WorldWideScience

Sample records for brick

  1. Nozzle Bricks and Well Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of nozzle bricks and well bricks.This standard is applicable to unfired and fired products.

  2. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  3. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  4. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  5. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  6. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  7. More than Bricks and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Gaythorne Row, a terrace of Victorian back-to-back houses in Great Horton, was earmarked for demolition when, in 1986, Bradford Industrial Museum took possession of the three cottages and transported them, brick by brick, to the museum site four miles away. The houses were built in 1876, a year later than the old worsted spinning mill in which the…

  8. Properties of Magnesia-Hercynite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huilin

    2008-01-01

    Properties of magnesia-hercynite brick were studied. The coatability, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance to cement clinker and thermal conductivity were compared with those of magnesia-chrome brick and magnesia-spinel brick used widely in sintering zone of cement rotary kiln. The result shows that magnesia-hercynite brick is better than magnesia-chrome brick in thermal chock resistance and Corrosi on resistance to cement clinker, is similar to magnesia-chrome brick and is better than magnesia-spinel brick in coatability and thermal conductivity.

  9. Silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,specification,test method,quality appraisal procedure,labeling,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of silica brick for coke oven.

  10. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  11. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  12. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  13. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  14. Brick Walls on the Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called ``brick-wall model'' is a semi-classical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior work invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that can not be adequately justified.

  15. Brick walls on the brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medved, A J M [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2002-01-21

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified.

  16. Non-autoclave silicate brick

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Yaglov; Ya. N. Kovalev; V. N. Romaniuk; G. A. Burak

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding) is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediate...

  17. The production process for water penetrated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  18. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity...... of the original virtual brick model. Routines are provided for both storing user created building steps in and generating automated building instructions for virtual brick models, generating a bill of materials for a virtual brick model and ordering physical bricks corresponding to a virtual brick model....

  19. Drying brick masonry by electro-osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a fine grained, porous medium is applied an electric DC field, transport of matter occurs, and the transport mechanism in focus of the present study is electro-osmosis, which is transport of water. In laboratory it was shown possible to transport water inside a brick and brick/mortar system...

  20. Bauxite Based Bricks for Steel Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of bauxite based bricks for steel ladle linings.This standard is applicable to bauxite based bricks for working layer of steel ladle.

  1. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  2. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  3. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  4. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  5. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  6. Water vapor sorption hysteresis of ceramic bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronthalyova, Olga

    2016-07-01

    A quantification of the hysteretic effects and their thorough analysis was carried out for three types of ceramic bricks. Water vapor adsorption/desorption isotherms were measured by the standard desiccator method. The desorption measurements were carried out from capillary moisture content as well as from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. For all three tested types of bricks the hysteretic effects were present but their significance differed depending on the particular type of brick. Significant differences were noticed also in desorption curves determined from capillary moisture content and from equilibrium moisture content corresponding to the relative humidity of 98 %. Based on the measured data a possible correlation between pore structure parameters and noticed hysteretic effects as well as relevance of the open pore model are discussed. The obtained adsorption/desorption curves were approximated by an analytical relation.

  7. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Ksenija; Bojović Dragan; Nikolić Dragan; Lončar Ljiljana; Romakov Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3), and same consistency (slump about 1 cm). Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of th...

  8. Development of Reproducing Alumina-Magnesia-Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks were prepared with the dumped bricks as starting materials. The bulk density, apparent porosity, crushing strength, modolus of rupture and slag resistance of the specimen were analyzed. The results show that the used refractories can be reused and recycled by the right method. The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks with better abilities were prepared.

  9. Brick Walls for Nonstationary Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎忠恒; 米丽琴; 赵峥

    2002-01-01

    The validity condition of the brick-wall model is analysed in nonstationary space time. It is shown that the model holds only in thin regions, only by using tortoise coordinates, near the event horizon of a slowly varying (quasi-stationary) black hole. The reason for the use of tortoise coordinates is that the stationary state solutions of quantum field equations in other coordinates do not exist for any region in nonstationary space-time. Meanwhile,the quantum corrections to the entropy of the Vaidya-Bonner black hole due to the spin fields are calculated in terms of the brick-wall model.

  10. The first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual capacity of 120 million bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual output of 120 million bricks in China, which is designed and contracted by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by Xi Baipo Generate Electricity Ltd. Company. It is a good sample for utilizing industrial wastes to produce hollow brick.

  11. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongqi; CHU Guosheng; WANG Tiezheng; PAN Shangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China' s silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total output of silica bricks in the world.Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and regions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both at home and abroad.

  12. Urban waste as a potential source for brick plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, K. E.; Eberendu, A.; Griffin, J.; Gegbe, H.; Ike, C.; Aboo, A.

    1982-02-01

    A joint government/industry/university project was formulated to address the technical feasibility of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a commercial fuel for the brick industry. Specifically, refuse derived fuel (RDF) from MSW was investigated for three potential applications in the brick industry: (1) rotary brick kilns; (2) tunnel brick kilns; and (3) moisture dryers. The successful development of such a procedure would be a dramatic achievement with widespread applicability, transferability, and commercial merit for energy displacement. The sampling, collection, and analysis of MSW, the analysis of RDF, and the potential utilization of RDF as an alternate source of fuel for the brick industry are described.

  13. Development of Andalusite Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Huarong; LI Xianming; DONG Shengying; XUE Wendong; LI Yong; SONG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Low-creep andalusite bricks are characterized by high refractoriness under load, good anti-creep property, high mechanical strength, low porosity, good thermal shock resistance, etc. In this study, low-creep andalusite brick specimens were investigated in the lab using mullite, bauxite and andalusite. Andalusite with the different panicle sizes were used in the experiment and the specimen with the best property was selected as the production standard. In addition, the industrial produced low-creep andalusite bricks were compared with other low-creep bricks. The results show that the developed low-creep andalusite bricks is an excellent material for hot blast stove.

  14. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  15. Investigation on Production and Markets of Silica Bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhongqi; CHUGuosheng; WANGTiezheng; PANShangxin

    2003-01-01

    The annual output of China's silica brick amounts up to over 300 thousand tons, which accounts for more than 70% of the total oupout of silica bricks in the world. Besides satisfying domestic markets, China's silica bricks have been exported to many countries and retions such as Japan, USA etc. In this paper, the situation of silica bricks production, technology, sales and exporting have been described. Also suggestions on improvement of silica bricks quality and exporting, corporation with foreign partners have been put forward in order to win larger market share both aat home and abroad.

  16. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann;

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front thro...

  17. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  18. Architectural Thermal Forms II: Brick Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural concept and design method that investigates the use of dynamic factors in evolutionary form finding processes. The architectural construct, phenotype, is based on a brick assembly and how this can be organized based upon material properties and environmental as...

  19. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  20. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  1. Pressure equalisation of brick masonry cavity walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bouma, P.W.; Aghaei, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two full-scale experiments in which the pressure distribution over the layers of brick masonry cavity walls is studied. The first experiment focuses on the specification of the wind loads on both outer and inner leafs of these walls. The second experiment is set-up to find a mod

  2. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  3. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  4. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  5. A study of natural radioactivity in different types of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radioactivity in bricks measured using gamma spectroscopy. Sixteen samples of clay bricks and four samples of cement bricks were analysed. The mean activity concentrations of Th sup 232, Ra sup 226 and K sup 40 in clay bricks were 63,33 and 530 Bq per kg respectively. In cement brick samples these mean activity concentrations were 17, 42 and 524 Bq per kg respectively. Radium equivalent values obtained for clay bricks and cement bricks ranged from 16-348 and 89-142 Bq per kg respectively. Ra sub eq is a measure to ascertain whether these masonry materials have a radiation hazard. The mean value for Ra sub eq for typical masonry in the world is 370 Bq per kg and as such the values obtained in this study indicate that these masonry materials are not radioactively hazardous. The criterion limit which is also a measure to consider whether it is radioactively hazardous to use these materials in dwellings show that the values obtained are 0.22 and 0.16 for clay and cement bricks respectively. Thus the value obtained from this criterion limit further strengthens the fact that the bricks do not pose a radiation hazard. The mean annual dose from clay and cement bricks were also calculated.(AU)

  6. Shear behaviour of crushed concrete and bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiroglou, Iordanis; O'Flaherty, Fin; Goodwin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Demolition waste materials mainly consist of concrete and bricks and arise from the demolition of existing structures and buildings. Environmental and economical reasons make their recycling necessary, but to date, their use is curtailed due to the lack of research in determining their properties. This paper reports on the efforts to understand the behavioural characteristics of three types of recycled material to determine their potential for engineering fill applicat...

  7. Brane Brick Models in the Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong; Vafa, Cumrun

    2016-01-01

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the $2d$ $\\mathcal{N}=(0,2)$ gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how $2d$ $(0,2)$ triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is $n-1$ for a Calabi-Yau $n$-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in $0d$. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  8. Use Of Crushed Bricks As Coarse Aggregate In Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia S. Kalak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation reported in this paper is carried out to study the feasibility of using crushed bricks to substitute the coarse aggregate (gravel in concrete. Two types of concrete mixing are prepared. The first one is a mixture of  1:2:4 without crushed bricks and is used as a reference mixture .The second one is made of different weight of crushed bricks (as a percentage from the weight of the coarse aggregate. A total of 30 numbers of concrete specimens are casted with and without crushed bricks and  tested under compression and split tension as per relevant to British standard specifications.Test results indicated that using crushed bricks reduces the strength of concrete. Also, the percentage of water to cement ratio increases for constant slump when the percentage of crushed bricks increased.

  9. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  10. Experimental bond behavior of FRP sheets glued on brick masonry

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Basílio, Ismael; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the mechanical tensile and shear bond behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets externally glued on masonry prisms, in terms of load capacity and stress distribution along the bonded length. The brick masonry adopted tries to replicate ancient brick masonry, by using handmade low strength solids bricks and low strength lime based mortar. Key parameters relative to the FRP-masonry interface response, particularly bo...

  11. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  12. Production and Development of LRCO‘s Silica Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAXianghong; LIZhenmin; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of development and production of silica bricks at Luoyang Refrac-tories(Group) Co.,Ltd,(Former Luoyang Refrac-tories Factory). Through the improvement and in-troducing technology from abroad the company's management and quality standard on silica bricks production has reached a higher level.The physical and chemical specifications,as well as the appear-ance of silica bricks for coke ovens,hot blast stoves and glass kilns have reached the advanced interna-tional level.Now the company has become producing base and main exporting base various kinds of silica bricks in China.

  13. Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ksenija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

  14. Durability of compressed soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Valle, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers shows the evaluation process of the durability of compressed soil-cement bricks. A great number of tests were made to determine the behavior of bricks when they are compression loaded and under the influence of moisture. Two different types of soils were used to produce the bricks, a lime-clay soil and a sand one. The sand soil is very resistant. The other one has a limited use. An experimental design was used to test the bricks. It is a rotational and quadratic method with a hexagonal figure which contains replicas at the central point. This method ensures the reliability of test results. Otherwise, it would reduce the amount of specimens necessary for the tests. The optimun moisture content is obtained by using a press machine. It is more rational than the standard Proctor compactation test, because it applies the same type and amount of energy used to produce the bricks. The obtained results show the behavior differences between the two compressed soil-cement bricks subjected to the compression test, water absorption and wetting and drying tests. The durability tests results are very important in the possible use of the bricks produced.

    En el trabajo se evalúa la durabilidad de elementos aglomerados de suelo estabilizado. Se realiza un amplio número de ensayos encaminados a determinar el comportamiento frente a la acción de las cargas y la humedad de dos suelos con características diferentes: uno limo-arcilloso y el otro arenoso. Este último presenta resultados muy favorables en ambas direcciones. El otro, con un posible uso más limitado. Se emplea un método de diseño experimental del tipo rotacional cuadrático en hexágono, con réplicas en el punto central, el que garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de los ensayos, a la vez que disminuye la cantidad de especímenes a ensayar. Se determina la humedad óptima a utilizar en las diferentes dosificaciones empleando la máquina compactadora, que resulta m

  15. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  16. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of lea...

  17. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  18. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  19. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 70185). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  20. Spalling Resistant Bauxite Based Bricks for Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,labeling,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.This standard is applicable to the spalling resistant bauxite based bricks for cement kiln.

  1. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with a pH as low as 3. The exposure of acid rain and rain water to bricks is expected to have an influence on the brick matrix dependent on the specific exposure but to which extend? The present work is a systematic test of the influence of the pH on the brick matrix where the effect of water...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...

  2. Properties of bricks produced from Greenlandic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor; Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Chen, Wan;

    2015-01-01

    miniature bricks (54×54×60 mm3) of MS from Sisimiut. Brick pellets were prepared in order to determine anoptimal composition and production method, based on investigations of the firing temperature and time,forming pressure, initial forming water content, and content of granite waste (CR). Miniature bricks...... werethen prepared according to the optimal conditions and formed at a pressure of 20 MPa, fired at 1020 Cfor 3:5 days at the brickwork Wienerberger Tegl in Helsinge, Denmark. The durability properties suchas porosity, water absorption, bulk density, linear shrinkage, and compressive strength (only...... miniaturebricks) of both pellets and miniature bricks were investigated and the results were compared with ASTMrequirements for building bricks to classify their resistance to damage by freezing. The study of miniaturebricks showed that the water absorption was too high after 24 h of submersion in cold water...

  3. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  4. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  5. Natural radioactivity in bricks used in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232 and K sup 40 in brick samples collected from different areas and compare with the corresponding results for bricks of different countries.Sixteen clay and four cement brick samples were collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka. The gamma ray spectra of the prepared samples were measured using a typical high resolution gamma spectrometer based on a shielded HpGe detector.The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and efficiency over the experimental energy range 186-2700 keV using IAEA reference material RGU-1, RGTH-1 and RGK-1.GANAAS software was used to analyse the photopeaks. The measured average specific radioactivity concentrations of Ra sup 226, Th sup 232, K sup 40 in the clay bricks were 35, 69 and 604 Bq per kg respectively. For cement bricks these values were 17, 42, 525 Bq per kg. The corresponding world average values are 50,50 and 500 Bq per kg for the said radionuclides.All three radionuclides were greater than the world average in clay bricks measured from Mahiyangana. Clay bricks from Ampitiya, Anuradhapura and Nikaweratiya measured values are less than the world average for all three radionuclides. Data on concentrations of natural radionuclides can be used to determine dose rates in relation to building materials

  6. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  7. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  8. Moisture properties of the lightweight brick body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Brick have been used for thousands years and during that time they went throw the long development. One of the possibilities how to changed properties of ceramic products is to change material compositions. This article is focused on utilization of lightening additives. Commonly used sawdust is compared with straw. The matter of measurement was to determine its influence on moisture properties. Basic physical properties were measured as well, since mainly open porosity has influence on water transport. Achieved results proved that utilization of straw leads to open porosity decrease. Particularly the amount of small pores (diameter under 1µm) went down. Regarding the moisture properties water vapor transport ability was decreased by adding straw in to the ceramic, while ability of water liquid transport remained unaffected.

  9. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SHOCK BEHAVIOUR IN ALUMINA BASED REFRACTORY BRICKS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sinan KÖKSAL; B. Sadık ÜNLÜ; Cevdet MERİÇ

    2003-01-01

    cUnderstanding of mechanical and thermal properties of refractory bricks used in industry is an important aspect to determine appropriate operating conditions. In this study, commercial refractory materials used in the sector of iron steel 45 % and 80 % alumina (Al2O3) of content refractory bricks were investigated. To determinate thermal shock behavior and mechanical properties of samples, thermal shock tests were applied by quenching in the water at the temperature differences of 500, 70...

  11. High Temperature Property Development of Bauxite Based Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Molin; K. Ghanbari Ahari; B. Josiek; J. Molin

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties and microstructural evolution on firing of 3 types of bauxite based refractory bricks were carried out using techniques such as porosimetry, XRD and SEM. The groups differed from each other by progressive refining of the matrix or bond phase. It is revealed that such a refinement of the matrix can improve the high temperature properties of the bricks made from poor grade materials.

  12. The production technology of shale fly ash fired brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoYuhua

    2005-01-01

    When we construct the shale fly-ash fired brick production line, the first of all is that we must explored mineral raw material in detailed, and prove up the exploitable storage,so that the storage of raw material can supply the production line adequately when the factory has been set up.The second is that we must analyze the raw material completely. According to the raw material basic properties,we can decide process of the brick making.

  13. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mofachirul Islam; Roslan Hashim; A. B. M. Saiful Islam; Ryan Kurnia

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicom...

  14. Reutilization of leather residue by incorporation in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A. R.; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Leather strips is one by-product of the footwear industry. Due to high chromium content, this leather residue can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with its disposal. With the incorporation of this residue into ceramic products, it is possible to neutralise the chromium toxicity. In a laboratory study, the authors produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region, incorporating 1, 3 and 5 mass-% of leather residues. The bricks were tested regardin...

  15. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  16. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  17. A study of fly ash-lime granule unfired brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Chindaprasirt; K. Pimraksa [Khon Kaen University (Thailand). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of fly ash-lime granule unfired bricks are studied. Granules were prepared from mixtures of fly ash and lime at fly ash to hydrated lime ratios of 100:0 (Ca/Si = 0.2), 95:5 (Ca/Si = 0.35) and 90:10 (Ca/Si = 0.5). After a period of moist curing, the microstructure and mineralogy of the granules were studied. Microstructure examination reveals that new phases in the form of needle-like particles are formed at the surface of granule. The granules were used to make unfired bricks using hydrothermal treatment at temperature of 130 {+-} 5{sup o}C and pressure of 0.14 MPa. The microstructures, mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and environmental impact of bricks were determined. The results reveal that the strengths of unfired bricks are dependent on the fineness of fly ash. The strength is higher with an increase in fly ash fineness. The strengths of the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick are excellent at 47.0-62.5 MPa. The high strength is due to the formation of new products consisting mainly of hibschite and Al-substituted 11 {angstrom} tobermorite. The main advantage of utilization of granule is the ability to increase the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash through moisture retained in the granule. In addition, the heavy elements, in particular Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn are efficiently retained in the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick.

  18. Properties of Nanocrystals-formulated Aluminosilicate Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conciauro

    2015-10-01

    insulating and/or mechanical properties. The nanocrystals- modified refractories showed variations in properties, with respect to the untreated aluminosilicate reference in heat- insulating performances (thermal diffusivities were measured by the “hot disk” technique. In general, they also showed improvements in mechanical compression resist‐ ance for all of the samples at 2 wt. %. The best heat insula‐ tion was obtained with the addition of nano-aluminium hydroxide at 2 wt. %, while the highest mechanical compres‐ sion breaking resistance was found with nano-CaCO3 at 2 wt. %. These outcomes were investigated with complemen‐ tary techniques, like mercury porosimetry for porosity, and Archimedes methods to measure physical properties like the bulk and apparent densities, apparent porosities and water absorption. The results show that the nano-alumini‐ um hydroxide modified bricks were the most porous, which could explain the best heat-insulating performances. There is a less straightforward explanation for the mechanical resistance results, as they may have relations with the characteristics of the pores. Furthermore, the nanoparti‐ cles may have possible reactions with the matrix during the heat treatments.

  19. Ceramic bricks made from municipal solid waste incineration-derived clay and ashes: a quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical data from tests on bricks made from different clay/ash mixtures. The ashes used were obtained from a Hoffmann-type brick-making furnace equipped for coal and municipal solid waste co-firing. The bricks were physically and chemically characterised and their quality was determined by porosimetry, water absorption, breaking load and tensile strength tests. Brick loading capacity increased by up to 10% with ash mixtures and decreased at higher percentages, whereas water absorption increased brick loading capacity for all mixtures. This study showed that clay/ash bricks complied with all the quality standards required in Colombia.

  20. Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Lateritic Brick for Better Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olowu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the production of improved stabilized lateritic Bricks (ISLB with enhanced mechanical properties. The research data were derived from laboratory experiments which include capillary test, erosion test, abrasion test, density test and compressive strength test. Three batches of 290mm x 140mm x 100mm brick samples were produced which are: the Adobe Unstabilized Lateritic Bricks (AULB, Improved Stabilized Lateritic Brick (ISLB and the Control Stabilized Lateritic Bricks (CSLB. Brick stabilization was maintained at 5% by weight of cement. Compaction of the bricks were carried out manually; the moulded bricks were carefully extruded in good shape and placed on clean, hard flat surface to allowed to dry under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure . The ISLB was divided into four groups of 12 bricks samples immersed in solution of zycosil and water in the following proportion by volume: (1:100,(1:200,(1:300 and (1:400 for 30 minutes and dried under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure before curing commenced. The result of the capillary test on bricks samples after 24 hours showed that AULB and CSLB has (0.35 and 0.15kg weight difference equivalent of (0.00599 and 0.00256 kg/m2 /min suction rate while the ISLB have 0.05kg weight difference equivalent to 0.000855kg/m2 /min suction rate. The result of erosion test for brick durability ranked between very firm for ISLB of 1:100, 1:200 and 1:300 Zycosil Water Solution (ZWS, firm for ISLB of 1:400 ZWS; firm for CSLB and loose for AULB. The abrasion test result showed that the ISLB have abrasion value of (1,2,2 and 2% while the CSLB and AULB have (3 and 12% abrasion value. The density of ISLB are (1933.50, 1921.18, 1916.26 and 1908.87 kgm-3 at 28 days while the density of CSLB and AULB were (1926.11 and 1800.49 kgm-3 . Density results conform to minimum specification requirement for lateritic bricks of bulk density of 1810kgm-3 as recommended by the Nigeria Building and

  1. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mofachirul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.

