WorldWideScience

Sample records for bridge railings

  1. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a di...

  2. Track-Bridge Longitudinal Interaction of Continuous Welded Rails on Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking arch bridges, including deck, half-through, and through arch bridges (short for DAB, HTAB, and TAB as examples, mechanics analysis models of longitudinal interaction between continuously welded rails (short for CWRs and arch bridges are established. Based on the finite element method (FEM, the longitudinal interaction calculation software of CWR on arch bridges has been developed. Focusing on an HTAB, the tension, compression, and deflection conditions are calculated and analyzed. The results show that the mechanics analysis models of three types of arch bridges can truly reflect the real state of the structure; the calculation software can be used for systematic research of the CWR on arch bridge; as for HTAB, temperature difference of arch rib has a small effect on rail tension/compression, and arch bridge can be simplified as a continuous beam for rail tension/compression additional force calculation; in calculation of deflection conditions of HTAB, it is suggested that train loads are arranged on half span and full span and take the direction of load entering bridge into account. Additionally, the deflection additional force variation of CFST basket handle arch bridge is different from that of ordinary bridge.

  3. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a digital lock-in amplifier algorithm. We have also explored compensating for the lift-off effect of the eddy current sensor due to vibrations by using the summing signal of the detection coils to measure the lift-off distance. The dominant component of the summing signal is a constant resulting from direct coupling from the excitation coil, which can be experimentally determined. The remainder of the summing signal, which decreases as the lift-off distance increases, is induced by the secondary eddy current. This dependence on the lift-off distance is used to calibrate the differential signal, allowing for a more accurate characterization of the defects. Simulated experiments on a sample rail have been performed using a computer controlled X-Y moving table with the X-axis mimicking the train's motion and the Y-axis mimicking the train's vibrational bumping. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new detection method. PMID:26401427

  4. The Behaviour of the Embedded Rail in Interaction with Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryjáček, P.; Howlader, Md M.; Vokáč, M.

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the direct fastening system, Embedded Rail System (ERS) is probably one of the most spectacular and innovative developments in railway engineering. The development has become more rapid, especially in the last decade due to competitive advantages in comparison toother systems with respect to higher speed, cost effectiveness, environmental-material sustainability and others. But still there is a lack of specific interaction model, especially when it comes to bridges equipped with ERS system. Previous studies on ERS by Estzer Ludvigh2 found out some important coefficients (vertical and longitudinal bedding coefficient) and compared the longitudinal resistance of ERS with flexible fastening systems. Other studies on ERS do not specifically deal with the evaluation of longitudinal resistance of such a system. With a view to establish the typical behaviour pattern of ERS, this paper is dedicated to find out the interaction of a specific Embedded Rail System with bridges. A small scale test was conducted on a sample of ERS in the laboratory under different combinations of vertical and longitudinal track loads and subsequently a Finite Element Model (FEM) was developed to simulate the test. The paper presents the FEA result validation with test results, the interaction pattern, longitudinal resistance of ERS track for both loaded and unloaded conditions, design load distribution for such systems and some specific influences of ERS on simply supported bridge systems.

  5. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition

  6. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  7. Effects of fundamental factors on coupled vibration of wind-rail vehicle-bridge system for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明金; 李永乐; 汪斌

    2016-01-01

    In a wind-vehicle-bridge (WVB) system, there are various interactions among wind, vehicle and bridge. The mechanism for coupling vibration of wind-vehicle-bridge systems is explored to demonstrate the effects of fundamental factors, such as mean wind, fluctuating wind, buffeting, rail irregularities, light rail vehicle vibration and bridge stiffness. A long cable-stayed bridge which carries light rail traffic is regarded as a numerical example. Firstly, a finite element model is built for the long cable-stayed bridge. The deck can generally be idealized as three-dimensional spine beam while cables are modeled as truss elements. Vehicles are modeled as mass-spring-damper systems. Rail irregularities and wind fluctuation are simulated in time domain by spectrum representation method. Then, aerodynamic loads on vehicle and bridge deck are measured by section model wind tunnel tests. Eight vertical and torsional flutter derivatives of bridge deck are identified by weighting ensemble least-square method. Finally, dynamic responses of the WVB system are analyzed in a series of cases. The results show that the accelerations of the vehicle are excited by the fluctuating wind and the track irregularity to a great extent. The transverse forces of wheel axles mainly depend on the track irregularity. The displacements of the bridge are predominantly determined by the mean wind and restricted by its stiffness. And the accelerations of the bridge are enlarged after adding the fluctuating wind.

  8. Wheel-Rail Contact Forces in High-Speed Simply Supported Bridges at Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Museros Romero, Pedro; Castillo-Linares, Alejandro; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The response of high-speed bridges at resonance, particularly under flexural vibrations, constitutes a subject of research for many scientists and engineers at the moment. The topic is of great interest because, as a matter of fact, such kind of behaviour is not unlikely to happen due to the elevated operating speeds of modern rains, which in many cases are equal to or even exceed 300 km/h ( [1,2]). The present paper addresses the subject of the evolution of the wheel-rail contact forces ...

  9. Evaluation of eddy current and magnetic techniques for inspecting rebars in bridge barrier rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Nakagawa, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a feasibility study of using eddy current (EC) and magnetic flux leakage (MFL) methods to detect corrosion damage in rebars that anchor concrete barrier rails to the road deck of bridge structures. EC and MFL measurements were carried out on standalone rebars with and without artificial defects of 25% and 50% material loss, using a commercial EC-based rebar locator and a MFL system that was developed using giant magnetoresistance sensors to detect leakage fluxes from the defects. Both techniques can readily detect the defects at a distance of 2.5″ (63.5 mm). The amplitudes of the EC and MFL signals vary monotonically with the amount of material loss, indicating the potential of using the techniques to quantify material loss of standalone rebars.

  10. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged (accounts XX-17-10 to XX-18-12 inclusive, 21-17-13 to 21-18-16 inclusive, XX-17-17, XX-18-17, XX-17-48, and XX-18-48). 1242.15 Section...

  11. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  12. Dynamic Interactions of a Train Moving Over a Rail Suspension Bridge with Multiple Support Settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yau, Y. D.; Frýba, Ladislav

    Liberec: Technical University of Liberec, 2011 - (Segĺa, Š.; Tůma, J.; Petríková, I.; Pešek, L.), s. 235-240 ISBN 978-80-7372-759-8. [International Conference on Vibrational Problems 2011. Praha (CZ), 05.09.2011-08.09.2011] Grant ostatní: National Science Council of Taiwan(TW) NSC 97-2221-E-032-022-MY2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : high speed train * ground settlement * suspension bridge * vehicle/bridge interactions Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. 城市轨道交通双线桥上无缝线路挠曲力研究%Analysis of the Flexural Forces in CWR on Double-track Bridges of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 倪向阳; 王慧珺

    2012-01-01

    针对城市轨道交通中新应用的双线U型梁和传统的双线箱型梁两种不同形式桥梁,用有限元法计算分析桥上无缝线路附加挠曲力及附加挠曲位移的分布,着重研究线路纵向阻力、桥梁跨度和桥墩刚度等参数变化对桥上无缝线路钢轨受力、桥墩受力及桥梁挠度的影响.研究结果表明,线路纵向阻力、桥梁跨度对钢轨挠曲力的影响较大,而桥墩纵向刚度对钢轨挠曲力的影响较小,为城市轨道交通设计提供理论参考依据.%Two types of urban rail transit double-track bridges are considered including the new type U-beam bridge and the traditional type box-girder bridge. The additional flexural forces and displacement distribution in CWR on the bridges have been calculated by finite element method. This paper carried out a detailed analysis on the flexural forces in tracks, the pier forces and bridge deflections owing to the changes in the longitudinal resistance, bridge spans and pier stiffness. Results showed that longitudinal resistance, bridge spans affect the rail additional flexural forces to a larger extent and the pier stiffness less affects the rail additional flexural forces. These results can provide a theoretical basis for the design of urban rail transit bridges.

  14. Long-term structural health monitoring of a steel road-rail bridge based on symbolic data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Orcesi, André; CREMONA, Christian; CURY, Alexandre; DIELEMAN, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure systems has emerged as a promising effective integrated management tool. The use of SHM systems for bridges, tunnels and transportation networks, integrating sensors and instrumentation, communication and computation together with data and information management, has not ceased increasing over the last few years. A great challenge is the detection of early damage based on dynamic measurements. One of the major issues lies on the discr...

  15. Advanced Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Ediger, Brad

    2008-01-01

    This is the book for experienced Rails developers who want to go to the next level with this web development framework, with an in-depth look at techniques for dealing with databases, security, performance, web services and much more. Chapters in this book help you understand not only the tricks and techniques used within the Rails framework itself, but also how make use of ideas borrowed from other programming paradigms.

  16. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.

  17. Enterprise Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Chak, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  18. Interaction between long -span continuous arch bridge and continuously welded rail%大跨度铁路连续梁-拱组合桥与无缝线路相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴公连; 刘瑶

    2015-01-01

    To study the interaction between continuous arch bridge and CWR (Continuously Welded Rail), nonlinear bar elements were used to simulate the track -bridge contact.Taking the (82.9 +172 +82.9)m prestressed concrete continuous arch bridge with concrete -filled steel tube as an example,a model was estab-lished by considering arch,derrick,girder,track and neighboring structures.The distributions of the longitudinal forces of CWR and the horizontal forces at the top of piers were systematically analyzed under the actions of ben-ding,braking,thermal effect,wind,shrinkage and creep as well as settlement of bearing.The following conclu-sions are obtained:The temperature load in beam has the greater influence on the track that lies in the middle of the beam than at the end of the beam.Under the action of live load and the braking force,the impact that the load position on the middle of structure is bigger.When strong wind reaches at the speed of 1 kN /m,it is neces-sary to consider the effect of wind load.Creep and shrinkage of concrete with drop in temperature have adverse effects on the rail.Under uneven settlement,the maximum stress in track is 4.9 MPa.When designing the rail track,the above factors should be considered.%研究大跨度铁路连续梁-拱组合桥与无缝线路的相互作用问题,采用非线性弹簧单元模拟梁轨接触,以某桥(82.9+172+82.9)m 连续梁拱桥为例,建立考虑拱肋、横撑、斜撑、吊杆、主梁、轨道以及相邻路基梁轨相互作用模型,系统分析温度荷载、活载、制动力、风荷载、混凝土收缩徐变、支座不均匀沉降作用下连续梁-拱桥无缝线路纵向力的分布规律。研究结果表明:钢轨在跨中位置对梁体升温敏感程度大于梁端位置;单线活载与制动或牵引作用下,钢轨应力在中间加载时比左、右侧加载大;纵向风力达到1 kN /m 以上的地区,须考虑风荷载的影响;同时,混凝土收缩

  19. Experimental Study on Vehicle-Bridge Dynamic Characteristics of Thin-Walled Trough Girder Bridge for Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通薄壁槽形梁车桥动力特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮秦; 吴定俊; 李奇

    2011-01-01

    Field tests were conducted on a standard span thin-walled trough girder bridge for the elevated urban rail transit. The free vibration characteristics of the bridge, such as the frequency, mode and damping ratio were got. The test data for both the bridge and train during the train passing through the bridge, including the displacement, amplitude, stress and the acceleration responses of the bridge and the acceleration of the carbody were obtained and analyzed. The analysis results show that the deflection-span ratio of the girder body is less than the code limit. No resonance phenomenon occurs as the train passing through the bridge. The vertical stiffness of the girder body meets the requirements. The transverse fundamental frequency of the girder span is greater than the code value while the transverse fundamental frequency of the bridge is smaller. The lateral amplitude at the pier top is larger. The transverse stiffness of the girder body meets the requirements, whereas the stiffness of the pier is somewhat insufficient. Local vibration is found in the roadbed slab and the web. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the local stability of running lines and the web when the design speed is increased. The total longitudinal bending dynamic coefficient of the girder body is smaller than specification regulated value. However, the local transverse bending dynamic coefficient of the roadbed slab is much larger than the total longitudinal bending dynamic coefficient of the girder body. The acceleration of the bridge deck is within the limit. Judging by Sperling index and ISO2631 evaluation index, the ride comfort of the test train running on the bridge is found to be excellent. According to the test and analysis, thin-walled trough girder is proved to be suitable for elevated urban rail transit.%对城轨高架标准跨薄壁槽形梁桥进行现场测试,获得桥梁的频率、振型、阻尼比等自振特性,以及列车通过时桥梁的位移、振幅

  20. Rails: Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A; Carlson, Lance

    2008-01-01

    In just a matter of days, you can develop powerful web applications with Rails that once took weeks or months to produce with other web frameworks. Find out how with Rails: Up and Running. Perfect for beginning web developers, this new edition teaches the basics of installing and using Rails 2.1 and the Ruby scripting language, and covers just about everything you need to develop your own Rails applications quickly.

  1. Design of Main Pier Foundations for Guyumen Channel Bridge of Pingtan Strait Rail-cum-Road Bridge%平潭海峡公铁两用大桥鼓屿门航道桥主墩基础设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英杰; 梅新咏

    2016-01-01

    平潭海峡公铁两用大桥鼓屿门航道桥采用主跨364 m的钢桁混合梁斜拉桥方案,桥址区水深流急、风大涌险、潮大浪高、地质复杂、冲刷严重、航道等级高、有效作业时间短。为适应该桥桥址气象、水文、地质等条件,考虑通航安全、技术可行及工程经济性等要求,确定采用高桩承台方案,并对φ3.0m、φ4.0m、φ4.5m钻孔桩基础方案进行比选,确定选用φ4.5m钻孔桩基础方案,按先平台后吊箱围堰的顺序施工。大直径桩基础中各桩采用单独配筋设计;防撞结构由吊箱围堰、V形防撞梁及联结系组成,采用可拆卸式设计,并在围堰外壁设置消波孔;钻孔桩采用KTY5000型动力头钻机,并配制PESF935型中压空压机循环排渣,利用泥浆护壁、锲齿或球齿滚刀钻头钻具切削岩面成孔;采用内径406 mm的单导管法施工水下C45混凝土。%The Guyumen Channel Bridge of the Pingtan Strait Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge adopts the scheme of a steel truss hybrid girder cable‐stayed bridge with a main span of 364 m .The construc‐tion of the bridge is constrained by the complex geological and hydrological conditions at the bridge site ,including deep water ,strong currents ,heavy winds ,hazardous torrents ,high tides and tur‐bulent waves ,severe scour ,high grade of navigational channel and tight efficient operation time . To suit the meteorological ,hydrological and geological conditions at the bridge site ,by considering the safety and technical feasibility and engineering economy ,it was determined that the elevated pile cap scheme be adopted .The pile foundations formed of bored piles respectively with 3 .0 m , 4 .0 m and 4 .5 m diameters were compared ,and the foundation scheme of 4 .5 m diameter bored piles was finally chosen .The foundation was constructed following the sequence of constructing the platform first and then the suspended box cofferdam .For the

  2. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  3. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  4. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.766 Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric...

  5. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  6. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is st...

  7. Learning Devise for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Sakti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  8. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  9. Riding the rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Lynda

    2011-09-15

    Railway was the principal means of transporting crude oil until the apparition of pipelines in the late 1800s; it is now mainly used as an alternative where there is no pipeline. However the use of rail by Canadian companies has been rising recently with about 5,000 barrels shipped every day by rail from western Canada and the aim of this article is to explain the reasons for this phenomenon. The use of rail transportation has several advantages over pipelines. First, it can reach markets that pipelines do not access, such as the United States Gulf coast, and thus permit prices there to be adapted. Rail is also a quicker and cheaper transportation means than pipelines and it does not require important investments or dilution of bitumen before shipping. Rail transportation for oil presents several advantages over pipeline transportation and Canadian companies are starting to use it as an alternative.

  10. Geodetic Measurement of Longitudinal Displacements of the Railway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with geodetic measurements of mutual longitudinal displacements ofconstruction of the railway bridge and rails on the bridge in Klášterec nad Oh í.Construction of the bridge is made of steel with a concrete deck, which carries the stonesuperstructure and rails. The bridge is about 100 meters long and expected deformationsare in millimetres. The method of geodetic network with the expected standard deviationsof coordinates about 0.2 mm was chosen. The deformation of the structure was determinedto be 4 mm, the deformation of the rails was determined to be 1 mm, both as a result ofepoch comparison.

  11. RJS Templates for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Fauser, Cody

    2006-01-01

    RJS templates are an exciting and powerful new type of template added to Rails 1.1. Unlike conventional Rails templates that generate HTML or XML, RJS templates generate JavaScript code that is executed when it is returned to the browser. This JavaScript generation allows you to perform multiple page updates in-place without a page reload using Ajax. All the JavaScript you need is generated from simple templates written in Ruby. This document helps you get acquainted with how RJS templates fit into the Rails framework and gets you started with a few easy-to-follow examples.

  12. Global Rail Tech Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China becomes a world leader in high-speed railway innovation after absorbing foreign technologies and making breakthroughs of its ow Most everyday train passengers don’t have time, or reason, to ponder the technicalities of the rails

  13. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23...., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). The original first meeting... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42......

  14. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 10581..., light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). DATES: A notice of the first meeting... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA40 Rail......

  15. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  16. Strain-Based Evaluation of a Steel Through-Girder Railroad Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Daumueller, Andrew N.; David V. Jáuregui

    2012-01-01

    In the state of New Mexico (USA), passenger rail began in 2008 between Belen and Santa Fe on the Rail Runner, following the acquisition of about 100 miles of existing rail and related infrastructure. Many of the bridges on this route are over 100 years old and contain fatigue prone details. This study focuses on a steel through-girder bridge along this corridor. To accurately evaluate these structures for load carrying capacity and fatigue, an accurate analytical model is required. Accordingl...

  17. Rail crash demonstration scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the manner in which the rail crash scenario was selected for public demonstration. A simplified risk assessment led to the short listing of three contender scenarios involving a drop from a high level, a crash into an abutment and the crash of a train into a stationary flask. Predictive work led to the final selection of the train crash. (author)

  18. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  19. The calculation of noise from railway bridges and viaducts

    OpenAIRE

    Bewes, Oliver Guy

    2005-01-01

    Pandrol Rail Fastenings Limited are a designer and manufacturer of railway rail-fastening systems. As an organisation they have the capability to reduce the noise impact of bridges using resilient track components. They also have a commercial interest in providing such technology. Knowledge of the processes behind bridge noise is important to Pandrol in two ways; to aid the engineers within the organisation in the design of fastening systems and to demonstrate a state-of-the-ar...

  20. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (Sf=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (Sf=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  1. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  2. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented and the......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  3. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23, 2013). The Committee will hold its first... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). DATES: The... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access......

  4. 78 FR 74056 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23, 2013). The Committee will hold its second meeting on January 9..., commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). The Committee will hold its second......

  5. Aerodynamic interaction between road deck and rail deck of separate-type highway-railway bridges and its effect on train running performance%分离式公铁双层桥面相互气动干扰及对列车走行性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永乐; 姜孝伟; 苏洋; 李龙安; 廖海黎

    2016-01-01

    There exists aerodynamic interaction between road deck and rail deck of highway-railway bridges under cross wind.In order to investigate the effect of different height intervals between two decks on train running performance, a separate-type highway-railway concrete box girder bridge was taken as an engineering example.The numerical simulation with CFD and the coupled vibration analysis of a wind-vehicle-bridge system were performed to determine train aerodynamic characteristics and to obtain its dynamic response.The results showed that the height interval between two decks has a major influence on train aerodynamic characteristics and its dynamic response;reducing the height interval leads to increase in the train lift coefficient and its vertical acceleration,and the wheel load reduction ratio increases as well;the effect of height intervals between two decks should receive more attention when selecting the optimal height interval in the design of highway-railway bridges.%横向风作用下公铁两用双层桥的上、下桥面间存在相互的气动干扰,为研究公铁两用组合桥间隔高度对列车走行性的影响,针对某分离式公铁两用混凝土箱梁桥,采用计算流体动力学(CFD)数值模拟和风-车-桥耦合振动研究的方法,分析了上、下桥面间隔高度对列车气动特性和车辆动力响应的影响。分析结果表明,公铁两用组合桥间隔高度对列车的气动特性和动力响应影响显著,间隔高度减小,列车升力系数和竖向加速度显著增大,轮重减载率也随之增大。公铁两用组合桥的设计应考虑间隔高度对列车的影响,以选择合理的间隔高度。

  6. 浅谈城市轨道交通“桥-建结合车站”与区间接驳方式%Discussion of the Accession Mode of Unified Structure Station and Interval Bridge in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪

    2014-01-01

    对城市轨道交通高架车站结构“桥-建结合车站”中车站主体与区间桥梁接驳方式进行系统的调查与分析,按照现有的接驳方式分为:①车站边跨盖梁(桥式车站)、框架梁(框架式车站)设置牛腿;②车站边跨设置双柱,区间箱梁或“U”型梁与车站主体脱开。通过调查和分析,按照车站受力特性,结合车站建筑设备功能和要求,分析两种接驳方式的利弊,在具体工程中根据自己的特点和使用条件选用不同的形式,完善了“桥-建结合车站”中车站主体与区间桥梁接驳方式概括和总结,并为以后的实际工程起到指导的作用。%Systematic investigation and analysis of the ac-cess modes of unified bridge-building and interval bridge were carried out in this paper. The existing could be divided into two types: ①setting corbel in the side span beam ( bridge station ) or in the frame beam ( frame station) . ②setting double column within side span to separate interval box beam or U shape beam and station structures Based on mechanic character and equip-ment function of station building, the advantage and disadvan-tage of two access mode was discussed, In the selection of spe-cific projects in choosing different forms according to individual characteristics and service conditions in specific engineering. The improving summary and conclusion of access modes of uni-fied bridge-building and interval bridge could provide guideline in practical project.

  7. Niobium in rail steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening capacity of niobium in high carbon steels is governed by the carbon content, soaking conditions prior to rolling and the finish rolling temperature. Yield and tensile strengths may be increased by up to 70-100 MPa (10-15 k.s.i.) in C-Mn-Cr rails with niobium additions of about 0.03 percent. The strengthening mechanism appears to be precipitation hardening of niobium carbonitride in the pro-eutectoid ferrite and ferrite lamellae in pearlite. In addition, ductility improvements may be effected through the austenite grain refining action of niobium in hot rolling leading to a reduction in pearlite colony size

  8. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  9. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  10. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails. 177.900 Section 177.900 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.900 Deck rails. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, rails...

  11. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must...

  12. 黄冈公铁两用长江大桥钢桁梁杆件制造关键技术%Key Techniques for Manufacturing of Members of Steel Truss Girder of Huanggang Changjiang River Rail-cum-Road Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷红

    2013-01-01

    The main bridge of Huanggang Changjiang River Rail-cum-Road Bridge is a steel truss girder cable-stayed bridge with double pylons and double cable planes.The chord and web members of the main truss of the bridge were designed as the ones of parallelogram sections.To guarantee the manufacturing quality of the members,the key techniques for the manufacturing were studied.The precision of the geometric dimensions of the members was guaranteed by the techniques of controlling the precision of the inclined angle grooves of the welded edges,fine adjusting the diagonal line dimensions of the diaphragms (controlling the angles of the end openings) and assembling the members on the special jig supports.The precision of the anchor tube positioning was guaranteed by the techniques of converting the spatial positioning dimensions of the anchor tubes into the plane positioning dimensions and controlling the installing,welding procedures of the anchor boxes and the installing precision of the anchor tubes.The assembling quality of the steel truss girder was guaranteed by the techniques of testing the precision of the hole groups at the inclined web member joints by the special testing templates for the web member joints.Practice proves that the key techniques applied to the manufacturing of the members effectively tackle the control problems of the members of parallelogram sections and guarantee the manufacturing precision of the steel truss girder of the bridge.%黄冈公铁两用长江大桥主桥为双塔双索面钢桁梁斜拉桥,其主桁弦杆和腹杆采用平行四边形截面.为保证主桁平行四边形截面杆件的制造质量,对其制造关键技术进行研究.通过控制杆件焊接边斜角坡口精度、微调隔板对角线尺寸(控制端口角度)、应用专用胎架组拼杆件的技术保证杆件形位尺寸的精度.通过将锚管空间定位尺寸转化为平面定位尺寸、控制锚箱安装及焊接工序、控制锚管安装精度的技术

  13. Bridge? What's a Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, George

    1996-01-01

    Considers the metaphor of the "bridge" as it applies to Russian-language courses at the university level. The article examines broader curricular issues of technology, innovation, and outside pressures on language teaching. (22 references) (CK)

  14. Ruby on Rails Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Ruby on Rails is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. The first application I built was a web application to manage and authenticate other applications. One of the main requirements for this application was a single sign-on service. This allowed authentication to be built in one location and be implemented in many different applications. For example, users would be able to login using their existing credentials, and be able to access other NASA applications without authenticating again. The second application I worked on was an internal qualification plan app. Previously, the viewing of employee qualifications was managed through Excel spread sheets. I built a database driven application to streamline the process of managing qualifications. Employees would be able to login securely to view, edit and update their personal qualifications.

  15. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  16. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Gajarlawar Nilesh; Khetan Ajaykumar; Rao Gaddale Amba Prasad

    2013-01-01

    These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. ...

  17. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is still room to improve. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  18. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  19. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... authorized in the Act and available under the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail program. This guidance... qualifies States to receive grants for high-speed rail only. Response: Operational information about all... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  20. 49 CFR 234.233 - Rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 234.233 Section 234.233..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.233 Rail joints. Each non-insulated rail joint...

