechanism of the wheel/rail squeal noise, using complex eigenvalue analysis by the finite ...

  7. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  8. Bridge Crossing Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-07

    support the durability testing of Military Bridging and Gap Crossing Equipment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bridge Crossing Simulator Trilateral Design... Trilateral Design and Test Code for Military Bridging and Gap Crossing Equipment (TDTC) 1* is derived based on the number of samples the test bridge...Automotive and Armaments Command TARDEC U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center TDTC Trilateral Design and Test Code

  9. All aboard for high-speed rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    1996-09-01

    A sleek, bullet-nosed train whizzing across the countryside is a fairly common sight in many nations. Since the Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV)--the record-setting ``train with great speed``--was introduced in France in 1981, Germany, Japan, and other countries have joined the high-speed club. In addition, the Eurostar passenger train, which travels between Great Britain and France through the Channel Tunnel, can move at 186 miles per hour once it reaches French tracks. Despite the technology`s growth elsewhere, rapid rail travel has not been seen on US shores beyond a few test runs by various manufacturers. Before the end of the century, however, American train spotters will finally be able to see some very fast trains here too. In March, Washington, DC-based Amtrak announced the purchase of 18 American Flyer high-speed train sets for the Northeast Corridor, which stretches from Boston through new York to the nation`s capital. Furthermore, Florida will get its own system by 2004, and other states are now taking a look at the technology. The American Flyer--designed by Montreal-based Bombardier and TGV manufacturer GEC Alsthom Transport in Paris--should venture onto US rails by 1999. Traveling at up to 150 miles per hour, the American Flyer will cut the New York-Boston run from 4 1/2 hours to 3 hours and reduce New York-Washington trip time from 3 hours to less than 2 3/4. Amtrak hopes the new trains and better times will earn it a greater share of travelers from air shuttles and perhaps from Interstate 95. This article describes how technologies that tilt railcars and propel the world`s fastest trains will be merged into one train set for the American Flyer, Amtrak`s first trip along high-speed rails.

  10. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  11. Application of a trapped rail vehicle in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This paper introduces a KCY-6/900 trapped rail vehicle which is composed with four main components, such as drive unit, car body unit, rail and guided wheel unit, and electric control, traffic signal and communication system. During a trial in a mine, it ran 423 times with a total material load of 1504 tonnes. It has run 1350 hours and a distance of 533 km. As for the development of the trapped rail vehicle in our country, the author states that it is to develop a conventional trapped vehicle for a technical improvement in old mines, to develop narrow trapped rail vehicle for small cross-sections openings and flexible self-driven trapped rail vehicle, and to realize autocontrol and mechanization of loading points.

  12. Rail Outloading Capability Study, Fort Polk, Louisiana,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    ihcl Ptgur" ’.I 4. hail at wnslod away f,,. ,otnd _S or--- -- t-es -_ in vera Ipl n. (tSpr No No (;.,d YeS 14 -0.d Usahir, poort .ottiin Figure 6Paved...checks" mean hair fine by a flat spot on the running surface. The cracks which appear in the gage corner defect appears as a crack lengthwise of of the...the requirements for continuous correct the deficiencies. If shims are used, welded rail track prescribed in this part. they must be removed and

  13. Numerical Modelling of the Dynamic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Considering Vehicle-Structure and Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Agapii, L.; Sneideris, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the dynamic analysis of a multi-support bridge structure exposed to high-speed railway traffic. The proposed computational model has a unified approach for simultaneously accounting for the bridge structure response, soil response and forces induced by the vehicle....... The bridge structure is modelled in three dimensions based on the finite element method using two-noded three-dimensional beam elements. The track structure is composed of three layers: rail, sleepers and deck which are connected through spring-dashpot systems. The vehicle travelling along a bridge...... is idealized as a multi-degree-of-freedom system, modelled with two layers of spring-dashpot suspension systems. Coupling the vehicle system and railway track is realized through interaction forces between the wheels and the rail, where the irregularities of the track are implemented as a random stationary...

  14. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  15. Hybrid Discrete Element - Finite Element Simulation for Railway Bridge-Track Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Mirza, O.

    2017-10-01

    At the transition zone or sometimes called ‘bridge end’ or ‘bridge approach’, the stiffness difference between plain track and track over bridge often causes aggravated impact loading due to uneven train movement onto the area. The differential track settlement over the transition has been a classical problem in railway networks, especially for the aging rail infrastructures around the world. This problem is also additionally worsened by the fact that the construction practice over the area is difficult, resulting in a poor compaction of formation and subgrade. This paper presents an advanced hybrid simulation using coupled discrete elements and finite elements to investigate dynamic interaction at the transition zone. The goal is to evaluate the dynamic stresses and to better understand the impact dynamics redistribution at the bridge end. An existing bridge ‘Salt Pan Creek Railway Bridge’, located between Revesby and Kingsgrove, has been chosen for detailed investigation. The Salt Pan Bridge currently demonstrates crushing of the ballast causing significant deformation and damage. Thus, it’s imperative to assess the behaviours of the ballast under dynamic loads. This can be achieved by modelling the nonlinear interactions between the steel rail and sleeper, and sleeper to ballast. The continuum solid elements of track components have been modelled using finite element approach, while the granular media (i.e. ballast) have been simulated by discrete element method. The hybrid DE/FE model demonstrates that ballast experiences significant stresses at the contacts between the sleeper and concrete section. These overburden stress exists in the regions below the outer rails, identify fouling and permanent deformation of the ballast.

  16. 49 CFR 174.59 - Marking and placarding of rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and placarding of rail cars. 174.59... RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.59 Marking and placarding of rail cars. No person may transport a rail car carrying hazardous materials unless it is marked and placarded as required by...

  17. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with respect to rail. 236.560 Section 236.560 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail... above the plane of the tops of the rails, and at a horizontal distance from the gage side of the rail...

  18. 77 FR 33560 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Woodland Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Eastern Maine Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Woodland Rail, LLC Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated April 30, 2012, Woodland Rail, LLC (Woodland Rail... a rail line known as the Calais Industrial Track (the Line). The Line is approximately 11.83 track...

  19. 77 FR 14858 - Rail-Term Corp.-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rail-Term Corp.--Petition for Declaratory Order On December 14, 2011, Rail-Term Corp. (RTC) filed a petition for an order declaring that it is not a ``rail carrier'' within the... carrier by rail subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board (STB or Board). See 45 U.S...

  20. Simulation of rail yard emissions transport to the near-source environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rail yards are critical nodes in the freight transportation network and locations of clustered emission sources. When people reside in close proximity to an active rail yard, the near-field effect of rail yard emissions is of concern. Field characterization of near-rail yard ai...

  1. About the certification of railway rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Iorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When the compliance with the European Code of some rail steel has to be verified, the need of carrying out the experimental activities in accordance with several testing Standards forces the operator both to solve the problems related to the choice of a suitable testing practice and often to interpret subjectively Standards guidelines. This does not facilitate the comparability and/or the quality of the results produced by several laboratories. With reference to a series of fatigue, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth tests carried out by the authors on specimens extracted from rails, the main lacks in the current standards, related to both the choice of the control parameters and the testing procedures, are pointed out. Regarding the crack growth testing, several procedures to compute the crack growth rates to be compared with the limits prescribed by the Code are proposed. These procedures have been applied to a data set produced during the aforementioned testing activity, in order to highlight, by comparison of the results obtained by them, the significant differences in the crack growth rate estimates and the magnitude of the errors that can be done due to the lacks in the standard practices currently adopted.

  2. Development of a numerical model for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Ju; Cho, Eun Sang; Ham, Jun Su; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Tae Heon

    2016-04-01

    In the field of civil engineering, analyzing dynamic response was main concern for a long time. These analysis methods can be divided into moving load analysis method and moving mass analysis method, and formulating each an equation of motion has recently been studied after dividing vehicles and bridges. In this study, the numerical method is presented, which can consider the various train types and can solve the equations of motion for a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis by non-iteration procedure through formulating the coupled equations for motion. Also, 3 dimensional accurate numerical models was developed by KTX-vehicle in order to analyze dynamic response characteristics. The equations of motion for the conventional trains are derived, and the numerical models of the conventional trains are idealized by a set of linear springs and dashpots with 18 degrees of freedom. The bridge models are simplified by the 3 dimensional space frame element which is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The rail irregularities of vertical and lateral directions are generated by PSD functions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).

  3. Steel bridge in interaction with modern slab track fastening systems under various vertical load levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančík, Vojtěch; Ryjáček, Pavel; Vokáč, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    In modern slab tracks the continuously welded rail (CWR) is coupled through the fastening system with the substructure. The resulting restriction of expansion movement causes significant rail stress increments, which in the case of extreme loading may cause rail failures. These interaction phenomenon effects are naturally higher on a bridge due to different deformation capabilities of the bridge and the CWR. The presented contribution aims at investigating the state of the art European direct fastening system that is suitable for application on steel bridges. Analysis involves experimental determination of its nonlinear longitudinal interaction parameters under various vertical loads and numerical validation. During experimental procedures a two and a half meter long laboratory sample equipped with four nodes of the Vossloh DFF 300 was tested. There have been checked both DFF 300 modifications using the skl 15 tension clamps and the low resistance skl B15 tension clamps. The effects of clamping force lowering on the interaction parameters have also been investigated. Results are discussed in the paper.

  4. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  5. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  6. A 3D Laser Profiling System for Rail Surface Defect Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Zhimin; Li, Qingquan; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Rail surface defects such as the abrasion, scratch and peeling often cause damages to the train wheels and rail bearings. An efficient and accurate detection of rail defects is of vital importance for the safety of railway transportation. In the past few decades, automatic rail defect detection has been studied; however, most developed methods use optic-imaging techniques to collect the rail surface data and are still suffering from a high false recognition rate. In this paper, a novel 3D las...

  7. Effects of Light and Commuter Rail Transit on Land Prices: Experiences in San Diego County

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Using hedonic price models, appreciable land-value premiums were found for multiple land uses in different rail corridors of San Diego County. The most appreciable benefits were for condominiums and single-family housing near commuter-rail stations in the north county, multi-family housing near light-rail stations, and commercial properties near downtown commuter-rail stations and light-rail stops in the Mission Valley. Elsewhere, commercial properties accrued small or even negative capitaliz...

  8. Combustion development with a common rail injection system; Verbrennungsentwicklung mit einem Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velji, A. [Verbrennungsentwicklung, MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Danckert, B. [Vorentwicklung, MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The innovative common rail injection system introduced with the new MTU Series 4000 engines surmounts the typical restriction inherent to conventional injection systems, i.e. the dependency of the injection pressure on engine speed. This paper describes a new combustion development procedure which systematically utilises the advantages of the common rail injection system. As a result of the high injection pressures, which can be reproduced over the complete performance map range, the mixture formation energy can be supplied by the injection system instead of by the air system. This reduces the swirl requirement and allows an increase in the number of injector nozzle holes as well as the employment of a shallow recess in the piston crown. The air can thus be better accomodated in the combustion chamber which, in the end, leads to reduced emissions and fuel consumption. (orig.)