  2. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  3. esearch and Application of Burned Microporous High Alumian—Graphite(Al/C) Brick in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANXiaoming; SONGMusen

    1999-01-01

    This paper inroduces the research background,technology,product property and application of burned microporous high alumina-graphite brick (Al2O3-C brick) used in blast furnace,The difference of property between Al2O3-C brick and other blast furnace refractories is discussed .The results of simulative tests show that ,Al2O3-C brick has good alkali resistance,slag resistance,thermal shock resistance,oxidation resistance,high thermal conductivity,low permeability and low solubility in molten iron,The brick with micropores of average radius less than 1μm has been successively applied to fourteen blast furnaces, the lining life of the brick is almost as long as that of Si3N4 bonded SiC brick Al2O3-C brick will be widely used in lower stack ,belly,bosh and hearth in the future.

  4. Production of Silica-refractory Bricks from White Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazze Almarahle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, no refractories are produced in Jordan, but large quantities are imported for use in the lining of furnaces and kilns in the metallurgical industries.The aim of this study is to initiate a program of research for production of silica-refractory bricks from local materials.The raw material, which has been used in this study was white sand. This sand contains less than 0.5% Fe2O3 and is therefore suitable for production of glass. The sand used for production of glass is also suitable for production of silica refractory bricks. The method for production of this bricks consists of mixing the white sand with 2.5 CaO (milklime which acts as a binder and mineraliser in order to convert the free quartz to tridymite and crystobalite.

  5. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    The use of weak mortar has a number of advantages (e.g. prevention of expansion joints, environmental issues). However, according to EC6, the strength of masonry vanishes when the compressive strength of the mortar approaches zero. In reality the presence of even unhardened mortar kept in place...... in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints...

  6. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  7. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Spiekman, M.E.; Pel, L.; Kopinga, K.; Larbi, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments show that using a fired-clay brick, the water is extracted out of the mortar within 3 minutes, whereas in the case of a sand-lime brick this takes about 10 minutes. Prewetting a fired

  8. ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN CONCRETE BLOCK, EXTRUDED CLAY BRICK, AND MUD BRICK TAKEN FROM OGBOMOSO, SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaji Omogbemiga AYINMODE; FAMAKINWA, Rebecca Oluwadamilola; Jonathan Olanipekun AJAYI

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the natural radioactivity in concrete block, extruded clay brick, and mud brick taken from Ogbomoso city. The six samples were collected from different part of the city, and were analyzed using highly sensitive HPGe gamma spectrometer. The mean activity concentration in Bq Kg -1 of 40K , 238 U (226Ra) and 232Th were 135.10 ± 3.23, 9.58 ± 3.16 and 14.30 ± 3.32 respectively in concrete block ; 66.34 ± 6.66, 6.81 ± 2.26 and 6.78 ± 2....

  9. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge. PMID:26286801

  10. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  11. A user's guide to COMULIP (a program for determining brick movements in an AGR core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMULIP (COre Movements Using LInear Programming) is a set of computer programs which allows the user to find the maximum movements of bricks in a layer of 16 sided polygonal bricks and 4 sided interstitial bricks, as in the core of the Hinkley 'B' Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. The user supplies the dimensions of the bricks and keys, the boundary constraints and specifies the brick and direction for which the maximum movement is to be found. To facilitate data input, a standard set of dimensions is entered together with individual brick dimensions which differ. The linear programming method is used to maximise an objective function, which in this case is the movement of a specified brick in a given direction, subject to a set of linear constraints, which define the geometrical condition that no brick should overlap. The elasticity of the bricks is not taken into account, the effect of this being small compared with that of the clearances. The model analysed is a two dimensional horizontal cross-section through the core. This report forms the user's guide to the computer programs and gives details of the input data required and the output produced, as well as a brief description of the solution technique. The program may be used to study the effect of dimensional changes and brick or key damage, which occur during the lifetime of the reactor, on the movement of bricks. (author)

  12. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  13. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick.

  14. Study on Microstructure and Slag Corrosion Mechanism of High Chrome Bricks for Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Research was focused on slag corrosion mechanism of high chrome bricks used for different types of gasifier by comparing the structure of high chrome bricks for petroleum coke gasifier and water-coal slurry gasifier with slag corroded testing brick and water coal slurry gasifier through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination and X-ray diffraction. Results show that for high chrome brick used for petroleum coke gasifier, corrosion is mainly caused by Cr2O3 in the brick and V2O5 in molten slag and liquid phase generation at low temperature; for high chrome brick used for water-coal slurry gasifier, corrosion is caused by dissolution of Cr2O3 in molten slag and corrosion of ZrO2. For LIRR-HK95 brick, it performs better petroleum coke corrosion resistance than the others due to the optimal composition and structure.

  15. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. PMID:25912626

  16. Change Mechanism in Property and Microstruture of Magnesite—chrome Brick for Use in Super H—T Tunnel Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOYang; SUNJu; 等

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of determination of property and microstructure of two kinds of primary MgO-Cr2O3 bricks and residual magnesite-chrome bricks for super H-T tunnel kiln,combining with the both residul bricks's application result,the paper expounds the change mechanism of the two kinds of magnesite-chrome bricks during the operation period,especially stresses the advantages of low Cr2O3 MgO-Cr2O3 bricks.

  17. Fingermark recovery from riot debris: Bricks and stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Fisher, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    During the UK riots in August 2011, large volumes of bricks and stones were used as weapons or projectiles in acts of violence or to gain illegal entry to properties. As a result, it has been emphasised that it is necessary to determine suitable chemical treatment(s) that will enable the development of fingermarks on such items in order to identify those involved. This study has undertaken the task of attempting to develop latent fingermarks on common house bricks, limestone and sandstone using current techniques including ninhydrin and fluorescence. Results produced have shown that, with fluorescent fingerprint powder, silver nitrate and superglue providing the best results, it is now possible to enhance fingermarks that were previously left undeveloped. In addition, Isomark T-1 Rapid Grey High Resolution Forensic Impression Material has proved extremely effective as an alternative method of recovering fingermarks developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder.

  18. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  19. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  20. A practical proposal for solving the world's cigarette butt problem: Recycling in fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Abbas; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Larobina, Luke

    2016-06-01

    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  2. Mechanical properties of adobe bricks in ancient constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Dora; VARUM Humberto; Costa, Aníbal; Martins, Tiago; Pereira, Henrique; Almeida, Joao

    2012-01-01

    A study of the mechanical properties of adobe bricks collected from houses and land dividing walls in Aveiro district, Portugal, representative of existing traditional constructions, was conducted. Cylindrical adobe specimens were subjected to simple compression and splitting tests. From these tests it was possible to evaluate the strength capacity, stiffness and deformation evolution for increasing loading. Correlations between the evaluated properties were determined, and the results obtain...

  3. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  4. TorBricks: Blocking-Resistant Tor Bridge Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Mahdi; Saia, Jared; Crandall, Jedidiah

    2016-01-01

    Tor is currently the most popular network for anonymous Internet access. It critically relies on volunteer nodes called bridges for relaying Internet traffic when a user's ISP blocks connections to Tor. Unfortunately, current methods for distributing bridges are vulnerable to malicious users who obtain and block bridge addresses. In this paper, we propose TorBricks, a protocol for distributing Tor bridges to n users, even when an unknown number t < n of these users are controlled by a malicio...

  5. Volumetric radioassay of lead bricks being considered for unrestricted release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.; Seal, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The hardware, software, and a protocol have been developed for the screening of lead bricks for free release or recycle from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The procedure for measuring the background from a sampling of ``clean`` lead bricks and for deducing the decision limits (in pCi/g) have been developed. At the decision limit, a radioactive lead brick would be detected with 95% confidence if it were present. The total and peak efficiencies of a 2.54-cm diameter {times} 2.54-cm high NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the counting geometry of the present study were measured with a mixed radionuclide standard and calculated with a Monte Carlo program, CYLTRAN. The deduced decision limit for the counting conditions of the present study were 0.0588 pCi/g by analyzing the entire spectrum and 0.256 pCi/g by analyzing the 661-keV peak region for a 900-second count.

  6. Bricks and urbanism in the Indus Valley rise and decline

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    The Indus Valley Culture (IVC), often denoted by its major city Harappa, spanned almost two millennia from 3200 to 1300 BC. Its tradition reaches back to 7000 BC: a 4000 year long expansion of villages and towns, of trading activity, and of technological advancements culminates between 2600 and 1900 BC in the built-up of large brick-built cities, writing, and political authority; the IVC emerges as one of the first great civilizations in history. During the ensuing 600 years, however, key technologies fall out of use, urban centers are depopulated, and people leave the former core areas of the IVC; although many different hypotheses have been put forward, a conclusive causal chain for this decline has not yet been established. We here combine literature estimates on brick typology, and on urban area for individual cities; in the context of the existing extensive data on Harappan artifact find sites and put in their chronological order, the combined narratives told by bricks, cities, and extent, can provide a ...

  7. The Properties of the Carbonated Brick Made of Steel Slag-slaked Lime Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weida; YANG Quanbing

    2015-01-01

    The properties of the carbonated brick made of steel slag-slaked lime mixture such as strength, drying shrinkage, water absorption and soundness were mainly investigated. The experimental results indicate that, after carbonation, the strength of the brick increases, its drying shrinkage reduces, and its soundness becomes eligible. The optimal slaked lime/steel slag (SL/SS) ratio for the carbonated brick is 0.2 and the as-prepared brick meets the requirements of the Chinese standard for MU20-grade building bricks, additionally, it also demonstrates prominent environmental benefits. The XRD and pore structure analyses indicate that the excellent properties of this carbonated brick are attributed to the formation of carbonate crystals and the dense structure due to the carbonation.

  8. Properties, Performance and Quality Control of Recycled MgO-C Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shouxin; YAO Jinfu; WANG Jing; YU Xingguo; YU Lingyan

    2008-01-01

    Properties, section structure and service results of recycled MgO-C bricks and new MgO-C bricks for la-dle slag line of Baosteel were analyzed and compared, and the measures of improving stability and quality of recycled MgO-C bricks were summarized. The results show that: ( 1 ) High quality recycled MgO - C materi-als can be produced by scientific, meticulous and strict management for every process such as dismantling fur-nace, selection, removing impurity and slag, stacking and homogenization; (2) Using high quality recycled materials and reasonable production technique, recycled MgO-C bricks with better properties and service efficien-cy than those of new MgO - C brick can be produced; (3) Service efficiency of recycled MgO-C bricks is good because of its high density, good oxidation resist-ance and reasonable structure.

  9. Determination of element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Fröling, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration. The difference between element composition in CoffeeBricks (barbecue briquettes made out of spent coffee grounds) and regular barbecue briquettes was also evaluated in this study. Aqua regia digests from the ash residues of CoffeeBricks and the ash residues of regular barbecue briquettes were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). H2SO4/H...

  10. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  11. Effect of Age and Environment on Strength of Old Baked Clay Bricks of Indus Valley Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental investigations conducted on old baked clay bricks of Indus Valley civilization of tenth century. The object of this study is to evaluate the effect of age and environmental conditions on the strength of the baked clay bricks which are about 1000 years old. The brick samples were collected from six different archeological sites at the banks of old route of River Indus in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. These specimens were tested for apparent density, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and the weathering effects on them during the course of time. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials standard for baked clay bricks, based on compressive strength, suggests that the bricks of four sites can withstand severe weathering while the bricks of two sites are resistant to moderate weathering. These results were compared to the values of the corresponding data of bricks, of same period, obtained from the historical monuments of the world as reported in the literature. The comparison showed that the values of physical properties of old baked clay bricks of Indus valley civilization of tenth century are in agreement with that of old baked clay bricks of contemporary era. The results of this study could also be helpful for preservation of old archeological sites of Indus valley civilization.

  12. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product

  13. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ‘Qin brick and Han tile’ has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were un- earthed at the center of Guangzhou’s old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty. A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world’ by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient tech- nical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical character- istics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  14. Bauxite Based Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove YB/T 5016-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements, test method, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation, storage and quality certificate of bauxite based refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  15. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    'Qin brick and Han tile' has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were unearthed at the center of Guangzhou's old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty, A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world' by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient technical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical characteristics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Adobe Bricks Stabilized With Recycled Sugarcane Fiber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bock-Hyeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of cheaper and more sustainable building materialsto meethousing demands in developing countries like Cameroun, the mechanicalproperties ofadobe bricks which have been stabilized with recycled sugarcane fiber waste were investigated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using sugarcanefiber waste stabilized adobe brick specimens with fiber proportions of 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, 2% and 3% by weight.Fiber stabilization increased compressive strength by 58.61% for 3% bricks, reaching 4.79 MPa.Further, 3% fiber stabilized bricks shrunk by 7.49%, while the non-stabilized bricksshrunk by 12.13%. Also, 3% bricks lasted for one week before deterioration when immersed in water, while the non-stabilized bricks lasted for only a few hours. The findings confirmed that sugarcane fiber waste stabilized adobe bricks have improved strength, durability and stability. The use of abandoned sugarcane fiber waste in adobe bricks will contribute to the development of more durable, sustainable and stronger adobe brick structures, as well as reduce the environmental and economic challenges associated with the disposal of sugarcane waste

  17. USE OF FLY ASH TO SAVE FERTILE SOIL: IN CONVENTIONAL BRICK INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDHESH P. NARVEKAR; Pravin R Pasare; Satish I. Gurav; Vijay P. Davar; Chetan K. Gaikwad; Mohin M. Shaikh; Kiran S. Dindore

    2015-01-01

    The brick sector in India is the second largest producer in the world after China. It is estimated to produce 140 billion bricks annually but consuming 24 million of coal as well as biomass. The estimated C02 emissions from the brick sector are 41.6 million tons and consume about 350 million tons of top soil every year for the brick production. Although there are various drawbacks of this trade since this is the one of the main part of Indian economy this cannot be blocked. Hence there are va...

  18. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuyns, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.cappuyns@kuleuven.be; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  19. Corrosion Mechanism of MgO-CaO Brick for AOD Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiandong; GE Changchun; SHEN Weiping

    2006-01-01

    Residual MgO-CaO brick after being used in AOD furnace was determined by OM, SEM and EDAX. Corrosion mechanism of MgO-CaO brick as furnace lining was studied. Results show that: The corrosion of MgOCaO brick is mainly attributed to the solution and infiltration of silicate liquid phase. Transverse cracks between reacted zone and original zone are parallel to the working face, which is an important factor for deteriorating the corrosion of MgO-CaO bricks.

  20. 78 FR 22235 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Fiber Composite Materials Corp. Changxing Magnesium Furnace Charge Co., Ltd. Changxing Wangfa... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the People's...

  1. Horowitz-Strominger Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Chun; ZHAO Ren; LIN Hai

    2004-01-01

    @@ A Horowitz-Strominger black hole is discussed through a new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in quantum gravity. There is no burst in the last stage of emission from a HorowitzStrominger black hole. When the new equation of state density is used to investigate the entropy of bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Horowitz-Strominger black hole, the divergence that appears in the brick-wall model is removed without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution in the vicinity of the horizon.

  2. Use of Greenlandic resources for the production of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    an increasing environmental and logistical problem worldwide, and their recycling has therefore received much attention. The protection of the vulnerable Arctic nature is a great concern and waste management by ceramic incorporation should therefore be investigated. • Historically, masonry constructions...... knowledge gap was identified and covered: • to identify and conduct initial testing on waste types, which could be of interest in Greenlandic brick production. The waste types investigated in this study were municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and tailings from the mining industry. The major...

  3. Preparation of Eco-environmental Protection Bricks from Lake Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Fangwen; XU Xiaohong; SU Xianli

    2008-01-01

    Eco-environmental protection hollow bricks manufactured from lake sludge collected from North Lake in Wuhan of China were investigated.At first,the recipes of round sampies(diameter in 5 cm and thickness in 1 cm) prepared by pressing molding under a pressure of 8 MPa and firing system were optimized,and properties such as bending strength,compressive strength,total shrinkage rate,water adsorption rate,apparent porosity and bulk density of the fired samples were tested.The experimental results showed that water adsorption rate and apparent porosity decreased,while bulk density increased with firing temperature increasing.Addition of additive can result in the improvement of strength of fired samples.At the same time,fly ash and additive may also broaden the firing temperature range and reduce firing temperature.Toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TLCP)tests of samples also show that the metal leaching level is low.The conditions for manufacturing good quality sample include 80% sludge with 10% additive and 10% flyash fired at 1000 ℃ for 60 min.Bending strength and compressive strength of samples prepared under the conditions are 24.64 MPa,131.95 MPa,respectively,which are far beyond the requirements of clay solid bricks of CNS.Finally,according to the optimized recipe,the eco-environmental protection hollow bricks with the sizes of 40 mm×38 mm×25 mm were made and tested by extrusion molding.Compared with the Chinese National Standards (CNS:GB 13545-2003),compressive strength,water adsorption and bulk denstiy of the hollow bricks are 11.55 MPa ,14.5% and 986 kg/m3 when they were fired at 1040 ℃,which are far beyond the require of of CNS.Especially,its water adsorption arrives to standard of high-class products(16.0%) and compressive strength is above the hightest class(MU 10.0).

  4. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015–15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. (paper)

  5. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  6. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  7. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  8. Investigation of gamma-ray activity and radiological hazards of the bricks fabricated around Lahore (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing state of art measurement techniques and software, gamma ray activity due to /sup 224/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K have been measured from bricks fabricated around Lahore, Pakistan. External and internal hazards due to dose rate from radioactivity of bricks have calculated from several samples. (author)

  9. A Study on Electrically Conducting Magnesia—carbon Bricks for DC EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONGXiaojun; YANLiyi; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to a kind of special refractories for DC EAF-electrically conducting magnesia-carbon bricks.The application of the conductive magnesia-carbon brick as a hearth electrode is a trend of development in DC arc furnace hearth bootom because of its features of anti corrosion and easy repatching,This is a proven process already available abroad.After a study of teh effect of different amount of graphite added and pretreating temperatures on the eletric-conductivity of magnesia-carbon bricks it has been found that for a balance between electric and thermal conductivities,the proper amount of graphite to be added should be 8%-14% and the pretreatment at temperature of 1300-1500℃ will result in the formation inside the magnesia-carbon bricks of a continuous three-dimensional network of graphite and semi-coke,thus making the brick conductive.

  10. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set density of lightweight brick ameliorates with M3824 additive and CM3 cement mortar for significant impact. Under conditions of technology and economic, the results of this study as reference for market-oriented marketing and commercialization of production.

  11. Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Entropy Inside and Outside the Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彪

    2003-01-01

    Applying the generalized uncertainty relation to the calculation of the free energy and entropy of a Reissner Nordstrom black hole inside the brick wall, the entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon. This is compared with the entropy calculated via the original brick wall model. The entropy given by the original brick wall model comes from the outside of the brick wall seemingly.The inside result using generalized uncertainty relation is similar to the outside result using original uncertainty relation, and the divergence inside the brick wall disappears. It is apparent that the cutoff is something related to the quantum theory of gravity.

  12. 75 FR 11517 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that certain magnesia carbon bricks (bricks) from Mexico... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 42852 (August 25, 2009) (Initiation Notice... Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks form China and Mexico, 74 FR 49889 (September 29, 2009); see...

  13. Molecular mechanics of DNA bricks: in situ structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Scott Michael; Li, Chen-Yu; Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    The DNA bricks method exploits self-assembly of short DNA fragments to produce custom three-dimensional objects with subnanometer precision. In contrast to DNA origami, the DNA brick method permits a variety of different structures to be realized using the same library of DNA strands. As a consequence of their design, however, assembled DNA brick structures have fewer interhelical connections in comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures. Although the overall shape of the DNA brick objects has been characterized and found to conform to the features of the target designs, the microscopic properties of DNA brick objects remain yet to be determined. Here, we use the all-atom molecular dynamics method to directly compare the structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of DNA brick and DNA origami structures different only by internal connectivity of their consistituent DNA strands. In comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures, the DNA brick structures are found to be less rigid and less dense and have a larger cross-section area normal to the DNA helix direction. At the microscopic level, the junction in the DNA brick structures are found to be right-handed, similar to the structure of individual Holliday junctions (HJ) in solution, which contrasts with the left-handed structure of HJ in DNA origami. Subject to external electric field, a DNA brick plate is more leaky to ions than an equivalent DNA origami plate because of its lower density and larger cross-section area. Overall, our results indicate that the structures produced by the DNA brick method are fairly similar in their overall appearance to those created by the DNA origami method but are more compliant when subject to external forces, which likely is a consequence of their single crossover design.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SHOCK BEHAVIOUR IN ALUMINA BASED REFRACTORY BRICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sinan KÖKSAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available cUnderstanding of mechanical and thermal properties of refractory bricks used in industry is an important aspect to determine appropriate operating conditions. In this study, commercial refractory materials used in the sector of iron steel 45 % and 80 % alumina (Al2O3 of content refractory bricks were investigated. To determinate thermal shock behavior and mechanical properties of samples, thermal shock tests were applied by quenching in the water at the temperature differences of 500, 700, 900 and 1000 0 C. Three point bending test was examined for changes occured in the microstructure of materials. The critical temperature difference, modulus of rupture (MOR, changes of elastic modulus (E, thermal shock parameters such as resistance to crack initiation (R and resistance to crack propagation (R''' were calculated. Not with thermal treatment samples was examined same properties in the room temperature and to compare results of tests. The critical temperature difference of materials was found to be about 600 0 C. Crack start from samples of edges, space of spilling grains and microcracks occured around grains and they cause a damage by connecting to each other.

  15. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  16. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Norihiro, E-mail: iizuka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Terashima, Seiji, E-mail: terasima@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-06-15

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  17. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Terashima, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  18. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author)

  19. Building the Platform of Digital Earth with Sphere Split Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jinxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grids, a modeling framework for big geo-spatial data, is always used to build the Digital Earth platform. Based on the sphere split bricks (Earth system spatial grids, it can not only build the true three-dimensional digital Earth model, but also can achieve integration, fusion, expression and application of the spatial data which locates on, under or above the Earth subsurface. The theoretical system of spheroid geodesic QTM octree grid is discussed, including the partition principle, analysis of grid geometry features and coding/ decoding method etc, and a prototype system of true-3D digital Earth platform with the sphere split bricks is developed. The functions of the system mainly include the arbitrary sphere segmentation and the visualization of physical models of underground, surface and aerial entities. Results show that the sphere geodesic QTM octree grid has many application advantages, such as simple subdivision rules, the grid system neat, clear geometric features, strong applicability etc. In particular, it can be extended to the ellipsoid, so it can be used for organization, management, integration and application of the global spatial big data.