  1. Ruby on Rails: Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    This compact guide from O'Reilly teaches you the basics of Ruby on Rails, the super-productive new way to develop full-featured web applications. Discover how to install and use both the Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework. More advanced material shows you just how fast Ruby on Rails can go.

  2. Characterization of Stormwater Runoff from a Light Rail Transit Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Raja Umer; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Memon, Sheeraz; Sukhbaatar, Chinzorig; Paule, Ma Cristina; Lee, Bum-Yeon; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2015-09-01

    The monitoring of stormwater runoff from Light Rail Transit (LRT) facilities is insufficient in many regions around the world. In this study, runoff quality and quantity were monitored during operational and non-operational LRT phases during 2010-2013. The event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants showed little statistical variability during both phases. The antecedent dry day (ADD) showed a strong to moderate positive correlation with most pollutant EMCs during the non-operational phase. The existence and magnitude of the first flush from LRT runoff was found to be similar to those from other transportation land uses. The comparison of LRT runoff data with an adjacent road bridge site showed that the pollutant EMC and unit load were 2 to 9 times higher from the road bridge. It was suggested that LRT automated operation and the elevated track makes this transportation mode a viable option for the management of non-point source pollution. PMID:26961476

  3. Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where βtp is an odd multiple of π, where tp is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where βtp is an even multiple of π. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V

  4. Energy consumption in rail traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the first results of a short study made on the energy consumption of the Swiss rail-bound systems for the transport of persons and goods. In this initial short study, data collected on the electricity and fossil fuel consumption of the Swiss Federal Railways and further railway companies in Switzerland is presented. The consumption is split into various categories such as person and goods traffic, internal traffic, building-infrastructure (stations, workshops, tunnels etc.) and equipment (signals, point-heaters, lighting, safety equipment). Data is presented in tables and in graphical form in relation to person-kilometres and tonne-kilometres. The development of consumption over a period of years is discussed and comparisons are made with figures for the German rail system

  5. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  6. Rail-to-rail differential input amplification stage with main and surrogate differential pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles Lanier; Smith, Stephen Fulton

    2007-03-06

    An operational amplifier input stage provides a symmetrical rail-to-rail input common-mode voltage without turning off either pair of complementary differential input transistors. Secondary, or surrogate, transistor pairs assume the function of the complementary differential transistors. The circuit also maintains essentially constant transconductance, constant slew rate, and constant signal-path supply current as it provides rail-to-rail operation.

  7. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    OpenAIRE

    Winiar L.; Hariri S.; Flahaut P.; Jezzini-Aouad M.

    2010-01-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerou...

  8. Rail Competition Changes Since the Staggers Act

    OpenAIRE

    Prater, Marvin E.; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric; Blanton, Bruce; Bahizi, Pierre; Nibarger, Daniel; Weingram, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and other shippers are concerned about the sufficiency in rural areas of transportation capacity, the sufficiency of competition in the transportation system, the reliability of transportation services, and the reasonableness of rates. This paper examines the sufficiency of rail freight competition and the effects of intramodal competition on rail rates. The paper begins with a review of the importance of rail transportation for U.S. agricultural producers. Specific attention is ...

  9. Myocardial Bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results. PMID:27074276

  10. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  11. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  12. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface... Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee (RETAC... discussion of emerging issues and concerns regarding the transportation by rail of energy...

  13. Rail vs truck transport of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi, Hamed; Flynn, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the economics of transshipping biomass from truck to train in a North American setting. Transshipment will only be economic when the cost per unit distance of a second transportation mode is less than the original mode. There is an optimum number of transshipment terminals which is related to biomass yield. Transshipment incurs incremental fixed costs, and hence there is a minimum shipping distance for rail transport above which lower costs/km offset the incremental fixed costs. For transport by dedicated unit train with an optimum number of terminals, the minimum economic rail shipping distance for straw is 170 km, and for boreal forest harvest residue wood chips is 145 km. The minimum economic shipping distance for straw exceeds the biomass draw distance for economically sized centrally located power plants, and hence the prospects for rail transport are limited to cases in which traffic congestion from truck transport would otherwise preclude project development. Ideally, wood chip transport costs would be lowered by rail transshipment for an economically sized centrally located power plant, but in a specific case in Alberta, Canada, the layout of existing rail lines precludes a centrally located plant supplied by rail, whereas a more versatile road system enables it by truck. Hence for wood chips as well as straw the economic incentive for rail transport to centrally located processing plants is limited. Rail transshipment may still be preferred in cases in which road congestion precludes truck delivery, for example as result of community objections. PMID:16915633

  14. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail Depreciation Studies. See 78 FR 18676 (Mar. 27, 2013). This collection, codified at 49 CFR part 1201, Section 4-2(b... Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT....

  15. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of a 3D train-bridge system using the probability density evolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-wu; Mao, Jian-feng; Guo, Feng-qi; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the main sources causing train-bridge random vibration. A new random vibration theory for the coupled train-bridge systems is proposed in this paper. First, number theory method (NTM) with 2N-dimensional vectors for the stochastic harmonic function (SHF) of rail irregularity power spectrum density was adopted to determine the representative points of spatial frequencies and phases to generate the random rail irregularity samples, and the non-stationary rail irregularity samples were modulated with the slowly varying function. Second, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) was employed to calculate the random dynamic vibration of the three-dimensional (3D) train-bridge system by a program compiled on the MATLAB® software platform. Eventually, the Newmark-β integration method and double edge difference method of total variation diminishing (TVD) format were adopted to obtain the mean value curve, the standard deviation curve and the time-history probability density information of responses. A case study was presented in which the ICE-3 train travels on a three-span simply-supported high-speed railway bridge with excitation of random rail irregularity. The results showed that compared to the Monte Carlo simulation, the PDEM has higher computational efficiency for the same accuracy, i.e., an improvement by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, the influences of rail irregularity and train speed on the random vibration of the coupled train-bridge system were discussed.

  16. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-24

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994.

  17. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  18. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  19. A novel latch-up free SCR-LDMOS with high holding voltage for a power-rail ESD clamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low snapback holding voltage of the SCR-LDMOS device makes it susceptible to latch-up failure, when used in power-rail ESD (electro-static discharge) clamp circuits. In order to eliminate latch-up risk, this work presents a novel SCR-LDMOS structure with an N-type implantation layer to achieve a 17 V holding voltage and a 5.2 A second breakdown current. The device has been validated using TLP measurement analysis and is applied to a power-rail ESD clamp in half-bridge driver ICs. (semiconductor devices)

  20. A novel latch-up free SCR-LDMOS with high holding voltage for a power-rail ESD clamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Hongwei; Liu Siyang; Sun Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    The low snapback holding voltage of the SCR-LDMOS device makes it susceptible to latch-up failure,when used in power-rail ESD (electro-static discharge) clamp circuits.In order to eliminate latch-up risk,this work presents a novel SCR-LDMOS structure with an N-type implantation layer to achieve a 17 V holding voltage and a 5.2 A second breakdown current.The device has been validated using TLP measurement analysis and is applied to a power-rail ESD clamp in half-bridge driver ICs.

  1. Estimation of the Temperature Distribution in the Rails of a High-Performance Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    CERN Document Server

    McCorkle, William C

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the temperature distribution in the rails of an electromagnetic rail gun at the time that the armature leaves the rails. In order to obtain analytic results, we assume a simple geometry for the rails and an electromagnetic skin effect with a current-carrying channel boundary that propagates with the accelerating armature. We use three different approaches to obtain expressions for the temperature rise in the rails: a constant gun current, a quadratic time-dependent current, and a channel with current density controlled by magnetic field diffusion into the rails. We look at a range of exit velocities, from 1500 m/s to 5000 m/s. In all three approaches, the model predicts the highest temperatures near the gun breech. We find that after a single gun firing the temperature reaches the melting temperature of the metal rails in a layer of finite thickness near the surface of the rails, for rails made of copper or tantalum. We plot the thickness of the melt layer as a function of position along the rails...

  2. Programmevaluierung Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

  3. Common-rail injection systems; Common-Rail Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehle, W.; Hammer, J.; Naber, D.; Kampmann, S.; Duernholz, M.; Dohle, U. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The diesel engine has established by the end users as the economic solution with high driving enjoyment in all passenger car classes. The success could and can only be reached by the fulfillment of the emission standards, the highest comfort efforts and a long-lived use to justifiable system costs. The modular system portfolio of Bosch enables the engine manufacturers to fulfill the compensation between the high requirements and prices corresponding to real market conditions. In the following the essential challenges and chances of the Diesel drive, characteristics and solutions of the Common rail system, in hard-and software, and solutions for the diagnosis life cycle of the vehicle are shown. (orig.)

  4. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic... rail or heavy rail transit service on track that is part of the general railroad system of... system that is not operating on track that is part of the general railroad system of...

  5. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which is...

  6. Rail-Highway Crossing Safetty Program in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Knoke, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Indiana is one of the top five states in the nation for the number of rail crossings and for the number of serious crashes at rail crossings. This presentation will cover rail-highway crossing safety performance trends, the safety investigation process, and a discussion of rail safety programs.

  7. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  8. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  9. Educational simulator of functions in rail vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Niklas; Lifvendahl, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    This report is a description of a developed educational simulator over rail vehicles and its components. The simulator is a hardware-based prototype over a door system on rail vehi- cles. System specialists and technicians will use the prototype. The Simulator should give the user a technical demonstration on how components work in a door system. The proto- type consists of motor, switch, relay and sensor. The components are used for illustration of the functions in a door system on a rail ve...

  10. Loading and damageability of wheels and rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George TUMANISHVILI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction, rolling resistance and durability of rails and wheels at operation, belong to a number of the most important problems of railway transportation because they have strong impact on derailment, energy consumption and restorative maintenance. Various aspects of these problems are insufficiently investigated, have only partial solution. The sources of creep and slipping of a wheel on a rail and ways of its reduction are specified in the work. These approaches alongside with the traditional methods (lubrication, radial steering bogie, etc. will ensure the reduction both the power and the thermal loading of the contact zone and wear rate of rails and wheels.

  11. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  12. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  13. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun.

  14. Rail Baltica waiting at the station

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi transpordi asekantsleri Eero Pärgmäe sõnul on Eesti 2012. aastal valmis Tallinn-Riia rongiliini avamiseks. Tallinn-Berliini rongiliinist. Siim Kallas lubas aidata edendada Rail Baltica projekti

  15. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  16. Rail human factors: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R; Norris, Beverley J

    2005-11-01

    Rail human factors research has grown rapidly in both quantity and quality of output over the past few years. There was an early base of work at a few institutions carried out over the 1960s and 1970s, followed by a lull in the 1980s and early 1990s. The continual influences of safety concerns, new technical system opportunities, reorganisation of the business, needs to increase effective, reliable and safe use of capacity, and increased society, media and government interest have now accelerated rail human factors research programmes in several countries. In this paper we review the literature on rail human factors research, covering driving, signalling and control, maintenance, reporting systems, passenger interests, planning and technical systems change. Current major rail human factors programmes are summarised and future research needs proposed. It is asserted that general human factors models and methods are being re-assessed, and new ones developed, to meet the requirements of the railways. PMID:16238999

  17. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  18. Current diffusion in rail-gun conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed to analyze one- and two-dimensional, nonlinear current diffusion in rail-gun conductors. A nonlinear current-diffusion equation that accounts for the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has been developed from Maxwell's equations. A finite-difference heat-transfer computer program was adapted to solve the current-diffusion and thermal-diffusion problems for rail-gun conductors in one and two dimensions. The nonlinear current-diffusion equation was also extended to account for the magnetic-field dependence of the magnetic permeability, thus allowing ferromagnetic materials to be considered. A one-dimensional finite-difference technique was developed for ferromagnetic materials. Two one-dimensional test problems that compare results with other analyses are discussed. A series of calculations of current density and rail temperature was done for various size rectangular rails. One analysis of current diffusion in a ferromagnetic material was also performed

  19. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  20. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Bakhshi; Mohammad Reza Soleymani Yazdi

    2012-01-01

    Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail fail...

  1. The conception of the experimental rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Doleček

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article deals with the advance configuration and the installation of vehicle components to the experimental rail vehicle powered by the traction battery. Particularly the paper focus on the research problems of the construction of the experimental rail vehicle (bogie, the structure of electrical equipment of experimental rail vehicle (traction drive, control system, power supply system and the research problems of the influence between the different systems placed on the experimental rail vehicle are mentioned as well.Design/methodology/approach: The design of the experimental rail vehicle which has a foursome mechanically independent drives and each drive has own DSP controller, is specific. The mentioned configuration ensures the coordination of the traction forces between traction drives, which create one bogie with independently rotating wheels, provides the necessary energy flows. For the reason of the effects of the control to running characteristics the experimental rail vehicle has a lot of sensors and the other measuring devices.Findings: The problems of EMC - influence elimination of traction drive with PMSMs, control and measurement are solved. The sophisticated structure of the conception of the vehicle, which is expected to minimization of influence to the sensitive precision measuring equipment from, was designed during the development of the experimental rail vehicle (the minimization was achieved by LCD and LC filter modules.Research limitations/implications: The vehicle with four PMSMs form the whole traction vehicle drive with the total nominal power of 5 kW because of the budget is limited.Originality/value: The special conception of rail vehicle, which is mechanically designed by Rolling Stock Research Institute, is constructed at the JPTF for the purposes of experimental research on vehicles with independently rotating wheels.

  2. Stress Analysis on Behaviour of Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kameswara Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is axiomatic to say that the rails used nowadays have been subjected to heavier axle loads and high operating speeds. This may lead to derailment and eventually loss of life. In this paper Transient analysis (Dynamic analysis for rail by using ANSYS 12.1 Software is discussed. In this analysis deflection and stress are compared with wheel diameter, load, speed and range of distribution of contact load. Result is analyzed by the effect of variation of these parameters.

  3. A Comprehensive Rail Rate Index for Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sparger, Adam; Prater, Marvin E.

    2012-01-01

    Several annual rail rate indices depict changes in the prices paid for rail service. Although accurate for general analyses, each of these indices falls short in capturing the three major components of total railroad grain rates: tariff rates, fuel surcharges, and secondary railcar market costs. Bids in the secondary grain railcar market can affect whether the actual rate paid by shippers is above or below the published tariff rate. The seasonality of rates inherent in grain transportation is...

  4. Stress Analysis of Guide Rails of Elevators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam H. Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical design of elevator elements is always performed by international standards. The engineer selects the appropriate elements of elevator according to catalogues without knowing scientific details. Therefore, a theoretical analysis is achieved at two operating conditions for guide rails (1 safety gear operation, and (2 running condition with the loads unevenly distributed on the elevator car. The guide rail is considered a continuous beam with variable supports. Then the British code is listed showing the equations used in it. The theoretical equations showed that guide rails are never subjected to stress in simultaneous combined buckling and bending in the plane, where the bending moment is exerted. It is always a combination of pressure and bending. Consequently, it is wrong to consider a simultaneous effect of buckling and bending. The equations in the catalogues oppose the theoretical results concerning buckling of guide rails. Therefore, a recommended calculation method for guide rails is presented to be an acceptable method for analysis of guide rail.

  5. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  6. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  7. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic. The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical. The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition, the three-line rail traffic system has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system. Compared with the four-line rail traffic system, the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line. As a result, building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  8. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre;

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power consu...

  9. A low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor adapter circuit suitable for input rail-to-rail operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Nikša; Zogović, Milena; Banjević, Mirjana; Zimmermann, Horst

    2010-11-01

    In this article, a low-voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) input signal adapter (ISA) suitable for input rail-to-rail operation of various types of analogue basic building blocks is presented. The adapter acts as a pre-stage with infinite input resistance and linear transfer characteristics. Its input signal is translated into the region fitting the operating range of the following stage. The generality of the proposed method is proven through the application of the ISA in different types of analogue basic building blocks designed in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. They are the following: below-negative-rail-to-above-positive-rail voltage-controlled transconductor, quasi rail-to-rail voltage-controlled resistor (VCR), rail-to-rail operational amplifier (OA) and quasi rail-to-rail second generation current conveyor. The proposed negative resistance quasi rail-to-rail VCR and rail-to-rail OA have been used in a Sallen and Key band-pass filter. All of these analogue basic building blocks and their applications in the form of the Sallen and Key band-pass filter operate from a single supply of 1.5 V. Simulation results confirm the predictions of the analysis performed.

  10. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiar L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A. This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  11. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  12. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  13. Stone bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 122-129 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * stone bridge * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  15. Hard-driven rail-gun tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of prototype rail-gun designs have been tested, powered by explosive magnetic flux compression generators. Peak currents as high as 1.3 MA were delivered. Rail guns with 50-mm-thick Kevlar fiberwound structural shells were able to survive these high currents with minimum mechanical damage and were refired after enlarging the bores 0.2 to 0.4 mm to remove arc damage. In some tests, mechanical damage occurred that was apparently caused by the rebound of the gun after firing. Although the Kevlar shells had more than adequate strength, they appeared to lack sufficient stiffness, allowing excessive deflections. The use of a steel structural shell with a Kevlar sleeve was an improvement. Intrusion into the seams of the rail guns and condensation of material from the plasma armature were observed. Improved sealing of seams is indicated. In some cases, we suspect maldistribution of current within the gun; that is, not all the current delivered to the breech of the gun seemed to reach the plasma armature. Experiments are being designed to quantify the effects discussed. Rail guns of advanced design are being fabricated. An 18-g titanium projectile was accelerated to 2.4 km/s in a 16-mm-round-bore, 0.6-m-long gun, 4-6 g polycarbonate projectiles were accelerated to 3.5 km/s in 13-mm-square-bore, 1.2-m-long rail guns. All tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure

  16. Rails2.3.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ruby on Rails团队在Rails2.2发布几个月之后,发布了最新版的Rails2.3.2,该版本进行了很多重要的更新。新版的Rails集成了Rack的支持,RallsE一定程度上简化并重写了script/server的基础架构,这意味着Rails能够支持Rack所支持的任何服务器了。此外还重新提供了对Rails Engines的支持。语言方面,Rails2.3.2通过了对Ruby1.9的全部测试。另外,在Active Record、Action Controler、Action View、Action Support和Railties方面也做了大量的重要更新。

  17. Electronic BAR Gauge: a customized optical rail profile measurement system for rail-grinding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinsky, Gordon S.

    1995-06-01

    The dynamic interaction that occurs at the rail/wheel interface of any rail system is significantly influenced by rail and wheel profiles. In an effort to enhance this interaction, railways and transit systems often employ rail grinding as a means to maintain a defined rail profile. The cost to perform this procedure can be very high, sometimes exceeding $DLR25,000 per day for the use of a large grinding machine (with up to 128 grinding motors-each motor being 20 hp or more). Because of this, it is imperative that the work be done efficiently and accurately. In recent years there has been substantial research into the optimization of rail profiles. The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada is one research facility that has generated a unique, precise set of specified profiles for use in heavy-haul railway operations. To implement these profiles in a consistent manner, during rail grinding operations, requires some type of measurement system that provides feedback to the field staff. Up until recently, this has been accomplished with a manual BAR gauge that is fitted with a set of accurate profile templates. The BAR gauge, which initially was fitted with four specified templates, is now equipped with ten such templates. To obtain the full potential of benefits from these profiles requires more precise grinding than that which has been achieved in the past. The other problem with the current manual profile measurement (BAR) method is that it is somewhat slow and cumbersome and the differences between profiles is quite small (i.e. 0.020 inch or less). In order to enhance their rail grinding management support, ARM pursued an automated system that would optically measure rail profiles very fast and accurately from a hy-rail vehicle and compare them with the NRC profiles. Another important feature that was desired in this system was the ability to measure the relative position of one profile with respect to the other (i.e. left versus right rail). Such a system

  18. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  19. Influence of the Second Flexural Mode on the Response of High-Speed Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Museros Romero, Pedro; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the contribution of the second flexural mode to the dynamic behaviour of simply supported railway bridges. Alluding to the works of other authors, it is suggested in some references that the dynamic behaviour of simply supported bridges could be adequately represented taking into account only the contribution of the fundamental flexural mode. On the other hand, the European Rail Research Institute (ERRI) proposes that the second mode should also be incl...

  20. 77 FR 58624 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Crab Orchard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Lines of Crab Orchard & Egyptian Railroad Company Progressive Rail Incorporated (PGR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire from Crab...

  1. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY... the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy... transportation by rail of energy resources, including, but not necessarily limited to, coal and biofuels (such...

  2. 49 CFR 236.752 - Joint, rail, insulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint, rail, insulated. 236.752 Section 236.752..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.752 Joint, rail, insulated. A joint in which electrical insulation is provided between adjoining rails....

  3. 49 CFR 236.711 - Bond, rail joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond, rail joint. 236.711 Section 236.711..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.711 Bond, rail joint. A metallic connection attached to adjoining rails to insure electrical conductivity....

  4. 49 CFR 234.235 - Insulated rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulated rail joints. 234.235 Section 234.235..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.235 Insulated rail joints. Each insulated rail joint...

  5. 49 CFR 236.59 - Insulated rail joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulated rail joints. 236.59 Section 236.59..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.59 Insulated rail joints. Insulated rail joints shall be...

  6. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of...

  7. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  8. An investigation of sliding electrical contact in rail guns and the development of grooved-rail liquid-metal interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adamy, Mark T.

    2001-01-01

    The barrel life of a solid armature rail gun is a critical issue. Arcing along the barrel pathway at the interfaces between the armature and the rails produces severe damage. The ability to protect the rails and yet provide sufficient electrical contact to sustain arc-free high-current flow is desirable. This thesis investigates the use of liquid metal as an interface material between the sliding electrical contact surfaces of the armature and the barrel rails. Experiments were conducted with...

  9. A Current-Mode Common-Mode Feedback Circuit (CMFB) with Rail-to-Rail Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadet, Apirak; Kasemsuwan, Varakorn

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a current-mode common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit with rail-to-rail operation. The CMFB is a stand-alone circuit, which can be connected to any low voltage transconductor without changing or upsetting the existing circuit. The proposed CMFB employs current mirrors, operating as common-mode detector and current amplifier to enhance the loop gain of the CMFB. The circuit employs positive feedback to enhance the output impedance and gain. The circuit has been designed using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology under 1V supply and analyzed using HSPICE with BSIM3V3 device models. A pseudo-differential amplifier using two common sources and the proposed CMFB shows rail to rail output swing (± 0.7 V) with low common-mode gain (-36 dB) and power dissipation of 390 μW.

  10. Responses of rail productivity to water level variability and factors affecting rail broadcast survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wetland habitat loss is a significant threat to marshbird populations Tacha and Braun 1994. Declines in Virginia rails Rallus limicola 2.2 annually from 1982 to...

  11. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Ling-kun; Jiang Li-zhong; Guo Wei; Liu Wen-shuo; Zeng Zhi-ping; Chen Ge-wei

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB) element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of spru...

  12. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senguttuvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were analyzed separately and aluminum is found the best material among the steel, brass and ABS material for common rail injection tube. Keywords: Common Rail Injection System, Alternate Material.

  13. Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspections of rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thompson V.; Mariani, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail integrity evaluation. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection, in pair with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm, is under development. Experimental tests results, carried out at the UCSD Rail Defect Farm, indicate that the prototype is able to detect internal rail defects with high reliability. Extensions of the system are planned to add rail surface characterization to the internal rail defect detection.

  14. Influence of Rare Earths on Contact Fatigue of Rail Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Rail/wheel contact fatigue of NbRE rail, Nb rail and U74 rail was investigated using contact fatigue tester. Microstructure and morphology as well as microhardness in the fatigue profiles were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and Vickers hardness respectively. The experimental results show that rare earths are able to delay the initiation and the propagation of fatigue cracks and postpone the surface shelling or spalling, even more, to reduce the crack propagation angle and the crack propagation depth in steady state as well as the plastic deformation area, and to improve work-hardening of the rail steel.

  15. National Standards for Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanshen; Qin Guodong; Zhang Suyan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we suggest the creation of passenger service standards for urban rail transit.We put forward standards suited for China's actual conditions,aimed at meeting an international level of service based on customer-oriented principles.

  16. Energy Ambiguity and the Inductive Rail Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecking, Patrick C.

    2007-01-01

    In electric or mixed electric-mechanic systems, the distinction between potential and kinetic energy is not as clear as in purely mechanical systems. A solution for the motion of an inductively loaded rail generator is presented. In this case, the magnetic field energy (1/2)Li[superscript 2] can be written "formally" in terms of a potential…

  17. FINANCIAL TERMS AND PRINCIPLES OF SPEED RAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolov, N.

    2011-01-01

    The article considers the financial terms and principles of accelerating delivery of cargo and passenger railways of Ukraine highlighted the shortcomings of the existing system of financing the development of rail transport, the proposed areas to improve the financial and economic mechanism of acceleration of traffic on railways.

  18. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  19. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, T.E. (JEMSystems, Sutton Courtenay, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4AU (GB))

    1991-01-01

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of {gt}2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with {lt}0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used.