  9. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  10. Development of field welding technology for rails; Tetsudo rail no genchi yoyu yosetsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K.; Uchino, K.; Yurioka, N. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-28

    A new element technology is outlined which is for welding regular rails in the field and making a long rail. A new EAW (Enclosed Arc Welding) has been developed for the purpose of improving vibration and noise due to the local abrasion of the existing EAW and improving the deterioration of resistibility against rolling fatigue breakage and the generation of transverse fissure due to the high temperature liquefaction crack. It has been verified that a highly carbonized metal improves the local abrasion and the generation of crack. Problems were brought up, in the case of welding rails by thermit welding (TW) utilizing the reaction of Al powder and brown iron oxide, such that strength was rather small against the bending fatigue of a joint and that the soundness of internal property of a welded part was likely to fluctuate. A test was carried out concerning the latter problem, and it was revealed that the temperature to pour molten steel dropped, whether the Al compound was insufficient or excessive, possibly causing reaction defects. As a technology to replace EAW and TW techniques, an automatic welding was developed which combinedly used narrow groove electro-slag welding and gas sealed arc welding. Further, as an after-treatment of this technology, a method was developed to remove a weld overlay. 19 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  12. Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dave; Saeed, Amer

    LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support collaborative working. A DOORS based Hazard Log (DHL) was selected as the Tool Strategy. A systematic approach was followed for the development of DHL, after a series of tests and acceptance gateways, DHL was handed over to the project in autumn 2006. The first few months were used for operational trials and he Hazard Management rocedure was modified to be a hybrid approach that used the strengths of DHL and Excel. The user experience in the deployment of DHL is summarised and directions for future improvement identified.

  13. Identification of ballast grading for rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grading has long been recognised to critically influence the mechanical behaviour of ballast. To identify the ballast grading for heavy-haul rail track, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to assess the performances of different gradings. Permanent deformations, aggregates degradation, resilience, shear resistance, maximum and minimum densities are recorded and analysed. The grading is found to affect the behaviour of ballast in that coarser gradings exhibit relatively better strength, resilience and therefore less permanent deformation. However, ballast degradation increases with the overall aggregate size. Therefore, to identify the grading for ballast with different performance objectives, a grey relational theory is used to convert the multi-objective into single-objective, i.e. grey relational grade. A relatively optimal grading that provides the highest grey relational grade is thus suggested for the improved ballast performance.

  14. [Composite (etched) bridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, H J; van Pelt, A W

    1996-11-01

    An adhesive or resin-bonded bridge is a tooth saving construction for the replacement of a lost tooth, especially when the abutment teeth are relatively sound. In this article an overview is presented of the different types of resin-bonded bridges, their advantages and disadvantages and their indications. The direct methods are very suited for the immediate replacement of a lost anterior tooth. The all composite adhesive bridge has a survival rate that is surprisingly good.

  15. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  16. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  17. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  18. Dual-rail nanobeam microfiber-coupled resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Chang-Min; Ahn, Byeong-Hyeon; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2013-03-25

    A microfiber-coupled dual-rail nanobeam resonator is proposed and demonstrated. The dual-rail scheme is employed to encourage the overlap between the light emitter and the air mode. The one-dimensional resonant cavity is formed by contacting a curved microfiber with the dual-rail nanobeam. The finite width of the dual-rail nanobeam turns out to be advantageous for both out-coupling with the microfiber and broader tuning of resonant wavelength. By employing InGaAsP quantum well gain medium, a simple and robust reconfigurable laser is created. Experimentally we measure a quality factor of 11,000 and out-coupling efficiency of 30%. The spontaneous emission factor (β) of the nanobeam laser is measured to be 0.16. Computationally we identified a resonant cavity with a quality factor over 6 × 10(5) and out-coupling efficiency over 90%.

  19. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  20. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental dataset for optimising the freight rail operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mahmoud; Kozan, Erhan; Kent, Geoff; Liu, Shi Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The freight rail systems have an essential role to play in transporting the commodities between the delivery and collection points at different locations such as farms, factories and mills. The fright transport system uses a daily schedule of train runs to meet the needs of both the harvesters and the mills (An Integrated Approach to Optimise Cane Rail Operations (M. Masoud, E. Kozan, G. Kent, Liu, Shi Qiang, 2016b) [1]). Producing an efficient daily schedule to optimise the rail operations requires integration of the main elements of harvesting, transporting and milling in the value chain of the Australian agriculture industry. The data utilised in this research involve four main tables: sidings, harvesters, sectional rail network and trains. The utilised data were collected from Australian sugar mills as a real application. Operations Research techniques such as metaheuristic and constraint programming are used to produce the optimised solutions in an analytical way.

  2. Intercity passenger rail : implications for urban, regional, and national mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Recent policy and regulatory actions by the U.S. government have revived interest in intercity passenger : rail among transportation planners, policymakers, and the general public. As part of a fully integrated : multimodal intercity corridor, passen...

  3. Population dynamics of the king rails, Rallus elegans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the findings of research conducted by a team of biologists from East Carolina University. The project ‘Population Dynamics of the King Rail,...

  4. In-motion, non-contact rail temperature measurement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Preventing track buckling incidents (Figure 1) is important to the railroad industry. Track materials, rail steel, for example, experience thermal expansion, which refers to the increase in a materials volume as its temperature rises. Thermal expa...

  5. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Philip W; Long, Craig S

    2015-03-01

    The ability to measure the individual modes of propagation is very beneficial during the development of guided wave ultrasound based rail monitoring systems. Scanning laser vibrometers can measure the displacement at a number of measurement points on the surface of the rail track. A technique for estimating the amplitude of the individual modes of propagation from these measurements is presented and applied to laboratory and field measurements. The method uses modal data from a semi-analytical finite element model of the rail and has been applied at frequencies where more than twenty propagating modes exist. It was possible to measure individual modes of propagation at a distance of 400 m from an ultrasonic transducer excited at 30 kHz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of propagating large distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting intermodal connectivity at California's high-speed rail stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) has emerged as one of the most revolutionary and transformative transportation technologies, having a : profound impact on urban-regional accessibility and inter-city travel across Europe, Japan, and more recently China and othe...

  7. High-speed rail turnout literature review : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) turnout design criteria generally address unbalanced lateral acceleration or cant deficiency (CD), cant deficiency change rate (CDCR), and entry and exit jerk. Various countries have adopted different design values for their HSR...

  8. South Carolina southeast high speed rail corridor improvement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The Southeast Rail Corridor was originally designated as a high-speed corridor in Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. More specifically, it involved the high-speed grade-crossing improvement program o...

  9. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  10. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general railroad... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.101 Rail security coordinator. (a) Applicability...

  11. 3D methodology for evaluating rail crossing roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Description of Research Project The overall objective of this project is to investigate develop a quantitative method or measure for determining the need to rehabilitate rail crossings. The scope of the project includes investigation of sensor capabi...

  12. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  13. Bridge health monitoring metrics : updating the bridge deficiency algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    As part of its bridge management system, the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) must decide how best to spend its bridge replacement funds. In making these decisions, ALDOT managers currently use a deficiency algorithm to rank bridges that ...

  14. 76 FR 1212 - Gabriel D. Hall-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Gabriel D. Hall--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail Corporation Gabriel D. Hall (Applicant), an individual, has filed a verified notice... involves the creation of U S Rail New York (USR-NY) and the acquisition by USR-NY of the leasehold rights...

  15. An investigation into the relation between wheel/rail contact and bolt tightness of rail joints using a dynamic finite element model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rail joints have a shorter service life than most other railway track components. The discontinuity between rail ends turns the rail joint into a weak spot, and consequently, into a track component demanding more frequent maintenance measures, which result in high maintenance costs. Moreover,

  16. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid or...

  17. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities...

  18. System and prospects of China's intercity rail transit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming

    2017-09-01

    City clusters and metropolitan areas in China are flourishing in the midst of the deepening urbanization in the country, thereby resulting in the emergence of intercity rail transit. Intercity railways connect mainline and urban railways for an integrated regional transportation system that underpins and leads the development of city clusters and metropolitan areas. This study explores the development mode and service characteristics of intercity rail transit, as well as proposes overviews on this system and prospects of its future technology in China.

  19. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  20. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disusedrelay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  1. From periphery to core: economic adjustments to high speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Feddersen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that high speed rail systems, by bringing economic agents closer together, sustainably promote economic activity within regions that enjoy an increase in accessibility. Our results on the one hand confirm expectations that have led to huge public investments into high speed rail all over the world. On the other hand, they confirm theoretical predictions arising from a consolidate body of (New) Economic Geography literature taking a positive, man-made and reproduci...

  2. Wheel Rail Lateral Impact and Derailment Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinghua; Zeng, Jing

    It is known to all that derailment is the vital problem in railway transportation. As the increase of vehicle speed, the possibility of derailment due to the lateral impact between the wheel flange and the rail increases. An impact model for the impact between the wheel and rail together with an accurate kinematic analysis is presented in order to shed some light on the wheel lift derailment of high-speed vehicles.

  3. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oude Elberink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  4. Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in continuously welded rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenqing; Sheng, Fuwei; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Rail defects cause numerous railway accidents. Trains are derailed and serious consequences often occur. Compared to traditional bulk wave testing, ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) can provide larger monitoring ranges and complete coverage of the waveguide cross-section. These advantages are of significant importance for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of the continuously welded rail, and the technique is therefore widely used in high-speed railways. UGWs in continuous welded rail (CWR) and their propagation characteristics have been discussed in this paper. Finite element methods (FEMs) were used to accomplish a vibration modal analysis, which is extended by a subsequent dispersion analysis. Wave structure features were illustrated by displacement profiles. It was concluded that guided waves have the ability to detect defects in the rail via choice of proper mode and frequency. Additionally, thermal conduction that is caused by temperature variation in the rail is added into modeling and simulation. The results indicated that unbalanced thermal distribution may lead to the attenuation of UGWs in the rail.

  5. An Investigation of Sliding Electrical Contact in Rail Guns and the Development of Grooved-Rail Liquid-Metal Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamy, Mark

    2001-01-01

    ... the rails and yet provide sufficient electrical contact to sustain arc-free high-current flow is desirable, This thesis investigates the use of liquid metal as an interface material between the sliding...

  6. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Hongliang, E-mail: zhaoyq@tju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 {mu}m{sup 2}. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 {mu}W with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  8. Bridges Expansion Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  9. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  10. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  11. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  12. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  13. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  14. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA).......The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...