  20. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  1. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  2. USE OF FLY ASH TO SAVE FERTILE SOIL: IN CONVENTIONAL BRICK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh P. Narvekar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brick sector in India is the second largest producer in the world after China. It is estimated to produce 140 billion bricks annually but consuming 24 million of coal as well as biomass. The estimated C02 emissions from the brick sector are 41.6 million tons and consume about 350 million tons of top soil every year for the brick production. Although there are various drawbacks of this trade since this is the one of the main part of Indian economy this cannot be blocked. Hence there are various researches are ongoing to reduce its horrific effect on the environment. We have tried to use Fly Ash as a replacement material to the Fertile Soil. In this we have done various laboratory tests at K.I.T.’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur’s laboratory and manufactured bricks and baked in small scale kiln installed at college campus. The results are compared with the plain bricks the comparison shows the advantages of the replacement which will be definitely helpful to reduce the drawbacks in brick industry.

  3. Biosusceptibility of historical bricks from the Bač fortress: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the conservation of cultural heritage objects has led to a greater interest in the appearance of biocorrosion. The aim of this paper is to point out the correlation between the growth of fungi isolated from the fortress of Bač and the contact angle value of the bricks from the fortress in order to determine the brick susceptibility to biodegradation. Three types of bricks (red, yellow and roan and three isolates of Penicillium spp., as well as one isolate of Cladosporium sp., were used during the experiments. A suspension of fungi in soil extract solution was inflicted on the surface of the bricks and then the samples were incubated. The study showed that the red bricks with cut surface and the roan bricks with broken surface are the most susceptible to the biocorrosion process. Based on the obtained results, Cladosporium sp. can be considered as the most important biodeteriogenic factor on the bricks built in the walls of the Bač fortress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  4. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  5. Physico-mechanical characterization of adobe bricks from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, I.; Illampas, R.; Charmpis, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe bricks have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years. In our days, adobe masonry is no longer a prevailing form of construction. However, a great number of earthen buildings still survives in most regions of the world and constitutes an essential part of the international architectural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, efforts are currently being made to reintroduce adobes as an environmentally-friendly building material to contemporary architecture within the context of sustainable development. Despite the long-term use of adobes and their importance for the society, our knowledge of many aspects of this material is still rather limited. As a result, there are many ongoing research initiatives worldwide aiming to investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of adobe bricks and related durability problems. In this paper, we present our work (which is funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation Project EΠIXEIPHΣEIΣ/ΠPOION/0609/41, the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund) on the physico-mechanical characterization of adobes from Cyprus. In the absence of standardized procedures for most of the tests carried out, testing methodologies that either refer to other types of masonry materials and/or are encountered in the literature are adopted. The results show that adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in the X-ray diffraction analyses patterns. The average capillary water absorption coefficient of the test specimens rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1/2 (when measured against a saturated sponge surface), while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. Extensive experimental data on the material's mechanical behaviour show that adobes' response to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average value of compressive strength depends greatly on the form of specimen examined (cube, cylinder, prism) and the failure criterion

  6. Durability of fired clay bricks containing granite powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier, G. C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, hundreds of papers have been published on the benefits of including rock powder as a raw material in fired clay brick manufacture. Very little has been written, however, about the durability and long-term behaviour of the final product. As a rule, the ceramic bricks used in construction in developing countries are fired at low temperatures, which detracts from their mechanical performance. This is particularly visible in harsh environmental conditions, where weathering causes severe deterioration. The present paper describes the impact of weathering on clay bricks containing from 0 to 10% granite powder, an industrial by-product. The specimens were fired at 500, 700 or 900 ºC and subsequently exposed to natural environmental conditions or accelerated laboratory weathering. Their physical and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the effect of the composition of raw materials on fired clay product durability.

    En las últimas décadas se han publicado cientos de artículos sobre las ventajas de incluir polvo de roca como materia prima en la fabricación de los ladrillos cerámicos. Sin embargo, la durabilidad y el comportamiento a largo plazo del producto final han sido objeto de pocas investigaciones. Por lo general, los ladrillos cerámicos empleados en la construcción en los países en vías de desarrollo se cuecen a temperaturas bajas, lo que impide el desarrollo de sus propiedades mecánicas. Esto queda especialmente patente cuando las condiciones ambientales son severas, en cuyo caso la meteorización puede provocar un deterioro importante. En este artículo se describe el efecto de la meteorización en ladrillos cerámicos que incorporaban entre un 0 y un 10% de polvo de granito, que es un derivado industrial. Las probetas se cocieron a 500, 700 o 900 °C y luego se sometieron a condiciones ambientales naturales o a un proceso de laboratorio de meteorización acelerada. Se evaluaron sus

  7. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  8. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficient of recycled concrete brick wall could be effectively reduced when combined with the EPS insulation board, and the sandwich insulation type was better than that of external thermal insulation type.

  9. The Effects of Non—Metal Additives on Hydration Reisitance of MgO—C Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYAGNG; WANGRuikun; 等

    2000-01-01

    The general method of solving the problem of hydration of MgO-C brick is by adding with metal Si,Mg or compround metal additives,but metal additives have bad effect on the MgO-C brick,The test tried adding non-metal additives to matrix material.The results showed that a suitable amount of this kind of additives not only inhibits hydration of MgO-C brick and does not affect corrosion resistance and avoids thermal expansion,but also can improve oxidation resistance.

  10. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for manufacturing superior quality bricks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyush Kant Pandey; Raj Kumar Agrawal

    2002-10-01

    Fly ash (FA) poses serious problems to the industries. Integrated steel plants generate huge quantity of FA from their captive power plants and other furnaces. This ash is generally disposed off in the ash ponds along with other sludges and residues of steel making operations. This changes the constitution of FA and makes the brick manufacturing difficult. This paper has attempted to devise the ways for the use of this mixed ash for manufacturing mixed ash clay bricks successfully. The bricks thus made are superior in structural and aesthetic qualities and portents huge saving in the manufacturing costs with better consumer response.

  11. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  12. A New Norisoprenoid and Other Compounds from Fuzhuan Brick Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid, 3R,9R-oxido-5-megastigmene, was isolated, together with α-linolenic acid, strictin, isovitexin, astragalin, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (−-epicatechin gallate, (+-gallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectroscopic means. The new compound didn’t show any inhibition activity against the tested enteric pathogenic microorganisms at a concentration of 800 μg/mL by the hole plate diffusion method.

  13. Screening of waste for use in clay-based bricks in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2014-01-01

    of hazardous waste, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and minetailings from Greenland, were investigated in order to determine their potential suitability for incorporationin the production of clay-based bricks. Furthermore, the MSWI fly ash was subjected to two remediation techniques......Clay-based ceramics, such as bricks, are heterogeneous materials, which can incorporate raw materials ofwide ranging compositions, without impairing their technical properties (Dondi et al., 1997a,b). Due to thisability, bricks have become a popular material in waste management research worldwide...... and several studies have demonstrated that clay-based bricks and tiles can successfully accommodate waste types,such as incineration ashes, mine tailings and dredged harbour sediments (Zhang et al., 2011; Roy et al.,2007; Mezencevova et al., 2012). In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact...

  14. A view of microstructure with technological behavior of waste incorporated ceramic bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Production of ceramic bricks from mixtures of ceramic industry wastes (up to 50 wt%) from the area of Vriddhachalam, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India and kaolinitic clay from Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala were investigated. The firing behavior of the ceramic mixtures was studied by determining their changes in mineralogy and basic ceramic properties such as water absorption, porosity, compressive strength and firing shrinkage at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C in short firing cycles. The effect of the rejects addition gradually up to 50 wt% was analyzed with the variation of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the bricks. The highest compressive strength and lowest water absorption is observed for the sample with 40% rejects at 1100 °C which is supported by the results of SEM analysis. The resulting ceramic bricks exhibit features that suggest possibilities of using the ceramic rejects in the conventional brick making methods.

  15. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  16. A Review: Durability of Fired Clay Brick Masonry Wall due to Salt Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Abu Bakar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review on durability of fired clay brick masonry wall due to salt attack. Durability of brick normally affected when an external masonry walls are exposed to aggressive environment. Masonry structures, when subjected to salt attack or exposed to aggressive environment during their service life may suffer degradation due to the formation of crystallization pressure as a result of the evaporation of soluble salt in clay masonry structures. The crystallization pressures produce normally higher than tensile stress of clay brick and sufficient to damage the masonry structures. The mechanism of salt attack must be prevented and addressed thoroughly in order to maintain the integrity and service life of masonry wall. Therefore, the summary of durability, factors, mechanism and main sources of salt attack on fired clay brick masonry walls are discussed.

  17. Engineering Properties of Locally Manufactured Burnt Brick Pavers for Agrarian and Rural Earth Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. OkunadeBurnt brick pavers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the possibility of employing burnt bricks produced locally by completely traditional methods as pavers on unpaved agrarian and rural earth roads in indigent communities. The pavers would eliminate the problems on such roads of being waterlogged and impassible during the rainy season months and those of environmental and health hazards from raised dust during the dry season months. Three clay soils were investigated in the Ado region of Western Nigeria. Burnt brick pavers were produced using entirely traditional methods readily available in the indigent and rural environments. The engineering properties of the brick pavers were determined and it was found that they satisfied the requirements stipulated by ASTM C 902 Specification for Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick, thus making them suitable for usage on the earth roads.

  18. Development of Long Life Magnesia—carbon Brick for UHP Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNYufei; WANGXuemei

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion mechanism of high ferric oxide slag to the magnesia-carbon brick for UHP furnace was analyzed,and the magnesia-carbon brick with high ferric oxide slag resistance was develped by selecting specially processed fused magnesite and changing size distrbution and the additives.The magnesia-carbon brick has good affinity to the slag and could adhere the slag efficiently in usage,It has better slag corrosion resistance and high temperature strength than the ordinary magnesia-carbon brick It showed better adaptable to the high ferric oxide slag when it was first used in 1999 in 150t UHP furnace of Tianjing Steel Pipe Company ,and achieved 400 heats service life.

  19. Straight Joint Shear Performance Test of Urban Sludge Sintered Shale Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the actual engineering design, it is too conservative for the calculation results for the urban sludge sintered shale brick to use the shear strength formula in the Design Specifications of Masonry Structure. To more effectively calculate this formula, this paper researches the straight joint shear performance test of urban sludge sintered solid shale bricks and porous brick masonry, and analyzes the failure mode of two kinds of brick masonry, and reaches the proposed formula of the straight joint shear strength. Then, this paper compares the proposed formula with the corresponding formulas in the specification, and reaches a high safety stock of the formula in the specification, and needs to correct the coefficient of material properties in the formula in the specification.

  20. Anisotropy of Expansion Coefficient and Slag Resistance of Spinel Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YUAN Shouqian; JIANG Mingxue; DONG Sunzhen; ZHAO Zijian

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the pressure direction on the thermal expansion and slag corrosion resistance were investigated and anisotropic microstructures of flaky graphite in spinel carbon bricks were examined. The experimental results show that slag corrosion velocities in the direction parallel to the pressure direction display a decrease of 34% compared to those in the vertical direction. Meantime, the linear expansion coefficient in the direction parallel to the pressure direction is 2.45 times as large as that in the vertical pressure direction. Slag corrosion velocities of spinel carbon bricks soaked in the AOD melting slag display a 46%-47% decrease compared to those of magnesia carbon bricks. The microstructure observation shows that spinel carbon bricks have a high degree of preferred orientation.

  1. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  2. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua Li; Wanlin Cao

    2015-01-01

    Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficien...

  3. Transport-related CO2 effects of online and brick-and-mortar shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Anne; Toporowski, Waldemar; Zielke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    , returns, the use of public transport modes and information behavior via different channels influence the outcome of this comparison. The results show that online retailing causes lower CO2 emissions under many conditions. Nevertheless, the brick-and-mortar channel is more environmentally friendly when...... travel distances are small. The radius for which brick-and-mortar shopping has an advantage increases when returns, shifts in the use of public transport and information behavior are also considered....

  4. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2015-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged...

  5. Chinese Standards on Refractories Shaped Insulating Refractory Product-High Alumina Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,shape and dimension,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of high alumina insulating bricks. High alumina insulating bricks are used as working layer which contacts with fire directly,insulating layer,or inner lining of the kilns which does not react with the high temperature molten materials and corrosion gases.

  6. Development and Application of High Quality Magnesite—Chrome Bricks for VOD Refining Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENKaixian; XUYanqing; 等

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the process of producing high quality magnesite-chrome bricks for VOD re-fining furnace,The service life reaches 14 heats,average life 12 heats.The studies show that the wear of the magnesity-chrome bricks is mainly due to chemical corrosion,thermal spalling induced by thermal shock and the corrosion aroused from accumulation of molten materials in transition zone.

  7. Development and Application of High Quality Magnesite—Chrome Bricks fro VOD Refining Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENKai-xian; XUYan-qing; 等

    1995-01-01

    The paper describe the process of producing high quality magnesite-chrome bricks for VOD refining furnace,The Service life reaches 14 heasts,average life 12 heats.The studies show that the wear of the magnesite-chrome bricks is mainly due to chemical corrosion,thermal spalling induced by thermal shock and the corro-sion aroused from accumulation of molten mate-rials in transitional zone.

  8. Engineering Properties of Locally Manufactured Burnt Brick Pavers for Agrarian and Rural Earth Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel A. OkunadeBurnt brick pavers

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of employing burnt bricks produced locally by completely traditional methods as pavers on unpaved agrarian and rural earth roads in indigent communities. The pavers would eliminate the problems on such roads of being waterlogged and impassible during the rainy season months and those of environmental and health hazards from raised dust during the dry season months. Three clay soils were investigated in the Ado region of Western Nigeria. Burnt brick pavers w...

  9. Design, Construction and Testing Of a Multipurpose Brick/Block Moulding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Yakubu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The provision of shelter is one the most basic demand of a Man all over the World. It is one the most important challenges a man faces in his life. The problem of good shelter varies from place to place. A good shelter provides, first and foremost Security and Privacy. In the developed world the problem is less pronounced, but in the developing nation like Nigeria, the problem of shelter is more pronounced. There is about eighteen (18 million housing units’ deficit in Nigeria. One of the most important materials used for building of a shelter is block/brick, but majority of the people cannot afford these materials (blocks or bricks due high cost. Therefore, the production of high quality and affordable blocks/bricks is paramount to solving housing problems in developing countries especially in Nigeria. Thus, this research focused on design construction and testing of a multipurpose machine that produces high quality blocks/bricks for low cost housing. That is, for low income communities/earners. The constructed motorized compressive earth brick (CEB/block making machine can produce on average a total of 2,215 bricks per day and 950 blocks per day. The cost of production of the machine was two hundred and eighty six thousand, eight hundred ninety (N286, 890.00 naira only. Whereas, the most common high-tech motorized CEB machine in Nigeria (Hydraform® with an average capacity of about 3,000 bricks per day costs about six million naira (N6,000,000.00K only. Thus, the machine is very affordable for small scale enterprise (SME. In other words, bricks or blocks produced by using this machine are relatively cheap and affordable for those in the rural areas and for low income earners.

  10. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration ...

  11. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Fioretti; Paolo Principi

    2014-01-01

    External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been invest...

  12. The Mechanical Strength Property of Brick Material and its Impact on the Processing Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui-ming; WANG Qi-chao; YANG Ping

    2011-01-01

    A large number of experiments have been done for analyzing the two important indicators -compressive strength and flexural strength, which affect computer numerical control (CNC) engraving material physical properties. Using Matlab for simulation experiment, the processing quality of different intensity brick materials is analyzed by the theory of fracture toughness. The result show that porosity is an important factor for engraving, and the research also provide a reference for further study which can improve the quality of brick carving.

  13. Clay-Brick Firing in a High-Temperature Solar Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villeda-Muñoz G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900°C and 1050°C; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 × 0.61 × 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 × 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber.

  14. Control methods for strength of ceramic bricks in the inspection of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin A.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings up the problem of finding the most accurate, reliable and, at the same time, less time-consuming and relatively inexpensive method of determining strength of ceramic bricks. This task is particularly important in the context of the lack of standards governing the use of nondestructive testing methods for ceramic bricks, and the difficulties associated with sampling of ceramic brick masonry for standard tests.In the paper the possibility of determining the compressive strength of corpulent ceramic bricks by testing cylindrical samples taken from the body of masonry, is explored. The relation between standard samples tests results according to GOST standards № 8265-84 and testing of cylindrical samples is given.The experimental results for influence of the direction of kern selection (horizontally and vertically in reference to flat of brick on the strength is presented. The possibility of application of nondestructive testing methods for measuring strength of ceramic bricks is considered. Also the paper includes the examples of field and laboratory experiments.

  15. Preparation and characterization of regenerated MgO-CaO refractory bricks sintered under different atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-bo Qiu; Chang-sheng Yue; Xiang Li; Min Guo; Mei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated MgO–CaO brick samples containing 80wt%, 70wt%, and 60wt%MgO were prepared using spent MgO–CaO bricks and fused magnesia as raw materials and paraffin as a binder. The bricks were sintered at 1873 K for 2 h under an air atmosphere and under an isolating system. The microstructure, mechanical properties at room temperature, and hydration resistance of the regenerated samples were measured and compared. The results indicated that the isolating sintering generated a strongly reducing atmosphere as a result of the incomplete combustion of paraffin, and the partial oxygen pressure was approximately 6.68 × 10–7 Pa. The properties of the regenerated bricks sintered under air conditions were all higher than those of the bricks sintered under a reducing atmosphere. The deterioration of the bricks was a result of MgO reduction and a decrease in the amount of liquid phase formed during sintering under a reducing atmosphere.

  16. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance.

  17. Physico-mechanical properties of solid cement bricks containing recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. Sadek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and reuse of solid wastes as alternative building materials present interesting possibilities for economy on waste disposal sites and conservation of natural resources. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of solid cement bricks manufactured with crushed clay bricks as recycled aggregates. Four series of mixtures with cement content 100, 150, 200 and 300 kg/m3 were prepared. In each series, either natural fine aggregate, coarse aggregate or both were replaced with crushed brick aggregates (CBA at 0%, 50% and 100% by volume. Compressive strength, unit weight and water absorption were determined and compared with the relevant national and international standards for load bearing and non-load bearing units, respectively. The experimental results showed that as the replacement level of natural aggregates increased, the unit weight and compressive strength of solid cement bricks decreased and the water absorption increased regardless of cement content. Furthermore, it is possible to manufacture different grades of solid cement bricks with CBA to be used as load bearing and non-load bearing units depending on the size of the crushed bricks and the replacement percentage of natural aggregates.

  18. Property Optimization of Kaolin-Rice Husk Insulating Fire Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.O.Onche; B.I.Ugheoke; G.A.Asikpo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the suitability of using Kaolin-Rice husk-plastic clay to produce insulating firebrick was experimentally investigated and the optimal ratio of these constituents determined. Ten brick samples of different compositions were fired at 1200℃. Three of the samples(samples 6, 7, and 8) crumbled during firing. The surviving samples gave the following limits of results:shrinkage: 9.7% - 13.6%; effective moisture content:28. 34% -32.52%; modulus of rupture: 4.26kgf/cm2 - 19. 10kgf/cm2; apparent porosity: 56%-95. 93%;water absorption: 42.27% - 92. 12%; bulk density:1.04g/cm3 - 1.41g/cm3; apparent density: 2. 56g/cm3 -5. 77g/cm3 ; and thermal conductivity: 0. 005 W/mK 0. 134W/mK. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics. Samples 1 -5 and 10 showed good level of refractoriness, while mixing ratio of 4∶1∶2 ( representing weight in grams of Kaolin, plastic clay and rice husk respectively) for sample 4 gave the optimum performance values in terms of refractoriness,thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, shrinkage and bulk density and the effective moisture content.

  19. Property Optimization of Kaolin - Rice Husk Insulating Fire - Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Iyenagbe UGHEOKE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the suitability of using Kaolin - Rice husk - plastic clay to produce insulating firebrick was experimentally investigated and the optimal ratio of these constituents determined. Ten brick samples of different compositions were fired at a temperature of 1200ºC. Three of the samples (samples 6, 7, and 8 crumbled during firing. The surviving samples gave the following limits of results: - shrinkage: 9.7% - 13.6%; effective moisture content: 28.34% - 32.52%; modulus of rupture: 4.26kgf/cm2 - 19.10kgf/cm2; apparent porosity: 56% - 95.93%; water absorption: 42.27% - 92.12%; bulk density: 1.04g/cm3 - 1.41g/cm3; apparent density: 2.56g/cm3 - 5.77g/cm3; and thermal conductivity: 0.005W/mK - 0.134W/mK. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics. Samples 1 - 5 and 10 showed good level of refractoriness, while mixing ratio of 4:1:2 (representing weight in grams of Kaolin, plastic clay and rice husk respectively for sample 4 gave the optimum performance values in terms of refractoriness, thermal conductivity, modulus of rupture, shrinkage and bulk density and the effective moisture content.

  20. Characterization and Degradation of Masonry Mortar in Historic Brick Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Brosnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized mortars from a masonry fortification in Charleston, South Carolina (USA, harbor where construction was during the period 1839–1860. This location for analysis was interesting because of the sea water impingement on the structure. The study was included as part of an overall structural assessment with restoration as an objective. The mortars were found to be cement, lime, and sand mixtures in proportions similar to ones expected from the historic literature, that is, one part binder to two parts of sand. The binder was found to be American natural cement, a substance analogous to the European Roman cement. The results suggest that the thermal history of the cement during manufacturing affected setting rate explaining why the cements were considered as variable during the mid-to-late 1800s. Fine pores were found in mortars exposed to sea water resulting from corrosion. Contemporary natural cement was shown to release calcium in aqueous solution. While this release of calcium is necessary for setting in natural and Portland cements, excessive calcium solution, as exacerbated by sea water contact and repointing with Portland cement mortars, was shown to result in brick scaling or decay through cryptoflorescence.