  20. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of >2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with <0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used

  1. 大跨度公铁两用钢桁梁斜拉桥结构地震响应特征研究%Study of Structural Seismic Response Characteristics of Long Span Rail-cum-Road Steel Truss Girder Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮怀圣; 屈爱平; 何友娣; 苗润池; 李龙安

    2015-01-01

    大跨度公铁两用钢桁梁斜拉桥是一种技术复杂的特殊桥梁,为系统地把握该类型桥梁结构在地震作用下的动力响应规律,总结该类桥梁的总体结构特征,统计分析5座公铁两用大桥的结构动力特性值,利用有限元数值仿真方法分析不同结构抗震约束体系的地震响应特点,统计粘滞阻尼器的减震效果并解释效果差异的原因。研究表明:大跨度公铁两用斜拉桥的竖向刚度与公路斜拉桥相比有明显差异,前者的竖弯基频比后者平均高20%左右;在多种结构抗震约束体系中,具有耗能显著特点的液体粘滞阻尼器体系是一种较为理想的结构抗震支承体系;采用粘滞阻尼器后,6座大桥桥塔的弯矩减震率呈现20%左右与60%以上两种不同表现结果,该现象主要与地震动输入的长周期成分取值有关;由于剪力比弯矩的阶次低,导致桥塔剪力比弯矩的减震效果低;粘滞阻尼器对梁端位移的减震效果显著,可达到60%~80%。%T he long span rail‐cum‐road steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge is a type of the special bridge of technical complexity . To systematically understand the structural dynamic re‐sponse law s of such type of the bridges under the action of earthquake ,the general structural char‐acteristics of the bridges were summed up and the structural dynamic characteristic values of 5 long span rail‐cum‐road steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridges were statistically analyzed .The seismic response characteristics of the different structural seismic restraint systems were analyzed ,using the finite element numerical simulation ,the damping effect of the fluid viscous dampers was statis‐tically collected and the differences of the damping effect were illustrated .The results of the analy‐sis demonstrate that the vertical stiffness of a long span rail‐cum‐road steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge is

  2. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  3. 桥式起重机啃轨原因分析及解决措施%Analysis And Solution The Overhead Crane Rail Gnawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海鹏

    2014-01-01

    对引起桥式起重机啃轨现象的原因进行了简单阐述,指出轨道、车轮及桥架都可能引起啃轨。而通过分析探讨,得出在制造与使用过程中,对可能引起啃轨发生的部位进行重点检测,可有效降低或消除啃轨的发生,保证了设备的安全使用。%To briefly discuss the phenomenon of rail gnawing for the overhead crane, point out the track、wheel and rail bridge may cause the rail gnawing. Through the analyze and discussion, we conclud that in the process of manufacture and use, paying intensive detection on the parts that.

  4. Experimental procedures for testing the performance of rail dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squicciarini, G.; Toward, M. G. R.; Thompson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Rail dampers work by increasing the attenuation with distance of vibration transmitted along the rail, a quantity known as the track decay rate. Currently, there are no standardized procedures to measure their effectiveness in reducing rolling noise without the need for in-track installation and time-consuming tests. This paper describes and evaluates experimental procedures for assessing rail dampers. Instead of field measurements it is proposed to use laboratory measurements of vertical and lateral decay rates on a free rail equipped with dampers. These are combined with in-situ measurements on an undamped track. The decay rates of a damped track can be approximated by adding the results of the damped free rail to those of the undamped track. Three different methods are studied to measure the decay rates of damped free rails: (i) using a long rail, in the present work 32 m long, from frequency response functions measured at intervals along the rail; (ii) using a short rail, in the present work 6 m long, from the modal properties of the rail; and (iii) directly from the point and transfer frequency response functions at both ends of the short rail. The latter two are complementary: the modal method is more suited to low frequencies while the direct method is more suited to high frequencies. These methods are evaluated theoretically and by comparison with experimental results. Good agreement is found between the various methods, for vibration in both vertical and lateral directions, between 300 Hz and 5 kHz. In practice, the direct short-rail method is likely to be sufficient for most applications. The limitations of the methods are identified and corrections are proposed for the effect of near-field waves in the rail.

  5. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma...

  6. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  7. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  8. Numerical Investigation on Wheel-Rail Dynamic Vibration Excited by Rail Spalling in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalling in contact surface of rail is a typical form of rolling contact fatigue, which is a difficult problem to solve in railway. Once the spalling occurs in the rail, the wheel-rail dynamic interaction will become more severe. The wheel-rail dynamic interaction is investigated based on the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics in this paper, where the excitation modes of the rail spalling failure are taken into consideration for high-speed wheel-rail system. A modified excitation model of rail spalling failure is proposed. It can enable the investigations on two kinds of excitation modes in wheel-rail system due to the rail spalling, including the pulse and the harmonic excitation modes. The excitation mode can be determined by the ratio of the spalling length to its critical length. Thus, the characteristics of wheel-rail dynamic vibration excited by two kinds of excitation are simulated in detail. Consequently, the limited value of the spalling length is suggested for high-speed railway.

  9. SPEED COMMUTER-URBAN RAIL TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    SHABAROVA ELEONORA

    2014-01-01

    Transport crisis in the cities has become a ubiquitous problem. In Russia, the situation is deteriorated by the absence of the methodology of conceptual design of integrated transport systems in general, and the city-street-speed railway as part of the system. To mitigate this situation, two methodological tasks have been proposed: 1) the relevance of the use of the existing rail network in the city in order to solve the transport crisis and provide the simultaneous increase of its efficiency...

  10. Software Testing using Ruby on Rails framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jurglič, Matic

    2014-01-01

    In the world of modern web applications and open source technologies there is a rising in popularity of using test driven development methodologies in software development. The main advantages of writing tests are easier error discovery, more effective development process, and consequently higher product quality. This thesis describes common testing techniques and focuses on usage in Ruby on Rails framework, which has a vibrant open source community with a culture that strongly emphasizes...

  11. Development of interactive screens in rail vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, William

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of a product development project carried out in cooperation with Bombardier Transportation in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The aim of this work was to develop a new infotainment system (information-based media content or programming that also includes entertainment content in an effort to enhance popularity with audiences and consumers) (David, 2005) for rail vehicles to counteract negative emotions such as boredom and impatience, and strengthen Bombardier's competitive rai...

  12. Rail gun type two stage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a rail gun type two stage accelerator, a cavity resonator which resonates microwaves to once convert gases behind a fuel pellet into plasmas is disposed to a transport pipe between a gas injector and rail electrodes. When gases reach a fuel pellet to push it, the gases are once converted into plasmas by microwaves, pass through the cavity resonator to be gradually decayed, in which an ionization rate is decreased, and returned to neutral particles. Gas constituent particles flow between the rail electrodes while keeping a highly excited state, and the fuel pellet reaches a detection axial line of a pass detector. In this case, a pulse laser oscillator and a pulse current power source are operated to convert gases again into plasmas by a pulse laser restricted by a focusing lens, to which electric current is supplied to accelerate the fuel pellet. With such procedures, plasmas in an initial stage upon re-acceleration can be generated easily, as well as an optical axis can easily be controlled. (N.H.)

  13. Resilience in the planning of rail engineering work

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro N.P.

    2011-01-01

    The railway industry is today broadly recognised as a complex sociotechnical system that operates under considerable pressures for increased capacity and reliability. These pressures impact across the industry, in particular on rail engineering because of its responsibility in providing and maintaining the rail infrastructure. Within rail engineering, there is a growing need to address safety and operational risks emerging from high complexity. Planning has been identified as a fundamenta...

  14. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  15. The History and Future of Rail in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, David

    2009-01-01

    Did the 2002-08 re-nationalisation of New Zealand railways represent the end of a failed experiment in the privatisation of essential infrastructure and herald the renaissance of socially-desirable environmentally-friendly rail? Or was it a misguided attempt to stem the inevitable decline of a 19th century technology that has no place in a modern transportation infrastructure?This report examines the economic viability structure and role of New Zealand's rail network since 1863. Rail has beco...

  16. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  17. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Senguttuvan, N.; Raja, S; R. Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were anal...

  18. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from crossing the rail track. For obtaining this output the sensing devices are placed in proximity areas of the rail track using a novel passive node mobility mechanism. These devices act as an input to the ac...

  19. System for Measuring Elevator Guide Rail Quality and Its Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A system for measuring the quality parameters of elevator guide rails is developed. The quality parameters the system can measure include straightness, flatness, squareness, width and height of the rail. The system consists of six parts:main guideway, auxiliary guideway, reference rail, saddle, control casing and measured rail. The guide rail to be measured is mounted on a bed.The straightness errors of surfaces are checked by five linear displacement sensors mounted on the saddle. The deviation of readings from the sensor, which is in contact with top guiding surface,gives the straightness error of the surface and height of the rail. The other four sensors are used to measure side guiding surfaces respectively and give other parameters including flatness on the surfaces, squareness, width and height of the rail. A novel calibration method is also developed to calibrate the straightness motion error of the system in horizontal and vertical directions. The deflection deformation of the measured rail is fitted by using a fourth-order polynomial. Experimental results show that the uncertainty of the system on the side surfaces after compensating the straightness motion error is less than 0.01 mm, and the uncertainty of the system on the top surface after compensating the straightness motion error and the deflection deformation of the rail is less than 0.03 mm.

  20. Modelling of dynamic contact length in rail grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Shaodan; Li, Jianyong; Zarembski, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Rails endure frequent dynamic loads from the passing trains for supporting trains and guiding wheels. The accumulated stress concentrations will cause the plastic deformation of rail towards generating corrugations, contact fatigue cracks and also other defects, resulting in more dangerous status even the derailment risks. So the rail grinding technology has been invented with rotating grinding stones pressed on the rail with defects removal. Such rail grinding works are directed by experiences rather than scientifically guidance, lacking of flexible and scientific operating methods. With grinding control unit holding the grinding stones, the rail grinding process has the characteristics not only the surface grinding but also the running railway vehicles. First of all, it's important to analyze the contact length between the grinding stone and the rail, because the contact length is a critical parameter to measure the grinding capabilities of stones. Moreover, it's needed to build up models of railway vehicle unit bonded with the grinding stone to represent the rail grinding car. Therefore the theoretical model for contact length is developed based on the geometrical analysis. And the calculating models are improved considering the grinding car's dynamic behaviors during the grinding process. Eventually, results are obtained based on the models by taking both the operation parameters and the structure parameters into the calculation, which are suitable for revealing the process of rail grinding by combining the grinding mechanism and the railway vehicle systems.

  1. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  2. Split rail gripper assembly and tool driver therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1993-02-01

    This patent relates to a split rail gripper for a robotic apparatus including a pair of rails which are driven in mutually opposite directions by a rack and pinion gear mechanism. Each rail includes a set of rack gear teeth which engage respective pinion gears and where the top rail engaging one of the pinion gears is driven by a harmonic gear reduction drive and motor unit coupled to a drive screw. The other pinion gear is driven by the top pinion gear engaging a set of rack gear teeth included in the bottom rail. As the top rail is driven in or out, the upper pinion gear is rotated, causing the other pinion gear, in turn, to rotate in the opposite direction. This causes the bottom rail to move in an opposite linear direction relative to the top rail. An outwardly extending gripper finger assembly is attached to respective ends of the rails, with each gripper finger including an arrangement of vertically and horizontally mounted roller members which operate to automatically center and engage an H-plate type interface secured to the object being grasped. The gripper assembly also includes a base plate attached to an interface plate of a robotic tool changer mechanism. A retractable rotary tool driver and tool is also centrally mounted on the base plate.

  3. High-speed rail-coming to America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Ossian

    2009-01-01

    The United States lags many parts of the world when it comes to high-speed rail. But investing in high-speed rail could help us through current problems. Funds- $8 billion-in the economic stimulus package passed by Congress are designated for high-speed rail. Other funds in the pipeline total approximately $15.5 billion. High-speed rail can relieve congestion, free up national airspace, provide reliable transportation and positive economic development, create jobs, and is more energy efficient than other modes of travel. PMID:19608527

  4. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  5. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  6. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  7. Frictional couplings of wheel with a rail in a brake control system of rail vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, A; A. Niedworok

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque loa...

  8. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter

    2010-05-15

    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  9. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUJin-suo; CHENGShu-kang; ZHENGZhen-zhong; MAYuan; LIZhi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reintorce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  10. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin-suo; CHENG Shu-kang; ZHENG Zhen-zhong; MA Yuan; LI Zhi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reinforce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  11. 公安长江公铁两用特大桥4号墩基础施工关键技术%Key Techniques for Construction of Foundation of Pier No .4 of Gong′an Changjiang River Rail-cum-Road Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房保华

    2015-01-01

    T he main bridge of Gong′an Changjiang River Rail‐cum‐Road Bridge is a steel truss girder cable‐stayed bridge with double pylons and with span arrangement (98+182+518+182+98) m .The foundation of Pier No .4 of the bridge is the one of bored piles plus pile cap ,of which the piles are in variable diameters of 2 .8 m/3 .1 m ,the numbers of the piles are totally 36 and the pile cap ,designed in the rounded end shape ,is 58 .4 m long ,33 .6 m wide and 6 m high and is em‐bedded in the riverbed .The foundation of the pier was constructed by the scheme of double‐wall steel boxed cofferdam in the sequence that the cofferdam was set up first ,the working platform was late ,the boring of the piles was carried out first and the base sealing of the cofferdam was late and the pile cap was concreted finally .In the construction of the foundation ,the following key techniques were applied .The first lift of the cofferdam (68 .2 m long ,40 m wide and 16 m high) was integrally launched to the river by the air bag method .The first lift of the cofferdam ,the in‐ternal support trusses of the cofferdam and the steel casings at the pier site were used to form a semi‐floating boring platform .The bored piles were constructed by the air lifting reverse circula‐tion boring aided by the bored hole wall mud protection .At the time the construction of the bored piles was completed ,the cofferdam was lowered down ,the height of the cofferdam was extended , the water was pumped into the cofferdam ,the dredging inside the cofferdam was carried out and the cofferdam was sunk down .After the cofferdam was sunk down in place to the designed eleva‐tion and the base of the cofferdam was sealed in areas .The water inside the cofferdam was pumped out and the pile cap was finally concreted in two layers according to the workmanship of massive concrete .%公安长江公铁两用特大桥主桥为(98+182+518+182+98) m双塔钢桁梁斜拉桥,该桥4号主墩采用2.8m

  12. Strain-Based Evaluation of a Steel Through-Girder Railroad Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Daumueller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of New Mexico (USA, passenger rail began in 2008 between Belen and Santa Fe on the Rail Runner, following the acquisition of about 100 miles of existing rail and related infrastructure. Many of the bridges on this route are over 100 years old and contain fatigue prone details. This study focuses on a steel through-girder bridge along this corridor. To accurately evaluate these structures for load carrying capacity and fatigue, an accurate analytical model is required. Accordingly, four models were developed to study the sensitivity of a bridge in New Mexico to floor-system connection fixity and the ballast. A diagnostic load test was also performed to evaluate the accuracy of the finite-element models at locations of maximum moments. Comparisons between the simulated and measured bridge response were made based on strain profiles, peak strains, and Palmgren-Miner’s sums. It was found that the models including the ballast were most accurate. In most cases, the pinned ended models were closer to the measured strains. The floor beams and girders were relatively insensitive to the ballast and end conditions of the floor-system members, whereas the stringers were sensitive to the modeling of the ballast.

  13. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., Suffolk County, N.Y. According to U. S. Rail, the total length of the track to be constructed is about 18... 20, 2010. Petitions to reconsider must be filed on September 20, 2010. ADDRESSES: An original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to FD 35141, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board,...

  14. Keeping rail on track: preliminary findings on safety culture in Australian rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Verna; Rainbird, Sophia; Dorrian, Jill; Paterson, Jessica; Cattani, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    'Safety culture' is identified in the literature as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces. How can rail organizations ensure that consistently effective work health and safety cultures are maintained across the diversity of their operations? This paper reports on research that is currently underway in the Australian rail industry aimed at producing a Model of Best Practice in Safety Culture for the industry. Located in rail organizations dedicated to the mining industry as well as urban rail and national freight operations, the research examines the constructs of organizational culture that impact on the development and maintenance of healthy and safe workplaces. The research uses a multi-method approach incorporating quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus groups, interviews and document analysis) methods along with a participative process to identify interventions to improve the organization and develop plans for their implementation. The research uses as its analytical framework the 10 Platinum Rules, from the findings of earlier research in the New South Wales (Australia) mining industry, Digging Deeper. Data collection is underway at the time of writing and preliminary findings are presented at this stage. The research method may be adapted for use as a form of organizational review of safety and health in organizational culture. PMID:22317370

  15. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  16. A compact rail-to-rail CMOS buffer amplifier with very low quiescent current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Emre; Yıldız, Merih; Minaei, Shahram

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a very compact, rail-to-rail, high-speed buffer amplifier for liquid crystal display (LCD) applications is proposed. Compared to other buffer amplifiers, the proposed circuit has a very simple architecture, occupies a small number of transistors and also has a large driving capacity with very low quiescent current. It is composed of two complementary differential input stages to provide rail-to-rail driving capacity. The push-pull transistors are directly connected to the differential input stage, and the output is taken from an inverter. The proposed buffer circuit is laid out using Mentor Graphics IC Station layout editor using AMS 0.35 μm process parameters. It is shown by post-layout simulations that the proposed buffer can drive a 1 nF capacitive load within a small settling time under a full voltage swing, while drawing only 1.6 μA quiescent current from a 3.3 V power supply.

  17. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  18. RIDING THE HIGH-SPEED RAILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Travel between Wuhan,capital of central China's Hubei Province,and Guangzhou,capital of Guangdong Province in south China,used to take 10 hours.But now,the 1,000-km journey can be made in three hours.When factoring in time spent getting to the airport and then waiting to board the aircraft,travel time between the two cities by air or rail is roughly the same.But the cost effectiveness of train travel trumps air utansportation,luring a considerable number of people to stay grounded when traveling.

  19. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  20. France-United Kingdom rail link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machefert-Tassin, Y.; Julien, L.

    1995-07-01

    To accomplish the France-England rail link, it was necessary to resolve power supply problems involving phase imbalance by a ``star`` arrangement with the addition of capacitors, capacitive and inductive loads. Since the tunnel has to accommodate a variety of locomotives with very stringent operating criteria, it was necessary to design train power systems involving a combination of existing systems. The asynchronous traction motor was chosen for its low weight and its potential for energy recovery for braking and for other trains. Each bogie has its own auxiliary converter. The control system uses a common live with an omnibus interface or ``bus line``. Communication is via optical fibres. (author). 6 figs.

  1. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  2. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  3. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  4. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port service

  5. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board previously published a notice about this collection in the Federal Register on July 30, 2012, at 77 FR 44710... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION:...

  6. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  7. 49 CFR 37.55 - Intercity rail station accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intercity rail station accessibility. 37.55 Section 37.55 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.55 Intercity rail station...

  8. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, J.H. (US Army (US))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred.

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Calorimeter Installation Bridge Non-Destructive Test Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the central calorimeter was installed on the center beam a cracked weld was found on the bridge. The weld was a partial penetration between the top rail plate and the T-1 steel nose section. The crack is fully across the width of the rail plate and the rail is depressed in a concave shape. That is, the depression is deeper in the center and feathers out to zero at the end of the rail. Upon close inspection it was obvious that there was no penetration of weld metal into the T-1 material. The assumption is that the T-1 was not properly pre-heated before welding. The reason for the concave depression comes from the fact that the rail plate rests on the flanges of the 'S' beams and that during welding the plate pulled off the beams. This weld failure can not propagate to any other welds and therefore, will not start a chain of failures. Clearly the failure of this weld did not hinder the installation of the central calorimeters. This weld failure occurred on both sides of the bridge. This failure did, however, alert us to check the critical weld on the bridge, S-beam webs to T-1 nose section, to assure us we had a sound weldment. (Note: it must be used again for both EC's). We contacted M.Q.S. Inspection Inc. (Lab contractor for N.D.T.). A technician from M.Q.S. came to DAB and performed an ultrasonic examination of the welds in question. The exam showed that we don't have a full penetration weld of the S Beam web, but that it is between 67-83%. A calculation was performed based on 67% penetration and the CC and EC loads. In both cases the weld stresses were well within acceptable limits (see calculations attached). Based on this result, it is not deemed necessary to modify the current weldment.

  10. Design of unballasted track bridges on Beijing--Tianjin intercity railway%Design of unballasted track bridges on Beijing--Tianjin intercity railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Shuli; Zhang Wenjian; Wang Zhaohu; Su Wei; Wu Cailan; Bu Qinghao

    2011-01-01

    Beijing--Tianjin intercity railway is the first newly-built passenger dedicated line with operating speed of 350 km/h in our country. During design, new ideas of bridge construction were carried out to ensure the requirements of safety, comfort and stability of the train under high-speed condition. At the same time, concepts of environmental adaptability, service to transportation and comprehensive benefits were observed. On the whole line, long-bridge schemes were adopted and the most advanced technologies of unballasted track were utilized on bridges, the length of which accounts for 87.7 % of the total line. The success of design and construction of the bridges on this rail has accu- mulated valuable experience for high-speed railway construction on a large scale in the future, and made it a marking, demonstrating, and model project to follow.

  11. 49 CFR 174.59 - Marking and placarding of rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and placarding of rail cars. 174.59... RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.59 Marking and placarding of rail cars. No person may transport a rail car carrying hazardous materials unless it is marked and placarded as required...

  12. Detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient inspection methods are necessary for detection of rail corrugation to improve the safety and ride quality of railway operations. This paper presents a novel fiber optic technology for detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs), tailored to the measurement of surface damage on rail structures. The principle of detection of rail corrugation using double integration of axle-box acceleration is presented. Then we present the theoretical model and test results of FLAs which are installed on the bogie to detect the vertical axle-box acceleration of the train. Characteristics of high sensitivity and large dynamic range are achieved when using fiber optic interferometric demodulation. A flexible inertial algorithm based on double integration and the wavelet denoising method is proposed to accurately estimate the rail corrugation. A field test is carried out on the Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway in north China. The test results are compared with the results of a rail inspection car, which shows that the fiber laser sensing system has a good performance in monitoring rail corrugation. (paper)

  13. Detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenzhu; Zhang, Wentao; Du, Yanliang; Sun, Baochen; Ma, Huaixiang; Li, Fang

    2013-09-01

    Efficient inspection methods are necessary for detection of rail corrugation to improve the safety and ride quality of railway operations. This paper presents a novel fiber optic technology for detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs), tailored to the measurement of surface damage on rail structures. The principle of detection of rail corrugation using double integration of axle-box acceleration is presented. Then we present the theoretical model and test results of FLAs which are installed on the bogie to detect the vertical axle-box acceleration of the train. Characteristics of high sensitivity and large dynamic range are achieved when using fiber optic interferometric demodulation. A flexible inertial algorithm based on double integration and the wavelet denoising method is proposed to accurately estimate the rail corrugation. A field test is carried out on the Datong-Qinhuangdao Railway in north China. The test results are compared with the results of a rail inspection car, which shows that the fiber laser sensing system has a good performance in monitoring rail corrugation.

  14. Nonlinear Guided Waves in Continuously Welded Rails for Buckling Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Bartoli, Ivan; Coccia, Stefano; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Salamone, Salvatore; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

    2011-06-01

    Most modern railways use Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). A major problem is the almost total absence of expansion joints that can create severe issues such as buckling in hot weather and breakage in cold weather. A related critical parameter is the rail Neutral Temperature (NT), or the temperature at which the net longitudinal force in the rail is zero. In June 2008 the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), under the sponsorship of a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, began work to develop a technique for in-situ measurement of NT and detection of incipient buckling in CWR. The method under investigation is based on ultrasonic guided waves, and the ultimate goal is to build and test a prototype that can be used in motion. A large-scale full rail track (70 feet in length) has been constructed at UCSD's Powell Structural Laboratories, the largest laboratories in the country for structural testing, to validate the NT measurement and buckling detection technique under rail heating conditions well controlled in the laboratory. This paper reports on the status of this project, including proof-of-principle results of stress measurement and buckling detection on a steel I-beam, and initial test results from the large-scale rail testbed at the Powell Labs. These results pave the road for the future development of the rail NT/buckling detection prototype.

  15. Low-voltage constant- g m rail-to-rail CMOS operational amplifier input stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Yao, Ruo He

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a rail-to-rail constant-gm operational amplifier input stage. The proposed circuit changes the tail current of the input differential pairs dynamically for a constant-gm by using dummy input differential pairs. The problem which causes total gm variation is input pairs and dummy input pairs can not take effect at the same time with the common-mode input voltage changes, because the tail current transistor of the input pairs are in triode region when the input pairs are turned off, the dummy input pairs will enter subthreshold region from cut-off region before the input pairs when common-mode voltage changes. The effect of this problem is more obviously in low supply voltage design. To solve this problem, compensate current sources is added to the tail current transistors of each dummy input differential pairs for lower gm variation. The gm of this Op Amp's input stage varies around ±2%.

  16. Numerical Modelling of the Dynamic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Considering Vehicle-Structure and Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, P.; Agapii, L.; Sneideris, J.;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the dynamic analysis of a multi-support bridge structure exposed to high-speed railway traffic. The proposed computational model has a unified approach for simultaneously accounting for the bridge structure response, soil response and forces induced by the vehicle....... The bridge structure is modelled in three dimensions based on the finite element method using two-noded three-dimensional beam elements. The track structure is composed of three layers: rail, sleepers and deck which are connected through spring-dashpot systems. The vehicle travelling along a bridge...... is idealized as a multi-degree-of-freedom system, modelled with two layers of spring-dashpot suspension systems. Coupling the vehicle system and railway track is realized through interaction forces between the wheels and the rail, where the irregularities of the track are implemented as a random stationary...