  15. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laying shock absorber fasteners is one of the effective countermeasures used to reduce the ground vibration induced from urban rail transit. However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the “wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference” mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed. With the finite element method, the simple beam and board model of the rail system is established to study the vertical and lateral dynamic flexibility characteristics of rails below 1,200 Hz. Within 5–40 kN/mm, a comparison is made between wheel-rail dynamic flexibility differences corresponding to the vertical stiffness and lateral stiffness of different fasteners. The results show that 20 kN/mm and 10 kN/mm are the least and most suitable vertical stiffness values of fasteners, respectively; 40 kN/mm and 5–10 kN/mm are, respectively, the least and most suitable lateral stiffness values of fasteners. The research and analysis results can be adopted as references for deciding the fastener stiffness of urban track.

  16. Validation of a Numerical Model for Dynamic Three-Dimensional Railway Bridge Analysis by Comparison with a Small-Scale Laboratory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Sneideris, Jonas; Agapii, Liuba

    2017-01-01

    is constructed in the laboratory, and the results are compared with the proposed computational model. The computational analysis employs a multi-degree-of-freedom system for the vehicle, a three-dimensional finite-element model for the bridge structure and a semi-analytical solution for the subsoil, using...... an iterative coupling procedure for wheel–rail contact. The experimental model of the bridge is made of Plexiglas, and mattress foam is used as subsoil. The model is equipped with accelerometers and excited by a vehicle with four axles moving at constant speed on a track across the bridge. The results indicate...

  17. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Amit; Singh, Deepinderjit; Singh, Randhir

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss following open fracture or infected gap nonunion is a difficult situation to manage. There are many modes of treatment such as bone grafting, vascularized bone grafting and bone transport by illizarov and monolateral fixator. We evaluated the outcome of rail fixator treatment in reconstructing bone and limb function. We felt that due to problems such as heavy apparatus, persistent pain, deformity of joints and discomfort caused by an Ilizarov ring fixator, rail fixator is a good alternative to treat bone gaps. 20 patients (17 males and 3 females with mean age 30.5 years) who suffered bone loss due to open fracture and chronic osteomyelitis leading to infected gap nonunion. Ten patients suffered an open fracture (Gustilo type II and type III) and 10 patients suffered bone gap following excision of necrotic bone after infected nonunion. There were 19 cases of tibia and one case of humerus. All patients were treated with debridement and stabilization of fracture with a rail fixator. Further treatment involved reconstructing bone defect by corticotomy at an appropriate level and distraction by rail fixator. We achieved union in all cases. The average bone gap reconstructed was 7.72 cm (range 3.5-15.5 cm) in 9 months (range 6-14 months). Normal range of motion in nearby joint was achieved in 80% cases. We had excellent to good limb function in 85% of cases as per the association for the study and application of the method of ilizarov scoring system[ASAMI] score. All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  18. Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspection of rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Nguyen, Thompson V.; Phillips, Robert Ronald; Kijanka, Piotr; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Staszewski, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-04-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail integrity evaluation. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection in pair with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm has been realized. This solution presents an improvement over the previously considered laser/air-coupled hybrid system because it replaces the costly and hard-to-maintain laser with a much cheaper, faster, and easier-to-maintain air-coupled transmitter. This system requires a specialized filtering approach due to the inherently poor signal-to-noise ratio of the air-coupled ultrasonic measurements in rail steel. Various aspects of the prototype have been designed with the aid of numerical analyses. In particular, simulations of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in rails have been performed using a LISA algorithm. Many of the system operating parameters were selected based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, which provide a quantitative manner to evaluate different detection performances based on the trade-off between detection rate and false positive rate. Experimental tests have been carried out at the UCSD Rail Defect Farm. The laboratory results indicate that the prototype is able to detect internal rail defects with a high reliability. A field test will be planned later in the year to further validate these results. Extensions of the system are planned to add rail surface characterization to the internal rail defect detection.

  19. Research on Miniature Calibre Rail-Guns for the Mechanical Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronggang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-gun should not only be used to military applications, but also can be developed as applications in the civilian aspects of the market. With the development of the electromagnetic launch technology, based on the similarity theory, using the existing rail-gun model to guide the construction of more economical miniature calibre rail-guns, and apply it in some machinery and equipment, this idea will open up a wider rail-gun application space. This article will focus on the feasibility of application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm. This paper designs the schematic diagram, then theoretical analyzes force conditions of the armature in the mechanical arm, calculates the possible range of the current amplitude and so on. The existing rail-gun model can be used to guides design the circuit diagram of the miniature calibre rail-gun. Based on the similarity theory and many simulation experiments, designed the experimental parameters of a miniature rail-gun and analyzed the current, Lorentz force, velocity, and location of the existing rail-gun and miniature rail-gun. The results show that the rail-gun launching technology applied to robot arms is feasibility. The application of miniature calibre rail-guns in the mechanical arm will benefit to the further development of rail-guns.

  20. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  1. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use to p...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  2. Comparison of Over-the-Rail and Rail Yard Measurements of Diesel Locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-11-03

    Locomotive prime mover engine emission rates are typically measured at steady-state for discrete throttle notches using an engine dynamometer weighted by a standard duty cycle. However, this method may not represent real-world locomotive emissions. A method for in-use measurement of passenger locomotives, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), was developed to estimate duty cycle average emission rates. We conducted 48 measurements of one-way trips between Raleigh and Charlotte, NC, on 7 locomotives and 18 sets of measurements in the rail yard (RY). Real-world duty cycles differed from those used for regulatory analyses, leading to statistically significant lower cycle average NOx and HC emission rates. Compared to RY measurements, notch average NOx emission rates measured over-the-rail (OTR) at the highest two notch settings were, on average, 19% lower for four locomotives. At the highest notch, OTR CO2 emission rates were, on average, 12% lower than RY rates for five locomotives. For a more accurate representation of real-world emission rates, OTR measurements are preferred. However, using steady-state notch average RY emission rates and standard duty cycles may be tolerable for some applications. OTR versus RY cycle average emission rates typically differed by less than 10%.

  3. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...] Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail... Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating the line for...

  4. 76 FR 57798 - Canadian Pacific Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Canadian Pacific Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Consolidated Rail Corporation Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ Consolidated Rail Corporation (CRC...

  5. Monitoring vertical wheel–rail contact forces based on freight wagon inverse modelling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yan Quan; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    ...–rail contact dynamic forces. To evaluate and monitor the wheel–rail dynamic forces based on the accelerations on the wagon components, a two-dimensional inverse wagon model has been developed...

  6. Update on status of proposed TransDominion Express (TDX) passenger rail service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Virginia General Assembly's House Budget Bill for the 2006-2008 biennium directed the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation (DRPT) to update the status of a proposed passenger rail service, called the TransDominion Express (TDX), ...

  7. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  8. Survey for the California Black Rail at Tolay Creek, San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) is the smallest and most secretive member of the rail family and has been sparsely studied. It is a...

  9. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  10. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 1. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume I defines the general analytical capabilities required for computer programs applicable to single rail vehi...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-ping Zeng; Zhi-wu Yu; Yan-gang Zhao; Wen-tao Xu; Ling-kun Chen; Ping Lou

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived ac...

  12. The Cultural Bridge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edith A.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a cultural bridge model that would enhance the health care of the American Indian population. Suggests that transcultural nursing should transcend the realm of thought and become an integrated part of daily practice. (Author)

  13. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  14. State's First Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Article with details on the state's first bridge that crossed the Noxubee River adjacent to the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Boundary. Details also included...

  15. Forward Affect Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonshtein, Udi; Torem, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a modification of the affect bridge technique. The Forward Affect Bridge enables practitioners to create and maintain hope when it is missing. Hope is relevant for diminishing avoidance and being involved with necessary activities. The main idea is to build up a positive atmosphere in the here and now (relying on rapport), to amplify it, and to project it forward. By using clinical vignettes, the authors illustrate these techniques.

  16. Bridges Expansion Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  17. Wear Enhancement of Wheel-Rail Interaction by Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seky Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM technique was applied to normal and heat-treated rails made of 60 kgK steel to enhance the wear resistance of the wheel-rail interaction. The hardness and compressive residual stress values of the untreated and UNSM-treated rails were measured by the Brinell hardness tester and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. It was found, according to the measurement results, that the hardness was increased by about 20% and 8%, whereas the compressive residual stress was induced by about 52% and 62% for the UNSM-treated normal and heat-treated rails, respectively. The UNSM-treated normal rail showed a slightly higher hardness than the heat-treated rail. The wear resistance of rails with respect to rotating speed and rolling time was assessed using a rolling contact wear (RCW tester under dry conditions. The RCW test results revealed that the wear of the UNSM-treated rails was enhanced in comparison with those of the untreated rails. Also, the wear amount of the rails was increased with increasing the rotation speed. The UNSM-treated normal rail exhibited the highest wear resistance with respect to the rotation speed. The wear mechanisms of the rails are also discussed based on microscopic images of the worn out surfaces.

  18. 78 FR 31628 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN Rail Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (Milwaukee-Twin Cities) High-Speed Rail Corridor Program. The original project included passenger stations, maintenance facilities, and the construction of a high-speed rail line between... infrastructure that would allow for increased train frequency and reduced travel times for passenger rail service...

  19. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receiver; location with respect to rail. 236.557...; location with respect to rail. (a) Receiver of intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of the... of the tops of the rails, and with its outer edge at a horizontal distance from the gage side of the...

  20. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  1. 76 FR 39472 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation...-25, for CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), to lease from Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) approximately 1,303 feet of rail line (the Line) in the South Jersey/Philadelphia Shared Assets Area between...

  2. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, Rob; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Milius, Birgit; Naumann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time (Siegel & Schraagen,

  3. 30 CFR 56.9102 - Movement of independently operating rail equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement of independently operating rail... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9102 Movement of independently operating rail equipment. Movement of two or more pieces of rail equipment operating independently on the same track shall...

  4. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists of...

  5. 49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...; Roadway § 236.529 Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail. Inductor of the inert roadway... the rails, and with its inner edge at a hmrizontal distance from the gage side of the nearest running...

  6. Wear Enhancement of Wheel-Rail Interaction by Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seky; Pyun, Young-Sik; Amanov, Auezhan

    2017-02-16

    In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique was applied to normal and heat-treated rails made of 60 kgK steel to enhance the wear resistance of the wheel-rail interaction. The hardness and compressive residual stress values of the untreated and UNSM-treated rails were measured by the Brinell hardness tester and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. It was found, according to the measurement results, that the hardness was increased by about 20% and 8%, whereas the compressive residual stress was induced by about 52% and 62% for the UNSM-treated normal and heat-treated rails, respectively. The UNSM-treated normal rail showed a slightly higher hardness than the heat-treated rail. The wear resistance of rails with respect to rotating speed and rolling time was assessed using a rolling contact wear (RCW) tester under dry conditions. The RCW test results revealed that the wear of the UNSM-treated rails was enhanced in comparison with those of the untreated rails. Also, the wear amount of the rails was increased with increasing the rotation speed. The UNSM-treated normal rail exhibited the highest wear resistance with respect to the rotation speed. The wear mechanisms of the rails are also discussed based on microscopic images of the worn out surfaces.