  1. Basis and classification of efflorescences in construction bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The efflorescence problem in clay products and more specifically in construction bricks is a pathology which produce a decrease in the aesthetic quality of buildings. Their types and causes are very different and only a review of all the variables and classification can allow to start the understanding of this phenomenon. Basically, the migration of soluble salts from different sources is the responsible of this pathology. Here is shown directly and briefly the main principles of efflorescece formation with some of the most frequent examples.

    El problema de las eflorescencias en productos de tierra cocida y en concreto en los ladrillos de construcción, constituye una patología que disminuye la calidad estética de los edificios. Sus tipos y causas son muy diversas y sólo una revisión, de todas las clases y variables que influyen en la aparición de eflorescencias, puede permitir empezar a comprender este fenómeno. Fundamentalmente es la migración de sales solubles de distinta procedencia la responsable de esta patología. Se muestran, de una manera directa y resumida, los principios básicos de formación de eflorescencias, con ejemplos de las más frecuentes.

  2. Brick castles of Panemune regional park: Aspects of regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Genytė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of brick castles of Panemunė Regional Park in Lithuania was influenced by the political, economic, and social environment. The motives of their regeneration was the function of state border defence, installation of fortifications for the occupation of new lands, function of defence of the state internal and transit trade routes, function of the protection of noblemen’s property, and the function of strengthening of the territorial control. Two characteristic castle development tendencies were revealed: one witnessed further development under local construction traditions, while another reflected the examples of the European construction. The architecture of castles was shaped by the military tactics, development of military technique, local terrain, the wellbeing of the castle owners, their hierarchical role and demands, construction traditions, and the development of construction technology. The architectural forms varied from dungeon to palace. The changing social demands encouraged the choice of new solutions for castle regeneration in order to increase the comfort level conditions and cost-effectiveness of the premises.

  3. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  4. Comparative analysis of microscopic images and XRF and EDS results of bricks from arheological sites Mediana and Naisus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the archaeological sites Mediana and Naisus during Late Antiquity. Microscopic images of bricks, and the results and analysis of XRF bricks from these archaeological sites are shown. Based on the results, it can be concluded that a similar brick exterior, and approximately the same chemical composition. One reason is, most likely, a similar chemical composition of the soil, because the archaeological sites are geographically close to each other. Another reason could be the same way bricks were producted, and that the same fuel was used in the kilns.

  5. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  6. Application of Semi—rebonded Magnesite—Chrome Bricks of LRF at RH Lower Vessl of NKK Keihin Wroks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; XUYanqing; 等

    1996-01-01

    The application results of semi-rebonded magnesite-chrome bricks at RH lowe vessel of NKK Corporation Keihin Works have been analysed,The results indicate that the main reasons that cause the damage of the refactory brcks include:chemical attack of slage to the semi-rebonded magnesite-chrome bricks;pene-tration of molten stel,slag into the bricks;and therma spalling due to temperature fluctua-tion during steel making operation.The results of multiple effection of these factors lead to alternative action of erosion(chemical attack and penetration)and spalling(thermal spalling and structure peeling) resulting in the damage of the brik ,In order to improve the performance of the bricks ,it is necessary to promote the resistance to erosion and thermal shock resistance as well as to keep the accurate dimensions of the brick,The measures of improvement of resistance to erosion of magne-site-chrome bricks taken by the researches mainly include:lowering the contents of impu-rities in the bricks(mainly including SiO2,CaO,and next Fe2O3 and Al2O3);promoting the extent of direct bond of the brick;forming a large amount of magnesia-chrome composite spinel well-distributed in the bricks through adding a large amount of synthesized materi-als;enhancing the resistance to erosion by adding a little amount of high-effective additives,Improvement of thermal shock resistance of the bricks is mainly through introducing some additive to make a certain amount of mi-cro-cracks occur in the brick so as to obtain an effect of increasing toughnes or through for-mation of second high temperature solid phase in the brick by adopting additive,In addition,it is needed to improve the quality of the brick appearance and ensure accurate dimensions of the brick,The purpose of this paper is to further iprove the service life of the refractory bricks by making use of the improvement mea-sures taken on the basis of the analysis results of the used bricks.

  7. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarasinghe, Saman [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for different convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.

  8. “Technical Properties of Pond Ash - Clay Fired Bricks – An Experimental Study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G. Sonawane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal power plants the coal is burnt to heat the water for making the steam, which in turn is used to run the turbines. The pond ash is a waste product from the boilers. It is mainly obtained from the wet disposal of the fly ash, which when get mixed with bottom ash is disposed off in large pond or dykes as slurry. The pond ash is being generated in an alarming rate. The generation of the pond ash is posing a lot of threat to environment and thus its sustainable management has become the thrust area in engineering research. As the pond ash is relatively coarse and the dissolvable alkalies present in it are washed with water, its pozzolanic reactivity becomes low and hence it is not preferred as part replacement of cement in concrete as in the case of fly ash. In this research work an attempt is made to find out the possibility of using pond ash in burnt clay bricks. The part of the clay is replaced by pond ash in different composition and the bricks are made in conventional method at a brick manufacturing plant. The bricks are fired in a traditional way as per usual practice in the area and the final products with different composition of pond ash are tested in laboratory; for tolerance in dimension, water absorption, compressive strength, initial rate of absorption and weathering. The results of all the tests on brick samples with different % of pond ash are compared with clay bricks and the effect on different characteristics of bricks due to addition of pond ash are studied.

  9. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2015-08-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged structures in debris flow while the iron spheres were taken as the substitute of debris flow. The failure criterion of brick and concrete building was proposed with referring to the structure standards (brick and concrete) and the damage pattern in debris flow. The quantitatively estimation of vulnerability of brick and concrete building was finally established based on Fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment is the best fit to be the disaster-causing factor in vulnerability curve and formula. The experiments in this paper is the preliminary research on the vulnerability of the element impacted by debris flow. The method and conclusion will be useful for the quantitative estimation of the vulnerability in debris flow and also can be referred in other types of the vulnerable elements research.

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bodymill Sludge (BS) Incorporated Into Fired Clay Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Rahim, Ahmad Shayuti Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The huge volume of mosaic sludge that has been produced and the effect towards the environment had lead to the investigation of incorporating mosaic sludge into fired clay brick. In this study, the research attempt to reuse bodymill sludge (BS) from mosaic manufacturing process. The mosaic sludge is used to replace the raw material of clay up to 30%. In this investigation, the composition and concentration of heavy metal were determined by using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). Physical and mechanical properties test were also conducted such as compressive strength, shrinkage, density and initial rate of suction. Scanning Electron microscope was carried out to determine surface changes of the manufactured sludge brick. From the results, it shows that brick with 5% of BS sludge obtained the highest compressive strength and lower total shrinkage compared to other percentages. Nevertheless, all the other properties for all bricks incorporated with different percentages of mosaic sludge were complied with the standard (BS 3291:1985). Thus, mosaic sludge could be an alternative low cost material for brick and at the same time provide an environmental friendly disposal method for the waste.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Ultimate Load Behaviour of Brick Masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    The present work brings out the studies on ultimate load behavior of brick masonry subjected to compression and shear-loading. The work composed of both the experimental and numerical investigations, aimed at contributing to the better understanding of the knowledge on the behavior of brick masonry structures under monotonic loading. Two brick masonry specimens have been tested up to ultimate load and the structural response in terms of the load, deflections and strains has been investigated. Due to the complexity, time and expense involved in the experimental investigations on brick masonry, limited number of experimental studies have been conducted and further, numerical studies have been carried out to simulate the experimental tests by suitably adopting the appropriate constitute models for the materials used. The responses and the failure load behaviour obtained from nonlinear numerical models developed are found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. The proposed numerical models can easily be adopted for further studies on the structural component made using brick masonry considering various geometric configurations, material disposition, loading conditions etc.

  12. Mineralogical, physical and chemical characteristics of historic brick-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Midany, A. A.; Mahmoud, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brick-structured historic buildings represent one of the common monument types. Although they stand till now due to their fused structure, they are subjected to weathering and are affected by environmental deterioration. To perform any conservation/restortation process, a detailed characterization of the current conditions of the bricks is needed for identification of major threats and choosing a suitable material for conservation. In this study, historic brick-made structures was subjected to detailed characterization to identify the composition and quality of raw materials as well as environmental impacts on their original structure. Different characterization techniques such as mineralogical and petrographic examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and determination of physical and mechanical properties were used. The results of the characterization indicate that the bricks were manufactured from low-quality clay and treated at a temperature lower than 900 °C. In addition, environment pollution enhanced the presence of some ions, which affected the mechanical properties of bricks and lead to their deterioration and damage.

  13. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  14. Influence Parameters on Properties of Dolomite Bricks Containing Different Bonding Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pitch and tar bonded dolomite bricks are extensively used in ladles and converters for long time because of their superior properties such as: steel melt refining, easy production as well as low production cost. Recently,resin bonded dolomite bricks are presented for using in steel plants. Generally, quality and final cost of steels are affected by properties of refractories especially dolomite bricks. Therefore, recognition of influence parameters on dolomite refractory properties is very important.In this study, the effects of tar and resin as bonding systems, and addition of graphite ( 2wt% ) on the properties of dolomite refractory bricks have been investigated.Properties such as: density and porosity, cold crushing strength, hydration time and depth of slag penetration have been studied. Results show that the bonding systems and graphite have a great effect on the mentioned properties especially cold crushing strength and hydration time. In addition to their low rate of pollution, resin bonded dolomite bricks show higher performance with proper technical specifications.

  15. Discussion on Wear Mechanism of High Chrome Brick Used in Coal Slurry Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaoqing; CHEN Renpin

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure and phase composition of high chrome brick used in coal slurry gasifier has been analyzed by means of SEM and Energy Spectrum. The results indicate that the used brick can be divided into different zones as slag-adhered zone, reaction zone, penetration zone and unaltered zone. The phase composition and microstructure are different and cracks occurred in different degree at these zones. A dense ring belt was formed with complex spinel ( Mg, Fe)( Cr,Al, Fe2O4) in the reaction zone near the hot face. The wear mechanism of the brick during its employment has been discussed. It is considered that the reaction and penetration of coal slag and strong reductant bring about the composition change of the brick and destroys its original network inlayed structure and consequently result in its structure spalling and weakening strength,which is the main wear mechanism of the brick and followed by temperature fluctuation and high mechanical impact of flowing fluid with high-speed.

  16. Discussion on Wear Mechanism of High Chrome Brick Used in Coal Slurry Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIXiaoqing; CHENRenpin

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure and phase composition of high chrome brick used in coal slurry gasifier has been analyzed by means of SEM and Energy Spectrum. The results indicate that the used brick can be divided into different zones as slag-adhered zone, reaction zone, penetration zone and unaltered zone. The phase composition and microstructure are different and cracks occurred in different degree at these zones. A dense ring belt was formed with complex spinel ( Mg, Fe)( Cr,Al, Fe2O4) in the reaction zone near the hot face. The wear mechanism of the brick during its employment has been discussed. It is considered that the reaction and penetration of coal slag and strong reduetant bring about the composition change of the brick and destroys its original network inlayed structure and consequently result in its structure spalling and weakening strength, which is the main wear mechanism of the brick and followed by temperature fluctuation and high mechanical im-pact of flowing fluid with high-speed.

  17. Gamma-ray shielding effectiveness of novel light-weight clay-flyash bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Harjinder Singh; Brar, G. S.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiation shielding parameters of lightweight clay-flyash bricks produced with different flyash aggregate compositions have been investigated by using 241Am (59.4 keV), 137Cs (661.6 keV), and 60Co (1173.2 keV and 1332.5 keV) radioactive sources. It was observed that the different percentages of flyash in clay lead to significant variations in these parameters. The elemental compositions of the clay-flyash bricks were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The obtained results were compared to those pertaining to concrete in order to see the effect of flyash content on the radiation shielding properties. The radiation protection efficiency of the tested clay-flyash bricks demonstrated that multilayer exterior walls built from these bricks could effectively attenuate moderate-energy gamma rays. Bricks using residual flyash could be preferentially used for buildings to address the issues of radiation shielding, cost-effective radioactive waste management and disposal of flyash in a useful manner.

  18. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banibrata Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. Material and Methods: For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Results: Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%, hands (93%, knees (86%, wrists (85%, shoulders (76% and neck (65%. Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%, carrying bricks (95% and molding (87%. The results showed a significantly lower p value < 0.001 in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR in brick field workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. Conclusions: This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  19. Brick tunnel randomization and the momentum of the probability mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M

    2015-12-30

    The allocation space of an unequal-allocation permuted block randomization can be quite wide. The development of unequal-allocation procedures with a narrower allocation space, however, is complicated by the need to preserve the unconditional allocation ratio at every step (the allocation ratio preserving (ARP) property). When the allocation paths are depicted on the K-dimensional unitary grid, where allocation to the l-th treatment is represented by a step along the l-th axis, l = 1 to K, the ARP property can be expressed in terms of the center of the probability mass after i allocations. Specifically, for an ARP allocation procedure that randomizes subjects to K treatment groups in w1 :⋯:wK ratio, w1 +⋯+wK =1, the coordinates of the center of the mass are (w1 i,…,wK i). In this paper, the momentum with respect to the center of the probability mass (expected imbalance in treatment assignments) is used to compare ARP procedures in how closely they approximate the target allocation ratio. It is shown that the two-arm and three-arm brick tunnel randomizations (BTR) are the ARP allocation procedures with the tightest allocation space among all allocation procedures with the same allocation ratio; the two-arm BTR is the minimum-momentum two-arm ARP allocation procedure. Resident probabilities of two-arm and three-arm BTR are analytically derived from the coordinates of the center of the probability mass; the existence of the respective transition probabilities is proven. Probability of deterministic assignments with BTR is found generally acceptable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Unreinforced Brick Masonry, Section1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosalam, K; Glascoe, L; Bernier, J

    2009-10-02

    Before the advent of concrete and steel, masonry helped build civilizations. From Egypt in Africa, Rome in Europe, Maya in the America to China in Asia, masonry was exploited to construct the most significant, magnificent and long lasting structures on the Earth. Looking at the Egyptian pyramids, Mayan temples, Roman coliseum and Chinese Great Wall, one cannot stop wondering about the significance and popularity that masonry has had through out history. Lourenco et al (1989) summed up the reasons for the popularity of masonry in the following, 'The most important characteristic of masonry construction is its simplicity. Laying pieces of stone or bricks on top of each other, either with or without cohesion via mortar, is a simple, though adequate, technique that has been successful ever since remote ages. Other important characteristics are the aesthetics, solidity, durability, low maintenance, versatility, sound absorption and fire protection' Despite these advantages, masonry is no longer preferred structural material in many parts of the developed world, especially in seismically active parts of the world. Partly, masonry and especially unreinforced masonry (URM) has mechanical properties such as strength and ductility inferior to those of reinforced concrete and steel. Moreover, masonry structures were traditionally built based on rules of thumb acquired over many years of practice and/or empirical data from testing. Accordingly, we do not have a rigorous and uniform method of analysis and design for masonry. Nevertheless, the world still possesses numerous historic and ordinary masonry structures, which require maintenance and strengthening to combat the assault of time and nature. Hence, it is important to study fundamental properties of masonry so that new masonry structures can be effectively designed and built, and the cost for servicing old structures and for building new ones will be less expensive.

  1. Assessment of the mechanical properties of brick masonry by a flat-jack method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Zubkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern Russian methods for defining the mechanical characteristics of brick masonry are based on finding the strength of masonry components (brick and mortar. After getting the results of laboratory tests of components, mechanical characteristics of masonry are calculated using empirical formulae. Those formulae, however, cannot take into consideration the presence of damages and other factors. Obtaining the characteristics (strength and deformation by a direct flat-jack test of masonry fragments on-site looks promising. A widespread use of FEM requires setting accurate deformation features for modeling domes, arches and thin brick outside layer in multilayer walls. Also accurate deformation characteristics are used for calculating temperature loads. The paper gives the results of practical use for the masonry deformation research by the flat-jack test method. The correlation factors are defined and rigidness coefficients of flat-jacks are obtained in the study.

  2. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  3. Development and Application of High Quality Unburned Brick for EAF Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGBin; CHENCui-yu

    1995-01-01

    A high quality unburned brick for EAF (electric arc furnace) roof has been developed by using high grade bauxite chamotte as the main starting material ,adding industrial alumina powder to strengthen the matrix ,introducing a suitable amount of sillimanite and compound M and adopting high effective composite binder,The brick has apparent porosity 17%,bulk density 2.88 g/cm3,refratoriness under load (3% deformation) 1560℃ and thermal shock resis-tance over 30 cycles.The mechanism of improving the spalling resistance is also discussed,The brick has been applied at 30 t EAF roofs,resulting in average service life of 145 heats ,the maximum 210 heats.

  4. Reuse of grits waste for the production of soil--cement bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, F B; Holanda, J N F

    2013-12-15

    This investigation focuses on the reuse of grits waste as a raw material for replacing Portland cement by up to 30 wt.% in soil-cement bricks. The grits waste was obtained from a cellulose factory located in south-eastern Brazil. We initially characterized the waste sample with respect to its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, fineness index, morphology, pozzolanic activity, and pollution potential. Soil-cement bricks were then prepared using the waste material and were tested to determine their technological properties (e.g., water absorption, apparent density, volumetric shrinkage, and compressive strength). Microstructural evolution was accompanied by confocal microscopy. It was found that the grits waste is mainly composed of calcite (CaCO3) particles. Our results indicate that grits waste can be used economically, safely, and sustainably at weight percentages of up to 20% to partially replace Portland cement in soil-cement bricks. PMID:24140481

  5. Development and Application of Mullite—Composite Brick for Baths Pool of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULei; LIXian-ming; 等

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the development and production of mullite-composite bricks for baths pool of balst furnace,Fused corundum,synthetic mullite ,special grade bauxite and a certain amount of additives were used as raw materials to produce corundum-mullite brick and yellow-corundum brick,All of their physical and chemical properties surpass the designed values.Good results have been obtained from the applic-cation in the baths pool of No.7 blast furnace of Anshan I & S Co.(Angang).The silicon content in pig iron decreases by 0.1%-0.2% while the temperature of the hot metal increases by 20℃,The mineral composition and structure have been studied by means of XRD and SEM.

  6. Diffusion and electromigration in clay bricks influenced by differences in the pore system resulting from firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport in porous materials has been subject of study for several decades. However, the interaction between the pores and the overall pore system make it complicated to obtain a clear picture and predict diffusion and electromigration (transport induced by an applied electric field). Specific...... the pore system to contribute to an overall understanding of ion transport in porous materials.The pore system in bricks are influenced by the firing degree, clay mixture composition and ion content. The present paper focuses on the pore system and effects from clay mixture composition and ion content were...... to the distance to the surface.The influence of the pore system on ion transport through the water saturated pore system of the bricks was supported by measurements for calculation of the electrical resistance and an increasing resistance was found for increasing brick firing temperatures. The effective diffusion...

  7. Effect of Addition of Al and Mg on properties of Periclase-Spinel-Carbon Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Periclase-spinel-carbon brick was made from sintered spinel,fused magnesia and flake graphite as principal raw materials,the influence of Mg/Al(w/w) ratio and the addition of Al,Mg in the matrix of periclas-spinel-carbon brikc on the carbonization and thermal expansion coeffi-cient and the weight los of the brick after heating at 1500℃ in a flowing stream of dry N2for 1.5 h have been studied.The results show that to control Mg/Al(w/w) ration and to add both Al and Mg appropriately can obvi-ously improve the properties of the bricks.

  8. Seeing red: Characterizing historic bricks at Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, New York 1652-1735

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidheiny, Martin John

    The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this analysis offers alternatives to the assumptions about building materials on the site, using material properties to assess the role of building materials as the landscape changed.

  9. Precise age and biostratigraphic significance of the Kinney Brick Quarry Lagerstätte, Pennsylvanian of New Mexico, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Spencer G.; Allen, Bruce D.; Krainer, Karl;

    2011-01-01

    The Kinney Brick Quarry is a world famous Late Pennsylvanian fossil Lagerstätte in central New Mexico, USA. The age assigned to the Kinney Brick Quarry (early-middle Virgilian) has long been based more on its inferred lithostratigraphic position than on biostratigraphic indicators at the quarry. We...

  10. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes i

  11. Management of agricultural biomass wastes: preliminary study on characterization and valorisation in clay matrix bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Luisa; Andreola, Fernanda; Lancellotti, Isabella; Taurino, Rosa

    2013-11-01

    In this work the feasibility of using woody agricultural biomass wastes as grapes and cherries seeds, sawdust, as pore forming agent, and sugar cane ash, as silica precursor, in bricks, were reported. Sawdust and grapes and cherries seeds, thanks to their organic substances content, during their combustion, bring an energetic support in the bricks firing phase and act as pore forming agent. Usually the addition of this kind of waste is limited to 10wt.% in order to reach an equilibrium between positive (weight and shrinkage decrease and porosity increase) and negative (increase of water absorption and mechanical resistance decrease) effects. The results show that grapes and cherries seeds, added in a percentage of 5wt.% to a brick formulation, have better influence with respect to the sawdust, maintaining the mechanical properties of the fired brick (950°C), showing modulus of rupture around 21-23MPa with a weight reduction of 3-10% (respect to the standard one). Regarding the sugar cane ash, the addition of 5wt.% improves the mechanical properties (modulus of rupture around 27MPa) and no weight decrease is observed. These results confirmed the role played by this kind of agricultural waste, which thanks to its high silica content (61wt.%) is capable to demonstrate a filler and plasticity reducing effect on the brick bodies. Tests carried out highlighted that the addition of these by-products (5wt.%) do not change negatively the main technological properties measured (water absorption, linear shrinkage, flexural resistance, etc.) and permit to hypothesize their use to obtain bricks with both insulating and higher mechanical properties using a pore agent forming or silica carrier alternative raw materials, respectively.