  17. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  18. Frictional couplings of wheel with a rail in a brake control system of rail vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque load and a sensor measuring its rotational speed. Change of track surface is determined by momentary changes in rotational speed of “tracking wheel” due to its slippage.Findings: The described method for detection of track ways surface condition enables to generate information signal which transferred to master braking control system of the locomotive eliminates excessive slippage during braking.Research limitations/implications: The presented results confirm rightness of accepted method for detection of track ways surface condition indicating for necessity of modification of developed test rig to get repeatable information about current track surface.Originality/value: The method for detection of track ways surface condition is the novelty approach to braking of rail locomotives used in the mining industry. It is also an alternative option to the present solutions based on known ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System system used in automotive industry.

  19. Dual-rail optical gradient echo memory

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Daniel B; Campbell, Geoff T; Hosseini, Mahdi; Cao, Ming Tao; Sparkes, Ben M; Bernu, Julian; Robins, Nick P; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a scheme for the parallel storage of frequency separated signals in an optical memory and demonstrate that this dual-rail storage is a suitable memory for high fidelity frequency qubits. The two signals are stored simultaneously in the Zeeman-split Raman absorption lines of a cold atom ensemble using gradient echo memory techniques. Analysis of the split-Zeeman storage shows that the memory can be configured to preserve the relative amplitude and phase of the frequency separated signals. In an experimental demonstration dual-frequency pulses are recalled with 35% efficiency, 82% interference fringe visibility, and 6 degrees phase stability. The fidelity of the frequency-qubit memory is limited by frequency-dependent polarisation rotation and ambient magnetic field fluctuations, our analysis describes how these can be addressed in an alternative configuration.

  20. Rail commuting duration and passenger stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Wener, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Over 100 million Americans commute to work every weekday. Little is known, however, about how this aspect of work, which may indeed be the most stressful aspect of the job for some, affects human health and well-being. The authors studied a sample of 208 male and female suburban rail commuters who took the train to Manhattan, New York. The greater the duration of the commute, the larger the magnitude of salivary cortisol elevations in reference to resting baseline levels, the less the commuter's persistence on a task at the end of the commute, and the greater the levels of perceived stress. These effects were not moderated by gender. Commuting stress is an important and largely overlooked aspect of environmental health. PMID:16719613

  1. TRAIL - a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs. (author)

  2. Trail-A Tokamak RAIL Gun Limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The Tokamak RAIl Gun Limiter (TRAIL) system directs a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/s) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled, after cooling, to the injector in an electromagnetic mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of about30000 W/cm2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements ( about0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several kilometres per second). Accelerators injecting pellets at about1 km/s can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  3. Sound Emission Limits for Rail Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURZE, U. J.; DIEHL, R. J.; WEIßENBERGER, W.

    2000-03-01

    The statistical evaluation of measured sound emission levels from individual rail vehicles enables a clear distinction to be made between disc-braked passenger vehicles with and without wheel absorbers and tread-braked vehicles equipped with cast-iron brake blocks. A retrofit programme for replacement of cast-iron blocks by composite (K-, L- or LL-) blocks seems feasible within the next five years. The performance and durability of the new brake blocks provides a substantial noise reduction at no or limited additional costs, depending on the need for new wheels. Additional wheel damping is desirable but not readily available at sufficiently low cost. Based on the experience from an experimental train equipped with a quiet locomotive, bogie shrouds and matching low-profile barriers along the track, sound emission limits are proposed which are described in two steps.

  4. Heat Transfer in Underground Rail Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Sadokierski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of heat between the air and surrounding soil in underground tunnels ins investigated, as part of the analysis of environmental conditions in underground rail systems. Using standard turbulent modelling assumptions, flow profiles are obtained in both open tunnels and in the annulus between a tunnel wall and a moving train, from which the heat transfer coefficient between the air and tunnel wall is computed. The radial conduction of heat through the surrounding soil resulting from changes in the temperature of air in the tunnel are determined. An impulse change and an oscillating tunnel air temperature are considered separately. The correlations between fluctuations in heat transfer coefficient and air temperature are found to increase the mean soil temperature. Finally, a model for the coupled evolution of the air and surrounding soil temperature along a tunnel of finite length is given.

  5. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J.; Few, Douglas A.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  6. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  7. Generalized Gaussian Bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Sottinen, Tommi

    2012-01-01

    A generalized bridge is the law of a stochastic process that is conditioned on linear functionals of its path. We consider two types of representations of such bridges: orthogonal and canonical. In the canonical representation the filtrations and the linear spaces generated by the bridge process and the original process coincide. In the orthogonal representation the bridge is constructed from the entire path of the underlying process. The orthogonal representation is given for any continuous Gaussian process but the canonical representation is given only for so-called prediction-invertible Gaussian processes. Finally, we apply the canonical bridge representation to insider trading by interpreting the bridge from an initial enlargement of filtration point of view.

  8. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  9. Concrete bridge prioritization system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselring, Debbie Anne

    1995-01-01

    An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

  10. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  11. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  12. An Engineering Analysis of Insulated Rail Joints: A General Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Mandal,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulated rail joint (IRJ is considered as a necessary evil by the rail transportation and maintenance industry. For automated block signalling it is required to have sections of track electrically insulated from each other, disallowing the rail to be continuously welded as is done where possible. The IRJ is however substantially weaker than the rail and so is subjected to large stresses, causing failure. This paper investigates an engineering analysis of different designs and failure modes of the IRJ and a 3D finite element model for analysing the stresses experienced by three different joint bar sizes, one of 30mm width, one of 34mm width and one of 40mm width. The paper is part of a greater study into the IRJ and searching for ways to improve the performance of the assembly.

  13. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  14. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  15. Multimode nondestructive detecting method for high-speed rail defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingjian; Cheng, Xingzhen; Wan, Guangnan; Liu, Ting; Fu, Ying; Wang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    It is very important to detect the surface defects of the high-speed rail for security concerns. A multimode detecting method, which integrates high resolution of optical image, high precision of photoacoustic detection and strong penetration of ultrasound detecting, is proposed for the rail defect detection. Utilizing the surface defect characteristics obtained from optical signal, the photoacoustic and ultrasound scanning region could be determined, and rail shallow and internal defect characteristics can be acquired subsequently. Eventually, fusing three modal signals mentioned above, the information of the entire rail defect, including type, extension trend and depth can be detected. It has been proved that the multimode method can improve the detecting efficiency, and enlarge the detection range in the meantime.

  16. Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time. However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export activity. However, new environmental demands (sign. lower emissions and scarcity of oil are on the way of changing the current modus operandi. As trade of Rail Baltica countries accounts for one third of these two countries, and is constantly growing with surplus (except for Russia, Slovakia and Czech Republic are clearly in need of developing own strategy for Rail Baltica.

  17. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  18. From Periphery to Core: Economic Adjustments to High Speed Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Feddersen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that high speed rail systems, by bringing economic agents closer together, sustainably promote economic activity within regions that enjoy an increase in accessibility. Our results on the one hand confirm expectations that have led to huge public investments into high speed rail all over the world. On the other hand, they confirm theoretical predictions arising from a consolidate body of (New) Economic Geography literature taking a positive, man-made and reproduci...

  19. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disusedrelay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  20. Guidance for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, part of a series of guides for those concerned with the road or rail transportation of dangerous goods, provides detailed recommendations for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive materials by rail. It covers the relevant legislation and regulations on the carriage of such dangerous goods to assist those involved with compliance. (UK)

  1. An investigation into the relation between wheel/rail contact and bolt tightness of rail joints using a dynamic finite element model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rail joints have a shorter service life than most other railway track components. The discontinuity between rail ends turns the rail joint into a weak spot, and consequently, into a track component demanding more frequent maintenance measures, which result in high maintenance costs. Moreover, diffic

  2. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  3. Optimal energy management of urban rail systems: Key performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An overall picture of urban rail energy use is provided. • Performance indicators are developed for urban rail system energy optimisation. • A multi-level methodology for assessing energy efficiency measures is presented. - Abstract: Urban rail systems are facing increasing pressure to minimise their energy consumption and thusly reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. However, given the complexity of such systems, this can only be effectively achieved through a holistic approach which considers the numerous interdependences between subsystems (i.e. vehicles, operations and infrastructure). Such an approach requires a comprehensive set of energy consumption-related Key Performance Indicators (KEPIs) that enable: a multilevel analysis of the actual energy performance of the system; an assessment of potential energy saving strategies; and the monitoring of the results of implemented measures. This paper proposes an original, complete list of KEPIs developed through a scientific approach validated by different stakeholders. It consists of a hierarchical list of 22 indicators divided into two levels: 10 key performance indicators, to ascertain the performance of the whole system and complete subsystems; and 12 performance indicators, to evaluate the performance of single units within subsystems, for example, a single rail vehicle or station. Additionally, the paper gives a brief insight into urban rail energy usage by providing an adequate context in which to understand the proposed KEPIs, together with a methodology describing their application when optimising the energy consumption of urban rail systems

  4. Fully polarimetric data from the ARL RailSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian; Sherbondy, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has recently upgraded the indoor, rail-mounted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, RailSAR, to enable collection of large amounts of low-frequency, ultrawideband (UWB) data. Our intent is to provide a research tool that is capable of emulating airborne SAR configuration and associated data collection geometries against surrogate explosive hazard threat deployments. By having such a capability, ARL's facility will afford a more rapid response to the ever changing improvised characteristics associated with explosive hazards today and in the future. Therefore, upgrades to this RailSAR tool to improve functionality and performance are needed to meet the potential rapid response assessments to be carried out. The new, lighter RailSAR cart puts less strain on the radar positioning hardware and allows the system to move smoothly along a specified portion of the rail. In previous papers, we have presented co-polarized SAR data collected using the ARL RailSAR. Recently, however, researchers at ARL have leveraged this asset to collect polarimetric data against multiple targets. This paper presents the SAR imagery resulting from these experiments and documents characteristics of certain target signatures that should be of interest to developers of automatic target detection (ATD) algorithms.

  5. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  7. Nano watt power rail-to-rail CMOS amplifier with adaptive biasing circuits for ultralow-power analog LSIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshihiro; Hirose, Tetsuya; Tsubaki, Keishi; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a rail-to-rail folded-cascode amplifier (AMP) with adaptive biasing circuits (ABCs). The circuit uses a nano ampere current reference circuit to achieve ultralow-power and ABCs to achieve high-speed operation. The ABCs are based on conventional circuits and modified to be suitable for rail-to-rail operation. The measurement results demonstrated that the AMP with the proposed ABCs can operate with an ultralow-power of 384 nA when the input voltage was 0.9 V and achieve high speeds of 0.162 V/µs at the rise time and 0.233 V/µs at the fall time when the input pulse frequency and the amplitude were 10 kHz and 1.5 Vpp, respectively.

  8. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  9. Design of a Sample and Hold Circuit using Rail to Rail Low Voltage Compact Operational Amplifier and bootstrap Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Saini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power high performance and higher sampling speed sample and hold circuit. The proposed circuit is designed at 180 nm technology and has high linearity. The circuit can be used for the ADC frontend applications and supports double sampling architecture. The proposed sample and hold circuit has common mode range beyond rail to rail and uses two differential pairs transistor stages connected in parallel as its input stage.

  10. Design of a Sample and Hold Circuit using Rail to Rail Low Voltage Compact Operational Amplifier and bootstrap Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Annu Saini; Prity Yadav

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low power high performance and higher sampling speed sample and hold circuit. The proposed circuit is designed at 180 nm technology and has high linearity. The circuit can be used for the ADC frontend applications and supports double sampling architecture. The proposed sample and hold circuit has common mode range beyond rail to rail and uses two differential pairs transistor stages connected in parallel as its input stage.

  11. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  12. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  13. Influence of Angle of Attack and Lateral Force between Wheel and Rail on Wear of Rail--a Laboratory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angle of attack and lateral force are two important parameters influencing wheel-rail wear. This paper deals with the question of influences of the angle of attack and the lateral force on the wear of rail. A series of experiments are conducted on 1/4 JD-1 Wheel/Rail Tribology Simulation Facility. The angles of attack selected in the tests are 0°16′30″, 0°37′40″ and 1°0′0″ respectively. The lateral forces selected in the tests are 0.694 kN, 1.250 kN and 2.083 kN, respectively corresponding to the lateral forces of 25 kN, 45 kN and 75 kN measured in the field, with the aim of keeping the same ratio of L/V between laboratory and field conditions. It is found that the larger the angle of attack is, the more serious the wear of rail is. The relation of rail wear rate versus angle of attack is non-linear, and the relation of rail wear rate versus lateral force is approximately linear. The influence of angle of attack is more serious than that of lateral force. For the tractive wheelset, the wear index involving linear and quadratic function terms of angle of attack has good agreement with the limited experimental data. Some conclusions are given.

  14. Diagnosis concept for common rail engines; Diagnosekonzept fuer CommonRail Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, D.; Lehle, W.; Kohler, B. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The troubleshooting for diesel engines with modern CommonRail fuel injection systems requires a failure diagnosis system, which enables the workshop to detect the root cause fast and secure. This guided trouble shooting leads the mechanic to examine diagnosis functions depending on the situation. New tester based and ECU-based diagnosis functions were developed to detect the smallest changeable unit fast and clearly. Selected new diagnosis functions and their implementation in the guided trouble shooting will be presented in the following. Looking forward the focus goes to the use of software based diagnosis functionality in service. (orig.)

  15. METHOD OF THE DRIVE POWER DETERMINATION OF THE MECHANISMS OF THE BRIDGE CRANE MOVEMENT CONSIDERING THE ROLLING FRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The value of drive resistance to its movement is the main parameter at calculating the drive power of bridge crane. The value of the wheel rolling friction on the rails is one of the important parts of the resistance to movement. It is necessary to determine the dependence of static (dynamic quantities of resistance to the bridge crane movement on a straight section of the track from the position of the bogie in the span, and explore the influence of the wheel flanges resistance for wear. Methodology. Using the analytical dependences for determining the rolling friction coefficient, that depends on the size of the half-width of the contact between the wheel and rail, the improved method for calculating the required drive power of the crane was proposed. Findings. With the proposed method of power calculation the characteristic curve of the crane wheel loads, the coefficient of rolling friction of the wheels and the crane resistance to movement from the position of the bogie on span were built. In the result of graphs analysis it was found that the engine power, obtained by the proposed method is higher than the recommended by the existing standards. The more precise formula for determining the total coefficient of sliding friction that takes into account the friction of wheel flanges on the rail is given. The characteristic curves of such coefficient of friction and the total resistance to movement of the position of the crane bogie were built. Originality. The scientists proposed an improved method of determining the required engine power of bridge crane, which takes into account the effect of rolling friction of the wheels on the rails and the bogie in the span. The improved formula for determining the coefficient of friction that takes into account the friction wheel flanges of the rail was given. The characteristic curve of this coefficient of friction and the total resistance movement of crane from the position of the crane bogie

  16. Non-contact ultrasonic guided wave inspection of rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Nguyen, Thompson V.; Phillips, Robert Ronald; Kijanka, Piotr; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Staszewski, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-04-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail integrity evaluation. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection in pair with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm has been realized. This solution presents an improvement over the previously considered laser/air-coupled hybrid system because it replaces the costly and hard-to-maintain laser with a much cheaper, faster, and easier-to-maintain air-coupled transmitter. This system requires a specialized filtering approach due to the inherently poor signal-to-noise ratio of the air-coupled ultrasonic measurements in rail steel. Various aspects of the prototype have been designed with the aid of numerical analyses. In particular, simulations of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in rails have been performed using a LISA algorithm. Many of the system operating parameters were selected based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, which provide a quantitative manner to evaluate different detection performances based on the trade-off between detection rate and false positive rate. Experimental tests have been carried out at the UCSD Rail Defect Farm. The laboratory results indicate that the prototype is able to detect internal rail defects with a high reliability. A field test will be planned later in the year to further validate these results. Extensions of the system are planned to add rail surface characterization to the internal rail defect detection.

  17. High-gain, high-bandwidth, rail-to-rail, constant-gm CMOS operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo-Ruei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a high-gain, high-bandwidth, constant-gm , rail-to-rail operational amplifier (op-amp). The constant transconductance is improved with a source-to-bulk bias control of an input pair. A source degeneration scheme is also adapted to the output stage for receiving wide input range without degradation of the gain. Additionally, several compensation schemes are employed to enhance the stability. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. The active area of the op-amp is 181 × 173 µm2 and it consumes a power of 2.41 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The op-amp achieves a dc gain of 94.3 dB and a bandwidth of 45 MHz when the output capacitive load is connected to an effective load of 42.5 pF. A class-AB output stage combining a slew rate (SR) boost circuit provides a sinking current of 6 mA and an SR of 17 V/µs.

  18. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  19. Long range guided wave defect monitoring in rail track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2014-02-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system was previously developed for monitoring rail track used on heavy duty freight lines. This system operates by transmitting guided waves between permanently installed transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. The system has been proven to reliably detect rail breaks without false alarms. While cracks are sometimes detected there is a trade - off between detecting cracks and the possibility of false alarms. Adding a pulse-echo mode of operation to the system could provide increased functionality by detecting, locating and possibly monitoring cracks. This would require an array of transducers to control the direction and mode of propagation and it would be necessary to detect cracks up to a range of approximately 500 m in either direction along the rail. A four transducer array was designed and full matrix capture was used for field measurements. Post processing of the signals showed that a thermite weld could be detected at a range of 790m from the transducer array. It was concluded that the required range can be achieved in new rail while it would be extremely difficult in very old rail.

  20. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Rail Transit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Joung Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the public debate over urban rail projects is complicated by the lack of agreement on goals. Supporters offer a wide variety of justifications to build and expand rail transit. If one focuses on the judgments of economists, the list of justifications shrinks considerably, but we are still left with a bundle of goals. Compared to other justifications, economists appear to be somewhat optimistic about rail transit’s impact on local economic development, but less optimistic about rail’s ability to achieve environmental improvement and serve the transit-dependent poor. Economists seem quite pessimistic about rail’s ability to achieve key transportation goals like reducing congestion. Economists often attribute rail’s political success to rent-seeking and romantic political factors. Of those economists who offer a big-picture view, there appears to be wide, though not unanimous, agreement that rail’s costs exceed its benefits. And it seems that almost all economists who write about rail agree that various demographic features, such as suburbanization, the declining influence of central business districts, and increasing wealth will make it increasingly difficult to design successful rail systems.

  1. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  2. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  3. Bridge Management Systems:present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.

  4. Partial digitization method of wave processes in rail lines on the discrete basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical solution of the problem about longitudinal vibration of the rail which lies on the ties taking into account contact dry friction between wheel and rail is provided by the method of partial digitization and Laplace dual integral transformation. (author)

  5. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  6. Research on Operational Characteristics of Imported Rails under Conditions of East Siberian Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Valuev, D. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2016-04-01

    In world’s manufacturing of railroad rails there are several thermal bonding methods: differentiated waterflow quenching, air-blast or spray quenching, rail head’s hardening in polymer solution and bulk oil hardening; rails’ service durability is strongly dependent on thermo-hardening methods. Until recently, all of rails, produced at Nizhniy Tagil and Kuznetsk Metallurgical Works, were subjected to bulk oil hardening. Only in 2010-2011, in the Russian Federation, differentiated air quenching of rails was started at the JSC “EVRAZ ZSMK” and rail heads’ hardening in polymer solution - at the JSC “Mechel”. At the same time, exploitation of imported rails with differentiated hardening has been performed on Russian railways since 1995. Service durability of these rails in Siberia and the Far North is of considerable interest. In this paper we investigated the quality of P65-type rails, made in Japan, removed after use from curved track section of the East-Siberian railway.

  7. Survey for the California Black Rail at Tolay Creek, San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) is the smallest and most secretive member of the rail family and has been sparsely studied. It is a...

  8. Bridging a cultural gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-09-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

  9. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  10. THE METALLURGICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND HARDNESS PROFILE OF A RAIL THERMITE WELD

    OpenAIRE

    MERİÇ, Cevdet; Engez, Turgut

    1998-01-01

    The quality of railroad construction is a important factor for comfort and safety in railroad transportation. Thermite welding being known for a long time prevents rail failure and, off road the train. It provides smoothly journey, and long life to rails and wagons. In this study, S 49 type St 70 steel rails have been welded by thermite process, hardness profile of welding zone rails has been obtained and its microstructure has been examined. In this profile maximum hardness values have been ...

  11. Euro-Asian co-operation in rail education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TSYKHMISTRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rail education and research – focused initiatives, approaches, policies and practices are presented. Needs for integrating rail education and research in EU and Asia are identified and discussed. The SWOT-analysis conducted suggested that it would be of interest to set up a Euro-Asia cluster, which shall be focused on rail education and research to promote rail transport between both continents through co-operations, training and knowledge exchange.

  12. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  13. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  14. Scheduling Additional Train Unit Services on Rail Transit Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of scheduling additional train unit (TU services in a double parallel rail transit line, and a mixed integer programming (MIP model is formulated for integration strategies of new trains connected by TUs with the objective of obtaining higher frequencies in some special sections and special time periods due to mass passenger volumes. We took timetable scheduling and TUs scheduling as an integrated optimization model with two objectives: minimizing travel times of additional trains and minimizing shifts of initial trains. We illustrated our model using computational experiments drawn from the real rail transit line 16 in Shanghai and reached results which show that rail transit agencies can obtain a reasonable new timetable for different managerial goals in a matter of seconds, so the model is well suited to be used in daily operations.

  15. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  16. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  17. a Rail Central Displacement Method about Gb-Sar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Cai, J.; Yang, H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to correct rail errors of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR) in the discontinue mode. Generally, "light positioning" is performed to mark the GB-SAR position in the dis-continuous observation mode. Usually we assume there is no difference between the marked position and the real installation position. But in fact, it is hard to keep the GB-SAR positions of two campaigns the same, so repositioning errors can't be neglected. In order to solve this problem, we propose an algorithm to correct the rail error after analyzing the GB-SAR rail error geometry. Results of the simulation experiment and the real experiment of a landslide in Lvliang, Shanxi, China, show the proposed method achieves an mm-level precision, enabling the D-GBSAR mode to be used in engineering projects.

  18. The switch rail detection system based on laser sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Ji Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a carrier, turnout is an extremely important part of transport, when railways is operating. So the detection of turnout should meet the requirement. However, the detection effort is mainly completed manually at the present stage, which is low accuracy. Thus the study of the switch rail detection system based on laser sensor is necessary. In this paper, we discuss the scheme of the switch rail detection by using Gocator 2030 laser sensor and SIMENS 840D numerical control system. We study the algorithm and data collection of the switch rail detection based on laser sensor. This detection system provides accurate data collection and information display for the enterprise of producing turnout. After the test, the system has a faster detection speed and higher detection accuracy.

  19. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  20. 78 FR 33393 - Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... initiate proceedings under section 8 of the CPSA that would ban all adult portable bed rails because, they... adult portable bed rails. The Consumer Group, however, states that if the CPSC does not pursue a...

  1. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  2. 76 FR 19914 - Safety Standard for Portable Bed Rails: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Activity Concerning Portable Bed Rails In the Federal Register of October 3, 2000 (65 FR 58968), we... 28, 2010, 75 FR 22291). Other products that are not covered by ASTM F 2085-10a include: side rails... unassisted. They include bed rails that only have a vertical plane that presses against the side of...

  3. 78 FR 31628 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN Rail Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... be prepared for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (Milwaukee-Twin Cities) High-Speed Rail... construction of a high-speed rail line between Milwaukee and the Twin Cities. Alternatives originally under... environmental impacts associated with proposed changes in passenger rail train frequency, speed, and...

  4. 75 FR 38365 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal.... Agency Contact Appendix 1: Definition of High-Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail Appendix 2: Additional.... chapter 24105), and High-Speed Rail Assistance (codified at 49 U.S.C. chapter 26106), respectively;...

  5. 76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects. SUMMARY: This notice details the application requirements and procedures for obtaining funding under FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail...

  6. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... remaining FY 2009 funds. FRA has concurrently issued a solicitation for high-speed rail planning activities... for FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. These funds were authorized...

  7. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... documents for high-speed rail corridors that cross multiple States. This is a solicitation for proposals... explain how the planning activities would lead to a long-term, viable high-speed rail corridor...

  8. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Transportation Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program; Notices #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY.... Agency Contact Appendix 1: Definition of High-Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail Appendix 2:...

  9. 76 FR 75542 - Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest Independent Transmission, System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC v. Ameren Services Company Midwest... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, Rail Splitter Wind Farm, LLC (Rail Splitter or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Ameren Services...

  10. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

  11. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  12. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmuller, Nils

    2009-05-30

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, over more than 100 km noise shields are apparent. The question is to what extent this noise shield hinders the cooling of a rail tanker, carrying flammable liquid such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)? To answer this question, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline [N. Rosmuller, D.W.G. Arentsen, (2005). Praktijkproeven Betuweroute: Instantane uitstroming en koeling 24 juni 2005, Nibra, Arnhem, The Netherlands]. Two railcars and a rail tanker were placed behind a 3m high noise shield. First, it was tested as to whether firemen or water canons should be used to deliver the water. Water canons were best next, four positions of the water canons to wet the rail tanker were tested. Three camera's and three observers recorded the locations and the extent of water that hit the rail tanker. The results indicate that the noise shield, to a large extent, prevents the water from hitting, and therefore cooling, the rail tanker. The upper parts of the rail tanker were minimally struck by the water canons and the small amount of water flowing down the rail tanker did not reach the lower parts of it because of the armatures at the rail tanker. Also, the amount of water in the ditches to be used for wetting was too small. The ditch nearby ran empty. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to water management organizations. The Ministry of Transport is examining the possible strategies to deal with these findings. The results are based upon one single full scale test near a 3m high noise shield. In addition, it would be valuable to determine what the influence would be of other heights of the noise shields

  13. Grain and Oilseed Shipment Sizes and Distance Hauled by Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Prater, Marvin; Sparger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Grain and railroads have an interdependent relationship. Grain is one of the most important commodities for railroads. It is the primary agricultural commodity moved by rail, comprising 7.9 percent by tons of all commodities, 94 percent by tons of all farm commodities, and 8.4 percent of total rail revenue in 2009. In turn, railroads represent a vital component of the grain network, hauling 33 percent of all grain transported in the United States in 2007. As domestic and export markets have e...