  7. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain Company Manning Rail, Inc. (MRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Manning Grain Company (MGC) and operate a 7.1-mile rail line between its point...

  8. 49 CFR 37.85 - Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail cars. 37.85 Section 37.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....85 Purchase or lease of new intercity and commuter rail cars. Amtrak or a commuter authority making a solicitation after August 25, 1990, to purchase or lease a new intercity or commuter rail car for use on the...

  9. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this section, small quantities of Class 3...

  10. 77 FR 65937 - Rail Switching Services, Inc.-Operation Exemption-Pemiscot County Port Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rail Switching Services, Inc.--Operation Exemption--Pemiscot County Port Authority Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS), a noncarrier, filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 \\1\\ to operate approximately 4.9 miles of rail line owned by Pemiscot County Port...

  11. Light rail explained : Better public transport and more than public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Bijl, R.; Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately characteristics and benefits of light rail are frequently underestimated in decision making. On the bases of our own research and state of the art related research this paper addresses the importance of light rail as efficient means of transport, particularly efficient since light rail

  12. 49 CFR 37.51 - Key stations in commuter rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Key stations in commuter rail systems. 37.51... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.51 Key stations in commuter rail systems... boardings exceed average station passenger boardings on the rail system by at least fifteen percent, unless...

  13. Probabilistic defect-based risk assessment approach for rail failures in railway infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; Acarman, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a defect-based risk analysis methodology for estimating rail failure risk. The methodology relies on an evolution model addressing the severity level of rail surface defect, called squat. The risk of rail failure is assessed by analyzing squat failure probability using a

  14. Home school student visit and introduction to rail transportation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This project consisted of hosting local Champaign-Urbana, Illinois home school students for a visit to : the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana- : Champaign (UIUC). Beyond visiting RailTEC, st...

  15. An investigation on the desired properties of friction modifiers for slippery rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Arias Cuevas, O.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion level between wheel and rail has been since the beginning of railway a crucial parameter in the design and operation of rail vehicles. In the last decades, many railway organizations have suffered from low adhesion problems as consequence of the increased exploitation of the rail

  16. Investigating the lubricity and electrical insulation caused by sanding in dry wheel–rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.; Li, Z.; Lewis, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion (or available friction) in the wheel–rail contact is the most important parameter for the braking and traction operation of rail vehicles. Since the beginning of railway transportation, sanding from the locomotive has been a common practice to enhance the wheel–rail adhesion. In recent

  17. 76 FR 75542 - Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC (Rail Splitter or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Ameren Services Company...

  18. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... accident/incident'' is a collision, derailment, fire, explosion, act of God, or other event involving the...--Rail equipment. Rail equipment accidents/incidents are collisions, derailments, fires, explosions, acts... Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  19. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance.... Specifically, to effect the advance electronic transmission of the required rail cargo information to CBP, the... States from point to point in the same foreign country are subject to the advance electronic information...

  20. 77 FR 26603 - Central Midland Railway Company and Progressive Rail Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Transaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Midland Railway Company and Progressive Rail Inc.--Intra- Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Central Midland Railway Company (CMR) and Progressive Rail Inc. (PGR), both... Exemption-- Cent. Midland Ry., FD 35051 (STB served July 5, 2007). \\2\\ See Progressive Rail Inc.--Intra...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-speed rail cars... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...

  2. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face, measured...

  3. Wear Enhancement of Wheel-Rail Interaction by Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seky; Pyun, Young-Sik; Amanov, Auezhan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique was applied to normal and heat-treated rails made of 60 kgK steel to enhance the wear resistance of the wheel-rail interaction. The hardness and compressive residual stress values of the untreated and UNSM-treated rails were measured by the Brinell hardness tester and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. It was found, according to the measurement results, that the hardness was increased by about 20% and 8%, whereas the compressive residual stress was induced by about 52% and 62% for the UNSM-treated normal and heat-treated rails, respectively. The UNSM-treated normal rail showed a slightly higher hardness than the heat-treated rail. The wear resistance of rails with respect to rotating speed and rolling time was assessed using a rolling contact wear (RCW) tester under dry conditions. The RCW test results revealed that the wear of the UNSM-treated rails was enhanced in comparison with those of the untreated rails. Also, the wear amount of the rails was increased with increasing the rotation speed. The UNSM-treated normal rail exhibited the highest wear resistance with respect to the rotation speed. The wear mechanisms of the rails are also discussed based on microscopic images of the worn out surfaces. PMID:28772549

  4. Evaluation of intrusion detection technologies for high speed rail grade crossings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The rail industry is in the process of developing a prototype system for high speed rail. One of the concerns when using high speed rail is the danger of obstructions on the track. This level of danger is much higher than with traditional railway veh...

  5. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Railcorp--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS... of exemption in Rail Switching Services, Inc.--Operation Exemption-- Pemiscot County Port Authority...

  6. 77 FR 2120 - Environmental Impact Statement for New Orleans Rail Gateway (NORG), Jefferson and Orleans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for New Orleans Rail Gateway (NORG... (LA DOTD) to evaluate environmental and related impacts of upgrading the New Orleans Rail Gateway... prepare the EIS for the New Orleans Rail Gateway Program and infrastructure in Jefferson and Orleans...

  7. No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    After being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks, rail cars carrying solid rocket booster segments sit idle. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

  8. Turbine blade squealer tip rail with fence members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A

    2012-11-20

    A turbine blade includes an airfoil, a blade tip section, a squealer tip rail, and a plurality of chordally spaced fence members. The blade tip section includes a blade tip floor located at an end of the airfoil distal from the root. The blade tip floor includes a pressure side and a suction side joined together at chordally spaced apart leading and trailing edges of the airfoil. The squealer tip rail extends radially outwardly from the blade tip floor adjacent to the suction side and extends from a first location adjacent to the airfoil trailing edge to a second location adjacent to the airfoil leading edge. The fence members are located between the airfoil leading and trailing edges and extend radially outwardly from the blade tip floor and axially from the squealer tip rail toward the pressure side.

  9. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  10. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...... rail, are not just ‘passive’ settings they should be understood in relations to power. The study is based in the new mobilities paradigm and the main argument is supported by previous studies showing that mobility systems and mobile technologies are not just neutral tools for the contemporary urban...

  11. Scanning laser vibrometer measurement of guided waves in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available an opportunity to exploit the advantages of guided wave ultrasound for NDT applications, as the rails are essentially one-dimensional waveguides allowing transmission over considerable distances from fixed transducer locations. To utilize this phenomenon... for guided waves in a pipe?, NDT and E., Vol. 20, No. 1, pp 63-75, 2005. 6. P. D. Wilcox, ?Guided-Wave Array Methods? in Encyclopedia of Structural Health Monitoring, 2009. 7. P.W. Loveday, ?Measurement of Modal Amplitudes of Guided Waves in Rails?, Proc...

  12. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmuller, Nils

    2009-05-30

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, over more than 100 km noise shields are apparent. The question is to what extent this noise shield hinders the cooling of a rail tanker, carrying flammable liquid such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)? To answer this question, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline [N. Rosmuller, D.W.G. Arentsen, (2005). Praktijkproeven Betuweroute: Instantane uitstroming en koeling 24 juni 2005, Nibra, Arnhem, The Netherlands]. Two railcars and a rail tanker were placed behind a 3m high noise shield. First, it was tested as to whether firemen or water canons should be used to deliver the water. Water canons were best next, four positions of the water canons to wet the rail tanker were tested. Three camera's and three observers recorded the locations and the extent of water that hit the rail tanker. The results indicate that the noise shield, to a large extent, prevents the water from hitting, and therefore cooling, the rail tanker. The upper parts of the rail tanker were minimally struck by the water canons and the small amount of water flowing down the rail tanker did not reach the lower parts of it because of the armatures at the rail tanker. Also, the amount of water in the ditches to be used for wetting was too small. The ditch nearby ran empty. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to water management organizations. The Ministry of Transport is examining the possible strategies to deal with these findings. The results are based upon one single full scale test near a 3m high noise shield. In addition, it would be valuable to determine what the influence would be of other heights of the noise shields.

  13. A standardised language code for rail freight operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a standardised language code for rail freight operations is developed that aims to facilitate communication between dispatchers, train drivers and traffic managers when running freight trains abroad. In developing the language code the existing situation in the bi-lingual Belgian railways has been taken as a starting point. Communication codes from public services like police, fire brigade, ambulance and military services have been studied. It is believed that, if implemented, the code will improve significantly integrated rail freight services in Europe.

  14. Quality Assessment in the Logistics of Rail Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedík Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on analysis and rating of the quality in the passenger railway transport logistics. At first is described the relationships between logistics and transport, logistical demands for transport and functions of logistics in rail transport. In the third chapter is explained quality assessment including the description of the quality indicators in passenger rail transport and making a proposal of the new methodology for this rating. Consequently this methodology is tested for chosen transport route and is concerned with monitoring quality of the transport routes in the railway network.

  15. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    Due to a large number of mostly stationary users inside a train and the availability of a radio connection to the outside world, urban rail environments serve as promising candidates for multimedia distribution systems deployment. This work proposes to offload the individual per-passenger cellular...... using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  16. Used fuel rail shock and vibration testing options analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  17. Big data and high-performance analytics in structural health monitoring for bridge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampalli, Sharada; Alampalli, Sandeep; Ettouney, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be a vital tool for effective bridge management. Combining large data sets from multiple sources to create a data-driven decision-making framework is crucial for the success of SHM. This paper presents a big data analytics framework that combines multiple data sets correlated with functional relatedness to convert data into actionable information that empowers risk-based decision-making. The integrated data environment incorporates near real-time streams of semi-structured data from remote sensors, historical visual inspection data, and observations from structural analysis models to monitor, assess, and manage risks associated with the aging bridge inventories. Accelerated processing of dataset is made possible by four technologies: cloud computing, relational database processing, support from NOSQL database, and in-memory analytics. The framework is being validated on a railroad corridor that can be subjected to multiple hazards. The framework enables to compute reliability indices for critical bridge components and individual bridge spans. In addition, framework includes a risk-based decision-making process that enumerate costs and consequences of poor bridge performance at span- and network-levels when rail networks are exposed to natural hazard events such as floods and earthquakes. Big data and high-performance analytics enable insights to assist bridge owners to address problems faster.