  12. Waste brick's potential for use as a pozzolan in blended Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chiou, Chyow-San; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the pozzolanic reactions and engineering properties of waste brick-blended cements in relation to various replacement ratios (0-50%). The waste brick consisted of SiO(2) (63.21%), Al(2)O(3) (16.41%), Fe(2)O(3) (6.05%), Na(2)O (1.19%), K(2)O (2.83%) and MgO (1.11%), and had a pozzolanic activity index of 107%. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results demonstrate that the heavy-metal content in waste bricks met the Environmental Protection Agency regulatory limits. Experimental results indicate that 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of cement can be replaced by waste brick, which causes the initial and final setting times to increase. Compressive strength development was slower in waste brick-blended cement (WBBC) pastes in the early ages; however, strength at the later ages increased significantly. Species analyses demonstrate that the hydrates in WBBC pastes primarily consisted of Ca(OH)(2) and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel, like those found in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste. Pozzolanic reaction products formed in the WBBC pastes, in particular, various reaction products, including hydrates of calcium silicates (CSH), aluminates (CAH) and aluminosilicates (CASH), formed as expected, resulting in consumption of Ca(OH)(2) during the late ages of curing. The changes in the properties of WBBC pastes were significant as blend ratio increased, due to the pores of C-S-H gels and CAH filling via pozzolanic reactions. This filling of gel pores resulted in densification and subsequently enhanced the gel/space ratio and degree of hydration. Experimental results demonstrate waste brick can be supplementary cementitious material.

  13. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used. PMID:19680674

  14. Magnetic hyperthermia in brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brollo, M. E. F.; Orozco-Henao, J. M.; López-Ruiz, R.; Muraca, D.; Dias, C. S. B.; Pirota, K. R.; Knobel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Heating efficiency of multifunctional Ag@Fe3O4 brick-like nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field was investigated by means of specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements, and compared with equivalent measurements for plain magnetite and dimer heteroparticles. The samples were synthesized by thermal decomposition reactions and present narrow size polydispersity and high degree of crystallinity. The SAR values are analyzed using the superparamagnetic theory, in which the basic morphology, size and dispersion of sizes play key roles. The results suggest that these novel brick-like nanoparticles are good candidates for hyperthermia applications, displaying heating efficiencies comparable with the most efficient plain nanoparticles.

  15. Basic Deformation Parameters of Solid Clay Bricks and Small Masonry Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bouška

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its components were experimentally investigated in the laboratories of the Klokner Institute. The test specimens of masonry materials and the relevant mechanical properties have been identified in solid clay bricks and cement-lime mortar. The aim of the research activity was to study both the deformability of the prevailing type of clay masonry in the existing buildings, i.e. the masonry made from the solid clay units and the lime-cement mortar, and the most important mechanical properties of masonry components.

  16. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  17. Application of Magnesite—chrome Snorkel Brick in 300t RH Furnae of Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYuan-fen; CHAIJun-lan; 等

    1996-01-01

    Application of MgO-Cr2O3 brick compsoed of MgO>72%,Cr2O3>14.8%-16.69%,with porosity 13%-4%,compressive strength 33.0-43.8 MPa ,flexing strength 11.9-16.5 MPa and refractoriness under load≥1750℃ in a assembled snorkel of 300t RH funace in Baoshan Iron & Stel Company (Baosteel) showed good results of average service life of 106.6 heats maximum 119 heats.Petrologi-cal analysis and visual examination were also done on the residual brick to investigate thewear mechanism.

  18. Application of Magnesite—Chrome Snorkel Brick at 300t RH Furnace of Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYuanfen; HUADawen

    1998-01-01

    Appliction of MgO0-Cr2O3 brick composed of MgO>72%,Cr2O3>14.8%-168.69%,with porosity 13%-14%,compressive strength 33.0-43.8 MPa, flexure strength 11.9-16.5 MPa and refractoriness under load ≥1750℃ in an assemble snorkel of 300t RH furnace in Baoskhan Iron & Steel Company (Baosteel)Showed good results of average service life of 106.6 heats,maximum 119 heats.Petrologi-cal analysis and visual examination were also done to the residual brick to investigate the wear mecha-nism.

  19. Assessment of macro and micro nutrients around brick kilns agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Farhad Sikder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is well known as one of the main sources of air pollution; however, the pollutants produced from it do not remain in the air, they ultimately fall down to the soil and pollute the surroundings, therefore, this study was carried out to assess the status of macro (N, P, K and S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu in the agricultural environment near the brick kilns of Young Brahmaputra and Jamuna Floodplain soils. Composite soil and plant samples were collected from four distances such as 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m in three different sites. Sulphur (2352–3378 mg kg−1, Zn (86–156 mg kg−1 and Cu (24.7–46.9 mg kg−1 are found in the elevated levels near brick kiln soils that is released due to burning of poor quality coal and fire woods. The alarming news is that plant uptake of S and micro nutrients in the nearest areas of the brick kilns are significantly higher than the areas far from the brick production and their concentration ranges from 23 mg kg−1 to 101 mg kg−1 for Zn, 10–41 mg kg−1 for Cu, 35–1309 mg kg−1 for Fe, 26–126 mg kg−1 for Mn and 2590–mg kg−1 for S. Data indicates both soil and plant received maximum amount of micronutrients and S concentrations within 500–1000 m distances from brick kilns. Iron and Mn concentrations vary within a permissible limit but the plant uptake is high. Nitrogen concentrations is increasing with the distance from the brick kilns in both soils and plants but no definite pattern of P and K accumulation was found. Research suggested avoiding agricultural practice nearby brick kiln soils due to micronutrient contamination in order to preserve adjoined agricultural environment.

  20. Study of the influence of agricultural waste on the porosity of clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelouah Nasser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of two organic residues on the porosity of clay bricks. The insulation capacity of the brick increases with increasing the porosity. Combustible organic additions are often used to form pores. The formation of the more homogenous porous structure is favourably impacted by using the crushed rough olive stones containing oil. Plasticity, bulk density and mechanical properties were studied. The additions of organic residues have proved successful to form pores while maintaining the mechanical properties in the limits of the Algerian norms.

  1. Desalination of a brick by application of an electric DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Salts in masonry can cause various problems as decay of the masonry itself, lost adhesion of plaster and hygroscopic moisture. Chlorides are among the most common building salts and the present paper is focused on removal of chlorides from a brick in an applied electric field as a step towards...... to the brick during submersion and slower removed in the applied electric field than KCl. This indicates that the removal rate of chloride depends on the associated cation and this must be taken into account when desiding the duration of full scale actions. The electrochemical desalination was very efficient...

  2. Chemical composition analysis of ancient bricks and potteries by internal monostandard NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-based internal monostandard INAA (IM-INAA) method was used for the determination of major, minor and trace element concentrations in ancient bricks as well as potteries, collected from Buddhist (4th B.C. to 3rd A.D.) sites of in and around Vishakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Chemical composition analysis of these artifacts was carried out for the provenance study and also to find out possible correlations among the bricks and potteries. INAA is one of the best techniques used for the provenance study due to its advantageous properties like simultaneous multielement capability, negligible matrix effect, no spectral interference and inherent precision and accuracy

  3. Contrastive analysis of quality between low-fluoride brick-tea and traditional brick-tea%低氟砖茶与传统砖茶品质的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春雷; 罗学平; 魏晓慧; 李建华; 杜晓

    2013-01-01

    为满足国家标准规定砖茶允许含氟量≤300mg/kg的要求,选用一芽四五叶原料生产低氟砖茶(氟含量285mg/kg),以传统砖茶(氟含量850mg/kg)为对照,分别进行了感官品质、主要成分及儿茶素和氨基酸组分比较分析.结果表明:低氟砖茶感官品质优于传统砖茶;低氟砖茶主要成分水浸出物、茶多酚、可溶性糖、咖啡碱、茶黄素、茶红素、茶褐素比传统砖茶增加了48.33%、79.22%、44.44%、89.55%、42.86%、26.28%、42.96%;氨基酸组分除甲硫氨酸和脯氨酸外,其他氨基酸高于传统砖茶,儿茶素组分除L-CG外,其他儿茶素含量高于传统砖茶.结果显示通过提高原料嫩度生产低氟砖茶是可行的.%To make fluoride content of brick tea below 300mg/kg,one bud and four or five leaves as raw material were produced low-fluoride brick-tea which of fluoride content was 285 mg/kg. Then sensory quality, main chemical contents, catechin and amino acid between the low-fluoride brick-tea and traditional brick-tea (with 850mg/kg fluoride content) were compared.Results showed that sensory quality of low-fluoride brick-tea was better than traditional brick-tea's.Water extracts,tea polyphenols,water-soluble sugar,caffeine,TF,TR and TB of low-fluoride brick-tea also were higher than traditional brick-tea' s.Content and constituent of amino acids in low fluoride brick tea higher than traditional brick-tea,besides Met and Pro.Content and constituent of catechins in low fluoride brick tea higher than traditional brick-tea's,except L-CG.These suggested raising tenderness of material could produce low-fluoride brick-tea.

  4. Thermal Performance of Hollow Clay Brick with Low Emissivity Treatment in Surface Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fioretti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available External walls made with hollow clay brick or block are widely used for their thermal, acoustic and structural properties. However, the performance of the bricks frequently does not conform with the minimum legal requirements or the values required for high efficiency buildings, and for this reason, they need to be integrated with layers of thermal insulation. In this paper, the thermal behavior of hollow clay block with low emissivity treatment on the internal cavity surfaces has been investigated. The purpose of this application is to obtain a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block by lowering the radiative heat exchange in the enclosures. The aims of this paper are to indicate a methodology for evaluating the thermal performance of the brick and to provide information about the benefits that should be obtained. Theoretical evaluations are carried out on several bricks (12 geometries simulated with two different thermal conductivities of the clay, using a finite elements model. The heat exchange procedure is implemented in accordance with the standard, so as to obtain standardized values of the thermal characteristics of the block. Several values of emissivity are hypothesized, related to different kinds of coating. Finally, the values of the thermal transmittance of walls built with the evaluated blocks have been calculated and compared. The results show how coating the internal surface of the cavity provides a reduction in the thermal conductivity of the block, of between 26% and 45%, for a surface emissivity of 0.1.

  5. Effect of Firing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fired Masonry Bricks Produced from Ipetumodu Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of varied firing temperature on the mechanical properties of fired masonry bricks samples produced from Ipetumodu clay was investigated. The clay sample was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM for the evaluation of the morphology of the sample using secondary electron imaging; and the phases/compositions of the samples using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The brick samples of standard dimensions were prepared from the clay slurry. The prepared samples were sun dried for 72 hours and then fired at varied temperature (held for an hour and then allowed to cool to room temperature in the furnace. The mechanical properties (compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture, density and hardness of the samples were then investigated. It was observed that the mechanical properties of the fired brick samples varied with varying firing temperature due to phase changes/chemical reaction between the phases in the clay sample. It was concluded that the optimum mechanical property for brick samples within the temperature range considered is obtained at 950oC.

  6. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  7. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  8. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying. An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. The water extraction is an important parameter that determines, e.g., the stiffness of the mortar due to compaction of the cement particles and the bond strength of the cured-mortar interfaces but allo

  9. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lopez-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistant masonry bricks of homogeneous and controlled density are a new contribution in the production of bricks of better quality. First, the soil was stabilized with CaOH which leads to a decrease in its volumetric changes. Then, they were compacted with a specific energy for obtaining an optimal and maximum controlled density to ensure an increase in strength. Our results show that two optimal compaction energies can be considered with respect to the variation of optimum moisture in masonry bricks of expansive soil stabilized with lime. The first is when the optimal humidity reaches its smallest value (integrated soil lumps and the second is when humidity increases (disintegrated soil lumps, after reaching its lowest value. We also conclude that high compaction energy does not improve density values.

  10. Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

  11. Brick Wall Model and the Spectrum of a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The quantum entropy of a scalar field near a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by employing the brick-wall model in the grand canonical ensemble. A positive chemical potential is introduced if the cutoff is set to be of order of the Planck length. We also discuss the relation between the chemical potential and the mass quantum of the black hole.

  12. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  13. Web-Based Organizing In Traditional Brick-And-Mortar Companies: The Impact On HR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); E. Farndale (Elaine); A.R.T. Williams (Roger)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter introduces the notion of how old economy brick-and-mortar firms are adapting their HRM policies and practices and the roles of their HR departments in light of newly introduced Web-based business-to-business transaction practices. It argues that the Internet has introduced t

  14. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru [FSAEI HVE Siberian Federal University, 82 Svobodny Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660130 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  15. Making fired bricks with spent equilibrium catalyst-a technical feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M.-L.; Chen, L.-M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Chou, S.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking in an oil refinery uses a catalyst, such as an alumino-silicate zeolite, in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons to light hydrocarbons. A small fraction of the catalyst is continually replaced with fresh catalyst to maintain activity. In North America, more than 400 tons of spent alumino-silicate equilibrium catalyst (spent e-cat), and worldwide, more than 1,100 tons, are generated daily, most of which is disposed of in landfills (municipal and on-site facilities). In this study, three spent e-cat samples were tested in a value-added application that would utilize this waste in the manufacturing of fired bricks. The results of this study indicate that spent e-cat is a technically feasible raw material substitute for the clay and shale commonly used in fired brick production. Fired bricks produced with up to 30 wt% of spent e-cat showed good physical appearance and their water absorption properties met the ASTM C 62 specifications for building bricks of either the moderate-or severe-weathering grade.

  16. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Sacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out.

  17. 粉煤灰砖生产实践%Production practices of fly ash bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫国

    2015-01-01

    普通砖的大规模化生产当属利用蒸压釜通过饱和蒸汽的工艺来得快一些,其生产产品一般有蒸压灰砂砖及蒸压粉煤灰砖,而这两种工艺的投资也是非常大的。小型投入中不需要蒸压工艺的只有水泥砖,而这种砖密度很大,不适合建筑节能的要求。这里介绍的是一种不需采用蒸压工艺又生产较轻产品的粉煤灰压制工艺。%Large-scale production of ordinary bricks is undoubtedly take advantage of saturated steam autoclave process, its\\products generally have autoclaved sand-lime bricks and autoclaved fly ash bricks, and the investment of these two processes is very large. Small investment which does not require autoclaving process only have the cement bricks, and this kind of brick’s density is large, and not suitable for building energy requirements.

  18. Remarks on 't Hooft's brick wall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Hua [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan Mulin [CCAST (World Lab), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing, 100080 (China) and Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: mlyan@ustc.edu.cn

    2003-07-01

    A semi-classical reasoning leads to the non-commutativity of the space and time coordinates near the horizon of Schwarzschild black hole. This non-commutativity in turn provides a mechanism to interpret the brick wall thickness hypothesis in 't Hooft's brick wall model as well as the boundary condition imposed for the field considered. For concreteness, we consider a noncommutative scalar field model near the horizon and derive the effective metric via the equation of motion of noncommutative scalar field. This metric displays a new horizon in addition to the original one associated with the Schwarzschild black hole. The infinite red-shifting of the scalar field on the new horizon determines the range of the noncommutative space and explains the relevant boundary condition for the field. This range enables us to calculate the entropy of black hole as proportional to the area of its original horizon along the same line as in 't Hooft's model , and the thickness of the brick wall is found to be proportional to the thermal average of the noncommutative space-time range. The Hawking temperature has been derived in this formalism. The study here represents an attempt to reveal some physics beyond the brick wall model. (author)

  19. Chinese Standards on Refractories Magnesia Carbon Bricks GB/T 22589-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,techni-cal requirements,test methods,quality appraisal pro-cedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of magnesia carbon bricks. This standard is applicable to the magnesia carbonbricks for steel-making converter,electric furnace,la-dle(refining furnace),etc.

  20. Evaluation of the performance of surface treatments for the conservation of historic brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Koek, J.A.G.; Clercq, H. de; Witte, E. de; Binda, L.; Baronio, G.

    1998-01-01

    The EC project on the evaluation of surface treatments for the conservation of brick masonry (contract EV5V-CT94-0515) is still running. In this paper the preliminary results, mainly based on the research in the field, are presented4. In order to assess the performance of surface treatments more tha

  1. The performance of surface treatments for the conservation of historic brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the performance and the effectiveness of surface treatments, mainly water repellents, applied in the past on historic brick masonry. In the three European countries involved in the project over 60 case studies were carried out. Besides, laboratory research was carried out,

  2. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by e...

  3. Cordierite Bricks for Ceramic Burner of Hot Blast Stove YB/T 4128-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,shape and dimension,test method,quality appraisal procedure,packing,marking,transportation,storage and quality certificate of cordierite bricks for ceramic burner of blast furnace and hot blast stove.

  4. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy;

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation...

  5. 75 FR 57442 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Commerce. SUMMARY: Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce (the Department.... industry with respect to imports of MCBs from the PRC and Mexico. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks...

  6. Retrospective dosimetry using Japanese brick quartz: A way forward despite an unstable fast decaying OSL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz extracted from heated bricks has been previously suggested for use in dose estimation in accident dosimetry, but this technique has never been applied before to Japanese quartz which often has unusual OSL characteristics. In this study the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteri......Quartz extracted from heated bricks has been previously suggested for use in dose estimation in accident dosimetry, but this technique has never been applied before to Japanese quartz which often has unusual OSL characteristics. In this study the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL......) characteristics of quartz extracted from a Japanese commercial red brick produced by Mishima – Renga – Seizoujyo Co. are studied. These companies are based in the Aichi Prefecture (capital Nagoya), which accounts for about half of the red brick production in Japan. A comparison of TL (thermoluminescence) and OSL...... peak, which necessitates a prior heat treatment. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol is developed and tested using thermal treatments intended to isolate a stable dosimetric signal. A minimum detection limit of 65 mGy is then estimated using this protocol. Following irradiation using 60Co...

  7. RESIDUAL FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF RECYCLED BRICK AGGREGATE CONCRETE EXPOSED TO HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasi Rekha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of using crushed brick in concrete is picking up due to its value addition to the mechanical properties of concrete. In the present experimental investigation the brick from the demolition waste is used as a coarse aggregate to study the flexural behaviour of recycled brick aggregate (RBA concrete after exposure to high temperatures. The recycled brick aggregate is replaced to granite aggregate up to 25% by its volume to produce RBA concrete. Beam specimens of size 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were used to study the flexural strength (modulus of rupture of both RBA concrete and granite aggregate (GA concrete. Both the concretes were heated to desired temperatures from 100oC to 1000oC in an interval of 100oC for three hours in bogie hearth furnace. The residual flexural strengths of both heated RBA and GA concretes were presented in this research to study the performance of RBAconcrete at high temperatures. The RBA concrete performed better than that of GA concrete in flexure at high temperatures by exhibiting higher residual strength.

  8. Development of Thermal Shock Resistant and Low Creep Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Binyin; LIU Jiehua; ZHOU Ningsheng; ZHANG Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the development of brick series with high thermal shock resistance and low creep rate for hot blast stove, including research target and research plan on the basis of analysis on how to enhance the thermal shock resistance and to lower creep rate of the bricks. Efforts have been made on the selection of starting materials such as corundum, mullite, andalusite and sillimanite etc. , together with some measures taken on multi-grade formulation, homogenizing of the matrix of bricks and addition of some special additives. The results indicated that the bricks were with characteristics such as higher thermal shock resistance of > 30 cycles under quenching in water from 1000℃, and creep rate of 0. 2 under 1400℃ for 20 ~50hrs with load of 0. 2MPa. Now a series of products of this kind have been developed and produced. The application of the products in Wuhan Iron and Steel Co. showed very prospective results.Now most of domestic large sized blast furnaces say ≥1000m3, including those of Baoshan Iron and Steel Co. , have selected the series products made by Gongyi No. 5 Refractories Head Factory(GYWN) for their hot blast stoves.

  9. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines.