  14. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  15. Rails 2.0来了——Rails 2.0新特性之View&Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彬

    2008-01-01

    2007年12月6日,Rails 2.0正式发布,创始人David Heinemeier Hansson(DHH)在blog上写道:Rails 2.0是Rails框架发展史上的里程碑。我投入在Ruby on Rails框架开发方面总计有四年半多的时间,并RRails目前的开发参与者也越来越多。对这几年我们所做出的努力和坚持的信念,我感到非常的满意。David有没有言过其实呢?让我们来听听自应用Rails的一线Web开发人员的声音。

  16. A 433-MHz Rail-to-Rail Voltage Amplifier with Carrier Sensing Function for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Mikami, Shinji; Lee, Hyeokjong; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ohta, Chikara; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    In this paper we propose a novel functional amplifier suitable for low-power wireless receivers in a wireless sensor network. This amplifier can change input threshold level as carrier sensing level, since it has a minimum input amplitude to be amplified. A simple rail-to-rail output is suitable for a subsequent digital interface. The target frequency is 433MHz, and the maximum voltage gain is 11dB. The standby power is 39.5nW, and the active power is 352µW. The chip area is 82 × 24µm2.

  17. Investigation of differential movement at railroad bridge approaches through geotechnical instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debakanta MISHRA; Erol TUTUMLUER; Timothy D.STARK; James P.HYSLIP; Steven M.CHRISMER; Michael TOMAS

    2012-01-01

    Railway transitions experience differential movements due to differences in track system stiffness,track damping characteristics,foundation type,ballast settlement from fouling and/or degradation,as well as fill and subgrade settlement.This differential movement is especially problematic for high speed rail infrastructure as the 'bump' at the transition is accentuated at high speeds.Identification of different factors contributing towards this differential movement,as well as development of design and maintenance strategies to mitigate the problem is imperative for the safe and economical operation of both freight and passenger rail networks.This paper presents the research framework and initial instrumentation details from an ongoing research effort at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Three bridge approaches experiencing recurrent geometry problems were instrumented using multidepth deflectometers (MDDs) and strain gages to identify different factors contributing to the development of differential movements.

  18. 76 FR 5120 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... for the specific length measurements for small sports cars and large luxury executive sedans to arrive... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on January 17, 2008 (65 FR... Secretary, but does not include a vehicle, locomotive, or car operated only on a rail, or a trolley...

  19. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from...

  20. Local ontology for a dual-rail qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    We show that quantum predictions for the dual-rail realisation of a qubit can be faithfully simulated with classical stochastic gates and particles which interact entirely in a local manner. In the presented model 'non-locality' appears only on the epistemic level of description.

  1. Measuring workload weak resilience signals at a rail control post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak-resilience-signals (WRS). A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope with unexpected and un

  2. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... establishments or facilities. (5) Industrial waste means the solid waste generated by manufacturing and...; commercial and retail waste; institutional waste; sludge; industrial waste; and other solid waste, as... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY:...

  3. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.

  4. Numerical analysis of nonlinear properties of rail fastening systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Yin, H. P.

    2014-10-01

    Higher demand on vibration isolation of track structure in nowadays leads to a trend of lower stiffness of rail fastening system accompanied with larger deformation of its rubber component. Nonlinear properties of rubber material under large deformation thus should be taken into account. Uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression and planar tension experiments of a rubber material were carried out to defined mathematical material models by using Abaqus. Accuracy of the material model and model coefficients were supported by good agreement between measured and simulated results. A shear type and a bonded compressed type of rail fastening system are designed and produced with the same rubber material. Quasi-static experiment of these two rail fastening systems were performed and simulated as well. Predictions of the preload dependent nonlinear properties of the two different rail fastening systems by Abaqus were found to be in good agreement with experiments. Nonlinearities of the two specimens, due both to the intrinsic rubber material properties and the geometric characteristics, were well analyzed and explained. This is believed to contribute to product designing and geometrical optimization with rubber component under general or local large deformation.

  5. BIM Interoperability Limitations: Australian and Malaysian Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenley Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM is defined as a process involving the generation and management of digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The purpose of interoperability in integrated or “open” BIM is to facilitate the information exchange between different digital systems, models and tools. There has been effort towards data interoperability with development of open source standards and object-oriented models, such as industry foundation classes (IFC for vertical infrastructure. However, the lack of open data standards for the information exchange for horizontal infrastructure limits the adoption and effectiveness of integrated BIM. The paper outlines two interoperability issues for construction of rail infrastructure. The issues are presented in two case study reports, one from Australia and one from Malaysia. The each case study includes: a description of the project, the application of BIM in the project, a discussion of the promised BIM interoperability solution plus the identification of the unresolved lack of interoperability for horizontal infrastructure project management. The Moreton Bay Rail project in Australia introduces general software interoperability issues. The Light Rail Extension project in Kuala Lumpur outlines an example of the integration problems related to two different location data structures. The paper highlights how the continuing lack of data interoperability limits utilisation of integrated BIM for horizontal infrastructure rail projects.

  6. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  7. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  8. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  9. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity. PMID:27217986

  10. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum rail current required. 236.562 Section 236..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562...

  11. Entanglement discrimination in multi-rail electron-hole currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltanás, J P; Frustaglia, D

    2015-12-01

    We propose a quantum-Hall interferometer that integrates an electron-hole entangler with an analyzer working as an entanglement witness by implementing a multi-rail encoding. The witness has the ability to discriminate (and quantify) spatial-mode and occupancy entanglement. This represents a feasible alternative to limited approaches based on the violation of Bell-like inequalities. PMID:26569568

  12. Burkhardt plaanib rajada Rail Balticat / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raudteest loobuma pidanud Edward Burkhardt hakkab arendama Rail Balticat ning otsib võimalust panna Eesti ja Soome vahele käima vagunipraam. Vt. samas: Raudtee müüjad endiselt nördinud. Küsimustele vastab Eesti Raudtee uus juht Kaido Simmermann

  13. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  14. On the interaction between wheels and rails in railway dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slivsgaard, Eva Charlotte

    are developed for the track: A simple model of the whole track as one rigid body following each wheelset. An elastic model where the rails are modelled as Euler-Bernoulli beams discretely supported by rigid sleepers. The simple model is used to find the influence of a flexible track on the dynamics of...

  15. 78 FR 58915 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., FRA released a mobile phone application (app) for Apple brand iPhone TM and iPad TM users. The Rail..., DC 20590-0001. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Executive Summary A. Purpose and Summary of the Final... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) for this final rule on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120), which also included...

  16. Siim Kallas tutvustas nelja riigi presidentidele Rail Balticu kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni transpordivolinik Siim Kallas tutvustas 2. detsembril 2011 Vihula mõisas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele, Läti presidendile Andris Bērziņšile, Leedu presidendile Dalia Grybauskaitėle ja Poola presidendile Bronisław Komorowskile Baltimaid ülejäänud Euroopaga ühendava Rail Balticu projekti

  17. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  18. Investigation of rail irregularity effects on wheel/rail dynamic force in slab track: Comparison of two and three dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Javad; Khajehdezfuly, Amin; Esmaeili, Morteza; Poorveis, Davood

    2016-07-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the most significant load amplification factors in railway track systems. In this paper, the capability and effectiveness of the two main railway slab tracks modeling techniques in prediction of the influences of rail irregularities on the Wheel/Rail Dynamic Force (WRDF) were investigated. For this purpose, two 2D and 3D numerical models of vehicle/discontinuous slab track interaction were developed. The validation of the numerical models was made by comparing the results of the models with those obtained from comprehensive field tests carried out in this research. The effects of the harmonic and non-harmonic rail irregularities on the WRDF obtained from 3D and 2D models were investigated. The results indicate that the difference between WRDF obtained from 2D and 3D models is negligible when the irregularities on the right and left rails are the same. However, as the difference between irregularities of the right and left rails increases, the results obtained from 2D and 3D models are considerably different. The results indicate that 2D models have limitations in prediction of WRDF; that is, a 3D modeling technique is required to predict WRDF when there is uneven or non-harmonic irregularity with large amplitudes. The size and extent of the influences of rail irregularities on the wheel/rail forces were discussed leading to provide a better understanding of the rail-wheel contact behavior and the required techniques for predicting WRDF.

  19. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps are...

  20. Some Problems of Rails For High-speed Railway of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouQingyue; ZhuangYinghua; ChenZhaoyang

    2004-01-01

    Acciording to running experience of high-speed railway abroad,a full attention must be paid to some requirements of specifica-tion of rails for high-speed railway,such as materil mechanical properties,rimension tolernces,straightness,surface flatness and so on.It is suggested that the long-length rails should be laid in high-speed railway,and the feasibility of producing,welding and transporting of long-length rails should be researched.On the basis of technical innovation of domestic manufacturers,it is practicable to lay 50-100mlong-length rails should be researched.On the basis of producing,welding and transporting of long-length homemade rails in high-speed railway of China.The following welding programme of rails for hiah-speed railway can be adiop-ted:50-100m long-lenath rails can be welded as 500m long rail string through flash butt welding in plant,then in field the reid string can be welded through a mobile flash butt welding or thermit welding.As the specification of rails or high-seed railway is rigorous.some related techniques to long-length rails should be researched and practised as soon as possible,including mobile flash butt welding tech-nique,transporting and reinforcing techniques of lon-length rails,etc…

  1. Three-dimensional rail cooling analysis for a repetitively fired railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3-D) rail cooling analysis for fabrication and demonstration of a stand-alone repetitive fire compulsator driven 9 MJ gun system which has been performed to assure the entire rail can be maintained below its thermal limit for multiple shots. The 3-D rail thermal model can predict the temperature, pressure, and convective heat transfer coefficient variations of the coolant along the 10 m long copper rail. The 9-MJ projectiles will be fired every 20 s for 3 min. Water cooling was used in the model for its high cooling capacity. Single liquid phase heat transfer was assumed in the cooling analysis. For multiple shots, the temperature difference between the rail and the water was enhanced due to accumulated heat in the rail. As a result, the heat removal by water increased from shot-to-shot. The rail temperature initially increased and finally stabilized after a number of shots

  2. 重载铁路线路加固体系车线动力分析%Vehicle-line dynamic analysis for a heavy rail reinforcement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静静; 张楠; 战家旺; 高玉兰; 彭斌

    2015-01-01

    It's difficult to start a frame bridge's jacking construction under existing lines for busy railways.Larger vibration is induced into the reinforcement system of heavy railways when a vehicle passes the construction site a certain speed.It is necessary to do the dynamic calculation to reflect the resonance between a train and rails or the reinforcement system as a result of the change of the train speed or the train vibration.Here,the background of heavy rail jacking reinforcement and vehicle-line coupling vibration,and the vehicle-line dynamic analysis method based on inter-system iteration were presented.As a case study,the dynamic responses of a heavy rail reinforcement system were calculated during a plane vehicle model passing the bridge,the vertical displacement and acceleration of the reinforcement system and the vertical wheel-rail interaction force were analyzed.It was concluded from the results that the heavy rail reinforcement system is safe when a train is passing at a speed of 60 km /h.%针对既有线下进行框架桥顶进施工对铁路干线形成压力及列车以一定速度通过施工现场对重载铁路线加固体系形成强度大时间长的冲击振动,引入动力计算反映列车行驶振动及速度变化导致列车与轨道或加固体系共振,对重载铁路加固体系、车线耦合振动体系研究背景与基于全过程迭代的车线动力分析理论进行论述;对某重载铁路加固体系以平面车辆模型过桥方式分析车辆通过加固体系时的动力响应状态、车辆过桥时加固体系竖向位移及加速度、轮对减载状况;获得重载铁路桥涵顶进施工慢行限速60 km/h 线路加固体系动力分析结论。

  3. Big data and high-performance analytics in structural health monitoring for bridge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampalli, Sharada; Alampalli, Sandeep; Ettouney, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be a vital tool for effective bridge management. Combining large data sets from multiple sources to create a data-driven decision-making framework is crucial for the success of SHM. This paper presents a big data analytics framework that combines multiple data sets correlated with functional relatedness to convert data into actionable information that empowers risk-based decision-making. The integrated data environment incorporates near real-time streams of semi-structured data from remote sensors, historical visual inspection data, and observations from structural analysis models to monitor, assess, and manage risks associated with the aging bridge inventories. Accelerated processing of dataset is made possible by four technologies: cloud computing, relational database processing, support from NOSQL database, and in-memory analytics. The framework is being validated on a railroad corridor that can be subjected to multiple hazards. The framework enables to compute reliability indices for critical bridge components and individual bridge spans. In addition, framework includes a risk-based decision-making process that enumerate costs and consequences of poor bridge performance at span- and network-levels when rail networks are exposed to natural hazard events such as floods and earthquakes. Big data and high-performance analytics enable insights to assist bridge owners to address problems faster.

  4. Ethanol analysis from biological samples by dual rail robotic autosampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Schaff, Jason E; LeBeau, Marc A

    2007-05-01

    Detection, identification, and quantitation of ethanol and other low molecular weight volatile compounds in liquid matrices by headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) are becoming commonly used practices in forensic laboratories. Although it is one of the most frequently utilized procedures, sample preparation is usually done manually. Implementing the use of a dual-rail, programmable autosampler can minimize many of the manual steps in sample preparation. The autosampler is configured so that one rail is used for sample preparation and the other rail is used as a traditional autosampler for sample introduction into the gas chromatograph inlet. The sample preparation rail draws up and sequentially adds a saturated sodium chloride solution and internal standard (0.08%, w/v acetonitrile) to a headspace vial containing a biological sample, a calibrator, or a control. Then, the analytical rail moves the sample to the agitator for incubation, followed by sampling of the headspace for analysis. Using DB-624 capillary columns, the method was validated on a GC-FID and confirmed with a GC-MS. The analytes (ethanol, acetonitrile) and possible interferences (acetaldehyde, methanol, pentane, diethyl ether, acetone, isopropanol, methylene chloride, n-propanol, and isovaleraldehyde) were baseline resolved for both the GC-FID and GC-MS methods. This method demonstrated acceptable linearity from 0 to 1500 mg/dL. The lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined to be 17 mg/dL and the limit of detection was 5 mg/dL. PMID:17223393

  5. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  6. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar (correspo

  7. Full Model Wind Tunnel Study on the Xia-Zhang Bridge Under Operation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad T. Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Long-span cable-stayed bridges under service and particular construction conditions are very susceptible to wind action due to their great flexibility, so the aerodynamic stability is becoming a major concern in the design and construction phrases. Cable-stayed bridges may exhibit wind-induced vibration phenomena such as flutter, buffeting and vortex oscillation under wind excitation. The study concentrated on the issues concerning the aerodynamic response of Xia-Zhang cable-stayed Bridge to make it safe and stable under wind action. Although there have been accumulating experience in the building of cable-stayed bridges and research on wind-resistant stability in Chinese Mainland, most of the research focuses on inland cable-stayed bridges or littoral ones of mid-length, but not on littoral ones whose main span is over 600 m. Therefore, wind-resistant performance research of north branch bridge of Xia-Zhang cross-sea Bridges is very necessary and important for its wind-resistant stability, safety and applicability in the operation condition. Approach: This study mainly presented the wind tunnel test program of the Xia-Zhang Bridge aeroelastic full model, including test method, test contents, test results and so on. Results: The test results contained Root Mean Square (RMS of accelerations and displacements as well as average values of displacements. Conclusion: The conclusions were as follows: (a In the uniform flow field, under the condition of entire bridge without rail may vibration divergence occur when α = 3°, V>122 m sec-1. (b No vortex-induced vibration with extreme amplitudes or static collapsing was detected in all the testing conditions. (c In the turbulent flow field, there were very obvious buffeting phenomena. Responses to turbulence are quite intense.

  8. Building Migratory Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  9. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  10. Bridge of Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lying gleaming white under a brooding sky,the Lhasa River Railway Bridge forms a gate to Lhasa City.Built as a part of Qinghai-Tibet Railway,on July 1,2011, the highest altitude railway in the world has been in service for five years. Lhasa,Tibet

  11. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

  12. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.; Blackmore, A.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  13. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  14. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the assembly of major components into the D0 Detector, a transfer bridge was required to move the North-End Calorimeter from the clean room,over the cable bridge and onto the north sidewalk of the assembly hall. This experiment is now at the beginning stages of the next phase, namely the upgrade of this Detector for future physics research. A major piece of this upgrade is the installation of a solenoid magnet into the Central Calorimeter. In order to accomplish this, the South End Calorimeter has to be removed from the detector and the North End Calorimeter must be moved an additional 20-inch from its nominal open position (total 60-inch movement). The South End Calorimeter will be removed from the detector using the equipment designed for its installation. The calorimeter will be staged on the south sidewalk during the installation of the solenoid magnet and the central tracking systems. The North End Calorimeter is moved 60-inch to give more space between calorimeters during magnet, tracker and cable installation work. This movement will allow the calorimeter to remain coupled to the cryo system. However, this movement requires an extension be added to the center beam. This extension will support the rear wheels of the calorimeter and in the case of the end calorimeters, carry the majority of the weight. The extension is to be a modification of the transfer bridge. This modification, basically has T1 steel blocks added to one end and legs to the sidewalk supports at the other. The T1 steel blocks are notched to fit into the center beam porches and are welded to bridge rails. This design is the same as that for the installation bridge (3740.312-ME-273456), including the welds and weld procedures which are identical in both cases. Since load testing is impractical, the critical welds will be non-destructive tested by ultrasonic means. The laboratory, through the FESS Department, has a contract with M.Q.S. Inspection Inc. The results of this testing will be

  15. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  16. Driver Behavior at Rail Crossings: Cost-Effective Improvements to Increase Driver Safety at Public At-Grade Rail-Highway Crossings in California

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Douglas L.; Ragland, David R.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines conditions affecting vehicle-train collisions at rail crossings in California, and recommends effective countermeasures and implementation strategies. In doing so, the report helps meet California’s goal of efficiently utilizing state and federal funding available through SAFETEA-LU for increasing the safety at public atgrade rail-highway crossings

  17. 76 FR 1212 - Gabriel D. Hall-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Gabriel D. Hall--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail Corporation Gabriel D. Hall (Applicant), an individual, has filed a verified...

  18. Mechanism and Application of a New Guard Rail for Improving the Stability of Small Radius Curve Tracks with Continuous Welded Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study studied an effect of a new guard rail on the stability of curve tracks with CWR and revealed a mechanism of the new guard rail for improving the stability of small radius curve tracks with CWR and also analyze the degree of the new guard rail for enlarging the pave range of small radius curve tracks with CWR. In order to achieve these, an improved load-deformation method for calculating the stability of tracks with Continuous Welded Rails (CWR is suggested and verified. The results indicate that the improved load-deformation method not only has the same accuracy as the improved unified formula in specification, but also has the same clear and simple characteristics as the original load-deformation method. The mechanism of the new guard rail for improving the stability of small radius curve tracks with CWR is that the CWR stability can be greatly improved by increasing the stiffness of the track framework under conditions of maintaining the same cross-sectional area of the rails. The CWR with the new guard rail can allow the minimum laying radius from 300 m down to 230 m, i.e., the current specification limit can be relaxed 23.3%. If combined with the roadbed strengthening measures, the new guard rail can allow the minimum laying radius from 300 m down to 140 m, i.e., the current specification limit can be further relaxed 53.3%.

  19. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  20. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 g of 239Pu. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-ft cargo space is accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-ft steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gal drums and up to 44,800 lb gross weight. Improvements to inner packaging and current shipping practices are discussed

  1. The politics of Peacekeeper Rail Garrison. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassel, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the Congress capped at 50 the number of Peacekeeper ICBMs that could be deployed in vulnerable Minuteman silos, thereby sending the Reagan administration and the Air Force in search of another basing mode so that 100 of the ton-warhead missiles could be deployed as recommended by the Scowcroft Commission. The result was Peacekeeper rail garrison--a strategic nuclear weapon system that combined the Peacekeeper missile with railroad trains garrisoned at military installations. The missile trains would have dispersed across the nation's railways only during times of 'national need like the Cuban Missile Crisis. This case study examines the politics of that weapon system in order to contribute to the literature regarding weapons acquisition, test a number of propositions suggested by the bureaucratic politics model, and assess the influence of nonbureaucratic forces and actors on Peacekeeper rail garrison's fortunes.

  2. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 grams of plutonium-239. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-foot cargo space are accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gallon drums and up to 44,800 pounds gross weight. This report is a revision of an earlier document and describes improvements to inner packaging. It also reflects current shipping practices

  3. An alternative approach to control measurements of crane rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjetič, Aleš; Kregar, Klemen; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Kogoj, Dušan

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical positions of points for the control assessment of crane rails are classically determined separately. The procedure is time consuming and causes non-homogenous accuracy of the horizontal and vertical position of control points. The proposed alternative approach is based on polar measurements using a high accuracy total station instrument and a special platform with two precise surveying prisms fixed on it. Measurements are carried out from a single station thus ensuring a common coordinate system and homogenous accuracy. The position of the characteristic point of a rail is derived from the measured positions of both prisms with known geometry of the platform. The influence of platform non-horizontality is defined, along with its elimination procedure. Accuracy assessment is ensured with redundant measurements. Result of the proposed procedure is a numerical and graphical presentation of characteristic points. The control parameters required in international Eurocode standards are easily determined from them. PMID:22778621

  4. MODELLING CHALLENGES TO FORECAST URBAN GOODS DEMAND FOR RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio COMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the new research challenges for forecasting urban goods demand by rail. In fact, the growing interest to find urban logistics solutions for improving city sustainability and liveability, mainly due to the reduction of urban road accessibility and environmental constraints, has pushed to explore solutions alternative to the road. Multimodal urban logistics, based on the use of railway, seem an interesting alternative solution, but it remained mainly at conceptual level. Few studies have explored the factors, that push actors to find competitive such a system with respect to the road, and modelling framework for forecasting the relative demand. Therefore, paper reviews the current literature, investigates the factors involved in choosing such a mode, and finally, recalls a recent modelling framework and hence proposes some advancements that allow to point out the rail transport alternative.

  5. SOME MEASURES OF INCREASING RAIL TRANSITRIDERSHIPS: CASE STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with how to increase rail transit ridership and how to coordinate with multiModity to optimize the entire public transportion systems. Three case cities, Montreal, Toronto and San Francisco, with metro systems are reviewed in different aspects, including urban planning, transport policy, flexible fare system, safety and security measure, special service, new technical application to improve the quality and value of its service for increasing revenues and profit, comtributing to the long-term development of public transit. Some conclusions can be drawn: 1)urban planning should be closely connected with urban transport planning; 2) the role of government is predominant to implement railtransit; 3) the facilifies of railtransit should be advanced, reliable and safe; 4) quality service should be match with rail facilities; 5) special service for the disabled, yound and senior should be advocated.

  6. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  7. Benefits of urban light rail trains: a perspective from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Carpintero Lopez, Samuel; Maraña, V.; Barcham, R.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental issues are currently at the forefront of transport policies within the urban, regional and international contexts. Different modes of transport, and the alternative means of their regulation, have a significant impact on the levels of pollution and on reserves of natural resources, as well as on the health and quality of life of individuals. In this context, light rail transit systems have thrived in cities all over the world as an alternative to fossil fuelled private a...

  8. Tier 1 Ecological Risk Assessment of a Contaminated Rail Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted for a contaminated rail corridor in British Columbia. The purpose of the ERA was to demonstrate the utility of British Columbia Tier 1 ERA methodology for identifying contaminated sites with unacceptable ecological risks requiring remediation andor risk management. The methodology applies a weight of evidence approach to characterize ecological risks with risk quotients and site observations serving as the two lines of evidence....

  9. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  10. Potential ecological impacts analysis of California high speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Dick; White, Mike; Stallcup, Jerre Ann; Penrod, Kristeen

    2005-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy and the Conservation Biology Institute conducted an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed California High Speed Rail project as detailed in the 2004 Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Report. The analysis intended to match the scale of the programmatic EIR in order to inform comments and to create a synoptic view of the project with select focal examples of potential impact areas for non-governmental organization partners and funders. An i...

  11. European Rail Traffic Management System – An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajed K Abed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS which is currently being implemented in Europe and other parts of the world. It provides some background on this system, the objectives behind the development of the ERTMS, its architecture, different application levels of the ERTMS and brief information on its implementation in Europe and worldwide. The paper assumes the readers have a little or no knowledge of the ERTMS.

  12. Impact of rail medical standard on obstructive sleep apnoea prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Colquhoun, C. P.; Casolin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The 2004 edition of the National Standard for Health Assessment of Rail Safety Workers (the standard) used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to screen for excessive daytime sleepiness related to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The 2012 edition of the standard expanded the OSA screening matrix to include body mass index, comorbid hypertension and type 2 diabetes as triggers requiring a sleep study to be undertaken irrespective of the ESS. Aims To assess the impact of the new standa...