  18. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  19. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  20. 77 FR 2077 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    .... TSA requires a secure chain of physical custody for rail cars containing rail security-sensitive... affected shippers and receivers of ] hazardous materials are required to document the transfer of custody... rail cars under their physical custody and control to TSA upon request. Rail security-sensitive...

  1. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  2. Návrh rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB

    OpenAIRE

    Prokš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB s nízkou spotřebou a kompenzací zesílení prvního stupně. This work deals with design of rail-to-rail operational amplifier with AB output stage with low disipation and gain compensation of first stage. B

  3. Investigation of rail irregularity effects on wheel/rail dynamic force in slab track: Comparison of two and three dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Javad; Khajehdezfuly, Amin; Esmaeili, Morteza; Poorveis, Davood

    2016-07-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the most significant load amplification factors in railway track systems. In this paper, the capability and effectiveness of the two main railway slab tracks modeling techniques in prediction of the influences of rail irregularities on the Wheel/Rail Dynamic Force (WRDF) were investigated. For this purpose, two 2D and 3D numerical models of vehicle/discontinuous slab track interaction were developed. The validation of the numerical models was made by comparing the results of the models with those obtained from comprehensive field tests carried out in this research. The effects of the harmonic and non-harmonic rail irregularities on the WRDF obtained from 3D and 2D models were investigated. The results indicate that the difference between WRDF obtained from 2D and 3D models is negligible when the irregularities on the right and left rails are the same. However, as the difference between irregularities of the right and left rails increases, the results obtained from 2D and 3D models are considerably different. The results indicate that 2D models have limitations in prediction of WRDF; that is, a 3D modeling technique is required to predict WRDF when there is uneven or non-harmonic irregularity with large amplitudes. The size and extent of the influences of rail irregularities on the wheel/rail forces were discussed leading to provide a better understanding of the rail-wheel contact behavior and the required techniques for predicting WRDF.

  4. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  5. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  6. Study on service performance of 880 MPa-grade and 980 MPa-grade rail steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Xu, G.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, R. M.; Gan, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of economy in China, the requirement for railway passenger and cargo transportation becomes higher and higher. Increasing speed and developing heavy-haul transportation can effectively improve the transportation capacity of railway. The requirement for rail steels with higher ability of abrasion resistance becomes urgent. Two kinds of rails, i.e., 880 MPa-grade and 980 MPa-grade rail steels, were laid on cargo line with 500 m short radius curve. The service performances of the tested steels were continuously tracked and analyzed during operation of total 22.5 million tons loads. Macro morphology, light band width, surface hardness and profile of rails were investigated. The results show that the performance of 980 MPa-grade rail steel is superior to that of 880 MPa-grade rail steel at same circumstance. Therefore, 980 MPa-grade rail should be selected in the cargo line with small radius curve.

  7. Development of bridge girder movement criteria for accelerated bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    End diaphragms connect multiple girders to form a bridge superstructure system for effective resistance to earthquake loads. Concrete : girder bridges that include end diaphragms consistently proved to perform well during previous earthquake events. ...

  8. Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-pylon Cable-stayed Bridge Girder by Numerical Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The wind induced vibration is one of the key technical problems for long-span bridge design. Therefore, a study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge girder is carried out in this paper. The aerostatic coefficient of the bridge girder, including both construction state and service state, is investigated by wind tunnel test with varying wind attack angle. Then based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the flow field around the bridge girder is visualized numerically. The risk of vortex-induced vibration (VIV is qualitatively evaluated by analyzing the flow features and by considering the Scruton number (Sc. Later a dynamic section model is tested in wind tunnel and the VIV phenomenon is observed subsequently. Results show that the aerodynamic stability is assured by the positive slope of the lift coefficient. The VIV response is influenced by the structural damping and the bridge accessory. The amplitude of VIV response can be lower by increasing the structural damping. The maintenance track rail of the bridge girder also does some good for suppressing the VIV as long as the track rail is located at the appropriate place.

  9. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... subsequently verifying suspect defect locations. The main technologies utilized for non-destructive testing on...-destructive test method, these technologies are susceptible to physical limitations that allow poor rail head... limiting their detection capabilities. Therefore, it is important that emerging technology development...

  10. Private Participation in the Rail Sector : Recent Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tynan, Nicola

    1999-01-01

    This note focuses on rail projects with private participation, that reached financial closure in 1990-1997, surveying regional trends, types of private participation, and project size. Through database analysis, the paper reveals that operations, and management contracts - including leases and concessions - are more common than green-field projects, or divestitures -, and, that private par...

  11. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  12. Stimulating European rail freight transport : Towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  13. Fracture mechanics approach to estimate rail wear limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes a systematic methodology to estimate allowable limits for rail head wear in terms of vertical head-height loss, gage-face side wear, and/or the combination of the two. This methodology is based on the principles of engineering fr...

  14. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, modal shift, freight flows ... Stellenbosch 2010; Barloworld Logistics 2011) and put forward in national policy frameworks (RSA Presidency ... in local consumption (Hanival & Maia 2010), as well as trade liberalisation, which resulted in both increased ...

  15. New Feeder Line Rail Freight Paradigm for the European Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stane Božičnik

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the new paradigmof the European rail freight system predominantly suitable forthe feeder lines (market niches. Taking into consideration theso far adopted legal solutions of the EU Commission for internationalisation(liberalisation of the European railway system,the concept of the new rail freight model was developed inorder to contribute to the increase of the quality, as well as to thegrowth of the volume of the rail freight services in Europe.Based on the findings about the disadvantages of the existingrail freight paradigm, the new solution consisting of the threeinterrelated and interconnected subsystems: institutional, technical/technological and organisational, is proposed. New liberalisedaccess to the entire European rail infrastructure networkwill increase the competition and most probably attractnew railway freight service providers. The introduction of thesuggested innovative solutions in form of small, self-propelled,bi-directional train formation that can be automatically coupledand decoupled and equipped with the innovative loadingand unloading equipment (enabling loading/unloading operationswherever the truck can stay parallel to the train, is to beexpected predominantly on the feeder lines (market niches ofthe European railways.

  16. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    complex eigenvalue analysis by the finite element method. The positive real parts of the eigenvalues reflect self-exciting instable vibration, which is closely related to the occurrence of squeal noise. The effect of parameters such as friction coefficient, wheel/rail contact position, axle load, etc. on the instable vibration was ...

  17. Field measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, P. W.; Long, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    During the development of guided wave systems for rail monitoring it is useful to be able to measure the amplitude of the individual modes of propagation. The availability of scanning laser vibrometers makes it possible to measure the displacement at a large number of points on the rail surface. This paper describes scanning laser vibrometer measurements performed in the field and the estimation of the amplitudes of the propagating waves from these measurements. The process makes use of mode shape information obtained from semi-analytical finite element analysis and a pseudoinverse technique. Field measurements are performed by exciting the rail with a piezoelectric transducer and performing scans at various distances from the excitation. Results of two scans performed at short-range and on the same section of rail are compared to assess the repeatability of the process. Results from scans performed at 200m and 400m from the transducer are then used to estimate the attenuation of selected modes of propagation.

  18. 49 CFR 173.184 - Highway or rail fusee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway or rail fusee. 173.184 Section 173.184 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.184...

  19. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... real-time translation (CART) web streaming link will be posted on the Access Board's Rail Vehicles...: Paul Beatty, Office of Technical and Information Services, Access Board, 1331 F Street NW., Suite 1000... assistive listening system, communication access real-time translation (CART), and sign language...

  20. Research notes : high-speed rail survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The survey was conducted from April 2010 to June 2010 using both a print and a web version with identical questions. The print version of the survey was distributed at open house meetings on high-speed rail held in Eugene, Junction City, Albany, Sale...

  1. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  2. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from

  3. BIM Interoperability Limitations: Australian and Malaysian Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenley Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM is defined as a process involving the generation and management of digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The purpose of interoperability in integrated or “open” BIM is to facilitate the information exchange between different digital systems, models and tools. There has been effort towards data interoperability with development of open source standards and object-oriented models, such as industry foundation classes (IFC for vertical infrastructure. However, the lack of open data standards for the information exchange for horizontal infrastructure limits the adoption and effectiveness of integrated BIM. The paper outlines two interoperability issues for construction of rail infrastructure. The issues are presented in two case study reports, one from Australia and one from Malaysia. The each case study includes: a description of the project, the application of BIM in the project, a discussion of the promised BIM interoperability solution plus the identification of the unresolved lack of interoperability for horizontal infrastructure project management. The Moreton Bay Rail project in Australia introduces general software interoperability issues. The Light Rail Extension project in Kuala Lumpur outlines an example of the integration problems related to two different location data structures. The paper highlights how the continuing lack of data interoperability limits utilisation of integrated BIM for horizontal infrastructure rail projects.

  4. Kinematic Design Method for Rail-Guided Robotic Arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stegenga, Jan; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    For special purpose robotic arms, such as a rail mounted ballast-water tank inspection arm, specific needs require special designs. Currently, there is no method to efficiently design robotic arms that can handle not quantifiable requirements. In this paper, an efficient method for the design and

  5. Developing a reliable signal wire attachment method for rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a better attachment method for rail signal wires to improve the reliability of signaling : systems. EWI conducted basic research into the failure mode of current attachment methods and developed and tested a ne...

  6. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from...

  7. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  8. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, modal shift, freight flows. Dr J.H. Havenga is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Logistics and Director of the Centre for Supply Chain. Management at the .... costs and improve the country's competitiveness, (2) sound business principles for investment ...

  9. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  10. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  11. Median Light Rail Crossing: Accident Causation And Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin; Bertini, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures at arterial median light rail grade crossings. It synthesizes accident causation and prevention literature from several fields, including traffic engineering, human factors and cognitive psychology, as it relates to the complex LRT grade crossing.

  12. Deep convolutional neural networks for detection of rail surface defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Estevez, Pablo A.; Angelov, Plamen P.; Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network solution to the analysis of image data for the detection of rail surface defects. The images are obtained from many hours of automated video recordings. This huge amount of data makes it impossible to manually inspect the images and

  13. Siim Kallas tutvustas nelja riigi presidentidele Rail Balticu kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni transpordivolinik Siim Kallas tutvustas 2. detsembril 2011 Vihula mõisas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele, Läti presidendile Andris Bērziņšile, Leedu presidendile Dalia Grybauskaitėle ja Poola presidendile Bronisław Komorowskile Baltimaid ülejäänud Euroopaga ühendava Rail Balticu projekti

  14. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.

  15. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  16. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  17. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  18. Strengthening bridges using composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this research project is to outline methodologies for using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites to strengthen and rehabilitate reinforced concrete bridge elements. : Infrastructure deterioration and bridge strengthening techniq...

  19. Virginia Bridge Information Systems Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report presents the results of applied data mining of legacy bridge databases, focusing on the Pontis and : National Bridge Inventory databases maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Data : analysis was performed using a...