  10. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  11. Toward Applications for DNA Nanotechnology-More Bricks To Build With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-06-16

    Another brick in the wall: DNA nanotechnology has come a long way since its initial beginnings. This would not be possible without the continued development of methods for DNA assembly and new uses for DNA as a material. This Special Issue highlights some of the newest building blocks for nanodevices based on DNA. PMID:27238464

  12. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Hariharan [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Klocke, Steve [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  13. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  14. Gamma dose rate in natural radioactivity of bricks of different local regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the radiation hazard due to natural radioactivity in bricks and to calculate the gamma radiation dose rate from the bricks used in Sri Lankan buildings. Specific activities of the natural radionuclides in sixteen clay and four cement brick samples collected from kilns in different areas in Sri Lanka were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry. The gamma radiation hazard associated with these bricks was assessed according to the values of two different indices, Radium equivalent activity and representative level index. In terms of the radium equivalent a criterion has been used to limit the annual radiation dose from building materials to 1.5 mGy. Ra sub eq is convenient for comparing the specific activities of materials containing different concentrations of the radionuclides measured and the values ranged from 50-365 Bq per kg in the samples measured in this study. Based on these values an annual external radiation dose ranging from 0.21 - 1.48 mGy per year is calculated inside buildings constructed using bricks.Absorbed dose rates in air was calculated using dose coefficient values 0.0414, 0.623 and 0.461 nGy per hour per Bq per Kg for K sup 40, Th sup 232 and Ra sup 226 respectively. If the entire day is spent inside a typical masonry building the activity utilization index is unity by definition and is deemed to imply a dose rate of 80 nGy per hour. (0.70 mGy per year) In the present study the dose rate from cement bricks is less than this value ranging from 0.35-0.57 mGy per year. However, 10 of the clay bricks gave a dose rate greater than this value. The highest dose rate measured was 1.475 mGy per year from Mahiyangana which double the typical value 0.70 mGy per year

  15. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Raeq), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 34 ± 14, 34 ± 13 and 462 ± 175 Bq.kg-1, respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured to be 34 ± 14, 33 ± 12 and 429 ± 161 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Raeq values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg-1, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a-1 recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: → In this study, the distribution of natural radionuclides in brick and roofing tile samples used in Turkey were studied. → Associated potential

  16. Quality assessment for brick making of the bleached topsoil of Vertic Planosols in the south-western Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Vandemeulebroeke, Laure; Van Daele, Kim; Regassa Tolossa, Alemayehu; Proost, Vicky; Van Ranst, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Planosols are a very common soil type in Ethiopia. The Vertic Planosols of the south-western Highlands are typical examples of duplex soils, characterized by a bleached, silty top horizon abruptly overlying a heavy clay subsoil. The bleached topsoil material is of local economic importance as it is extensively used for brick making. The aim of this research was to assess the quality of locally produced bricks following Ethiopian and European quality standards, and formulating recommendations to improve the quality of the bricks. After a reconnaissance field survey three brick production sites, Bore, Serbo and Marawaa, were selected. At each site the bleached topsoil was sampled for physico-chemical analyses and locally produced bricks were collected for further testing. The production process, documented by interviewing locals, consists of excavating the bleached topsoil, manual mixing with water, shaping using an ash-covered wooden mould, trimming using an iron wire, and drying in open air. About 30,000 dried bricks are then piled up to form a rectangular field-oven and fired for about two and a half days. It was observed and admitted by the locals that about 10% of the produced bricks are lost due to severe cracking and/or melting on the inside of the field oven. On the other hand, some of the bricks on the outside of the field oven were not sufficiently fired. Physico-chemical (texture, total elemental chemical composition, carbonate content, total carbon content, sulphur content, cation exchange capacity, total specific surface) and mineralogical (XRD, DSC, thermogravimetry, dilatometry, optical microscopy) analyses were carried out. Additionally, the locally produced bricks were physically characterised by their dimensions, initial rate of water absorption (IRWA), water absorption after 24h and compressive strength. Based on the observed properties for the soil material and the locally produced bricks, mixtures of soil samples and a sand additive were made in

  17. Effect of Ti(C, N) on Properties of Low-carbon MgO-C Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xianpeng; LI Yuanbing; YANG Zhenghong; LI Yawei

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Ti(C, N) on properties of low-carbon MgO-C bricks was investigated. The phase composition and the microstructure of the matrix of low-carbon MgO-C brick containing Ti(C, N) were studied by XRD and SEM analysis together with EDS. The results showed that Ti(C, N) distributed in the matrix of lowcarbon MgO-C brick uniformly after being treated at 1600℃ for 3h in coke powder bed, and Ti(C, N) and MgO formed a solid solution. After the treatment at 1600℃ for 3h in coke powder bed, the bulk density and cold crushing strength of low-carbon MgO-C brick with Ti(C, N) decreased, and the apparent porosity and linear change rate of specimens increased. The oxidation resistance of low-carbon MgO-C brick with Ti(C, N) was superior to that of low-carbon MgO-C brick with no additives, but inferior to that of low-carbon MgO-C brick with Al powder. The slag resistance of the specimen with Ti(C, N) was excellent as well.

  18. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production. PMID:27343435

  19. Occupational Health Hazards of Women Working in Brick Kiln and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G Vaidya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In brick kiln and construction industry the exposure to carbon monoxide and silica dust is the most common occupational hazard to the workers in these industries. A study on occupational health hazards of working women in these two unorganized sectors was undertaken by Lokmanya Medical Research Centre. Objectives: To study the effect of work site environment on the health of the women working in brick kiln and construction industry. An attempt was also made to study the seasonal changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide and dust at the worksite. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the working women (age 18-40 years at brick kilns and construction sites during summer and winter season. They were examined primarily to assess the effect of working environment on health. Gasteck Detector Pump of model 800 and air sampling instrument (SKC Air Check–52 were used to measure concentration of carbon monoxide and dust in the air respectively. Results: There were 66% of women who were in the age group of 18-40 years and most of them (94% were married. At brick kiln sites, average CO exposure was 62.8 ppm and 55.5 ppm and average dust exposure was 3 3 146.1 mg/m and 91.4 mg/m in summer and winter season respectively.At construction sites, average dust exposure was 41.5 ppm and 90.8 ppm in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both exposure to CO and dust were more in summer than in winter in brick kiln industry whereas in construction industry the exposure to dust was more in winter season. A high level of morbidity in the form of headache, bodyache, problems with vision, cough and breathlessness were observed in both industries. It is strongly recommended to take pollution control measures.

  20. Study of Thermal Expansion of Al2O3—MgO—C Bricks Used in Ladles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEILingxuan; HANXiuyue; 等

    1997-01-01

    The reason that Al2O3-MgO-C bricks and Al2O3-Spinel-C bricks excesively expand when used in ladles at high temperature has been analysed,and the effects of spinels aadding amount and their chemical constituents on ther-mal expanion have been studied ,It is pointed out that adding amount of spinels and their chemical contents are the key factors to bring the excessive expansion of above-mentioned bricks at high temperature under control.

  1. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Compressed Earth Brick (CEB Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of brick in construction is commonly used, especially in the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various studies have been conducted to produce methods that can increase the strength of brick at the same time can reduce the cost of manufacturing bricks. In order to reduce cost of manufacturing, one of the solution applied was by using waste as part of bricks production materials. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SuCaB ash was used as a part of compressed earth brick (CEB by replacing the quantity of cement for SuCaB ash. The study focused on the physical and mechanical properties of CEB containing SuCaB and the optimum percentage of SuCaB ash as partial cement replacement in CEB. There are 4 types of percentages used; 0%, 20%, 25% and 30% from cement content. All mixed use the same water content of 30% of cement content by weight and the ratio for cement: laterite soil used was 1: 6. A total of 72 specimen with size of 100mm × 50mm × 40mm was produced. The test conducted were Initial Rate Absorption Test (IRA, Density Test, Dimensions Test, Compression Test and Water Absorption Test. From the experimental results, the optimum SuCaB ash percentage as cement replacement in CEB was 20%. It recorded the highest compressive strength of 16.23 MPa at 28 days while for the Initial Rate Absorption test, it lies within the range specified. The density of CEB containing 20% of SuCaB shows slightly lower value where it decreased for about 0.4% from the control specimen. From this study, it can be concluded that waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse can be used as part of construction materials. However, further study needs to be conducted such as on the energy consumption, chemical properties and others to enhance the knowledge on this area before it can be applied into the brick production.

  2. Clay-brick firing in a high-temperature solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda-Munoz, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: gvilledam@ipn.mx; Castaneda-Miranda, A. [Computation & amp; Mechatronic Studies Division, Universidad Politecnica de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: acastaneda@upq.edu.mx; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpless@ipn.mx; Vega-Duran, J.T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Pineda-Pinon, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: jpinedap@ipn.mx

    2011-10-15

    The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900 degrees Celsius and 1050 degrees Celsius; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 * 0.61 * 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 * 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber. [Spanish] El proceso de coccion para la produccion de tabiques de arcilla en hornos tradicionales genera contaminacion atmosferica cuando los desechos industriales y domesticos se usan como combustibles. Aqui se presenta una alternativa, utilizando la energia solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla. Estamos desarrollando un sistema para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla para alcanzar temperaturas entre 900 grados centigradosy 1050 grados centigrados; estas temperaturas son suficientemente altas para cocer tabiques o productos ceramicos similares. El presente articulo describe el diseno y caracterizacion de los componentes de un horno solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla con una camara con dimensiones internas de 0.48 * 0.61 *× 0.64 m. Para dirigir los rayos solares a la camara de coccion, un heliostato

  3. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  4. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  5. The effect of the addition of ground olive stones on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Arezki, S.; Chelouah, N.; Tahakourt, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of ground olive stones (GOS) on the performance of fired clay bricks. Seven different clay-GOS mixes with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 wt % of GOS respectively were used for making fired brick samples. All samples were fired at 900 °C. The technological properties of the resultant material were then determined, including shrinkage, apparent density, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity, water absorption, and compressive and flexural strength. The addition o...

  6. Evaluation of the Performance and Microstructure of Ecofriendly Construction Bricks Made with Fly Ash and Residual Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lung Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the engineering performance and the microstructural characterization of ecofriendly construction bricks that were produced using a binder material made from a mixture of class-F fly ash (FA and residual rice husk ash (RHA. Unground rice husk ash (URHA was used as a partial fine aggregate substitute (0–40%. The solid bricks of 220 × 105 × 60 mm in size were prepared by mixing FA and RHA with an alkaline solution and fine aggregates, formed by compressing the mixture in a steel mold under 35 MPa of forming pressure, and then cured at 35°C and 50% relative humidity until the required testing ages. The tests of compressive strength, water absorption, and bulk density were conducted in accordance with relevant Vietnamese standards in order to estimate the effect of the URHA content on the engineering performance of the hardened bricks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to determine the microstructure and the phase composition of the brick samples. The results show that properties of these bricks conformed to relevant Vietnamese standards. Therefore, FA and RHA are potential candidate materials for producing ecofriendly construction bricks using geopolymerization technology.

  7. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  8. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in ceramic brick: product characterization and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiying, Zhang; Youcai, Zhao; Jingyu, Qi

    2011-02-01

    In this study, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash was used as a blending in making ceramic brick based on its characterization and an orthogonal test was performed to determine the optimal mixture ratio of the materials. Besides, the fired bricks made in accordance with the optimal mixture ratio were characterized for performance, phase transformation, microstructure, leaching toxicity of the heavy metals in accordance with GB/T 2542-92 (Detection methods for bricks analysis, China) and by means of XRD, SEM and leaching toxicity analysis. It was found that the optimal mixture ratio of materials (MSWI fly ash:red ceramic clay:feldspar:gang sand) was 20:60:10:10 by mass, and the optimal sintering temperature was 950°C. Leaching results of heavy metals from sintered bricks were reduced considerably in comparison with those from green bricks prior to sintering process. The results as a whole suggested that utilization of MSWI fly ash in ceramic brick constituted a potential means of adding value. PMID:21067908

  9. Finite element modelling of the effect of temperature and neutron dose on the fracture behaviour of nuclear reactor graphite bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, M.; Kyaw, S.T., E-mail: si.kyaw@nottingham.ac.uk; Sun, W.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of irradiation on fracture behaviours of graphite bricks are analysed. • Two irradiation conditions chosen are irradiation temperature and neutron dose. • The crack initiates around the keyway fillet of the brick for every study. • Higher temperature and higher neutron dose accelerate crack initiation time. • Turnaround point of hoop strain indicates the crack initiation time. - Abstract: Graphite moderator bricks used within many UK gas-cooled nuclear reactors undergo harsh temperature and radiation gradients. They cause changes in material properties of graphite over extended periods of time. Consequently, models have been developed in order to understand and predict the complex stresses formed within the brick by these processes. In this paper the effect of irradiation temperature and neutron dose on the fracture characteristics, crack initiation and crack growth are investigated. A finite element (FE) mechanical constitutive model is implemented in combination with the damage model to simulate crack growth within the graphite brick. The damage model is based on a linear traction–separation cohesive model in conjunction with the extended finite element method for arbitrary crack initiation and propagation. Results obtained have showed that cracks initiate in the vicinity of the keyway fillet of the graphite brick and initiation time accelerates with higher temperatures and doses.

  10. Characterization of grog of bricks; Caracterizacao de chamote de blocos de vedacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, V.S.; Pinheiro, R.M.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize a waste of red ceramic, grog, generated from the milling of defective pieces of bricks fired in a Hoffmann type furnace by a industry from Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ. The grog was tested for X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, dilatometry, sieving and sedimentation by gravity and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the grog is predominantly constituted of quartz, muscovite mica and hematite. The presence of kaolinite indicates that the bricks were fired at low temperatures, below 600 deg C. Finally, the characterization results indicated that the grog presents itself as an alternative non plastic material to be used in mixtures with clays for the production of red ceramics. (author)

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of a hollow brick filled with perlite insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski, M. [Department of Heat Engineering, Bialystok Technical University, Wiejska Street 45A, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Haese, G. [Wohnungsgenossenschaft Gartenheim eG, Hildesheimer Strasse 142 D-30173 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The present study is focused on the investigation of the effective thermal properties of a modern vertically perforated masonry unit filled with perlite insulation. Based on measurements and numerical calculations, the thermal performance of the new hollow brick was determined. The authors suggest to use the following parameters for this building material: equivalent heat capacity equal to 855.1 J/kg K, equivalent heat conductivity equal to 0.09 W/mK and equivalent density equal to 653.15 kg/m{sup 3}. The dependence of the equivalent thermal resistance of the whole wall made of this brick and mortar, is shown for different mortar joint thicknesses. All results, presented in this paper, can be used in energy balance calculations for buildings made of masonry unit. (author)

  12. Study on Mechanism of Reaction Between AOD Slag and Rebonded Magnesite—Chrome Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYuxi; HEXiaoping

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the composition of AOD slag on the corrosion of rebonded magnesite-chrome brick has been studied by analyzing the residual bricks at the tuyere zone of AOD .It indicates that the corrosion degree increased with the increase of the basicity of slag and decreased with the increase of the content of MgO ,Cr2O3 and Al2O3 in slag.And the addition of refractories to slag up to satura-tion could decrease the corrosion abiliy of sag.It is important to make a resonable slagmaking rule and ensure the percentage of MgO in slag more than 11wt% for pro-longing the service life of lining.

  13. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  14. Manipulating waves with LEGO{sup ®} bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celli, Paolo, E-mail: pcelli@umn.edu; Gonella, Stefano, E-mail: sgonella@umn.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-08-24

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO{sup ®} bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms.

  15. Manipulating waves with LEGO® bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO® bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms

  16. Possibility of Lime as a Stabilizer in Compressed Earth Brick (CEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetra Venny Riza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the production of lime, chemical reaction during the production process, lime reaction with the soil and the prospective use of lime in the future. The research works that has been carried out showed lime has superior properties than cement in enhancing soil structure and also exhibits less embodied energy than cement. The lime through its chemical composition, calcium hydroxide, able to reacts with the pozzolanic materials that presents in the clay soil. This pozzolanic reaction resulted to the formation C-S-H cementitious gel that will further stabilize the soil. The application of lime will also promote healthier environment since carbonation process that occur during carbonation period absorb carbon dioxide in the air. The production of compressed stabilized earth brick using lime will also contributes to greener environment as compared to normal brick production method which consumed extensive energy.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of liquid food thermal process in a brick shaped package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Food processes must ensure safety and high-quality products for a growing demand consumer creating the need for better knowledge of its unit operations. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has been widely used for better understanding the food thermal processes, and it is one of the safest and most frequently used methods for food preservation. However, there is no single study in the literature describing thermal process of liquid foods in a brick shaped package. The present study evaluated such process and the influence of its orientation on the process lethality. It demonstrated the potential of using CFD to evaluate thermal processes of liquid foods and the importance of rheological characterization and convection in thermal processing of liquid foods. It also showed that packaging orientation does not result in different sterilization values during thermal process of the evaluated fluids in the brick shaped package.

  18. The investigation of the matrix structure of ceramic brick made from carbonaceous mudstone tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A.; Fomina, O.; Fomin, A.

    2016-04-01

    The study of the matrix structure of ceramic brick made from carbonaceous mudstone tailings of Korkinsky coal opened pit mine is presented in the current paper. This study includes a thin sections analysis by the polarizing microscope, X-ray, SEM and infrared spectra investigations. It has been discovered that processes of solid- and liquid-phase sintering with the formation of new mineral phases occur inside and on the surfaces of granules during firing. It is shown that a liquid phase is formed in the matrix. It fills inter-grain gaps and connects mineral particles between themselves. It has been found that the advanced physical and mechanical properties of ceramic bricks obtained by creation of the matrix ceramic crock structure, intensive forming of a glass phase on the boundary of the section medium of ceramic composite and temperature reduction of the processes of solid-phase sintering.

  19. DNA brick self-assembly with an off-lattice potential

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of a simple off-lattice patchy-particle model for DNA `bricks'. We relate the parameters that characterise this model with the binding free energy of pairs of single-stranded DNA molecules. We verify that an off-lattice potential parameterised in this way reproduces much of the behaviour seen with a simpler lattice model we introduced previously, although the relaxation of the geometric constraints leads to a more error-prone self-assembly pathway. We investigate the self-assembly process as a function of the strength of the non-specific interactions. We show that our off-lattice model for DNA bricks results in robust self-assembly into a variety of target structures.

  20. Introduction of customized inserts for streamlined assembly and optimization of BioBrick synthetic genetic circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Saurabh; Derda Ratmir; Norville Julie E; Drinkwater Kelly A; Belcher Angela M; Leschziner Andres E; Knight Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background BioBrick standard biological parts are designed to make biological systems easier to engineer (e.g. assemble, manipulate, and modify). There are over 5,000 parts available in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts that can be easily assembled into genetic circuits using a standard assembly technique. The standardization of the assembly technique has allowed for wide distribution to a large number of users -- the parts are reusable and interchangeable during the assembly...

  1. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by con...

  2. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2016-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as ...

  3. Development and Application of Mullite Brick With High Refractoriness under Load and Low Creep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSheng; WANGRuikun; 等

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces of the development and applica-tion of heavily burned mullited brick with high reractoriness under load low creep,which is made of andalusie fine and coarse grains (as aggregate),high alumina bauxite produced in Yangquan county,clay produced in Guangxi provine,industrial alumina powder and silliman-ite powder (as matrix material) and a little amount of ad-ditives and bonded with synthetic bond.

  4. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lopez-Lara; Gonzalez-Vega, C. L.; J. B. Hernandez-Zaragoza; E. Rojas-Gonzalez; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Salgado-Delgado, R.; E. Garcia-Hernandez; Cerca, M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistan...

  5. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Sett

    2014-02-01

    : We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  6. Characterising a historical bridge’s bricks in Popayán (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Galindo Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the procedures and results of studying the physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical cha-racterisation of the bricks originally used in a masonry arch bridge; the bridge was built in the first half of the 18th century in the city of Popayán, Colombia. Core-samples were thus extracted from the bridge’s lower area and sub-jected to different laboratory tests. Physical-mechanical characterisation quantified values related to dry weight, sus-pended weight, saturated weight, porosity, apparent gravity, apparent density and maximum load values, cold com-pression resistance and elasticity modulus. The results revealed the bricks’ high porosity and their low resistance to compression stress. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation involved a combination of tests including X-ray diffract-tion (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR. Several mi-nerals found led to deducting the source of the raw material, as well as verifying some brick production characteris-tics of the time in the said region. Tridimite, cristobalite, magnetite and calcium carbonate were some of the phases formed by the temperatures reached while firing the bricks, while potassium sulphate presence in one of the samples conveyed the nature of the construction materials’ production characteristics. Combining XRD and XPS analysis pro-vided information about firing temperature and the new mineralogical phases appearing at the end of this process; FTIR proved functional OH and Si-O-Si group presence. These bricks’ characteristics provided valuable data for res-toration purposes, formulating a new brick from raw material complying with reconstruction requirements.

  7. Web-Based Organizing In Traditional Brick-And-Mortar Companies: The Impact On HR

    OpenAIRE

    Paauwe, Jaap; Farndale, Elaine; Williams, Roger,

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter introduces the notion of how old economy brick-and-mortar firms are adapting their HRM policies and practices and the roles of their HR departments in light of newly introduced Web-based business-to-business transaction practices. It argues that the Internet has introduced three new business models in old economy companies: the Internet as a marketplace, the Internet as a supply chain integrator, and the Internet as a catalyst for business model redefinition. These in...

  8. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  9. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  10. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a...

  11. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  12. Coefficient of Thermal Diffusivity of Insulation Brick Developed from Sawdust and Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Bwayo, E.; Obwoya, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental result on the effect of particle size of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, and sawdust on thermal diffusivity of ceramic bricks. A mixture of dry powders of ball clay, kaolin of the same particle size, and sawdust of different particle sizes was mixed in different proportions and then compacted to high pressures before being fired to 950°C. The thermal diffusivity was then determined by an indirect method involving measurement of thermal conductivity, density...

  13. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  14. Numerical Derivation of Strain Rate Effects on Material Properties of Masonry with Solid Clay Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xueying; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,numerical method is used to study the strain rate effect on masonry materials.A typical unit of masonry is selected to serve as a representative volume element (RVE).Numerical model of RVE is established with detailed distinctive modeling of brick and mortar with their respective dynamic material properties obtained from laboratory tests.The behavior of brick and mortar are characterized by a dynamic damage model that accounts for rate-sensitive and pressuredependent properties of masonry materials.Dynamic loads of different loading rates are applied to RVE.The equivalent homogenized uniaxial compressive strength,threshold strain and elastic modulus in three directions of the masonry are derived from the simulated responses of the RVE.The strain rate effect on the masonry material with clay brick and mortar,such as the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of the ultimate strength and elastic modulus as a function of strain rate are derived from the numerical results.

  15. Development of a Crush and Mix Machine for Composite Brick Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, people are more and more concerned about the environmental protection. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have bad effect on the environment and also human health. In addition, the amounts of municipal solid wastes are increasing due to the economic development, density of population, especially in the developing countries and they are recycled in a little percentage. To address this problem, the composite brick forming machine was designed and developed to make brick using combination of MSW and mortar. The machine consists of two independent parts, crusher and mixer part, and molding part. This paper explores the design of crusher and mixer part. The crusher has ability to cut MSW such as wood, paper and plastic into small size. There are two mixers; one is used for making mortar and other use for making slurry. FEA analyses were carried out to address the suitable strength of the critical parts of the crusher which ensures that crusher can run properly with high efficiency. The experimentation of the crusher shows that it has high performance for cutting MSW. The mixers also work very well in high efficiency. The results of composite brick testing have been shown that ability of the machine can performance well. This is the innovation of crush and mix machine which is portable and economic by using MSW in replacement of sand.