  13. Sustaining competitive advantage in the UK's rail spares overhaul market

    OpenAIRE

    Fyson, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation sets out to investigate how Bombardier can develop and sustain competitive advantage within the UK spares overhaul market. This is an important market to the company. Bombardier has positioned itself as a full service provider to the rail industry. Without the ability to compete in the overhaul market, it can no longer sustain this proposition. Two components and three strategic models have been selected to analyse the market and to develop strategic options. Bogies and en...

  14. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli Hamir Basah; Irfan Mohamad; Ramiza Ramza Ramli; Maha Khadum Gayadh; Samarendra Singh Mutum

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and h...

  15. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKATH UNISSA

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

  16. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  17. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  18. Solving conformal wheel-rail rolling contact problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollebregt, Edwin; Segal, Guus

    2014-05-01

    The stresses between railway wheels and rails can be computed using different types of contact models: simplified methods, half-space-based boundary element approaches and finite element models. For conformal contact situations, particularly the contact between flange root and rail gauge corner, none of these models work satisfactorily. Finite element methods are too slow, half-space approaches ignore the effects of conformality, and simplified approaches schematise the elasticity of the material even further. This paper presents a thorough investigation of the conformal wheel-rail rolling contact problem. We use CONTACT's boundary element approach together with numerical influence coefficients, that are computed using the finite element approach. The resulting method is fast and detailed and can be embedded into vehicle system dynamics simulation. The results indicate that the contact area is longer and narrower, with smaller area and reduced stiffness, than is predicted by the half-space approach. The predicted maximum pressures are increased by 30%. Finally the longitudinal and lateral forces changed up to 15% of the Coulomb maximum.

  19. Rail and insulator spectra from plasma railgun armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneously, high resolution, radiation spectra of the plasma armature in the UTSI railgun have been recorded with optical multichannel analyzers (OMA) using 1 mm quartz fiber optics through both the rail and the insulator at the same axial location. The spectra have been obtained at approximately 6 mm and 24 mm from the leading edge of the armature which correspond to the increasing current and peak current parts of the plasma armature. The gate width was 1μs resulting in a spatial resolution of about 1.5 mm. The rail emission signal follows the armature current profile very closely, while the radiation through the insulator side is partially blocked due to ablation products in the insulator boundary layer. Resonance absorption lines of AlI, CuI and CaII have been identified along with possible traces of carbon and nitrogen compounds. A detailed radiation model is used to estimate the plasma centerline temperature, the temperature profile, and the plasma composition by predicting the radiance seen at the rail and the insulator walls, and comparing them with the experimentally obtained spectra

  20. ANALYSIS OF CREEP FORCES OF WHEEL/RAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of structure elastic deformations of wheelset and track on creep forces of wheel and rail are investigated.Finite element method is used to calculate the influence coefficients expressing the relations between structure elastic deformations of wheelset and track and the corresponding loads in the rolling direction and the lateral direction of wheelset,respectively.The influence coefficients of wheelset and track are used to revise some of the influence coefficients obtained with the formula of Bossinesq and Cerruti in Kalker's theory of three-dimensional elastic bodies in rolling contact with non-Hertzian form.The theory of Kalker and the modified theory of Kalker are respectively employed to analyze creep forces of wheelset and track.The numerical results obtained show a great influence of structure elastic deformations of wheelset and track on the creep forces.Therfore it is not reasonable that wheel and rail are treated as elastic half space in the analysis of wheel and rail in rolling contact,and the present theories of rolling contact based on the assumption of elastic half space need to be further improved.

  1. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Beria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  2. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wei; Zeng Yuanfan; Zhou Wei; Liao Wenhe

    2014-01-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling sys-tems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a mov-ing rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85%to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  3. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling systems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a moving rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85% to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  4. Rail tiedown tests with heavy casks for radioactive shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rail tiedown test program was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in July and August 1978. For each test, a 40- or 70-ton cask was secured on a railcar. The railcar was pushed to speeds up to 11 mph and allowed to couple to parked railcars simulating ordinary railyard operations. The test car carrying the cask was heavily instrumented to measure the accelerations and forces generated at strategically selected places. Eighteen test runs were made with different combinations of railcars, couplers, casks, speeds, and tiedown configurations. The major objectives of the test program were to (1) provide test data as a basis to develop a tiedown standard for rail cask shipments of radioactive materials and (2) collect dynamic data to support analytical models of the railcar cask tiedown system. The optimum tiedown configuration demonstrated for heavy casks was a combination of welded, fixed stops to secure the cask longitudinally and flexible cables to restrain vertical and lateral cask movement. Cables alone were inadequate to secure a heavy cask to a standard railcar, and bolting was found disadvantageous in several respects. The use of cushioning coupler mechanisms dramatically reduced the tiedown requirements for the rail coupling operation. The test program and general conclusions are discussed

  5. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:24239259

  6. Effect of Rare Earths on Properties of BNbRE Rail Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春龙; 智建国; 王荣

    2003-01-01

    The development and properties of BNbRE rail steel and the effect of RE on rail steel were studied. The results show that the properties of rail steel (σb≥980 MPa, δ5≥8%) can be improved by adding RE and niobium and adjusting the content of C, Si and Mn in steel. At the same time, the abrasion resistance, contact fatigue and fatigue property of BNbRE rail steel are excellent. It also shows that RE in rail steel has the functions of purifying steel, modifying inclusion and micro-alloy action effect. The improved steel-making process enhances the quality of molten steel. Although the content of RE is low, excellent properties of BNbRE rail steel are achieved.

  7. A 72-dB-SNDR rail-to-rail successive approximation ADC using mismatch calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Siliang, Hua; Donghui, Wang; Chaohuan, Hou

    2012-12-01

    When the voltage of an analog input signal is equal to the supply voltage, it is difficult for a conventional successive approximation ADC to correctly convert the analog signal into digital signal. This paper introduces an improved successive approximation ADC, which can convert the rail-to-rail input range and reduce sampling time through a track-and-hold circuit. Comparator offset cancellation and capacitor self-calibration techniques are used in this ADC. Measurement results show that the peak SNDR of this ADC reaches 72 dB and the signal effective bandwidth is up to 1.25 MHz. It consumes 1 mW in the test, and the figure of merit is 123 fJ/conversion-step.

  8. A 72-dB-SNDR rail-to-rail successive approximation ADC using mismatch calibration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the voltage of an analog input signal is equal to the supply voltage, it is difficult for a conventional successive approximation ADC to correctly convert the analog signal into digital signal. This paper introduces an improved successive approximation ADC, which can convert the rail-to-rail input range and reduce sampling time through a track-and-hold circuit. Comparator offset cancellation and capacitor self-calibration techniques are used in this ADC. Measurement results show that the peak SNDR of this ADC reaches 72 dB and the signal effective bandwidth is up to 1.25 MHz. It consumes 1 mW in the test, and the figure of merit is 123 fJ/conversion-step. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. A 72-dB-SNDR rail-to-rail successive approximation ADC using mismatch calibration techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    When the voltage of an analog input signal is equal to the supply voltage,it is difficult for a conventional successive approximation ADC to correctly convert the analog signal into digital signal.This paper introduces an improved successive approximation ADC,which can convert the rail-to-rail input range and reduce sampling time through a track-and-hold circuit.Comparator offset cancellation and capacitor self-calibration techniques are used in this ADC.Measurement results show that the peak SNDR of this ADC reaches 72 dB and the signal effective bandwidth is up to 1.25 MHz.It consumes 1 mW in the test,and the figure of merit is 123 fJ/conversion-step.

  10. The development and testing of rail-vehicle buffers filled with elastomer spring packages

    OpenAIRE

    Legat, Janko; Gubeljak, Nenad; Predan, Jožef

    2015-01-01

    The decision of the Slovenian Railway Company to modernise the shock absorbing and traction equipment of its existing rolling stock initiated the development of novel spring packages consisting of elastomer-metal-based elements. The crash testing of rail vehicles represents an important part of the testing of spring packages after their installation into buffers. The collision of a loaded rail vehicle with another loaded rail vehicle at a standstill is used to evaluate the capacity of buffers...

  11. Rail temperature rise characteristics caused by linear eddy current brake of high-speed train

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshan Lu; Yunfeng Li; Mengling Wu; Jianyong Zuo; Wei Hu

    2014-01-01

    The rail temperature rises when the linear eddy current brake of high-speed train is working, which may lead to a change of rail physical characteristics or an effect on train operations. Therefore, a study concerning the characteristics of rail temperature rise caused by eddy current has its practical necessity. In the research, the working principle of a linear eddy current brake is introduced and its FEA model is established. According to the generation mechanism of eddy current, the theor...

  12. A Bilevel Programming Model to Optimize Train Operation Based on Satisfaction for an Intercity Rail Line

    OpenAIRE

    Zhipeng Huang; Huimin Niu

    2014-01-01

    The passenger travel demands for intercity rail lines fluctuate obviously during different time periods, which makes the rail departments unable to establish an even train operation scheme. This paper considers an optimization problem for train operations which respond to passenger travel demands of different periods in intercity rail lines. A satisfactory function of passenger travelling is proposed by means of analyzing the passengers’ travel choice behavior and correlative influencing fact...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Technical Solutions for High-Speed Rail: Tunnel and Track designs

    OpenAIRE

    Lia, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    On the 19th of February 2010, the Ministry of Transport and Communication presented the Norwegian National Rail Administration with the task of assessing different aspects of the future of high-speed rail in Norway. The report, the Norwegian High-Speed Rail Assessment (NHSRA), consist three separate evaluations where the climate assessment by Bergsdal et al. (2012), motivated this thesis. Results from the report identify the railway infrastructure as the dominant emission source for the corri...

  14. The effect of rail travel time on airline fares: first evidence from the Italian passenger market.

    OpenAIRE

    Capozza, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The empirical evidence shows that travel time is crucial for rail transport to be a competitor to air transport. However, there are no papers testing whether travel time has a direct effect on airline pricing. This paper is a step towards filling this gap. We test and quantify the effect of rail travel time on airline fares, using unique data at flight-level. We find that airlines design pricing strategies taking into consideration the travel time of competing rail transport service. Airlines...

  15. The Application of Doppler LIDAR Technology for Rail Inspection and Track Geometry Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Taheriandani, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system to measure the speed of a moving rail vehicle in a non-contacting manner is extended to capture the lateral and vertical irregularities of the track itself and to evaluate the rail track quality. Using two pairs of lenses to capture speed signals from both rails individually, the track speed, curvature, and lateral and vertical geometry variations on each side are determined. LIDAR lenses are installed with a slight forward ...

  16. 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — National LambdaRail (NLR) offers unprecedented communication capabilities on the National and possibly International levels. Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  17. Rail temperature rise characteristics caused by linear eddy current brake of high-speed train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rail temperature rises when the linear eddy current brake of high-speed train is working, which may lead to a change of rail physical characteristics or an effect on train operations. Therefore, a study concerning the characteristics of rail temperature rise caused by eddy current has its practical necessity. In the research, the working principle of a linear eddy current brake is introduced and its FEA model is established. According to the generation mechanism of eddy current, the theoretical formula of the internal energy which is produced by the eddy current is deduced and the thermal load on the rail is obtained. ANSYS is used to simulate the rail temperature changes under different conditions of thermal loads. The research result shows the main factors which contribute to the rising of rail temperature are the train speed, brake gap and exciting current. The rail temperature rises non-linearly with the increase of train speed. The rail temperature rise curve is more sensitive to the exciting current than the air gap. Moreover, the difference stimulated by temperature rising between rails of 60 kg/m and 75 kg/m is presented as well.

  18. Research of the Resistance of Contact Welding Joint of R65 Type Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Dauskurdis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the R65 type rail joints that were welded by resistance welding are analysed. Survey methodology of the research consists of the following parts: visual inspection of welded joint, ultrasonic rail inspection, hardness test of upper part of the rail, fusion area research, the measurement hardness test of heat-softened area, the measurement microhardness test, microstructure research of the welded joint, impact strength experiments, chemical analysis of welded joint, wheel-rail interaction research using the finite element method (FEM. The results of the research are analysed and the quality of weld is evaluated. The conclusion is based on the results of this research.

  19. SAFE-3D analysis of a piezoelectric transducer to excite guided waves in a rail web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramatlo, Dineo A.; Long, Craig S.; Loveday, Philip W.; Wilke, Daniel N.

    2016-02-01

    Our existing Ultrasonic Broken Rail Detection system detects complete breaks and primarily uses a propagating mode with energy concentrated in the head of the rail. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a mode with energy concentrated in the head of the rail, is capable of detecting weld reflections at long distances. Exploiting a mode with energy concentrated in the web of the rail would allow us to effectively detect defects in the web of the rail and could also help to distinguish between reflections from welds and cracks. In this paper, we will demonstrate the analysis of a piezoelectric transducer attached to the rail web. The forced response at different frequencies is computed by the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method and compared to a full three-dimensional finite element method using ABAQUS. The SAFE method only requires the rail track cross-section to be meshed using two-dimensional elements. The ABAQUS model in turn requires a full three-dimensional discretisation of the rail track. The SAFE approach can yield poor predictions at cut-on frequencies associated with other modes in the rail. Problematic frequencies are identified and a suitable frequency range identified for transducer design. The forced response results of the two methods were found to be in good agreement with each other. We then use a previously developed SAFE-3D method to analyse a practical transducer over the selected frequency range. The results obtained from the SAFE-3D method are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Design and Installation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Endcap Calorimeter (NEC) is to be moved from the clean room to the north sidewalk in preparation for the final installation on the DO detector center beam. In order to make this move, the cable bridge must be 'flattened' and the NEC lifted to move over it. The detector is moved west, approximately 24 feet, while the moveable counting house remains stationary. This movement allows the cable bridge to 'flatten' i.e. become horizontal. The cable bridge lowering is steadied and stabilized by 7.5 ton hoist mounted on the moveable counting house. By moving the detector to lower the bridge, a vacancy has been created in the pit that must be filled to the level of the clean room rail elevation. This filler will consist of concrete shield blocks, stacked in two rows. These rows are spaced appropriately to match the wheel base of the EC transporter. A steel plate is placed on top of each row of shield blocks and leveled to the elevation of the clean room rails. Steel plates will be installed and leveled on the north sidewalk similar to those used on the south sidewalk for the CC installation. These plates are used as rails for the Hilman rollers, bearing surfaces for shim blocks used during lifting and anchors for holding the transporter extension units and the transfer bridge. After the plates are installed, the transfer bridge is put in place, spanning the cable bridge, shimmed and leveled. The transporter extension units are positioned next to the transfer bridge on the north sidewalk. With the completion of this prep work, the actual transfer of the NEC from the clean room can begin. The NEC is pulled from the clean room with the same mechanism (cyl. and chain) that was used for the CC and the pull anchor point will be located at the end of the concrete blocks. The NEC will come out of the north west door in the clean room and move along the temporary rail plates in the pit until it is in line with the transfer bridge. At this point the NEC is ready to be

  1. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  2. Monitoring of concrete bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš; Urushadze, Shota

    Orlando,Florida: Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc, 2007 - (Wicks, A.), s. 250-257 ISBN 0-912053-97-6. [IMAC, Conference & Exposition on Structural Dynamics/25./. Orlando (US), 17.02.2007-19.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA MDS(CZ) 1F45D/013/120; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Long-term measurements * Dynamic response * Bridge * Strain gauges * Rain-flow Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  3. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar

    2006-01-01

    This text book is intended for studies in wind engineering, with focus on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line ?like civil engineering type of structures. It contains the background assumptions and hypothesis as well as the development of the computational theory that is necessary for the prediction of wind induced fluctuating displacements and cross sectional forces. The simple cases of static and quasi-static structural response calculations are for the sake of completeness also included. The text is at an advanced level in the

  4. Nondestructive testing for bridge diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many motivations for bridge diagnosis using Nondestructive testing (NDT) to monitor its integrity. The measured frequency and damping on real bridge are compared in one figure as a function of span length and general aspects are explained. These date were measured in every construction of bridges and applied to design new bridges. Ultrasonic testing is also well used for concrete and steel members mainly to detect internal damages or delaminations. Detail analysis on reflected waves gives us more accurate information about the defect. Experimental results are shown as examples in this paper.

  5. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  6. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each grid node form a

  7. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: ishida-mk@n-koei.jp [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment comparison between two bridge types: reinforced concrete bridge and steel composite bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sustainable construction has attracted an increased attention. Bridge infrastructures and their belonged construction activities consume considerable material and energy, which is responsible for large environmental burdens. However, the environmental assessment of bridges has not...... been integrated into the decision-making process. This paper presents a systematic LCA method for quantifying the environmental impacts for bridges. The comparison study is performed between a reinforced concrete bridge and a steel bridge as an alternative design, with several key maintenance and EOL...... scenarios outlined. LCA study is performed with the ReCiPe methodology with life cycle inventories data from public database. Five selected mid-point level impact categories and the energy consumption are presented. The result shows that the steel bridge has a better environmental performance due to the...

  9. Railroad Lines - RAIL_CROSSINGS_INDOT_IN: Railroad Crossings in Indiana (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_CROSSINGS_INDOT_IN is a point shapefile that contains locations of rail crossings in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Transportation...

  10. Investigating on-call work in rail infrastructure maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Cebola, Nuno M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of on-call work in industry has now surpassed that of shiftwork and night work. Industries as a whole make use of on-call work daily as a way to maintain 24/7 operations whilst also reducing costs. Despite this, on-call work remains underresearched and no best practice or management guidelines are available. As the first substantial piece of human factors work examining on-call work in the rail industry, this thesis has the overall aim of increasing the understanding of on-call sc...

  11. Slow Rail Tourism in France since 1870 (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Blancheton, Bertrand; Marchi, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This paper recounts slow rail tourism development in France since 1870. It presents a pioneer analysis regarding the various forms of this tourism chaining process and their interactions. The first so-called leisure shape appears in the 1870s in connection with the advent of a sensitivity rewarding mountainous and coastal scenery. The second so-called heritage shape is based on the nostalgia of old trains railway enthusiasts try to revive. Finally, since the 1980’s, hybrid forms such as local...

  12. Testiranje programske opreme z uporabo ogrodja Ruby on Rails

    OpenAIRE

    Jurglič, Matic

    2015-01-01

    V svetu modernih spletnih aplikacij in odprtokodnih tehnologijah je čedalje pogosteje moč opaziti uporabo testno usmerjenega razvoja programske opreme, pri katerem razvijalci pišejo teste za izvorno kodo. Glavna prednost investiranja v primerno napisane teste so lažje odkrivanje napak, učinkovitejši razvojni proces in posledično višja stopnja kvalitete produkta. Diplomsko delo opisuje splošne tehnike testiranja in se osredotoča na uporabo v ogrodju Ruby on Rails, za katerim stoji kultura...

  13. Rails 2.0中的调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘申

    2008-01-01

    过去,Rails中的debug都是依赖断点(breakpointer),而断点后来在Ruby 1.8.5中被破坏了。随着Rails 2.0的发布,现在我们可以用ruby-debug作为debug的首选工具。要安装ruby—debug(笔者使用的是Mac,所有的示例代码都是基于Mac),我们首先要做以下几步:

  14. Adaptation energy method for assessing the security content of continuous welded rail to measure the compressive strength for engineering calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kurhan, D. N.; Lapsheva, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways to increase safety and operation of seamless path is the determination of the stress-strain state rail lashes that enables you to warn and prevent failures continuous welded rail. It is known that significant longitudinal force are caused by limitations of the temperature regime of continuous welded rail and can lead to the release. For long-term development and improvement of the theory of thermal stress state of continuous welded rail have created several different methods f...

  15. 76 FR 35273 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road... Indiana Rail Road Company (INRD) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to CSX Transportation,...

  16. Proposals for radioactive material by rail (packaging, labelling and carriage) regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Radioactive Material by Rail (Packaging, Labelling and Carriage Regulations (Northern Ireland) are presented in this consultation document. The proposals establish a new system of safety controls which implement the requirements of two European Directives. These are the ADR and RID Framework Directives which relate to the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail respectively. (UK)

  17. Welding construction summarization of polar crane rail for CHASNUPP-2 of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the analyses and methods to deal with the problems in the process of Polar Crane's Rail installation. The weld quality and rail installation meet the requirements of design and specification, which show that the procedure and process control are all effective. (authors)

  18. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail System, Inc. (BSRS), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption....07 in Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating...

  19. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This... safety and security risk analyses required by § 172.820. The risk analysis to be performed may...

  2. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  3. 76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... connect key activity centers within Central Austin--Mueller Transit-Oriented Redevelopment (Mueller), the... Rail may use shared street or exclusive rights-of-way with single- or multi-car trains, boarding passengers at track level or car floor level. Other refinements to the Urban Rail Alternative will...

  4. Cost overruns and demand shortfalls in urban rail and other infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2007-01-01

    risks in urban rail projects. The article presents empirical evidence that allow valid economic risk assessment and management of urban rail projects, including benchmarking of individual or groups of projects. Benchmarking of the Copenhagen Metro is presented as a case in point. The approach developed...

  5. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival. 123.91 Section 123.91 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Advance Information for Cargo Arriving by Rail or...

  6. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: the transport of irradiated fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience in handling of irradiated fuel flasks by the British Railways Board is outlined. The steps taken to ensure the effective and safe transport of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste by rail are identified. It is concluded that the proposed rail transport link to the EDRP at Dounreay should prove practicable. (UK)

  7. Improving work load and comfort of operators on modified hydraulic excavators in rail road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Houtman, I.I.D.

    2000-01-01

    In small-scale projects of mechanized maintenance of rail roads special equipped hydraulic excavators (HE) are used in several maintenance tasks. One task concerns the exchange of the old crossbars and ballast under the rails by new materials (MCE-task). This task requires high precision of the HE-o

  8. TEHNOLOGIJA RUBY ON RAILS IN SPLETNA APLIKACIJA ZA IZDAJANJE IN VODENJE RAČUNOV

    OpenAIRE

    Klavž, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obsega opis tehnologije Ruby on Rails za razvoj dinamičnih spletnih aplikacij in prototipno spletno aplikacijo, za izdajanje in vodenje računov. Posebej se posvetimo tehnologiji Rails, delovanju programskega jezika Ruby in opisu izdelane aplikacije. Podrobneje je razložen pristop za razvoj agilnih spletnih aplikacij ter delovanje ogrodja preko arhitekture model-pogled-krmilnik aplikacije.

  9. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... procedures for obtaining funding for high- speed rail planning activities under the Department of... of Pub. L. 111-117, December 16, 2009), under the title ``Capital Assistance for High Speed...

  10. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receiver; location with respect to rail. 236.557 Section 236.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD...; location with respect to rail. (a) Receiver of intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of...

  11. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  12. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  13. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose....

  14. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists...

  15. Light Rail and Subway Lines, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Lines, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as...

  16. Light Rail and Subway Stations, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Stations, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Stations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described...

  17. National Rail Network: 1:100,000 (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  18. National Rail Network 1:2,000,000 (node), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_nd_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  19. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker;

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi...

  20. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also endan...

  1. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 1: Barriers to multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. Examining and identifying the barriers in the part 1 (with the pan-Pacific examples of rail freight transports, the part 2 of the paper focuses on recommending clear actions and steps as enablers for the rail freight industry in general and operators in particular. The research in part 1 of the paper finds that: •\tIn many European countries, the rail freight market is not fully liberalised. In such market segment, infrastructure managers do act independently for incumbents and new entrant operators that hamper the progress of building a competitive market; •\tThe rail operators have not yet achieved the service quality (e.g. customer tailored service needed for the modern supply chains; •\tThey operate

  2. 75 FR 61817 - Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Jackson & Lansing Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company--Continuance in Control Exemption--Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company (ADBF), a Class III rail...

  3. 78 FR 78507 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern Counties, CA By petition filed on September 26, 2013, California High-Speed Rail... June 13, 2013, in California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced,...

  4. 75 FR 32240 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail... Draft Environmental Impact Statement and public hearings for the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA... availability of the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA to Raleigh, NC Project Draft Tier II...

  5. 78 FR 24309 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties, Cal On March 27, 2013, California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority), a... California High- Speed Rail Authority to know the reasons we reached this finding, but also to inform...

  6. 78 FR 73921 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--In Fresno... approximately 114-mile high-speed passenger rail line between Fresno and Bakersfield, Cal. (the Line). The Line... would, when completed, provide high-speed intercity passenger rail service over more than 800 miles...

  7. 75 FR 51331 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail... the Tier II Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA to... the Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement for the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA...

  8. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... of Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Warning Systems and Wayside Signal Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad.... FRA has found that serious highway-rail grade crossing accidents and false proceed signal failures... safety procedures for the temporary removal of highway-rail grade crossing systems and wayside...

  9. Superconductivity in small metal bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson effects in weaklinks are discussed for low and high frequency regimes using simple perturbation techniques. It is proven that no measurement of the supercurrent dependence upon frequency above the Riedel peak frequency can be made using rf sources whose frequencies are below the Riedel peak. Thus the bulk of work done in the field on the high frequency structure of the Josephson current is shown to be invalid. Metal bridges shorter than a newly defined temperature independent length for superconductors, l/sub PHONON/, are proven to be identical in their Josephson current behavior to tunneling junctions. The BCS gap equation is generalized to include voltage gradient effects on pairs within the bridge. The oscillation frequency for long bridges (l/sub BRIDGE/ greater than l/sub PHONON/) is shown to be limited to less than 10'' Hz. An experimental test of the new voltage dependent gap is made as well as tests of the pair reforming time of bridges

  10. Bridge Coupler for APT

    CERN Document Server

    Greninger, P T; Spalek, G; Greninger, Paul T.; Rodarte, Henry J.