  20. Uncontrolled concrete bridge parapet cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has recently identified the problem of wide-spread premature cracking of concrete bridge : parapets throughout its District 12 region (Northeast Ohio). Many of the bridge decks that contain these prematurely crac...

  1. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  2. Low volume highway-rail grade crossing treatments for the Oregon high speed rail corridor : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This study defines how to gather information and how to obtain the communication and response necessary for safety at highway-rail crossings. It examines technologies for low-cost, high-safety treatments for low volume (less than 200 ADT) highway cro...

  3. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  4. Bridge the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mel; Cufaude, Jeffrey B.

    1989-01-01

    This document consists of two paired articles: the first, "Preparing Faculty Out of Class Experiences," by Mel Klein, and the second, "Help Advisers Be More Than Ghost Signatures," by Jeffrey B. Calfaude. Each article shares insights on how faculty advisers "bridge the gap" between students and faculty. When faculty members are asked to advise…

  5. Bridging the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy is flourishing in China, with impressive achievements in instrument design and construction matched by a higher international research profile. Yet there remains a mismatch between the facilities available and those needed to progress. Sue Bowler wonders how the country will bridge the gap.

  6. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits. Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow. We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  7. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  8. Bridging the Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  9. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  10. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  11. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  12. An Innovative and Efficient Method for Reverse Design of Wheel-Rail Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed wheel-rail profiles are not only helpful in achieving expected dynamic vehicle performance but also in extending the service lives of wheels and rails. In this paper, a method for designing wheel-rail profiles is presented based on the rolling radius difference. This method consists of three parts, i.e., the reverse designs of wheel profiles, symmetric rail profiles and non-symmetric rail profiles. A reverse design method for wheel-rail profiles that can obtain smooth profile formed by quadratic curves is established according to the mapping relation between the rolling radius difference and the wheel-rail profile gradient. This reverse design method is verified and an example for optimizing the design of wheel profiles is introduced. Results show that the design method is effective and efficient. The static/dynamic indexes of the optimized wheel profiles matched with CHN60 can be greatly improved. According to the comparative analysis of wheel-rail contact and dynamic performance, when the lateral displacement reaches 6 mm, the maximum contact stress will be distributed evenly and can be decreased by 184.4 MPa compared to that of existing profiles, while the critical speed can be increased by 10.8% and the running stability can be improved by around 7%. It can be seen that this method is useful for the design of new wheel-rail profiles and optimization of existing wheel-rail profiles.

  13. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour; Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S{sub f}=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: Implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  15. Status and habitat use of the California black rail in the Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Sulzman, C.

    2007-01-01

    California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) occur in two disjunct regions: the southwestern USA (western Arizona and southern California) and northern California (Sacramento Valley and the San Francisco Bay area). We examined current status of black rails in the southwestern USA by repeating survey efforts first conducted in 1973-1974 and again in 1989, and also examined wetland plant species associated with black rail distribution and abundance. We detected 136 black rails in Arizona and southern California. Black rail numbers detected during past survey efforts were much higher than the numbers detected during our more intensive survey effort, and hence, populations have obviously declined. Plants that were more common at points with black rails included common threesquare (Schoenoplectus pungens), arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia), and mixed shrubs, with common threesquare showing the strongest association with black rail presence. Plant species and non-vegetative communities that were less common at points with black rails included California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), southern cattail (Typha domingensis), upland vegetation, and open water. Black rails were often present at sites that had some saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), but were rarely detected in areas dominated by saltcedar. We recommend that a standardized black rail survey effort be repeated annually to obtain estimates of black rail population trends. Management of existing emergent marshes with black rails is needed to maintain stands of common threesquare in early successional stages. Moreover, wetland restoration efforts that produce diverse wetland vegetation including common threesquare should be implemented to ensure that black rail populations persist in the southwestern USA. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Rail height effects on safety performance of Midwest Guardrail System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi Pajouh, Mojdeh; Julin, Ramen D; Stolle, Cody S; Reid, John D; Faller, Ronald K

    2017-07-11

    Guardrail heights play a crucial role in the way that errant vehicles interact with roadside barriers. Low rail heights increase the propensity of vehicle rollover and override, whereas excessively tall rails promote underride. Further, rail mounting heights and post embedment depths may be altered by variations in roadside terrain. An increased guardrail height may be desirable to accommodate construction tolerances, soil erosion, frost heave, and future roadway overlays. This study aimed to investigate and identify a maximum safe installation height for the Midwest Guardrail System that would be robust and remain crashworthy before and after pavement overlays. A research investigation was performed to evaluate the safety performance of increased mounting heights for the standard 787-mm (31-in.)-tall Midwest Guardrail System (MGS) through crash testing and computer simulation. Two full-scale crash tests with small passenger cars were performed on the MGS with top-rail mounting heights of 864 and 914 mm (34 and 36 in.). Test results were then used to calibrate computer simulation models. In the first test, a small car impacted the MGS with 864-mm (34-in.) rail height at 102 km/h (63.6 mph) and 25.0° and was successfully redirected. In the second test, another small car impacted the MGS with a 914-mm (36-in.) rail height at 103 km/h (64.1 mph) and 25.6° and was successful. Both system heights satisfied the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) Test Level 3 (TL-3) evaluation criteria. Test results were then used to calibrate computer simulation models. A mounting height of 36 in. was determined to be the maximum guardrail height that would safely contain and redirect small car vehicles. Simulations confirmed that taller guardrail heights (i.e., 37 in.) would likely result in small car underride. In addition, simulation results indicated that passenger vehicle models were successfully contained by the 34- and 36-in.-tall MGS installed on approach slopes

  17. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German-majorit...... was produced – and sometimes not produced - within the projects. The importance of memory work in the context of refugee resettlement is often overlooked, but is particularly relevant when cultural encounters are organised in museums and exhibition galleries.......-majority backgrounds to experiment with digital photography and create joint exhibitions. Drawing on concepts from memory studies, such as travelling memory and multidirectional memory, the author examines the projects as interventions in German and Berlin memory cultures, and examines how multidirectional memory...

  18. Rail expansion devices monitored by FBG sensors on an urban railway viaduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilai; Pang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology was used to monitor the situation of a crevice of the continuous beam joint and rails near rail expansion devices on a viaduct of the urban railway. The monitoring items consisted of the rail temperature, rail displacement, viaduct beam displacement, and strain of sliding rail in the rail expansion device section. The strain sensor was a prefabricate FBG strain gauge, the displacement sensor with different scales used an FBG stress ring, and the FBG of the temperature sensor was pre-drawn and fixed in a metal tube. Compensation sensors were used to balance environmental temperature changes. All FBGs were suspended adhered, therefore the chirped phenomenon of the FBG reflection peak was avoided, and the measurement accuracy was improved. The monitoring results matched to the manual test and theoretical estimation.

  19. Transport Mode Selection for Toxic Gases: Rail or Road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Morteza; Verma, Manish; Verter, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A significant majority of hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments are moved via the highway and railroad networks, wherein the latter mode is generally preferred for long distances. Although the characteristics of highway transportation make trucks the most dominant surface transportation mode, should it be preferred for hazmat whose accidental release can cause catastrophic consequences? We answer this question by first developing a novel and comprehensive assessment methodology-which incorporates the sequence of events leading to hazmat release from the derailed railcars and the resulting consequence-to measure rail transport risk, and second making use of the proposed assessment methodology to analyze hazmat transport risk resulting from meeting the demand for chlorine and ammonia in six distinct corridors in North America. We demonstrate that rail transport will reduce risk, irrespective of the risk measure and the transport corridor, and that every attempt must be made to use railroads to transport these shipments. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  1. Do road planners produce more 'honest numbers' than rail planners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Buhl, Søren L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a review of available data from a database on large-scale transport infrastructure projects, this paper investigates the hypothesis that traffic forecasts for road links in Europe are geographically biased with underestimated traffic volumes in metropolitan areas and overestimated traffic...... volumes in remote regions. The present data do not support this hypothesis. Since previous studies have shown a strong tendency to overestimated forecasts of the number of passengers on new rail projects, it could be speculated that road planners are more skilful and/or honest than rail planners. However......, during the period when the investigated projects were planned (up to the late 1980s), there were hardly any strong incentives for road planners to make biased forecasts in order to place their projects in a more flattering light. Future research might uncover whether the change from the ‘predict...

  2. Rail-Route Planning Using a Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panchal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of geographical information system (GIS in decision making in rail route planning process. The various parameters affecting the alignment of rail route are considered in this study and a feasibility map is prepared considering the cumulative effect of these factors. The factors considered in this study are road network, slope, topographical characteristics and drainage characteristics of study area. Each parameter is given weights according to analytic hierarchy process (AHP in GIS environment. The layers of parameters affecting the feasibility of route are overlaid in GIS environment to find a feasibility map. Feasibility map is divided into five categories i.e. very low, low, moderate, high and extremely feasible on the basis of feasibility index.

  3. MODELLING CHALLENGES TO FORECAST URBAN GOODS DEMAND FOR RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio COMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the new research challenges for forecasting urban goods demand by rail. In fact, the growing interest to find urban logistics solutions for improving city sustainability and liveability, mainly due to the reduction of urban road accessibility and environmental constraints, has pushed to explore solutions alternative to the road. Multimodal urban logistics, based on the use of railway, seem an interesting alternative solution, but it remained mainly at conceptual level. Few studies have explored the factors, that push actors to find competitive such a system with respect to the road, and modelling framework for forecasting the relative demand. Therefore, paper reviews the current literature, investigates the factors involved in choosing such a mode, and finally, recalls a recent modelling framework and hence proposes some advancements that allow to point out the rail transport alternative.

  4. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  5. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available and backward propagating modes are superimposed in order to take account 22 8 of reflections from irregularities, such as distant welds, which may be present in the 1 measured signals. 2 3 Measurements may be performed at a single frequency using a... performed on an operational continuously welded rail line with 3 the purpose of evaluating the attenuation of particular modes with distance. This was 4 achieved by performing scans at different distances from a transmit transducer. The 5 transmit...

  6. Assessing Urban Rail Transit Systems Vulnerability: Metrics vs. Interdiction Models

    OpenAIRE

    Starita, Stefano; Esposito Amideo, Annunziata; Scaparra, Maria Paola

    2018-01-01

    Urban rail transit systems are highly vulnerable to a variety of disruptions, including accidental failures, natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Due to the crucial role that railway infrastructures play in economic development, productivity and social well-being of communities, evaluating their vulnerability and identifying their most critical components is of paramount importance. Two main approaches can be deployed to assess transport infrastructure vulnerabilities: vulnerability metri...