  16. Degradation of Alumina and Magnesia Chrome refractory bricks in Portland cement kiln – Corrected version*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Addi K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In cement plants, the refractory products are particularly confronted to partially liquid oxide phases at temperature ranging between 900°C and 1700°C. All constituents of these products have to resist not only to thermal constraints, but also to the thermochemical solicitations which result from contact material/coating. In order to study the phenomenon of degradation of refractory bricks in cement kilns and to identify the causes of their degradation, we proceed to the examination of industrial cases in cement kiln. Many chemical tests of the degraded refractory bricks have been done and the results acquired were compared to the ones not used. The analysis of the results is doing using different techniques (Loss of ignition, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the degradation of the used bricks in the clinkering and cooling zone is due to the infiltration of aggressive elements such us sulphur, alkali (Na2O, K2O .... The chemical interaction between the Portland clinker phases and refractory material has also an importance on the stability of the coating and consequently on the life of the refractories.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Magnesia Spinel Brick Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Özkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources in the production of construction materials has become a necessity both in Europe and Turkey. Construction products in Europe should have European Conformity (CE and Environmental Product Declaration (EPD, an independently verified and registered document in line with the European standard EN 15804. An EPD certificate can be created by performing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. In this particular work, an LCA study was carried out for a refractory brick production for environmental assessment. In addition to the LCA, the Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis was also applied for economic assessment. Firstly, a cradle-to-gate LCA was performed for one ton of magnesia spinel refractory brick. The CML IA method included in the licensed SimaPro 8.0.1 software was chosen to calculate impact categories (namely, abiotic depletion, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, ozone depletion potential, and photochemical oxidation potential. The LCC analysis was performed by developing a cost model for internal and external cost categories within the software. The results were supported by a sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the production of raw materials and the firing process in the magnesia spinel brick production were found to have several negative effects on the environment and were costly.

  18. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  19. Effects of Palm Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Concrete Crushed Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuddin Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Researches has been conducted worldwide on a large number of natural or artificial lightweight aggregates. In spite of many of the researches of using natural fibers show considerable promise, the use of natural fibers to improve the properties of lightweight concrete still required to be a subject of further research and investigation. Approach: This experimental investigation was carried out to study the properties of lightweight crushed brick concrete containing palm fiber of different volume fractions. An experimental programme was planned in which the tests such as density, compressive strength and flexural strength were conducted to investigate the properties of lightweight crushed brick concrete reinforced by palm fiber. The specimen incorporated different volume fractions of palm fiber, i.e., 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%. Results: Tests results showed that the use of this fiber slightly increases the density of lightweight concrete. The use of 0.8% of palm fiber increases the compressive strength and flexural strength by about 13.4 and 16.1% respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of palm fiber with lightweight crushed brick concrete enhances the mechanical properties of the concrete and the optimization of the palm fiber fractions is required to get the best performance.

  20. Evaluation of the behavior of brick tile masonry and mortar due to capillary rise of moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the behaviour of old brick masonry in facing the rising damp problem, multiple tests were made in the laboratory: water absorption, moisture content, apparent porosity, temperature and thermal camera imaging on brick masonry and its components: brick and mortar. This has allowed us to determine which of the previous tests is the best in predicting the behaviour of a real wall. In addition, the tests have also helped in defining a process to evaluate the moisture content of walls in a buildings, which is important for heritage restoration projects.Para un mejor conocimiento del comportamiento de las fábricas antiguas de ladrillo frente a la ascensión capilar de agua, se han realizado en laboratorio ensayos de absorción de agua, de contenido de humedad, de porosidad aparente, de temperatura e imágenes con cámara termográfica sobre muros de fábrica y sus materiales componentes: ladrillo y argamasa. Ello ha permitido inferir cuál es el ensayo realizado a los ladrillos que mejor predice el comportamiento del muro real. También ha permitido definir un procedimiento para evaluar el contenido de humedad de fábricas existentes, importante para los proyectos de restauración del patrimonio construido.

  1. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  2. Tracked ultrasound calibration studies with a phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehl, Marie; Walsh, Ryan; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    In this study, spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound was compared by using a calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks and two 3-D printed N-wire phantoms. METHODS: The accuracy and variance of calibrations were compared under a variety of operating conditions. Twenty trials were performed using an electromagnetic tracking device with a linear probe and three trials were performed using varied probes, varied tracking devices and the three aforementioned phantoms. The accuracy and variance of spatial calibrations found through the standard deviation and error of the 3-D image reprojection were used to compare the calibrations produced from the phantoms. RESULTS: This study found no significant difference between the measured variables of the calibrations. The average standard deviation of multiple 3-D image reprojections with the highest performing printed phantom and those from the phantom made of LEGO® bricks differed by 0.05 mm and the error of the reprojections differed by 0.13 mm. CONCLUSION: Given that the phantom made of LEGO® bricks is significantly less expensive, more readily available, and more easily modified than precision-machined N-wire phantoms, it prompts to be a viable calibration tool especially for quick laboratory research and proof of concept implementations of tracked ultrasound navigation.

  3. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  4. Tests and Analysis of the Compressive Performance of an Integrated Masonry Structure of a Brick-Stem-Insulating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suizi Jia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, for low buildings, an integrated wall structure of a brick-stem-insulating layer, which plays a major part in both heat preservation and force bearing. The research team has tested the thermal performance of the structure, the results of which are satisfying. To further study the force-bearing performance, the paper carries out compressive tests of specimens of different structural design, with two types of bricks, i.e., clay and recycled concrete bricks; three types of stems, i.e., square-shaped wood, square-shaped steel pipe and circular steel pipe; and one type of insulating layer, i.e., fly ash masonry blocks. Afterward, the force bearing performance, damage that occurred, compressive deformation and ductility of all of the specimens are compared. On the sideline, the structure is applied in the construction of a pilot residence project, yielding favorable outcomes. The results indicate that in comparison with a brick wall with an insulating layer sandwiched in between, the integrated wall structure of bricks and fly ash blocks is a more preferable choice in terms of compressive performance and ductility. The integrated wall structure of brick-stem-fly ash blocks delivers much better performance to this end. Note that regarding the stem’s contribution to compressive strength, circular steel pipe is highest, followed by square-shaped steel pipe and then square-shaped wood. The compressive performance of the sandwiched blocks surpasses that of the two brick wall pieces combined by a large margin.

  5. The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiping; Deng, Qiufeng; Li, Chao; Xie, Yue; Dong, Zeqin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-30

    Novel lightweight bricks have been produced by sintering mixes of zinc smelting slag and clay. A two-stage sintered process has been proposed to recovery of Zn and Pb and reutilization of the zinc smelting slag. In the first stage of the process, called reduction and volatilization procedure, zinc and lead were reduced by the carbon contained in the zinc smelting slag and volatilized into the dust, and the dust can be used as a secondary zinc resource. In the second stage of the process, called oxidation sintering procedure, a lightweight brick was produced. Samples containing up to 60 wt.% zinc smelting slag and 40 wt.% kaolin clay were reduced at 1050°C for 6h, and then sintered at 1050°C for 4h. The recoveries of Zn and Pb from the brick are 94.5 ± 0.6% and 97.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. Low bulk density (1.42 g cm(-3)) and relatively high compressive strength (2 2MPa) sintered bricks were produced, and the leaching toxicity of the sintered bricks was below the regulatory thresholds of Chinese National Standards. PMID:24637448

  6. Collective constructions with micro-bricks. Application to the fabrication of liquid crystal micro-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method that makes it possible to deposit and bond micro-elements on an underlying device. In this manner, micro-constructions can be built by the addition of micro-bricks. The elements are fabricated on a flexible substrate covered with a release coating and are subsequently transferred and bonded onto the target device in a collective process. The process works on complex geometries and can accommodate surface defects, while maintaining a tightly controlled geometry. Application to the fabrication of liquid crystal micro-cells is presented. (paper)

  7. Effect of Molding Press Direction on Properties of Periclase-spinel-carbon Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; CHEN Shufeng; ZHANG Zunyu

    2004-01-01

    The effect of press direction on the thermal expansion, slag resistance, etc. of periclase-spinel-carbon brick has been studied in this article. The results show that the therma1 expansion rate in the direction parallel to the press axis is larger than that in the direction perpendicular to the press axis and the slag resistance in the direction parallel to the press axis is much better than that in the perpendicular direction. The directional distribution of graphite in the specimen is observed with the microscope.

  8. Recycling PC-TV waste glass in clay bricks and roof tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dondi, Michele; Guarini, Guia; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Zanelli, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of PC and TV sets is a growing problem, involving for over 40 wt. % waste glasses with high Pb (funnel) or Ba-Sr concentration (panel) which cannot be recycled in the glass manufacture. A possible way to re-use these glasses is in the manufacturing of clay bricks and roof tiles, that was appraised by laboratory simulation of the brickmaking processing and technological characterization of unfired and fired products. The recycling of both funnel and panel glasses into clay bodies is t...

  9. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J. Alam; M N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  10. Development of Low—creep Bricks for Hot Blast Stoves of BFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOShuying

    1998-01-01

    Low-creep rate brick H1SS and H2SS have been studied in Luoyang Refractories Co., Ltd.on the basis of former results using different grade synthetic mullite and natural sillimanite concen-trate,Good microstructure and high temperature properties can be obtained by using high quality raw material and reasonable proportioning and technology.The creep values of H1SS and H2SS are less han 0.5% at 1400℃ and 0.45% at 1350℃。

  11. Race, gender and class in The inheritance of loss and Brick Lane : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses and compares the themes of race, gender and class in Brick Lane by Monica Ali and The Inheritance of Loss by Kiran Desai. My main objective is to explore similarities and differences between the three themes, based on a thorough analysis of characters, settings and plots, and to find out how they correspond and how they differ. The themes of race, gender and class are seen through the lens of migration and multiculturalism in a postcolonial setting, which is a prevailing...

  12. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  13. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    problematic in relation to church vault constructions with murals as the surface deterioration can result in loss of valuable cultural heritage. An electrochemical method has been investigated with focus on possible use for desalination of salt loaded vault constructions with murals in laboratory scale...... phase. Salt profiles were made from three different positions in one brick in the church vault construction in Rørby church and satisfying concordance was found between these salt profiles. An area without any original plaster and murals favourable for the construction of a small climate chamber...

  14. The characteristics of dissolution of fluoride and aluminum from brick tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojing; ZHENG Baoshan; WANG Binbin; WANG Mingshi

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments have been done on the influence of times of infusion, temperature, time and ratio of tea to water on the dissolving characteristics of fluoride and aluminum in brick tea. According to the results, the behaviors of F and Al which found their way into tea liquor were analyzed and the conclusions have been drawn: the dissolution of F and Al is not synchronous and after the elements find their way into tea liquor respectively, they will be reset to form complexes of F and Al.

  15. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomachot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  16. A silicate brick in external walls constructions of apartment houses: condition analysis, durability forecast and methods of its increasing (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykin A.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice shows, that constructive elements the most damaged by the environmental conditions are external walls of apartment houses and, accordingly, these constructive elements demand a complex estimation of their condition about decreasing of their operational characteristics which provide their bearing ability and heat-shielding properties, and development of ways of a prolongation of an operational resource.In the given work the structure of silicate brick is analyzed, questions of a technical condition, the forecast and ways of prolongation of a residual operational resource of external walls of buildings on the basis of a silicate brick of construction 40 - 70 уеаrs are considered. The analysis is made using physical and chemical methods on an example of an available housing of this category in cities of Republic Bashkortostan. The received results of a condition of buildings external walls laying allow to make a conclusion about decreasing of silicate brick external wall bearing ability for the long period of operation (?70 years within the limits of up to 10-15% due to reduction of effective section by 7-12%, decreasing in durability of a facing brick to 15-20%. Materials (a brick and a masonry mortar of external walls of buildings deeper layers are in much better or even in practically initial condition that is proved out by the big number of inhabited objects inspections. Prolongation of a residual operational resource of an external wall on the basis of a silicate brick is possible by its protection by waterproofing materials (plaster systems, waterproof getting compositions in a combination of the named systems of hydro-protection with effective facade heat-insulation.

  17. Effect of Additive ZrO2 on Sintering Properties of MgO-CaO Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiandong; GE Changchun; SHEN Weiping

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electric fused ZrO2, m-ZrO2 and zirconite on the sintering properties of MgO-CaO bricks was studied and the effect of the ZrO2 content and temperature on BD (bulk density), AP(apparent porosity)and CCS (Cold Crushing strength) of MgO-CaO bricks was investigated. The microstructure of burned specimens was analyzed by SEM. The result shows that the sintering property is best while 5% m-ZrO2 was added at 1 600 ℃.

  18. Feasibility of manufacturing geopolymer bricks using circulating fluidized bed combustion bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Qin; Shen, Lifeng; Zhai, Jianping

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a study on geopolymer bricks manufactured using bottom ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC). The alkali activators used for synthesis were sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions. The study included the impact of alkali activator on compressive strength. The reaction products were analysed by XRD, FT-IR and SEM/EDS. The compressive strength of bricks was dependent on the modulus of the sodium silicate activator and the type and concentration of alkali activator. The highest compressive strength could be gained when the modulus was 1.5, and the value could reach 16.1 MPa (7 d after manufacture) and 21.9 MPa (28 d after manufacture). Under pure alkaline systems, the compressive strength was in the order of 10 M KOH > 10 M NaOH > 5 M LiOH > 5 M KOH > 5 M NaOH. Quartz was the only crystalline phase in the original bottom ash, and no new crystalline phase was found after the reaction. The main product of reaction was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel and a small amount of crystalline phase was also found by SEM.

  19. Feasibility of manufacturing geopolymer bricks using circulating fluidized bed combustion bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Qin; Shen, Lifeng; Zhai, Jianping

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a study on geopolymer bricks manufactured using bottom ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC). The alkali activators used for synthesis were sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions. The study included the impact of alkali activator on compressive strength. The reaction products were analysed by XRD, FT-IR and SEM/EDS. The compressive strength of bricks was dependent on the modulus of the sodium silicate activator and the type and concentration of alkali activator. The highest compressive strength could be gained when the modulus was 1.5, and the value could reach 16.1 MPa (7 d after manufacture) and 21.9 MPa (28 d after manufacture). Under pure alkaline systems, the compressive strength was in the order of 10 M KOH > 10 M NaOH > 5 M LiOH > 5 M KOH > 5 M NaOH. Quartz was the only crystalline phase in the original bottom ash, and no new crystalline phase was found after the reaction. The main product of reaction was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel and a small amount of crystalline phase was also found by SEM. PMID:22856304

  20. Transparent, Ultrahigh-Gas-Barrier Films with a Brick-Mortar-Sand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Xu, Simin; Yan, Hong; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2015-08-10

    Transparent and flexible gas-barrier materials have shown broad applications in electronics, food, and pharmaceutical preservation. Herein, we report ultrahigh-gas-barrier films with a brick-mortar-sand structure fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of XAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH, X=Mg, Ni, Zn, Co) nanoplatelets and polyacrylic acid (PAA) followed by CO2 infilling, denoted as (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2. The near-perfectly parallel orientation of the LDH "brick" creates a long diffusion length to hinder the transmission of gas molecules in the PAA "mortar". Most significantly, both the experimental studies and theoretical simulations reveal that the chemically adsorbed CO2 acts like "sand" to fill the free volume at the organic-inorganic interface, which further depresses the diffusion of permeating gas. The strategy presented here provides a new insight into the perception of barrier mechanism, and the (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2 film is among the best gas barrier films ever reported.

  1. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F H; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2013-01-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  2. Calibration of dimensional change in finite element models using AGR moderator brick measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Hall, G. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tan, E. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Marsden, B.J. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method, are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (field variables), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Historically, behaviour on material properties have been obtained from Materials Test Reactor (MTR) experiments, however data relating to samples trepanned from operating reactors are increasingly being used to improve models. Geometry measurements from operating reactors offer the potential for improving the coded relationship for dimensional change in FE models. A non-linear mixed-effect model is presented for calibrating the parameters of FE models that are sensitive to mid-brick diameter, using channel geometry measurements obtained from inspection campaigns. The work makes use of a novel technique: the development of a Bayesian emulator, which is a surrogate for the FE model. The use of an emulator allows the influence of the inputs to the finite element model to be evaluated, and delivers a substantial reduction in the computational burden of calibration.

  3. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA (Pakistan))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (Pakistan)). The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg. C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, 222Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 ± 11 to 416 ± 9 mBq m-2 h-1, 205 ± 16 to 291 ± 13 mBq m-2 h-1 and 245 ± 12 to 365 ± 11 mBq m-2 h-1, respectively. (authors)

  4. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  5. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate. PMID:27085110

  6. Metamaterial bricks and quantal meta-surfaces: Towards spatial sound modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Memoli, G; Asakawa, M; Sahoo, D; Drinkwater, B W; Subramanian, S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy, or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive and bulky phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured 3D units - which we call metamaterial bricks - each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We then apply this methodology to show examples of acoustic focusing and steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex bottle-shaped field required to form an acoustic tractor beam. Here, we demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful me...

  7. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS: Assessment of Primordial Radionuclides in Pakistani Red Bricks and Associated Radiation Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K.; Jabbar, A.; Akhter, P.; Tufail, M.; Khan M., H.

    2010-03-01

    Specific activity of primordial radionuclides and associated radiation hazards due to 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th have been measured in backed red brick samples, collected from five highly populated areas of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. For the detection, analysis and data acquisition, a high purity germanium detector was used. Associated external doses were calculated using a Monte Carlo neutron photon transport code. A theoretical model to determine the gamma dose rate at 1 m height from the floor, made of bricks, was employed for the calculation of mass attenuation coefficient and self-absorption in the floor for the gamma energies of these radionuclides and their progeny. Monte Carlo simulation shows that in this study the floor, having more than an effective thickness of 15 cm, contributes very little to the external gamma dose rate. The values of the external dose rate and annual effective dose are found to be much lower than the world average as well as from other countries of the world.

  8. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  9. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

  10. Social Bricks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Can social sustainability be built? In this paper the potentialities and challenges of the concept of social sustainability are explored based on a collaboration project between the Danish Building Research Institute, a Danish social housing association and the Green Building Council Denmark......, aiming to better integrate standards of social sustainability in the application of certification systems like DGNB. The paper relates theory on social sustainability to the ways it is used in practice, and discusses whether and how social sustainability can be measured and certified in renewal...... and construction of housing and neighbourhoods. It is put forward that a certification has to take into account the housing complex’ or neighbourhood’s relation to the surrounding city, its development over time, its flexibility towards future needs and its social organisation and operation. Further, the interplay...

  11. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...

  12. Eco-Friendly Smokeless Al2O3-SiC-C Brick for Hot Metal Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santanu MUKHOPADHYAY; Shankha CHATYERJEE; Manoj K NANDA

    2008-01-01

    Hot metal transfer ladles were historically lined with high alumina refractories because of compatibility of high alumina refractories with the highly acidic slag, which is transferred from the iron making plant along with hot metal. With the introduction of higher capacity ladles, technological advancement in the process and increased productivity, calls for a higher campaign life of hot metal ladles, which could not be performed by ordinary high alumina refractories. Resin bonded Al2O3-SiC-C(hereinafter ASC)bricks gradually developed which at present taking place replacing the conventional refractories. Considerable work has been carried out in developing the ASC refractory to reach the present state. However, for higher capacity ladles still there is a lot of scope for improvement The present paper deals with the newly developed ASC bricks, which was used in 165 ton capacity hot metal ladles in one European plant and has given a substantial increase in performance. But, the customer was not fully satisfied since the brick was reported to produce smokes during preheating of the ladle. In the subsequent supply the smoke generation problem was taken care by adjusting the binders and additives and eco-friendly bricks were re-engineered and supplied to the same plant, which also performed splendidly and created all time record in their plant history.

  13. Investigation into the effect of some additives on the mechanical strength, quality and thermal conductivity of clay bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Qandil, A.; Qattous, M. A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It was repeatedly reported that the clay bricks industry in Jordan is facing both weak mechanical strength and poor quality which caused marketing problems where it is expected to serve the increasing demand of housing in the country especially after the political crises in the neighboring countries Iraq and Syria. It is therefore anticipated that improvement of the mechanical strength and quality of the produced clay evaluation of the brick industry in Jordan is worth investigating. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigation obtained from field visits to the factories producing clay bricks were carried out. Furthermore, the effect of using some additives from locally available materials namely: Battn El-Ghoul Clay, Suweileh sand and Olive extracts on the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and surface quality of the produced bricks is investigated and discussed. The experimental results indicated that thermal conductivity, color and durability were all enhanced and the ultimate compressive strength was reduced but remained higher than the acceptable value for brickwork.

  14. 75 FR 45097 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION (A-201-837) Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final..., Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce determines that certain magnesia carbon...

  15. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri, October 14, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ury, Connie Jo., Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings document the fifth year of the "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium", held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. Thirty five peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, written by academic librarians, and presented at the symposium are included in this volume. Many of the entries have references and…

  16. From Bacon to Bush (Vannevar, Not G. W.): Common Ground between Useful Knowledge and Red Brick Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The theory about the power of useful knowledge to improve the human condition was published in Francis Bacon's "Novum organon" and his "New Atlantis" in the seventeenth century. The connection between useful knowledge and red brick institutions from University College in London to Framingham State College and MIT in…

  17. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  18. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  19. The exploitation of sludge from aggregate plants in the manufacture of porous fired clay bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro-Trenado, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates (gravel and sand are, after water, the Earth’s second most used natural resource, representing about 50% of all consumed mineral resources. Aggregate production generates a large quantity of waste from the aggregate washing process. This waste is made up of suspended solids – sludge – which has a great environmental impact. It is deposited in huge troughs because of the impossibility of discharging it directly into rivers. Many plants have incorporated decanters and filter presses to separate the solid from the liquid fraction. This paper evaluates the possibility of exploiting the solid fraction (i.e. sludge in the manufacture of fired clay bricks. The added value of these bricks is, on the one hand, the exploitation of sludge as a currently useless waste product, and on the other, the use of this sludge to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of conventional fired clay bricks.Los áridos son la segunda materia prima más consumida en la Tierra después del agua, representando alrededor del 50% de todos los recursos minerales consumidos. El proceso de elaboración de estos áridos genera una gran cantidad de residuos procedentes de su lavado. Se trata de partículas sólidas en suspensión – lodos – de gran impacto ambiental, que se depositan en grandes charcas ante la imposibilidad de verterlos directamente al rio. Muchas empresas han incorporado decantadores y filtros de prensa para separar la fracción solida de la líquida. El presente trabajo evalúa la posibilidad de utilizar la fracción sólida, es decir el barro, para la fabricación de piezas cerámicas. El valor añadido de estas piezas es por un lado el aprovechamiento del barro como producto residual, que en estos momentos es desechable, y por otro, conseguir que este barro mejore las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la cerámica convencional.