    2000-01-01

    The Coupled Cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) used in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) is fully described elsewhere [1]. The modules are composed of several machined and brazed segments that must account for the accumulation of dimensional tolerances in the build up of the stack. In addition, space requirements dictate that power fed to the accelerator cannot be through the accelerating cavities. As well, we would like to remove a single segment of the accelerator without removing additional segments. These requirements combined with phasing relationships of the design and space limitations have resulted in a different bridge coupling method used in the module comprising 3-gap segments. The coupling method, phasing relationships and other features that enhance the flexibility of the design will be discussed.

  11. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  12. Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Wen

    A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced into DNA detection device in which C-50au are immobilized on ˜90nm width SiO2 band (between two gold electrodes). The passivation step ensures every TP-30au are attached

  13. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  14. A Rail-To-Rail Hign Speed Class-AB CMOS Buffer with Low Power and Enhanced Slew Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A rail-to-rail class-AB CMOS buffer is proposed in this paper to drive large capacitive loads. A newtechnique is used to reduce the leakage power of class-AB CMOS buffer circuits without affecting dynamicpower dissipation .The name of applied technique is LECTOR, which gives the high speed buffer with thereduced low power dissipation (1.05% and reduced area (2.8%. The proposed buffer is simulated at45nm CMOS technology and the circuit is operated at 3V supply with cadence software. This analog circuitis performed with extremely low leakage current as well as high current driving capability for the largeinput voltages. The proposed paper is achieved very high speed with very low propagation delay rangei.e.(292×10-12. So the delay of the circuit is reduced to 10%. The settling time of this circuit is reduced by24% (in ns at 3V square wave input. The measured quiescent current is 41μA.

  15. A Rail-To-Rail Hign Speed Class-AB CMOS Buffer with Low Power and Enhanced Slew Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A rail-to-rail class-AB CMOS buffer is proposed in this paper to drive large capacitive loads. A new technique is used to reduce the leakage power of class-AB CMOS buffer circuits without affecting dynamic power dissipation .The name of applied technique is LECTOR, which gives the high speed buffer with the reduced low power dissipation (1.05% and reduced area (2.8%. The proposed buffer is simulated at 45nm CMOS technology and the circuit is operated at 3V supply with cadence software. This analog circuit is performed with extremely low leakage current as well as high current driving capability for the large input voltages. The proposed paper is achieved very high speed with very low propagation delay range i.e.(292×10-12. So the delay of the circuit is reduced to 10%. The settling time of this circuit is reduced by 24% (in ns at 3V square wave input. The measured quiescent current is 41µA.

  16. Digital-compatible high-performance operational amplifier with rail-to-rail input and output ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chung S.; Helms, Ward J.; Kuhn, Jay A.; Byrkett, Bruce E.

    1994-01-01

    Decreasing integrated-circuit feature sizes and increased packing densities are opening new applications for single chip systems. The technology choices for these systems are dominated by digital performance issues, however, analog functions must also be performed. This paper presents a CMOS buffer amplifier which operates on a single 5-V power supply. Because of the uniquely symmetrical design, which compared to past work, adds the following advantages: 1) Rail-to-rail linear, symmetrical operation at both the input and output. 2) Unique output stage allows the use of gate channel capacitors of standard MOSFET's as the compensation capacitor saving die area from 80% to approximately 93% in a standard single polysilicon digital processes. 3) Large gain-bandwidth product. 4) High power supply rejection ratio. 5) Good common-mode rejection ratio. 6) Easy compact layout suitable for design automation (layout as a parametric cell, allows easy adaption to changing processes). The buffer is capable of driving 300 omega parallel 100 pF with a loaded gain-bandwidth product of more than 4 MHz and a fully loaded slew rate of greater than 4 V/microseconds.

  17. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration...

  18. National Bridge Inventory - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI (NTAD 2015) is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 610,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate...

  19. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  20. Mechanical properties and fracture toughness of rail steels and thermite welds at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-qing; Zhou, Hui; Shi, Yong-jiu; Feng, Bao-rui

    2012-05-01

    Brittle fracture occurs frequently in rails and thermite welded joints, which intimidates the security and reliability of railway service. Railways in cold regions, such as Qinghai-Tibet Railway, make the problem of brittle fracture in rails even worse. A series of tests such as uniaxial tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, and three-point bending tests were carried out at low temperature to investigate the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of U71Mn and U75V rail steels and their thermite welds. Fracture micromechanisms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the fracture surfaces of the tested specimens. The ductility indices (percentage elongation after fracture and percentage reduction of area) and the toughness indices (Charpy impact energy A k and plane-strain fracture toughness K IC) of the two kinds of rail steels and the corresponding thermite welds all decrease as the temperature decreases. The thermite welds are more critical to fracture than the rail steel base metals, as indicated by a higher yield-to-ultimate ratio and a much lower Charpy impact energy. U71Mn rail steel is relatively higher in toughness than U75V, as demonstrated by larger A k and K IC values. Therefore, U71Mn rail steel and the corresponding thermite weld are recommended in railway construction and maintenance in cold regions.

  1. The wheel-rail contact friction influence on high speed vehicle model stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław DUSZA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Right estimating of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and rail is essential in modelling rail vehicle dynamics. Constant value of coefficient of friction is the typical assumption in theoretical studies. But it is obvious that in real circumstances a few factors may have significant influence on the rails surface condition and this way on the coefficient of friction value. For example the weather condition, the railway location etc. Influence of the coefficient of friction changes on high speed rail vehicle model dynamics is presented in this paper. Four axle rail vehicle model were built. The FASTSIM code is employed for calculation of the tangential contact forces between wheel and rail. One coefficient of friction value is adopted in the particular simulation process. To check the vehicle model properties under the influence of wheel-rail coefficient of friction changes, twenty four series of simulations were performed. For three curved tracks of radii R = 3000m, 6000m and  (straight track, the coefficient of friction was changed from 0.1 to 0.8. The results are presented in form of bifurcation diagrams.

  2. Novel Analytical Model of Mean Temperature and Experimental Research on the Rail Universal Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yonggang; ZHANG Wenzhi; SONG Jianfeng

    2009-01-01

    For building the analytical model of mean temperature in rail universal rolling, the cross-section ofworkpieces and the profile of horizontal roll and vertical roll are simplified rationally. The mean temperature of the web of rail, the top of rail and the base of rail are considered individually. The temperature rises for plastic deformation and friction incorresponding deformation zone, the temperature drop for contact is calculated on the base of variation principle and energy conservation law. Then the mean temperature is obtained. For verifying the theoretical model, the 18 kg/m light rail universal rolling experiments are accomplished in Yanshan University Roiling Laboratory, China and the surface temperature is measured. The surface temperature is not exact enough to express the true temperature and the mean temperature can show the status of the true temperature basically. So the mean temperature can be used to express the true temperature and this theoretical model and its results can be applied as an important reference to control the temperature of rail universal rolling and the beat treatment of the rolled rail.

  3. Applications of Non-destructive methods (GPR and 3D Laser Scanner) in Historic Masonry Arch Bridge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    There exist approximately 70,000 masonry arch bridge spans (brick and stone) in the UK with tens of thousands more throughout Europe. A significant number of these bridges are still in operation and form part of the road and rail network systems in many countries. A great majority of these bridges are in desperate need of repair and maintenance. Applications of non-destructive testing methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), 3D laser scanning, accelerometer sensors and vibration detecting sensors amongst many others have been used to assess and monitor such structures in the past few years. This presentation provides results of the applications of a 2GHz GPR antenna system and a 3D laser scanner on a historic masonry arch bridge (the Old Bridge, Aylesford) located in Kent, in the south east of England. The older part of the bridge (the mid-span) is 860 years old. The bridge was the subject of a major alteration in 1811. This presentation forms part of a larger ongoing study which is using the two above mentioned non-destructive methods for long-term monitoring of the bridge. The adopted survey planning strategy and technique, data acquisition and processing as well as challenges encountered during actual survey and fieldworks have been discussed in this presentation. As a result of this study the position of different layers of the deck structure has been established with the identification of the original stone base of the bridge. This information in addition to the location of a number of structural ties (anchors - remedial work carried out previously) in the absence of reliable and accurate design details proved to be extremely useful for the modelling of the bridge using the finite element method. Results of the 3D laser scanning of the bridge have also been presented which have provided invaluable data essential for the accurate modelling of the bridge as well as the long term monitoring of the bridge. 2014 EGU-GA GI3.1 Session, organised by COST Action

  4. Bridging the urological divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robin

    2011-09-23

    The advanced disease clinical presentations, higher morbidity and mortality rates and lack of available treatment options in prostate cancer care, attest to disparities in the delivery and outcomes of urological services in Black men of African lineage in both the Developed and Developing countries. This gap in health care and services in the global management of prostate cancer denotes the urological divide.Through the experience of a Developing country urologist with a comparative literature review, this presentation defines the determinants of the disparity through deficiencies in human, material and financial resources, as is most prevalent in Developing countries.Solutions to ending health care disparities must take into account the existing development phase of Third World countries and thus determine whether the Developed countries should export a total service delivery system or seek primarily to advance the competence and skills of the existing Developing country resources.Collaboration in prostate cancer research has the greatest promise and sustainability of bridging this urological divide and is of mutual benefit to both entities. PMID:21992183

  5. Rail deployment and storage procedure and test for ITER blanket remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of rail-mounted vehicle manipulator system has been developed to apply to the maintenance of the ITER blanket composed of ∼400 modules in the vacuum vessel. The most critical issue of the vehicle manipulator system is the feasibility of the deployment and storage of the articulated rail, composed of eight rail links without any driving mechanism in the joints. To solve this issue, a new driving mechanism and procedure for the rail deployment and storage has been proposed, taking account of the repeated operation of the multi-rail links deployed and stored in the same kinematical manner. The new driving mechanism, which is different from those of a usual articulated manipulator or 'articulated boom' equipped with actuators in every joint for movement, is composed of three external mechanisms installed outside the articulated rail, i.e. a vehicle traveling mechanism as main driver and two auxiliary driving mechanisms. A simplified synchronized control of three driving mechanisms has also been proposed, including 'torque-limit control' for suppression of the overload of the mechanisms. These proposals have been tested using a full-scale vehicle manipulator system, in order to demonstrate the proof of principle for rail deployment and storage. As a result, the articulated rail has been successfully deployed and stored within 6 h each, less than the target of 8 h, by means of the three external driving mechanisms and the proposed synchronized control. In addition, the overload caused by an unexpected mismatch of the synchronized control of three driving mechanisms has also been successfully suppressed less than the rated torque by the proposed 'torque-limit control'. It is therefore concluded that the feasibility of the rail deployment and storage of the vehicle manipulator system has been demonstrated

  6. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  7. Bridge Culture of Langde Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Langde, a village in Leishan County ofsouthwestern Guizhou province, is known for itslarge number of unique bridges bearing the distinctdesign style of the Miao ethnic group. Animpressive variety of well-preserved ancient

  8. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...

  9. Applications of overburden conveyor bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachtschneider, H.

    1987-06-01

    In large scale surface mines of the capacities required today, a cross-pit operation with overburden conveyor bridges is the most economical method of overburden removal and disposal. In order to provide the production capacity required in surface mining equipment by the GDR brown coal industry, VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk undertook the design and manufacture of standard overburden conveyor bridges for cut heights of 34 m, 45 m and 60 m. All three base types may be equipped to match the site specific geological and geotechnical conditions, and to meet customer's demands. Specifications of the bridges are given as well as details of conveyor belt speeds, modifications to the standards, and number manufactured. Design problems faced with the 60 m bridge are discussed, together with details of the superstructure, method of operation, transportation rates, structural steel used, assembly and power supply. 5 refs.

  10. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha. M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further ischemia. Materials & Methods: It is a prospective study performed from 2012- 2015 in cardiac centers available around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. A total number of 2015 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated to detect myocardial bridges. With the informed consent the relevant data was collected from the patients and analyzed. Results: The prevalence of myocardial bridges was 3.17%. Among the 2015 patients 70.7% are males and 29.2% are females. Among 64 myocardial bridge positive cases 62.5% were male and 37.5% were female patients. Regarding coronary dominance 84% were right dominant and 14.4% were left dominant and 1.6% are balanced. The percentage incidence of myocardial bridging according to dominance was 3.01% for right dominant patients, 4.12% for left dominant patients and 3.1% for balanced dominant patients. In all the myocardial bridge positive cases they were located on the left anterior descending artery (LAD. According to diagnosis the patients with normal coronaries were 22.6%, patients with MILD CAD were 17.9%, patients with single vessel disease were 23.4%, patients with two vessel disease were 14.7% and the patients with triple vessel disease were 21.3%. The 64 myocardial bridging cases were grouped in to three groups according to their age. Incidence of double bridges was observed in 3 cases of which 66.7% males & 33.3% in females. Conclusion: These results show that Andhra Pradesh population are

  11. ANGIOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF MYOCARDIAL BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha M; V Subhadra Devi; C. S. S. Raju; B. Yugandhar; Nagaraju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The segment of epicardial coronary artery that traverses intramurally through the myocardium and bridged by a bunch of cardiac muscle fibers is called tunneled artery or intramural artery. The band of cardiac muscle fibers passing over the tunneled artery segment is named as myocardial bridge. During angiography milking effect is observed during systole due to the external pressure of muscle fibers on the tunneled artery that leads to narrowing of vessel lumen and further isc...

  12. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical u...

  13. Stability of liquid crystalline bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    1999-02-01

    The stability of cylindrical bridges of the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl in an immiscible liquid bath was investigated in the nematic and smectic A phases. In the nematic phase the bridge was found to destabilize at a length-to-diameter (slenderness) ratio R similar to that of ordinary Newtonian fluids. On the other hand, the Bingham behavior of the smectic A phase, i.e., an apparent yield stress, enabled the formation of stable columns with R well in excess of π.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring of Mumbai to Visakhapatnam by rail route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes study of variation of environmental radiation dose rates in natural background from Mumbai to Visakhapatnam by using various state of the art radiation monitoring instruments deployed in the railway coach. The study determines the radiation levels on the rail route of the region as a part of National Level Preparedness for response to Radiological Emergencies which will act as a baseline data for reference. The survey indicated a rising trend in the natural radiation background along Mumbai to Visakhapatnam route and maximum level in the Deccan plateau was observed near Hyderabad. The distance covered during the survey from Mumbai to Visakhapatnam via Pune, Solapur, Gulbarga, Hyderabad, Warangal and Vijayawada was 1650 kms, average speed was 55 km/h and around 10,500 data points were recorded

  15. An evaluation of rail access routes to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation and characterization of potential rail routes for the transport of high level radioactive waste from their current storage locations (76 power plants and 4 federal facilities) to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Individual routes were determined for shipments from each origin using the INTERLINE model. They were characterized in terms of shipment distance, number of transfers and states transversed. Additionally, specific routing constraints were imposed for a selected subset of the origins to address policy and operational alternatives such as minimizing shipment distance, number of transfers or number of states traversed. Results of the analysis indicate that the imposition of the routing constraint count result in reducing shipment distances, and the number of states traversed. But a tradeoff between these factors and the number of transfers exists

  16. Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero

    2013-01-01

    Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...

  17. Tunnel pressure waves - A smartphone inquiry on rail travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    When traveling by rail, you might have experienced the following phenomenon: The train enters a tunnel, and after some seconds a noticeable pressure change occurs, as perceived by your ears or even by a rapid wobbling of the train windows. The basic physics is that pressure waves created by the train travel down the tunnel, are reflected at its other end, and travel back until they meet the train again. Here we will show (i) how this effect can be well understood as a kind of large-scale outdoor case of a textbook paradigm, and (ii) how, e.g., a prediction of the tunnel length from the inside of a moving train on the basis of this model can be validated by means of a mobile phone measurement.

  18. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  19. The maturity of rail freight logistics service providers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Farias Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the maturity of three rail freight Logistics Service Providers (LSPs in Brazil in a population of seven operators. After an exploratory review of the existing literature and research documents, a structured questionnaire based on the Supply Chain Capability Maturity Model S(CM2 was applied. The study measured an overall average level, given in S(CM2, as Managed, meaning that the managerial development standard of the logistics agents was at an intermediate level. The results showed that maturity was related to the size of the LSP and the complexity of the organizational management. These findings can support the development of policies and strategies for the improvement and adoption of practices that best lead to gains in competitiveness for both LSPs and the Supply Chains (SCs that require their services.

  20. SURGERY OF SYMPTOMATIC MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maghamipour N. Safaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridging with systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD may be associated with myocardial ischemia. In symptomatic myocardial bridging unresponsive to medical treatment, surgical unroofing of the left LAD can be performed. Little information is available about the long-term prognosis of patients with this coronary anomaly after the surgical unroofing, so we decided to evaluate the result of this operation. A total of 26 patients underwent surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging. Patients had a myocardial bridge of at least 3 cm in length in the middle of LAD and with more than 70% compression during systole. Unroofing was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 and with off pump technique in 10 patients. In 6 patients repeat angiographies for control of myotomy were done. In one of them a nonsignificant 20% narrowing was seen. Postoperative scintigraphic and angiographic studies demonstrated restoration of coronary flow and myocardial perfusion without residual myocardial bridges under beta-stimulation in 24 patients. Two patients had residual narrowing. With off pump technique, 1 patient had perforation of the right ventricle and 1 patient underwent reoperation because of incomplete unroofing during the first operation. None of the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass technique had residual chest pain or other complications. Surgical unroofing of myocardial bridging with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe and easy procedure with low operative risk and with excellent functional results.

  1. Wave-current force on bridge foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, J.N.; Wang, D.T.; Wang, X. G.; Nie, F

    2013-01-01

    Many cross-sea bridges have been constructed or in construction in the Chinese coastal areas, such as Hangzhou Bay Bridge, East China Sea Bridge and Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, etc. Usually the foundations of cross-sea bridges will bear the load of wave and current simultaneously, the extreme value of which is an important factor for bridge design. It is quite difficult to estimate the extreme wave-current forces on bridge foundations due to their complex form, for example a polygonal plat...

  2. ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS IMPACT IN ELEMENTS OF THE RAIL FASTENING, TYPE КПП-5 ON A SIZE OF PRESSING FORCE OF THE RAIL TO THE SUBRAIL BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Nastechik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport is one of the most important links in economy of Ukraine, and it is a basis of its transport system. As the majority of freight transportation of coal and metallurgical industry is conducted by railway transport, its effective use is a necessary condition of stabilization and development in economy of Ukraine. One of the strategic works connected with implementation of high-speed train service in Ukraine is the reliable work ensuring of connection of intermediate rail fastening during operation. For engineering works, according to the contents and repair of fastenings the considerable share of labor expenses during operation of a way is necessary. One of domestic intermediate fastenings which after long operational supervision has implemented into continuous operation is the fastening, type КПП-5. This fastening is a prototype of the Polish rail fastening type SB-3. After the long operation in fastenings, type KПП-5, a number of the shortcomings connected with premature refusal of its elements was revealed. This in generally is connected with intensive reduction of size of pressing force of a rail to the subrail basis. Therefore the purpose is the development of a technique and practical control devices concerning a condition of work of a rail fastening knot, type KПП-5 at operation. Methodology. The assessment of various factors impact at a size of pressing force of a rail to the subrail basis in the knot of a rail fastening, type KПП-5 at operation is the foundation of the research method. Findings. By means of the developed technique and practical control devices it was established: the general reduction of pressing force of a rail to the subrail basis during one mill. tons gross., taking into account influence of various factors, may constitute kN. Originality. Accordingly to the obtained results the author firstly described and expressed by empirical dependence the process of change of pressing force

  3. Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.

  4. 高铁线路物联网安防系统设计%Design of High-Speed Rail Line Security System Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌

    2016-01-01

    针对高铁线路的低矮桥梁、路基、贯通地线、疏散通道和在建高铁线路建材设备面临的入侵破坏或被盗隐患等问题,分析了在这些方面安全防范发展物联网的需求。而无线传感器网络和射频识别技术是物联网的关键技术,在缺乏持续电源供电的情况下对于入侵报警、被盗信息的采集和物体自身信息识别方面具有十分重要的应用空间,由此提出了高铁线路物联网安防系统。该系统结合物联网体系结构,具有实时报警监控、及时反应制止的功能,有效地提升了高铁线路技术防范能力,增强了高铁线路民警治安防控战斗力,最后讨论了在实施过程中面临的问题。%Low bridges,subgrade,the links up of grounding wire,evacuation exits,materials and equipment in construction of the high-speed rail line are confronting problems of intrusion and being stolen,or some other problems,which are later analyzed on requirement of developing internet of things in security protection.As we known,WSN and RFID are key technologies of internet of things which have very important amplitude application in intrusion alarm,stolen information collection and objects self-recognition in lack of sustainable power supply circumstances.By referring to these,it put forward high-speed rail line security system based on internet of things.This system combined with architecture of internet of things,and has the function in real-time alarm supervision and response suppression,which will hoist capacity of technique prevention in high-speed rail line,and what’s more,the security prevention and control ability to the high-speed rail line police.At last,problems which will be faced with during the implementation process were discussed.

  5. System diagnosis using finite memory observers: Common Rail application; Diagnostic des systemes a l'aide d'observateurs a memoire finie: application au Common Rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graton, G.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work was to propose a fault detection method on the high pressure direct injection system (called Common Rail system) set up on Diesel vehicles. The importance of the fault detection procedure implementation was highlighted thanks to the description of the stakes (lowers consumption, reduction in the pollutant emissions and sound, increase of performances) and constraints dependent on Common Rail (high pressure, high frequency, gas oil lubrication, high precision machining, standards EURO respect,...) but also through a listing of failures which can occur on Common Rail. A synthesis on the different diagnosis methods of systems contributed to select a fault detection method with expected performances (detection of fault beginning, detection speed, isolation and characterization of detected fault and minimizing false alarm and bad detections). After a detailed study (properties, sequential formulations and sensitivity study) of the selected detection method (finite memory observers) and a modeling of the Common Rail various bodies behavior, the algorithm of detection was tested on three different models of the system Common Rail. Moreover, the comparison between the finite memory observer and a Luenberger observer and a Kalman filter allow to appreciate the residual robustness degree. Obtained results allow to conclude on good detection of actuator and sensor faults. (author)

  6. Probabilistic Performance-Based Optimum Seismic Design of Seismic Isolation for California High-Speed Rail Prototype Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five decades, remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of earthquake engineering, especially in the following areas: seismic design philosophy, earthquake protective systems, seismic design and performance evaluation of structures, and theory of structural optimization. The progress achieved and products developed in these areas can be integrated to develop a desired computer-aided optimum structural design framework. Accordingly, a probabilistic performance-based opti...

  7. Redundancy Evaluation of Fracture Critical Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Amey Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Cases of brittle fractures in major bridges prompted AASHTO to publish its first fracture control plan in 1978. It focused on material and fabrication standards, and required periodic 24-month hands-on inspection of bridges with fracture critical members. The practical result of this plan was to significantly increase the life cycle cost of these bridges, rendering them uneconomical. Apart from the Point Pleasant Bridge that failed in 1967, no other bridge has collapsed in the USA following a...

  8. Modern common rail systems and their influence on engine acoustics; Moderne Common Rail Systeme und deren Einfluss auf die Motorakustik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzle, B. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart-Feuerbach (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Due to emission laws getting harder and harder and due to growing customer demands regarding comport and power, the requirements towards modern Diesel engines are growing. Modern Common Rail Systems from BOSCH meet these requirements, because they are able to control the combustion very precisely. In the past time, engine acoustics get more and more in focus of our customers. The strategies to optimize the engine acoustics conflicts with the standard application process for optimizing emissions, fuel consumption and engine power. Several noise formation effects and also several measurement techniques will be shown in the paper. The influence of application parameters to the noise radiation of the diesel engine will be shown. Noise reduction concepts which are based on Electronic Control Unit- software as well as passive damping measures also will be discussed.

  9. Portsmouth the Island City - mainline rail connectivity proposals:high speed south England - sustainable regional growth

    OpenAIRE

    Menteth, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Proposals for a Portsmouth and Solent Region proposed mainline rail strategy. How Portsmouth and the Solent region with other south of England ring cities can inform future transportation strategy and development, to improve connectivity, sustainability and economic benefit.

  10. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  11. NEW SYSTEM OF PREPARING THE PERSONNEL OF THE RAIL-FREIGHT TRAFFIC IN MODERN CONDITION

    OpenAIRE

    Koroleva, N.

    2009-01-01

    The Considered problem of preparing the personnel in modern condition. The main requirements is Determined to new system of preparing the personnel in condition innovations developments of the rail-freight traffic.

  12. Summary of California Clapper Rail Winter Populations in the San Francisco Bay, 1989 to 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federal and state endangered California clapper rail, Rallus longirostris obsoletus. is a species that, until very recently, was on the verge of extinction....

  13. Honolulu Rail Transit: International Lessons in Linking Form, Design, and Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Boeing, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The city of Honolulu, Hawaii is currently planning and developing a new rail transit system. While Honolulu has supportive density and topography for rail transit, questions remain about its ability to effectively integrate urban design and accessibility across the system. Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip from origins and to destinations: transportation planning must account for pedestrian safety, comfort, and access. Ildefons Cerda's 19th century utopian plan for Barcelona's Eixample district produced a renowned, livable urban form. The Eixample, with its well-integrated rail transit, serves as a model of urban design, land use, transportation planning, and pedestrian-scaled streets working in synergy to produce accessibility. This study discusses the urban form of Honolulu and the history and planning of its new rail transit system. Then it reviews the history of Cerda's plan for the Eixample and discusses its urban form and performance today. Finally it draws several lessons from Barc...