  7. Scheduling Additional Train Unit Services on Rail Transit Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Jiang; Yuyan Tan; Özgür Yalçınkaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of scheduling additional train unit (TU) services in a double parallel rail transit line, and a mixed integer programming (MIP) model is formulated for integration strategies of new trains connected by TUs with the objective of obtaining higher frequencies in some special sections and special time periods due to mass passenger volumes. We took timetable scheduling and TUs scheduling as an integrated optimization model with two objectives: minimizing travel ti...

  8. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowed to follow. (b) Any loaded rail car placarded for a Division 1.1 or Division 1.2 explosive, a... freight container placarded for Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in a terminal, yard, or on a...-placarded rail car and must be placed in a location so that it will be safe from danger of fire. A rail car...

  9. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RAILROAD ABANDONMENT: CARRINGTON-TO-TURTLE LAKE RAIL LINE; SUMMARY

    OpenAIRE

    Joel S. HONEYMAN; Bangsund, Dean A.; F. Larry LEISTRITZ

    1996-01-01

    The Carrington-to-Turtle Lake rail line serves five agricultural shippers in a four county area in central North Dakota. Service on the line has been affected by recent embargoes, floods, and poor, deteriorating track conditions. The line is a strong candidate for abandonment as efforts to rehabilitate the line have lacked financial support. Prior to this study, a benefit/cost study, which compares benefits and costs of a rail line reconstruction, was performed for the rail line in an attempt...

  10. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RAILROAD ABANDONMENT: CARRINGTON-TO-TURTLE LAKE RAIL LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Joel S. HONEYMAN; F. Larry LEISTRITZ

    1996-01-01

    The Carrington-to-Turtle Lake rail line serves five agricultural shippers in a four county area in central North Dakota. Service on the line has been affected by recent embargoes, floods, and poor, deteriorating track conditions. The line is a strong candidate for abandonment as efforts to rehabilitate the line have lacked financial support. Prior to this study, a benefit/cost study, which compares benefits and costs of a rail line reconstruction, was performed for the rail line in an attempt...

  11. Analysis of Light Rail Access to Airports for the Effective Ground Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoqiong Qin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the attractiveness the cost-effectiveness of the light rail service connecting the airport and the main destinations in a city compared with other modes of ground transportation. A mathematical model is developed and the optimal frequency of light rail service is decided based on the minimization of the total cost including waiting time cost of travelers at the airport and operating cost of the light rail. Sensitivity analysis is made to show the effect of such parameters...

  12. Mitigating Environmental and Public-Safety Risks of United States Crude-by-Rail Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Olufolajimi; Huppmann, Daniel; Marshall, Max; Poulton, Ricky; Siddiqui, Sauleh

    2016-01-01

    We present a medium-term market equilibrium model of the North American crude oil sector via which we develop a scenario analysis to investigate strategies to mitigate the environmental and public-safety risks from crude-by-rail transportation across the United States. The model captures crude oil movements across rail- roads, pipelines and waterways, while distinguishing between light and heavy crude qualities. We find that restricting rail loads or increasing pipeline capacity from areas dr...

  13. 67 FR 78563 - Guidance on Traffic Control Devices at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-24

    ...This notice announces that the FHWA has issued guidance to assist engineers in selection of traffic control devices or other measures at highway-rail crossings. The report, ``Guidance on Traffic Control Devices at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings'' is available at the following URL: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/media/twgreport.htm. This guidance is designed to assist in decisions to install traffic control devices or otherwise improve highway-rail grade crossings.

  14. APPLICATION OF NFC TECHNOLOGY IN PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk KOMSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of the application of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport. The NFC (Near Field Communication technology is a wireless and contactless technology of transmission of radio data over short distances (max. 5 cm. This technology is very similar to the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. It is assumed that this technology will spread rapidly and that already in 2015 around 85% of the payments in the EU will be made via mobile phones. This paper presents a research of passenger interest in this method of payment for tickets in the passenger rail transport in Slovakia. Further, an analysis of the applications of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport, including the protection of data in mobile phones, the processes in case of losing a mobile phone and ensuring the communication between both parties was presented in the article. The last part of this analysis shows the possibility of purchasing tickets regardless of the carrier and the transport type.

  15. Key issues for Pan-European rail freight services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom ZUNDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the RETRACK project, funded by the European Commission, is to conduct research to develop, demonstrate and implement a sustainable rail freight service along the East-West corridor (see fig. 1 from Constantza to Rotterdam crossing over the five national railway networks and four border crossing points. The authors have conducted state-of-the-art literature review and field surveys for this project. The current research reports the state-of-the-art of rail freight services along the RETRACK corridor in the areas of transhipment technology and systems, information and communication systems, safety and security of cargo, rolling stock and locomotives, human resources, legislative and regulatory status, and command and control systems. The research finds that all of national networks vary in terms of capabilities, competence and capacities in these areas and that the demonstration of a commercial rail freight service on the corridor will be feasible, competitive, and environmental friendly and will help achieving the long-aspired European Commission’s (EC transport policy of modal shift.

  16. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. An optimized rail crack detection algorithm based on population status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Gao, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Bing

    To improve efficiency and accuracy of wavelet packet decomposition method modified by simple genetic algorithm (SGA), a novel genetic algorithm, which is based on variance of population and population entropy, is proposed. And then wavelet packet decomposition method is optimized by this algorithm to detect rail cracks. In the optimized method, internal state of population and population diversity are linked up with evolutionary operations to adjust crossover-mutation operators of genetic algorithm. Further, a mathematical model describing fault signal is established, and its parameters are optimized to effectively extract information. The proposed algorithm was tested by test functions and simulated fault signals of rail cracks. The results about simulated fault signals show that convergence probability of proposed algorithm — at best — is 45% higher than that of SGA and 28% higher than that of improved adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA), and accuracy of crack fault detection reaches above 92%. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm isn’t prone to stagnation and has fast convergence speed and high accuracy of fault detection. This research not only improves performance of SGA, but also provides a new detection method for fault diagnosis of wheel-rail noise.

  18. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Beria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  19. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF ELECTRIC RAIL TRANSPORT IMPLEMENTATION IN VILNIUS CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas BUREIKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current problems of Vilnius city public transportation. The possible solutions (options and the technical means to improve the attractiveness of public transportation and accessibility are considered. Two main alternatives of means of electric transport (underground and tram have been singled out for Vilnius city. The suitability of these rail transport means have been substantiated. The nature and density of the work and residence places (areas of Vilnius city residents have been analysed. The scheme of tram and underground lines projected in Vilnius city are evaluated, which have been composed according to the current and forecasted flows of passengers, the nature of their changes and critical points. The technical economic indicators of the tram routes and underground lines in Vilnius city are analysed: average driving speed, average distance between the stations, the duration of the trip, the capacity of a single means of transport, the costs of line support and the size of investment. The accident rate of urban rail transportation is estimated. Comparative criteria of tram and underground lines are selected. The effectiveness of both rail means of transport in Vilnius city are compared according to three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometrical means. The final conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  20. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling systems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a moving rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85% to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  1. Mode repulsion of ultrasonic guided waves in rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Philip W; Long, Craig S; Ramatlo, Dineo A

    2018-03-01

    Accurate computation of dispersion characteristics of guided waves in rails is important during the development of inspection and monitoring systems. Wavenumber versus frequency curves computed by the semi-analytical finite element method exhibit mode repulsion and mode crossing which can be difficult to distinguish. Eigenvalue derivatives, with respect to the wavenumber, are used to investigate these regions. A term causing repulsion between two modes is identified and a condition for two modes to cross is established. In symmetric rail profiles the mode shapes are either symmetric or antisymmetric. Symmetric and antisymmetric modes can cross each other while the modes within the symmetric and antisymmetric families do not appear to cross. The modes can therefore be numbered in the same way that Lamb waves in plates are numbered, making it easier to communicate results. The derivative of the eigenvectors with respect to wavenumber contains the same repulsion term and shows how the mode shapes swop during a repulsion. The introduction of even a small asymmetry appears to lead to repulsion forces that prevent any mode crossings. Measurements on a continuously welded rail track were performed to illustrate a mode repulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential effects of mercury on threatened California black rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Danika C.; Miles, A. Keith; Takekawa, John Y.; Woo, Isa

    2009-01-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB) estuary sediments contain high levels of mercury (Hg), and tidal marsh resident species may be vulnerable to Hg contamination. We examined Hg concentrations in California black rails, a threatened waterbird species that inhabits SFB tidal salt marshes. We captured 127 black rails during the prebreeding and postbreeding seasons and examined the influence of site, sex, and year on Hg, methylmercury (MeHg), and also selenium (Se) concentrations in feathers and blood. Feather Hg concentrations averaged 6.94 ??g/g dry weight (dw) and MeHg and Se concentrations in blood averaged 0.38 and 0.42 ??g/g wet weight (ww). We used Akaike's information criterion model selection process to evaluate the importance of year, site, sex, and age on patterns of MeHg concentrations; sex and year were the most important of these factors. Feather Hg concentrations (dw) were higher in males (8.22 ??g/g) than females (6.63 ??g/g) and higher in adult birds (7.36 ??g/g) than in hatch-year birds (4.61 ??g/g). A substantial portion of SFB black rail populations may be at risk of reproductive effects due to MeHg contamination, as 32-78% of feathers and Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Rail tiedown tests with heavy casks for radioactive shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    A rail tiedown test program was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in July and August 1978. For each test, a 40- or 70-ton cask was secured on a railcar. The railcar was pushed to speeds up to 11 mph and allowed to couple to parked railcars simulating ordinary railyard operations. The test car carrying the cask was heavily instrumented to measure the accelerations and forces generated at strategically selected places. Eighteen test runs were made with different combinations of railcars, couplers, casks, speeds, and tiedown configurations. The major objectives of the test program were to (1) provide test data as a basis to develop a tiedown standard for rail cask shipments of radioactive materials and (2) collect dynamic data to support analytical models of the railcar cask tiedown system. The optimum tiedown configuration demonstrated for heavy casks was a combination of welded, fixed stops to secure the cask longitudinally and flexible cables to restrain vertical and lateral cask movement. Cables alone were inadequate to secure a heavy cask to a standard railcar, and bolting was found disadvantageous in several respects. The use of cushioning coupler mechanisms dramatically reduced the tiedown requirements for the rail coupling operation. The test program and general conclusions are discussed.

  4. Study on the geometry dimension effect of heavy rail through compound roll straightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-long; Song, Hua; Chen, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The paper starts with the active straightening regulations of the compound-roller straightener in certain factory. It adopted the explicit dynamics FEM software ANSYS/LS-DYNA and carried out the numerical simulation calculation of the compound-roller straightening process for 60 kg/m heavy rail with original curvature. It also made post-processing program to manage the simulation results and obtained the geometry dimension changing information of heavy rail after straightening. It analysed the geometry dimension changing conditions of heavy rail after straightening. It has great reference value to improve the quality of heavy rail.

  5. Research of the Resistance of Contact Welding Joint of R65 Type Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Dauskurdis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the R65 type rail joints that were welded by resistance welding are analysed. Survey methodology of the research consists of the following parts: visual inspection of welded joint, ultrasonic rail inspection, hardness test of upper part of the rail, fusion area research, the measurement hardness test of heat-softened area, the measurement microhardness test, microstructure research of the welded joint, impact strength experiments, chemical analysis of welded joint, wheel-rail interaction research using the finite element method (FEM. The results of the research are analysed and the quality of weld is evaluated. The conclusion is based on the results of this research.

  6. Wheel-rail profile matching based on finite element method for Beijing metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-huan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-dong; Zhu, Huang-shi; Zhang, Lin; Shang, Weipeng

    2017-09-01

    An instrument that measures wheel-rail appearance is used to measure the size of the wheel and rail in the section of the Baishiqiao South Station of Beijing Metro Line 6 to develop a finite element entity. Different working conditions such as axle load and traction are considered. The results show that: Under axle load, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, its contact area is the largest, and its equivalent stress and contact force are minimal; Under traction force, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, and the shear stress and equivalent stress are minimal, and thus is ideal.

  7. 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — National LambdaRail (NLR) offers unprecedented communication capabilities on the National and possibly International levels. Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  8. Formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability for urban rail transit: Inter-organizational collaboration perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yanchun; Zou, Dejian; Zheng, Junwei; Fang, Xiaoping; Luo, Haijuan

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on the perspective of inter-organizational collaboration, this article examines the formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability of urban rail transit and proposes the concept...

  9. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...

  10. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeongwoo Lee; Marlon Boarnet; Douglas Houston; Hilary Nixon; Steven Spears

    2017-01-01

    .... One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel...

  11. Characterization of track geometric imperfections leading to maximal dynamic amplification of internal forces in railway bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. C. Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper resorts to a simplified dynamic analysis methodology for the study of vibrations in railway bridges produced by the passage of a typical passenger train, or EUT (Electric Unit Train. It starts from a model with fifteen degrees-of-freedom, namely vertical (bounce and horizontal displacements (sway and rotations about the longitudinal (roll, transverse (pitch and vertical (yaw axes. In this methodology, dynamic models of the train and the bridge are assumed to be initially uncoupled, yet being bound by the interaction train-bridge forces. Thus, the loads are evaluated for the train running on a rigid and fixed deck, considering geometric irregularities, different for each rail line, in both the vertical and horizontal track planes, as well as in the wheels. The contact forces are statically condensed at the vehicle’s centre of gravity and applied on a simplified 3D beam model. To represent the train passage over the bridge, functions are used to describe the interaction forces at each node of the beam model, as time evolves. Thus, it is possible to identify the dynamic response caused by the geometric irregularities and also evaluate the dynamic amplification obtained for any internal force, which is compared to the impact coefficient proposed by the Brazilian standards for the design of railway bridges (NBR 7187, used in quasi-static analysis. For the sake of an illustration, a thirty-six-metre-span concrete bridge with box girder section was considered. A study was carried out to find out the parameters of the irregularity functions that could potentially lead to maximal amplification of internal forces in the bridge.

  12. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges....... The new method is much more generally applicable than previous methods. Another advantage is that the new method works well for diffusion bridges in long intervals because the computational complexity of the method is linear in the length of the interval. In a simulation study the new method performs well...

  13. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Lujinović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the “tunnel” segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33% above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64±9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23±1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  14. MODERN ASPECTS OF BRIDGES MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  15. Numerical Analysis of a Train-Bridge System Subjected to Earthquake and Running Safety Evaluation of Moving Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of a train-bridge system subjected to earthquakes, and the running safety indices of the train on the bridge under earthquake are studied. Taking a long span cable-stayed bridge across the Huangpu River as an example, a full three-dimensional finite element model of the train-bridge system was established, in which the soil-bridge and rail-train interactions were considered. Parallel computing based on contact balance was utilized to deal with this large-scale numerical simulation problem. The dynamic nonlinear analysis was performed on a Hummingbird supercomputer using the finite element code LS-DYNA 971. The results show that the acceleration responses of the train subjected to an earthquake are much greater than the ones without earthquake input, and the running safety of a moving train is affected by both the earthquake intensity and the running speed of the train. The running safety of the moving train can be evaluated by the threshold curve between earthquake intensity and train speed. The proposed modeling strategies and the simulated results can give a reference prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the train-bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  16. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  17. Bridging the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The view from the top of Hoover Dam looking south over the Colorado River was breathtaking! My friend and I stood there in silence, taking it all in. I had visited Hoover Dam on many occasions, but this visit was the first time I had seen the arch bridge that carries US Route 93 over the river and joins Nevada and Arizona states. It was a beautiful day, the temperature was perfect, and there was a slight breeze coming from Lake Mead behind us as we took in the view.

  18. Bridging the Emissions Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    The analyses in Chapters 2 and 3 of this report concluded that the emissions gap in 2020 will likely be between 8 and 13 GtCO2e. The chapters also estimated the difference between BaU emissions in 2020 and the emissions level consistent with a “likely” chance of staying within the 2°C target to be 14 GtCO2e. This chapter explores the potential for bridging this gap using a sector policy approach. Firstly, the chapter provides a summary and update of the estimated emission reduction potential ...

  19. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  20. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture critical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Two-girder steel bridges are classified as fracture critical bridges based on the definition given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In a fracture critical bridge a failure of a tension member leads to collapse of the bridge. However, ...

  2. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.; Jensen, Wyatt

    2015-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the “displacement” measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant (p light rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services. PMID:26543329

  3. Investigation into the vibration of metro bogies induced by rail corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Foo, Elbert; Wu, Lei; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    The current research of rail corrugation mainly focuses on the mechanisms of its formation and development. Compared with the root causes and development mechanisms, the wheel-rail impacts, the fatigue failure of vehicle-track parts, and the loss of ride comfort due to rail corrugation should also be taken into account. However, the influences of rail corrugation on vehicle and track vibration, and failure of vehicle and track structural parts are barely discussed in the literature. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the structural vibration of metro bogies caused by rail corrugation. Extensive experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of short-pitch rail corrugation on the vibration accelerations of metro bogies. A dynamic model of a metro vehicle coupled with a concrete track is established to study the influence of rail corrugation on the structural vibration of metro bogies. The field test results indicate that the short-pitch rail corrugation generates strong vibrations on the axle-boxes and the bogie frames, therefore, accelerates the fatigue failure of the bogie components. The numerical results show that short-pitch rail corrugation may largely reduce the fatigue life of the coil spring, and improving the damping value of the primary vertical dampers is likely to reduce the strong vibration induced by short-pitch rail corrugation. This research systematically studies the effect of rail corrugation on the vibration of metro bogies and proposes some remedies for mitigating strong vibrations of metro bogies and reducing the incidence of failure in primary coil springs, which would be helpful in developing new metro bogies and track maintenance procedures.

  4. Safety assessment of underground vehicles passing over highly resilient curved tracks in the presence of a broken rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B.; Rodriguez, P.; Vázquez, M.; Fernández, I.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle-track interaction for a new resilient slab track designed to reduce noise and vibration levels was analysed, in order to assess the derailment risk on a curved track when encountering a broken rail. Sensitivity of the rail support spacing of the relative position of the rail breakage between two adjacent rail supports and of running speed were analysed for two different elasticities of the rail fastening system. In none of the cases analysed was observed an appreciable difference between either of the elastic systems. As was expected, the most unfavourable situations were those with greater rail support spacing and those with greater distance from the breakage to the nearest rail support, although in none of the simulations performed did a derailment occur when running over the broken rail. When varying the running speed, the most favourable condition was obtained for an intermediate speed, due to the superposition of two antagonistic effects.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has...... not been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due...

  6. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act must have on board a radio operator who holds a restricted radiotelephone operator permit or...

  7. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels subject to the Bridge-to-Bridge Act transmitting on the designated navigational frequency must conduct...

  8. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  9. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  10. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  11. A Regional Approach to Rail Transit Training for the New York Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Claire E.; Rotter, Naomi

    A study examined the feasibility of a regional approach to rail transit training in the New York metropolitan area. First, case studies were collected to document existing training practices at the five agencies currently responsible for training rail transit workers in the New York metropolitan area and to identify mutual training needs that…

  12. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route... analysis does not support the railroad carrier's original selected route, that safety and security... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of rail transportation safety and security...

  13. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed state feedback was investigated. First, the nonlinear Linear Parameter Varying (LPV model was utilized to describe the coupling relationship between the engine speed and the rail pressure. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR optimal control algorithm was applied to design the controller by the feedback of speed and rail pressure. Second, cooperating with the switching characteristics of injectors, the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Power was utilized to verify the validity of the control algorithm and analyze workspaces for both normal and special sections. Finally, bench test results showed that the accuracy of the rail pressure control was in the range of ±1 MPa, in the condition of sudden 600 r/min speed increases. In addition, the fuel mass was reduced 76.3% compared with the maximum fuel supply quantity and the rail pressure fluctuation was less than 20 MPa. The algorithm could also be appropriate for other types of common rail system thanks to its universality.

  14. Exploring challenges and solutions for container transportation using rail: A modelling and simulation gaming study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurapati, S.; Kourounioti, I.; Lukosch, H.; Tavaszzy, L.; Verbraeck, A.; Veen, L. van; Nuland, B. van; Smit, T.

    2017-01-01

    Rail is a cost-effective and environment friendly freight transport modality when used efficiently. Stakeholders around Dutch ports are discouraged to choose rail due to uncertain train schedules and the dispersed nature of freight flows across terminals in the port. To understand the challenges and

  15. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico...

  16. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire... materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel...

  17. Supporting policy analysis in the Dutch rail sector using System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, A.; Van Daalen, C.; Van Luipen, J.; Meijer, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    With a sizeable expected growth of demand for rail transport in the Netherlands in the coming decades, and limited resources for expansion of the rail network, intensified utilization of the infrastructure is to be expected. To adequately manage this growth, appropriate tools for policy analysis are

  18. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall be...

  19. Tri-state high speed rail study : Chicago - Milwaukee - Twin Cities corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This report, the Final Report for the Tri-State Study of High Speed Rail Service, describes the work carried out by TMS/Benesch in analyzing the potential for high speed rail in the Tri-State Corridor. Specifically, the study provides a pre-feasibili...

  20. Developing seamless connections in the urban transit network : a look toward high-speed rail interconnectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In the past, U.S. studies on high-speed rail (HSR) have focused primarily on the economic implications of high-speed rail development. Recently, however, studies have begun evaluating multimodal connectivity of HSR stations. The ways in which differe...