  14. Rail survey for the Bi-county area of Pike County in Missouri and Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes rail surveys conducted on Great River and Clarence Cannon NWRs. This project was undertaken to 1 contribute to a nationwide assessment of the...

  15. THE METALLURGICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND HARDNESS PROFILE OF A RAIL THERMITE WELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of railroad construction is a important factor for comfort and safety in railroad transportation. Thermite welding being known for a long time prevents rail failure and, off road the train. It provides smoothly journey, and long life to rails and wagons. In this study, S 49 type St 70 steel rails have been welded by thermite process, hardness profile of welding zone rails has been obtained and its microstructure has been examined. In this profile maximum hardness values have been observed in front of welding region. Hardness value was 290 HB in the front of melting zone in the zone under heat effect (HAZ, 260 HB in welding zone and 220 HB in main structure. For microstructure pro-eutectoid ferrite and perlite were observed but not martensite.

  16. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  17. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis for wheel-rail rolling contact fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Young Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rolling contact fatigue of an urban railway wheel was analysed during its rolling FEM analysis was performed using 3D modelling of rail and wheel, in which the slope of the rail and nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening behavior of the rail and the wheel were considered. The maximum von Mises stress and contact pressure between the rail and wheel were determined under an axial load of 85 kN. The contact pressure distributions calculated using elastic Hertz theory and three-dimensional elastic–plastic stress analysis are compared. The maximum contact pressure of the wheel from the elasticplastic FE method is slightly lower than the value from Hertz contact theory with elastic deformation. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF of the wheel due to rolling contact was determined to be infinite by Dang Van criterion.

  18. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  19. Simulation Analysis Module of High-speed Rail Bearings Based on Secondary Development in ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YE Jun; XU Juan; LUO Yi-chao

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a strong secondary development based on ADAMS feature which creates high-speed rail bearings for simulation analysis module. This thesis is in the case of non-circular pattern instructions of how to achieve rapid roller modeling, with analysis of functions and parameters required for the design of the simulation module of the high-speed rail bearing , as well as the design of dialog boxes, the environment and file structure. The specific modules is based on the secondary development language provided by ADAMS/View. Through the menus, dialog boxes which input parameters, it can achieve high iron bearing automatic modeling, dynamic analysis and post-processing to simplify the analysis of high-speed rail bearing operations, as well as improving the high-speed rail bearing development efficiency.

  20. Acoustic emission detection of rail defect based on wavelet transform and Shannon entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Naizhang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Yi

    2015-03-01

    In order to detect cracks in railroad tracks, various experiments have been examined by Acoustic Emission (AE) method. However, little work has been done on studying rail defect detection at high speed. This paper presents a study on AE detection of rail defect at high speed based on rail-wheel test rig. Meanwhile, Wavelet Transform and Shannon entropy are employed to detect defects. Signals with and without defects are acquired, and characteristic frequencies from them at different speeds are analyzed. Based on appropriate decomposition level and Energy-to-Shannon entropy ratio, the optimal wavelet is selected. In order to suppress noise effects and ensure appropriate time resolution, the length of time window is investigated. Further, the characteristic frequency of time window is employed to detect defect. The results clearly illustrate that the proposed method can detect rail defect at high speed effectively.

  1. Dombrovskis: toetus Rail Balticule sõltub Siim Kallasest / Valdis Dombrovskis ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dombrovskis, Valdis, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Läti peaministriga Swedbankiga seotud sularahapaanikast, LNG terminali asukohast, Läti ettepanekust peatada Baltimaade eletrkisüsteemide Euroopaga sünkroniseerimise projekt, Poola väljumisest kavandatavast Visaginase tuumajaama projektist, Rail Balticust

  2. A survey of rail populations in Kansas, with emphasis on Cheyenne Bottoms

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — King, Sora, and Virginia Rails were studied at 10 different marshes in Kansas in 1975. Populations of these three species were studied by using taperecorded calls...

  3. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  4. Rail Baltic trügib Nabalasse / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2013-01-01

    Majandusministeeriumi plaanitava kiirrongiühenduse Rail Balticu võimalikud kulgemisteed läbivad keskkonnaministeeriumis kavandatavat Nabala karstiala maastikukaitseala, samuti pole trassivariantide koostamisel arvesse võetud metsloomade liikumist

  5. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  6. Effect of wheelset flexibility on wheel-rail contact behavior and a specific coupling of wheel-rail contact to flexible wheelset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuoqiao; Xiao, Xinbiao; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2016-04-01

    The flexibility of a train's wheelset can have a large effect on vehicle-track dynamic responses in the medium to high frequency range. To investigate the effects of wheelset bending and axial deformation of the wheel web, a specific coupling of wheel-rail contact with a flexible wheelset is presented and integrated into a conventional vehicle-track dynamic system model. Both conventional and the proposed dynamic system models are used to carry out numerical analyses on the effects of wheelset bending and axial deformation of the wheel web on wheel-rail rolling contact behaviors. Excitations with various irregularities and speeds were considered. The irregularities included measured track irregularity and harmonic irregularities with two different wavelengths. The speeds ranged from 200 to 400 km/h. The results show that the proposed model can characterize the effects of flexible wheelset deformation on the wheel-rail rolling contact behavior very well.

  7. Congesting Pricing in a Road and Rail Network with Heterogeneous Values of Time and Schedule Delay

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vincent; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse congestion pricing in a road and rail network with heterogeneous users. On the road there is bottleneck congestion. In the train there is crowding congestion. We separately analyse "proportional heterogeneity" that varies the values of time and schedule delay scalarly in fixed proportions and "ratio heterogeneity" that is in the ratio of value of time to value of schedule delay. We analyse first-best pricing and second-best pricing on only road or rail. More "ratio heterogeneity" l...

  8. Managing Rail Traffic on Commuter Lines Based on Dynamic Timetable Application

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravko TOŠ; Mlinarić, Tomislav Josip; Haramina, Hrvoje

    2011-01-01

    The increase of demand for transport service in rail commuter traffic stipulates higher ratio of consumed infrastructure capacity. In this method of traffic flow even minor deviations from the planned timetable can have negative influence on its stability, and this can result in major reduction of the quality of transport service. This research has defined the commuter rail traffic management system model with the application of real-time timetable rescheduling. It understands the application...

  9. Leadership Talent: A Study of the Potential of People in the Australian Rail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Janene Piip

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of leadership talent in the rail industry in Australia. Like many other countries around the world, rail is troubled by its ability to attract new talent as older leaders with specialized knowledge retire. This study sought to identify whether the sector is making the most of the talent already existing within, knowing the barriers faced in attracting new industry entrants, and questions what can be done to strengthen current approaches to developing leader...

  10. Nocturnal air, road, and rail traffic noise and daytime cognitive performance and annoyance

    OpenAIRE

    Elmenhorst, E.-M.; Quehl, J.; U. Müller; Basner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies indicate that at the same noise level and during the daytime, annoyance increases in the order of rail, road, and aircraft noise. The present study investigates if the same ranking can be found for annoyance to nocturnal exposure and next day cognitive performance. Annoyance ratings and performance change during combined noise exposure were also tested. In the laboratory 72 participants were exposed to air, road, or rail traffic noise and all combinations. The numb...

  11. Benefits of a Light Rail System in the Copenhagen Area as a Pooled Network

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Bisbe, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Many studies assessing the planning and implementation of light rail systems have been carried out for the Greater Copenhagen Area. However, the majority of these papers analyze and evaluate the benefits of introducing one unique line into the public transportation system obtaining in the majority of cases negative annual benefits and economically nonprofitable projects. This thesis assesses the positive impacts of treating groups of light rail lines as pooled networks in the l...

  12. Green Infrastructure: The Effects of Urban Rail Transit on Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yihsu Chen; Alexander Whalley

    2012-01-01

    The transportation sector is a major source of air pollution worldwide, yet little is known about the effects of transportation infrastructure on air quality. This paper quantifies the effects of one major type of transportation infrastructure—urban rail transit—on air quality using the sharp discontinuity in ridership on opening day of a new rail transit system in Taipei. We find that the opening of the Metro reduced air pollution from one key tailpipe pollutant, carbon monoxide, by 5 to 15 ...

  13. Rail Stations as Locations for Commercial Property Development: the Implications for Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Mark, (Thesis)

    2001-01-01

    Throughout Europe there are many examples of the redevelopment of rail stations to include significant commercial development as well as the rebuilding of the stations themselves. In Ireland such development is in its infancy with the only major mixed station/commercial development to date being the concourse and office development at Connolly Station in Dublin. The potential of stations for commercial development may be limited by their location, the limited extent and capacity of the rail n...

  14. Rail Freight Traffic: An Analysis to Better Understand the Industry and the Factors that Influence Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Too often railroad industry officials and observers use aggregate measures and general statistics to draw conclusions about the railroad industry and public policy. A common claim by industry observers is to credit the Staggers Act of 1980, which deregulated the railroad industry, with the subsequent reduction in rail rates and the surge in traffic volumes. While the direct connection between deregulation and increased rail traffic is a commonly-held belief, this belief is based more upon con...

  15. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  16. Warehouse Management System in Ruby on Rails Framework on Cloud Computing Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Durski; Jan Murlewski; Dariusz Makowski; Bartosz Sakowicz

    2011-01-01

    This article describes internet-based application for warehouse management written in Ruby with use of Ruby on Rails framework and distributed as Software as a Service (SaaS) platform. This approach allows for great compatibility between operating systems as well as makes it possible to access application from all kind of devices – from standalone desktop computers up to tables and all kind of mobile devices. Example application was developed in Ruby on Rails version 2.3.

  17. ANALYSIS OF LATERAL VIBRATION OF THE WHEEL RELATIVE TO THE RAIL WITH VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Melnychuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the videotape recordings of wheel motion on rail track, done during the dynamic tests of carriages, are analyzed. The treatment includes fixing of wheel rim positions in relation to a rail, construction of the spline function of displacement and its frequency description. The purpose of analysis is to determine the presence of harmonic components in the transversal wheel displacements.

  18. A strange bridge by Leonardo

    CERN Document Server

    Huylebrouck, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    On folio 855 recto of the Codex Atlanticus, Leonardo da Vinci drew three 'easily movable' bridges, but one of them is enigmatic: all 'replicas' in Leonardo museums and exhibitions come as a surprise, to say the least, to any engineer or architect whose attention is drawn to it. This is the case for models in Amboise (France), Chicago and Portland (USA), Florence (Italy) and for the one of the traveling exhibition by the Australian company 'Grande Exhibitions' that already visited 40 major cities in the world. All 'replicas' of the bridge model attributed to Leonardo have pillars standing on the deck of the bridge, while the deck is suspended by cables attached on these pillars. At first sight this problem does not catch the attention of the observer, as the bridge seems to be a mixed form of a beam and a suspension bridge, but it was not overlooked by my colleague architect-engineer Dr. Laurens Luyten (Gent, Belgium). Yet, after a TV-interview in Brussels so much pressure was exerted by some of the museum col...

  19. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  20. Study of Key Factors Determinant Choice of Rail-Based Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ircham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to regulations of the Ministry of Transportation in 2002 about the type of transport based on the city size, the metropolis with a population of more than 1 million inhabitants are required to have the urban mass transit. Nevertheless, until now not all city-scale population of more than 1 million have mass public transport, either bus or rail-based. Especially for rail-based mass transit, indicated the existing regulations have not been able to challenge the development of rail-based urban mass transit. Learning from the literature study and the experience of countries that already have rail-based urban mass transit it has acquired nine main factors to be taken into account in developing a rail-based urban public transportation. This study was conducted by using Analytical Hierarchy Process method which was further validated through the implementation of the On Focus Group Discussion in the Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ as well as in the City Development Planning Board (Bappeko Surabaya. Finally, the initial result shown five sequences determining factor for the determinant choice of rail-based mass transit, namely: fiscal or economic capacity of the region and society, transport policy, integrated public transport, land use, fare and travel time. Furthermore, the acquisition results of this study can be applied to the selected cities to address the challenges to urban mass transit development.

  1. Three-dimensional train track model for study of rail corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. S.; Wen, Z. F.; Wang, K. Y.; Zhou, Z. R.; Liu, Q. Y.; Li, C. H.

    2006-06-01

    Rail corrugation is a main factor causing the vibration and noise from the structures of railway vehicles and tracks. A calculation model is put forward to analyse the effect of rail corrugation with different depths and wavelengths on the dynamical behaviour of a passenger car and a curved track in detail. Also the evolution of initial corrugation with different wavelengths is investigated. In the numerical analysis, Kalker's non-Hertzian rolling contact theory is modified and used to calculate the frictional work density on the contact area of the wheel and rail in rolling contact. The material loss per unit area is assumed to be proportional to the frictional work density to determine the wear depth of the contact surfaces of the curved rails. The combined influences of the corrugation development and the vertical and lateral coupled dynamics of the passenger car and the curved track are taken into account. The numerical results indicate that: (1) the corrugation with high passing frequencies has a great influence on the dynamical performance of the wheelset and track, but little on the car-body and the bogie frame; (2) the deeper the corrugation depth is, the greater the influence and the rail material wear are; but the longer the corrugation wavelength is, the smaller the influence and the wear are; and (3) the initial corrugation with a fixed wavelength on the rail running surface decreases with increasing number of the passenger car passages.

  2. Leadership Talent: A Study of the Potential of People in the Australian Rail Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Piip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of leadership talent in the rail industry in Australia. Like many other countries around the world, rail is troubled by its ability to attract new talent as older leaders with specialized knowledge retire. This study sought to identify whether the sector is making the most of the talent already existing within, knowing the barriers faced in attracting new industry entrants, and questions what can be done to strengthen current approaches to developing leaders. In exploring the meaning of leadership talent, from a skills based perspective with three levels of leaders, blended methods using semi-structured interviews and a survey were utilized. The study is important because it focuses on the people aspects of the industry, a little researched area of rail that has major implications for how employees are engaged and retained. The findings identified a certain mindset, culture and approach about leadership talent in organizations that overlooked the heterogeneity of rail organization populations, precluding certain groups of people from becoming leaders. The project identified that leadership and other soft skills required in the rail industry are both under researched, and often undervalued, for the impact that they can have on performance and productivity of companies. There are key messages from this study for both organizations as well as inspiring rail industry leaders.

  3. Sound radiation of a railway rail in close proximity to the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Thompson, David J.

    2016-02-01

    The sound radiation of a railway in close to proximity to a ground (both rigid and absorptive) is predicted by the boundary element method (BEM) in two dimensions (2D). Results are given in terms of the radiation ratio for both vertical and lateral motion of the rail, when the effects of the acoustic boundary conditions due to the sleepers and ballast are taken into account in the numerical models. Allowance is made for the effect of wave propagation along the rail by applying a correction in the 2D modelling. It is shown that the 2D correction is necessary at low frequency, for both vertical and lateral motion of an unsupported rail, especially in the vicinity of the corresponding critical frequency. However, this correction is not applicable for a supported rail; for vertical motion no correction is needed to the 2D result while for lateral motion the corresponding correction would depend on the pad stiffness. Finally, the corresponding numerical predictions of the sound radiation from a rail are verified by comparison with experimental results obtained using a 1/5 scale rail model in different configurations.

  4. Analysis of Benefits to Young Rail Enthusiasts of Participating in Extracurricular Academic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fraszczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a number of positive academic outcomes achieved by university students who, as young rail enthusiasts representing over 10 European institutions, took part in extracurricular rail-related academic activities. Analyses presented in the paper are based on the evaluation of the responses to the questionnaire distributed amongst participants of three consecutive editions of an intensive program in rail and logistics which took place in 2012, 2013, and 2014. Also, quotes from follow-up one-to-one interviews with participants are used to support the results presented. The sample for each year varies in terms of numbers, nationalities, academic backgrounds, and male:female ratio. Academic benefits are specifically looked into, which includes teaching and learning activities throughout the three weeks of the program. The analysis of results revealed that young rail enthusiasts who participated in the program benefited from lectures delivered in Week 1, especially those focused on multimodal transport and rail infrastructure in 2013, which received positive mean ratings of 4.45 and 4.53, respectively, on a five-point Likert scale. Moreover, academic benefits were strongly supported by non-technical skills improvements in areas such as English language and communication, both reaching the mean ratings of 4.35 or above in 2014. A number of recommendations for improvements of next editions of similar rail-related programs as well as areas for future research are identified in the paper

  5. Stability Improvements in a Rail-to-Rail Input/Output, Constant Gm Operational Amplifier, at 0.4 V Operation, Using the Low-Voltage DTMOS Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Joana; Mancelos, Nuno; Goes, João

    2014-01-01

    The use of the dynamic threshold MOS (DTMOS) technique is evaluated in a two-stage rail-to-rail Input/Output, constant Gm amplifier. The proper choice of specific transistors in which the technique should be used is presented, as well as the resulting improvements, mainly regarding stability of the circuit at low voltage operation. The DTMOS technique is used in the NMOS transistors of the folded-cascode input stage, allowing the circuit to be stable at VDD = 0.4 V, with equivalent gain and g...

  6. Rail Baltica tuleb : reisiterminalide arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas ja Pärnus = Rail Baltic is coming : Arhitecture competitions for passenger rail terminals in Tallinn and Pärnu / Andres Lindemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindemann, Andres

    2015-01-01

    2014.a. lõpus lõppesid arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas Ülemistele ja Pärnus Papiniidu piirkonda plaanitavatele Rail Baltica reisiterminalidele. Artiklis on antud põgus ülevaade võitnud töödest

  7. Bridge Decomposition of Restriction Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by Kesten's bridge decomposition for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks in the upper half plane, we show that the conjectured scaling limit of the half-plane SAW, the SLE(8/3) process, also has an appropriately defined bridge decomposition. This continuum decomposition turns out to entirely be a consequence of the restriction property of SLE(8/3), and as a result can be generalized to the wider class of restriction measures. Specifically we show that the restriction hulls with index less than one can be decomposed into a Poisson Point Process of irreducible bridges in a way that is similar to Ito's excursion decomposition of a Brownian motion according to its zeros.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise

  10. Bridge Number and Conway Products

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ryan C.

    2007-01-01

    Schubert proved that, given a composite link $K$ with summands $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, the bridge number of $K$ satisfies the following equation: $$\\beta(K)=\\beta(K_{1})+\\beta(K_{2})-1.$$ In ``Conway Produts and Links with Multiple Bridge Surfaces", Scharlemann and Tomova proved that, given links $K_{1}$ and $K_{2}$, there is a Conway product $K_{1}\\times_{c}K_{2}$ such that $$\\beta(K_{1}\\times_{c} K_{2}) \\leq \\beta(K_{1}) + \\beta(K_{2}) - 1$$ In this paper, we define the generalized Conway prod...

  11. A 0.8V, 7μA, rail-to-rail input/output, constant Gm operational amplifier in standard digital 0.18μm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citakovic, J; Nielsen, I. Riis; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel;

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage amplifier, operational at 0.8V and drawing 7μA, has been integrated in a standard digital 0.18μm CMOS process. Rail-to-rail operations at the input are enabled by complementary transistor pairs with gm control. The efficient rail-to-rail output stage is biased in class AB. The measured...... DC gain of the amplifier is 75dB, and the unity-gain frequency is 870kHz with a 12pF, 100kΩload. Both input and output stage transistors are biased in weak inversion....

  12. A 0.8V, 7μA, rail-to-rail input/output, constant Gm operational amplifier in standard digital 0.18μm CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Citakovic, J.; Nielsen, I. Riis; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Asbeck, P; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage amplifier, operational at 0.8V and drawing 7μA, has been integrated in a standard digital 0.18μm CMOS process. Rail-to-rail operations at the input are enabled by complementary transistor pairs with gm control. The efficient rail-to-rail output stage is biased in class AB. The measured DC gain of the amplifier is 75dB, and the unity-gain frequency is 870kHz with a 12pF, 100kΩload. Both input and output stage transistors are biased in weak inversion.

  13. Optimum selection on bridge erection with floating crane in East China Sea Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunquan Qin; Pu Zhou; Youheng Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction With the rapid development of China′s economy, many bridges will be built over the Chinese coastal waters of Pacific Ocean. Among them, construction of East China Sea Bridge has been commenced in June 2001, and will be completed at the end of 2005, Hangzhou Bay Bridge was also started to construct in June 2003(Fig. 1). These two ultralong bridges are designed as twin expressway bridges standing side by side each carries a 3-lane one-way carriageway. The total width is 31.5m and 33.0m respectively. East China Sea Bridge starts from Nanhui District, Shanghai and extends to the Yangshan Deep Water Port Area, which is located at one of the Qiqu Islands. The total length of the bridge is about 31.0 km, in which 25 km are on the sea, and 22 km is in the unnavigable region. Hangzhou Bay Bridge across the mouth of Qiantang River.

  14. The Effects of Internal Failures and External Regulations on State Funding of the Public-Use Rail Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Počs, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at the examination of rail infrastructure state funding, its pre-conditions, the assessment of its needs and factors that can impact its amount and forms. Mainly, the Latvian railway case was examined; however, it was found that in the all Baltic States the state funding for rail infrastructure should cover subsequences of internal failures and external regulations of the rail market and its amount depends on state facility to adopt political programs to internal market te...

  15. Increasing the vocational action competences of rail traffic controllers by creating a virtual learning environment for trainees

    OpenAIRE

    Dietsch, Sandra; Naumann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In Germany railway operations underlie a vast number of complex rules and regulations. Therefore rail traffic controllers, who are responsible for save and hitch-free railway operations, need a profound knowledge and action competencies to consider the regulations in everyday work. Before being able to work as rail traffic controllers, they have passed an apprenticeship of three years. In addition, because of local characteristics of tracks and infrastructure, a rail traffic controller needs ...

  16. Modeling the characteristics of wheel/rail rolling noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Wai Keung; Li, Kai Ming; Frommer, Glenn H.

    2005-04-01

    To study the sound radiation characteristics of a passing train, four sets of noise measurements for different train operational conditions have been conducted at three different sites, including ballast tracks at grade and railway on a concrete viaduct. The time histories computed by the horizontal radiation models were compared with the measured noise profiles. The measured sound exposure levels are used to deduce the vertical directivity pattern for different railway systems. It is found that the vertical directivity of different railway systems shows a rather similar pattern. The vertical directivity of train noise is shown to increase up to about 30× before reducing to a minimum at 90×. A multipole expansion model is proposed to account for the vertical radiation directivity of the train noise. An empirical formula, which has been derived, compares well with the experimental data. The empirical model is found to be applicable to different train/rail systems at train speeds ranging up to 120 km/h in this study. [Work supported by MTR Corporation Ltd., Innovation Technology Commission of the HKSAR Government and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

  17. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  18. Hazards in air-, rail-, and road traffic arising from laserpointers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible laser radiation with sufficient irradiance or radiant exposure might result in permanent damage of the eyes especially in the retina. In order to prevent this exposure limit values have been established based on current scientific knowledge. In addition visible laser radiation might result in effects like temporary blinding at even much lower exposure values. In this case irritations, flash-blindness and afterimages appear whose extent might exceed the respective damage level while vision is temporarily compromised in critical visual tasks more or less. The easy accessibility of hand-held laser products (laser pointers) with relatively high power might result in a modification of the security situation especially in air traffic via thoughtless and careless use of such products or in terroristic acts. In addition an increasing number of incidents in rail and road traffic where not only temporary blinding might be anticipated but permanent damage of the eyes as a result of overexposure due to laser pointer irradiation cannot be excluded any longer. Using laser pointers, which are available on the market in the power range up to 1 watt and at different wavelengths new hazard scenarios and threats with serious consequences are possible. Here the radiation protection is in great demand. (orig.)

  19. Truck and rail shock and vibration environments during normal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sandia National Laboratories Transportation Technology Center (SNL/TTC) provides technical management and support for programs which span a broad range of technical problems related to the transport of nuclear materials. As part of this program, SNL has obtained data on the shock and vibration experienced by large shipping casks during normal transport. The data were obtained by: 1) extracting, reviewing, and reducing the shock and vibration environment definitions on file in the DOE/DOD and DOE Transportation Data Banks; 2) determining the best estimates of the environments for large shipping containers on trucks and railroad cars; 3) defining and conducting tests to obtain any additional data required; 4) conducting dynamic analyses of the shock environment experienced by cargo during rail switching and coupling to identify the dependence of the shock environment on heavy cargo weights and on shock attenuation couplers; and 5) using the results to refine the estimates of the on. Other work to be performed at the Westinghouse R and D Center on the dielectrics part of this project has been postponed indefinitely due to the shortage of funding. Analytical work cthe Department of Energy

  20. Timetable Design for Urban Rail Line with Capacity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To design an efficient and economical timetable for a heavily congested urban rail corridor, a scheduling model is proposed in this paper. The objective of the proposed model is to find the departure time of trains at the start terminal to minimize the system cost, which includes passenger waiting cost and operating cost. To evaluate the performance of the timetable, a simulation model is developed to simulate the detailed movements of passengers and trains with strict constraints of station and train capacities. It assumes that passengers who arrive early will have more chances to access a station and board a train. The accessing and boarding processes of passengers are all based on a first-come-first-serve basis. When a station is full, passengers unable to access must wait outside until the number of waiting passengers at platform falls below a given value. When a train is full, passengers unable to board must wait at the platform for the next train to arrive. Then, based on the simulation results, a two-stage genetic algorithm is introduced to find the best timetable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method.