  20. Assessment for the use of waste of trachyte in the brick production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Chiara; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Maritan, Lara; Mazzoli, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary results of the potential advantage of incorporating wastes from a quarry's trachyte, as temper in brick production is the main aim of this work. Three different mixtures elaborated by adding 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of trachyte were studied. Each mix was fired in a electric oven at the temperatures of 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The influence of the waste addition was investigated under micro and meso-scale and considering several aspects in order to define aesthetic, mineralogical and physical features of fired samples. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The main phases identified were quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hematite and diopside. Colorimetric study highlighted changes on the chromatic appearance depending on the trachyte contents and the firing temperatures reached. Hydric parameters (UNI EN 772-7, 1998) showed a decreasing absorption behaviour and an overall poor interconnection of pores for samples with the highest content of trachyte (15%). The values of open porosity determined by hydric test were comprised between 35 and 38% and decreased with increasing the firing temperature and the trachyte content. Mercury intrusion porosimetry showed the pore size distribution in the range comprised between 0.001-100 µm. The results of total open porosity obtained (from 19 to 38%) were quite similar to those measured by hydric tests. Physical-mechanical properties and structural anisotropy were checked combining the uniaxial compressive strength (DT) and the ultrasound velocity test (NDT). A rather closed concordance between these techniques was observed when comparing the average values of mechanical stress and the propagation velocities of ultrasound waves. Finally, freeze-thaw (UNI EN 12371) and salt crystallization tests (UNI EN 12370) carried out on bricks proved their high resistance to decay under stressed environmental conditions. The results of the present

  1. Production process and equipment selection of autoclaved brick%一种蒸压砖生产工艺流程及设备选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周占霞

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes how to reduce the added proportion of calcium carbide slurry, improve the auto⁃claved brick quality, and reduce production costs of autoclaved brick by optimizing the production process and equipment selection to eliminate the mud clumping of calcium carbide slurry in autoclaved calcium carbide sludge brick.%通过优化生产工艺流程及设备选型消除电石泥蒸压砖中的电石泥结团,降低电石泥原料添加比例和提高蒸压砖质量,降低蒸压砖生产成本。

  2. Research of the biochemistry compositions of three kinds of brick tea%三种砖茶品质生化成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖幸菲; 柏珍; 李智芳; 黄亚辉

    2012-01-01

    通过比较三种砖茶中各种生化成分含量的差异,分析了不同加工工艺对砖茶生化成分以及成茶品质风味的影响。实验结果表明,黑砖茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱、游离氨基酸及三种色素的含量均为最高,茯砖茶次之,青砖茶最低,而可溶性糖的含量是黑砖茶最低,青砖茶最高。三种砖茶生化成分的差异主要是由不同的加工工艺造成的,茯砖茶有独特的"发花"工序,其品质表现为有菌花香,滋味醇和;黑砖茶的原料较嫩,加工过程比较简单,内含成分高,滋味表现为纯厚微涩;青砖茶的原料最为粗老,自然发酵时间长,可溶性糖含量高,其品质表现为香气纯正,滋味甘甜。%The main biochemistry compositions of Fuzhuan brick tea, Black brick tea and Green brick tea and the influences with different processed methods were studied.The experiment results showed that the contents of water extract, tea polyphenol, caffeine, free amino acid, theaflavins ( TFs ), thearubigins (TRs) and theabrownines (TBs) in Black brick tea were the highest, which in Fuzhuan brick tea were the second, and in Green brick tea was the lowest.The content of soluble sugar in Black brick tea was the lowest,while in Green brick tea was the highest.With different processed methods ,the contents of biochemistry compositions of the three brick teas were changed, and different quality characters were showed.Fuzhuan brick tea had a unique process--fungus growing,this endowed it with arohid flavour and mellow taste. Black brick tea was made by tender fresh leaves and had more compositions.Thus it tasted pure, rich and subastringent.Green brick tea was made by the oldest fresh leaves.It incited sweet and had pure aroma, this was due to its rich soluble sugar and the long natural fermentation processes.

  3. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  4. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Diego R G; Tatumi, Sonia H; Yee, Márcio; Brito, Silvio L M; Morais, José L; Morais, Daisy de; Piedade, Silvia C; Munita, Casimiro S P; Hazenfratz, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at "Luz" Monastery, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments. PMID:22569952

  5. My maize and blue brick road to physical organic chemistry in materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Similar to Dorothy's journey along the yellow brick road in The Wizard of Oz, this perspective carves out the path I took from my early childhood fascinations with science through my independent career at the University of Michigan (maize and blue). The influential research projects and mentors are highlighted, including some fortuitous experimental results that drew me into the field of supramolecular chemistry, specifically, and organic materials, broadly. My research group's efforts toward designing new sensors based on small molecule gelators are described. In particular, I highlight how our design strategy has evolved as we learn more about molecular gelators. This perspective concludes with some predictions about where molecular gels, as well as my personal and professional life, are headed.

  6. Twin lintel belt in steel for seismic strengthening of brick masonry buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.V.R.Murty; Jayanta Dutta; S.K.Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    A single-room, single-storey full-scale brick masonry building with precast RC roofing system was tested thrice under displacement controlled lateral cyclic loading, to assess the effectiveness of the basic repair and seismic strengthening techniques. Initially, the virgin building specimen was loaded laterally to failure. In the second stage, the damaged building was repaired by stitching across the cracks, and tested under the same lateral loading. In the third stage, the twice-damaged structure was repaired once more by stitching and strengthened by twin lintel belt in steel and vertical comer reinforcement,and re-tested. The building strengthened by twin lintel belt in steel showed about 28% higher strength under lateral loading than the virgin building.

  7. My maize and blue brick road to physical organic chemistry in materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Similar to Dorothy’s journey along the yellow brick road in The Wizard of Oz, this perspective carves out the path I took from my early childhood fascinations with science through my independent career at the University of Michigan (maize and blue). The influential research projects and mentors are highlighted, including some fortuitous experimental results that drew me into the field of supramolecular chemistry, specifically, and organic materials, broadly. My research group’s efforts toward designing new sensors based on small molecule gelators are described. In particular, I highlight how our design strategy has evolved as we learn more about molecular gelators. This perspective concludes with some predictions about where molecular gels, as well as my personal and professional life, are headed. PMID:26977181

  8. Preservation of murals with electrokinetic - with focus on desalination of single bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of murals is in several cases ongoing in Danish churches. The murals are one of the main objects of our Danish Cultural Heritage. Existing applied methods for desalination of salt contaminated church vaults are based on indirect affection of the dissolved salts (ions...... with the study was to obtain an accelerated and more efficient ion transport of the polluting dissolved salts out of church vault constructions to reduce future deteriation of murals. A major part of the work was related to optimization of the electrochemical ion transport effect. A special poultice...... followed. Besides the experiments on optimized laboratory setups the very first desalination of a wall section with murals was documented. In addition it was shown that the specific brick type and its pore system influences the electrochemical iontransport and coherence between the ion content in the pore...

  9. Coefficient of Thermal Diffusivity of Insulation Brick Developed from Sawdust and Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bwayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental result on the effect of particle size of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, and sawdust on thermal diffusivity of ceramic bricks. A mixture of dry powders of ball clay, kaolin of the same particle size, and sawdust of different particle sizes was mixed in different proportions and then compacted to high pressures before being fired to 950°C. The thermal diffusivity was then determined by an indirect method involving measurement of thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat capacity. The study reveals that coefficient of thermal diffusivity increases with decrease in particle size of kaolin and ball clay but decreases with increase in particle size of sawdust.

  10. Digital image correlation used to analyze a brick under compression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña Heredia, Alonso; Márquez Aguilar, Pedro A.; Molina Ocampo, Arturo; Zamudio Lara, Álvaro

    2015-08-01

    In mechanics of materials it is important to know the stress-strain relation of each material in order to understand their behaviour under different loads. The brick is one of the most used materials in structural mechanics and they are always under loads. This work is implemented using one beam and the speckles created by its reflection. Strain field measurement with noninvasive techniques is needed in order to sense rubber-like materials. We present an experimental approach that describes the mechanical behavior of structural materials under compression tests, which are done in a universal testing machine. In this work we show an evaluation of the displacement field obtained by digital image correlation allowing us to evaluate the heterogeneous strain field evolution observed during these test.

  11. Prevention and curing of efflorescences in the restoration of bricks construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available After description of basic principles of efflorescent effect in bricks in a former published paper, where the classification and examples of efflorescences were given, here are shown the methods for prevention and techniques for curing of this pathology. Some comments about Standards are included as well as very briefly the effect of gases in dryers and furnaces of efflorescences in clay products. The knowledgement of methods for prevention and curing of this pathology are very useful not only in the cleaning of modern fabrics made of bricks, but also in the Restoration of ancient buildings.

    Después de exponer en un artículo anterior los principios básicos de la formación del efecto eflorescente en ladrillos de construcción y definir su clasificación apoyada en algunos ejemplos, se señalan ahora los métodos para su prevención y las técnicas para su eliminación una vez aparecida esta patología. Se incluyen además algunos comentarios sobre las Normas para determinación de eflorescencias y también, de una manera muy concisa, el efecto que los gases de secaderos y hornos pueden tener en la formación de este defecto. Los métodos y técnicas de prevención y curado de eflorescencias tienen gran interés no sólo en el caso de fábricas de ladrillo modernas, sino en la restauración de fachadas de antiguos edificios.

  12. Fabrication of bricks from paper sludge and palm oil fuel ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ismail

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of disposed paper sludge and palm oil fuel ash (POFA from industries has recently attracted concern for an alternative environmentally sustainable application. This paper presents results of laboratory work carried out on these by-products in order to evaluate application performance. Brick specimens made with various proportions of cement, paper sludge and POFA were fabricated and studied under laboratory conditions. Curing periods of 7, 28 and 84 days were applied followed by compressive strength test. Leaching and water absorption capacities were also assessed as prime steps towards monitoring durability in service. It was found that paper sludge-POFA brick made with 60% cement, 20% sludge and 20% POFA satisfies the strength requirements of BS 6073 Part 2: 2008 and that the amount of copper as well as lead resulting from leaching are within the acceptable limits of ‘Malaysia Environmental Waste Disposal Act’

  13. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  14. Modelling 3D crack propagation in ageing graphite bricks of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, crack propagation in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) graphite bricks with ageing properties is studied using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM). A parametric study for crack propagation, including the influence of different initial crack shapes and propagation criteria, is conducted. The results obtained in the benchmark study show that the crack paths from X-FEM are similar to the experimental ones. The accuracy of the strain energy release rate computation in a heterogeneous material is also evaluated using a finite difference approach. Planar and non-planar 3D crack growth simulations are presented to demonstrate the robustness and the versatility of the method utilized. Finally, this work contributes to the better understanding of crack propagation behaviour in AGR graphite bricks and so contributes to the extension of the AGR plant lifetimes in the UK by reducing uncertainties. (author)

  15. Labour productivity, energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises: A study of brick enterprises cluster in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper probes the role of labour efficiency in promoting energy efficiency and economic performance with reference to small scale brick enterprises' cluster in Malur, Karnataka State, India. In the bricks industry, the technology in use being similar, labour efficiency has a negative influence on energy cost. Therefore, those enterprises that exhibited higher labour productivities had lower average energy intensity and higher returns to scale as compared to those that had lower labour productivities. Considering this, improvement of labour efficiency can be an alternative approach for energy efficiency improvement in energy intensive small scale industries in developing countries like India, which face the obstacle of financial constraints in up-grading technology as a means of energy efficiency improvement

  16. Investigation on biochemical compositional changes during the microbial fermentation process of Fu brick tea by LC-MS based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Wang, Wei; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2015-11-01

    Fu brick tea (FBT) is a unique post-fermented tea product which is fermented with fungi during the manufacturing process. In this study, we investigated the biochemical compositional changes occurring during the microbial fermentation process (MFP) of FBT based on non-targeted LC-MS, which was a comprehensive and unbiased methodology. Our data analysis took a two-phase approach: (1) comparison of FBT with other tea products using PCA analysis to exhibit the characteristic effect of MFP on the formation of Fu brick tea and (2) comparison of tea samples throughout the MFP of FBT to elucidate the possible key metabolic pathways produced by the fungi. Non-targeted LC-MS analysis clearly distinguished FBT with other tea samples and highlighted some interesting metabolic pathways during the MFP including B ring fission catechin. Our study demonstrated that those fungi had a significant influence on the biochemical profiles in the FBT and consequently contributed to its unique quality.

  17. Structural models of random packing of spheres extended to bricks. Simulation of the nanoporous Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Florez, Victor; BRUNET, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Structure simulation algorithms of random packing of spheres and bricks have been developed. These algorithms were used to reproduce the nanostructure of the cementitius calcium-silicate-hydrates. The textural parameters (specific surface area, porosity, pore size, etc.) of a C-S-H sample, the main binding phase of cements, have been derived from N2-physisorption experiments. In the same time, these parameters have been simulated by using a sphere-based structural model wh...

  18. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  19. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  20. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface. Th...... the concrete floor slab and indoor and outdoor temperatures and relative humidity were measured....

  1. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  2. Recycling by the brick making industry of ashes from sewage sludge incineration; Verwertung von Aschen der Klaerschlammverbrennung in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, B.; Seyfried, C.F. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). ISAH Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    The present project focuses on the recycling of sewage sludge ashes by the brick making industry. The following aspects are dealt with in detail: Overview of the state of the art of sewage sludge combustion in Germany; influence of wastewater and sludge treatment on ash quality (determination of the seasonal course of chemical sewage sludge composition); use of sewage sludge ashes in as loading material in fluidised-bed furnaces or as clay substitute in brick manufacture; semi-technical trials in ceramic laboratories; assessment of the environmental impact of bricks containing sewage sludge ash; performance of leaching experiments; and examination of the mineralogical binding of heavy metals into the ceramic matrix. [Deutsch] Das Projekt konzentriert sich dabei auf eine Verwertung von Klaerschlammaschen in der Ziegelindustrie, wobei die im folgenden genannten Aspekte im Einzelnen bearbeitet werden: - Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei der Klaerschlammverbrennung in Deutschland - Einfluss der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung auf die Aschequalitaet (Ermittlung von Jahresganglinien der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Klaerschlammaschen) - Einsatz von Klaerschlammaschen aus Wirbelschichtoefen als Zuschlagstoff bzw. Tonersatz bei der Ziegelproduktion - halbtechnische Versuche im keramischen Labor - Abschaetzung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Ziegeln mit Klaerschlammaschezusatz: Durchfuehrung von Auslangversuchen, Untersuchung einer mineralogischen Einbindung von Schwermetallen in die keramische Matrix. (orig./SR)

  3. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks, was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH, broken bricks (BB and spent bleaching earth (SBE. Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash, was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, it showed a continued decrease in Ca(OH2 in the hydrating cement as a function of curing time and replacement levels of the cement. Up to 45 % replacement of the OPC by CSBR produced a Portland pozzolana cement (PPC material that passed the relevant Kenyan Standard. Incorporation of the CSBR in OPC reduces the resultant calcium hydroxide from hydrating Portland cement. The use of the waste materials in production of cementitious material would rid the environment of wastes and lead to production of low cost cementitious material.

  4. Experimental scale model study of cracking in brick masonry under tensile and shear stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Ruiz, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of research conducted on the failure behaviour of brick masonry under tensile and shear stress. The study was designed to develop test models and generate experimental results able to provide greater insight into tensile and shear stresses cracking in brick masonry. The results of a campaign conducted with two types of specimens are discussed: 1 double-edge notched specimens under non-symmetrical compression stress, and 2 three point bending specimens under nonsymmetrical loading. Tests were run on specimens of similar size (similarity rate 2 and different bed joint orientation to determine how bed joint orientation affects crack propagation. The tests were conducted on scale models (1/4 of a single wythe, stretcher bond brickwork masonry wall one half foot thick.Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada sobre el comportamiento en rotura de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo solicitaciones de tracción y cortante. La investigación está encaminada a proporcionar modelos de ensayo y resultados experimentales que permitan conocer mejor los procesos de agrietamiento de la fábrica de ladrillo bajo tensiones normales de tracción y tangenciales. Se presentan los resultados de una campaña experimental desarrollada con dos tipos de probeta: 1 la probeta compacta con doble entalla solicitada a compresión asimétrica, y 2 la probeta de flexión con entalla solicitada bajo carga asimétrica aplicada en tres puntos. Se han ensayado probetas de dos tamaños semejantes (razón de semejanza 2 y varias orientaciones de los tendeles, con el fin de ver cómo afecta la orientación de los tendeles en la propagación de las grietas. Los ensayos se han realizado con probetas a escala 1/4 de un muro de fábrica de ladrillo de una hoja a soga de medio pie de espesor.

  5. Modifying Role of GSTP1 Polymorphism on the Association between Tea Fluoride Exposure and the Brick-Tea Type Fluorosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wu

    Full Text Available Brick tea type fluorosis is a public health concern in the north-west area of China. The association between SNPs of genes influencing bone mass and fluorosis has attracted attention, but the association of SNPs with the risk of brick-tea type of fluorosis has not been reported.To investigate the modifying roles of GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphisms on this association.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Brick-tea water was tested by the standard of GB1996-2005 (China. Urinary fluoride was tested by the standard of WS/T 89-2006 (China. Skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by X-ray, the part we scheduled was forearm, shank, and pelvic, then diagnosed the skeletal fluorosis by the standard of WS/192-2008 (China. Gene polymorphism was tested by Sequenom MassARRAY system.The prevalence rate in different ethnical participants was different: Tibetan individuals had the highest prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies of GSTP1 Rs1695 among different ethnical participants (p<0.001: Tibetan, Mongolian and Han subjects with homozygous wild type (GSTP1-AA genotype were numerically higher than Kazakh and Russian subjects (p<0.001. Compared to Tibetan participants who carried homozygous A allele of GSTP1 Rs1695, Tibetan participants who carried G allele had a significantly decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis (OR = 0.558 [95% CI, 0.326-0.955]. For Kazakh participants, a decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis among carriers of the G allele was limited to non high-loaded fluoride status (OR = 0. 166 [95% CI, 0.035-0.780] vs. OR = 1.478 [95% CI, 0.866-2.552] in participants with high-loaded fluoride status. Neither SNP-IF nor SNP-age for GSTP1 Rs1695 was observed.The prevalence rate of the brick tea type fluorosis might have ethnic difference. For Tibetan individuals, who had the highest prevalence rate, G allele of GSTP1 Rs1695 might be a protective factor for brick tea type skeletal fluorosis.

  6. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  7. Thermoluminescence dating analysis at the site of an ancient brick structure at Pengkalan Bujang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Mahat, Rosli Hj; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Price, David M; Bradley, D A; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2015-11-01

    Bujang Valley is a well-known historical complex found in the north-west of peninsular Malaysia; more than 50 ancient monuments and hundreds of artefacts have been discovered throughout the area. The discovery of these suggests Bujang Valley to have been an important South East Asian trading centre over the period from the 10th to 14th centuries. Present work concerns thermoluminescence (TL) dating analysis of shards collected from a historic monument located at Pengkalan Bujang in Bujang Valley. All the shards were prepared using the fine grain technique and the additive dose method was applied in determining the paleodose of each shard. The annual dose rate was obtained by measuring the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th and K) in the samples and their surroundings. The TL ages of the shards were found to range between 330±21 years and 920±69 years, indicative of the last firing of the bricks and tiles from which the shards originated, some dating back to the period during which the historical complex remained active. PMID:26319091

  8. Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0.07 W/mK in the unbound samples, and around double that value for the mineralized samples, which present a much higher volumetric specific heat (1.6 MJ/m3K and transmission loss capability. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples.

  9. Commentary: Getting fathers into parenting programmes--a reflection on Panter-Brick et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Paul; Iles, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Research, policy and clinical practice focussed on engaging and working with fathers and their children often seems to oscillate between extremes. Where policy documents relating to children's health and wellbeing do include fathers it is often in a restricted way, and similarly discussions about the role of fathers in the media are often one-dimensional. It is sometimes hard to escape a feeling of despondency at the continuing exchanges, too often made ignoring or misinterpreting years of research regarding the importance of co-parenting and the involvement of fathers and other carers. One of the great contributions of child and adolescent mental health professionals has been the drawing of attention to the importance of family processes and systemic thinking, yet in relation to parenting, this seems to have been increasingly overlooked in recent years with an increased focus on attachment or social learning inspired approaches for a single parent-child dyad. In this issue of the JCPP, in a thorough and timely review, Catherine Panter-Brick and colleagues call for a clear change to the way parenting programmes are considered, studied and implemented. In this commentary, we reflect on this call and look at three challenges for CAMHS professionals. PMID:25135767

  10. FT-IR characterization of articulated ceramic bricks with wastes from ceramic industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, G.; Viruthagiri, G.

    The 30 ceramic test samples with the kaolinitic clay and ceramic rejects (in the as-received state and sintered at temperatures 900-1200 °C) were investigated through spectral studies in order to elucidate the possibility of recycling the wastes from the government ceramic industry of Vriddhachalam, Tamilnadu state, South India. A detailed attribution of all the spectroscopic frequencies in the spectra recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region was attempted and their assignment to different minerals was accomplished. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to demonstrate the reliability of IR attributions. The indication of well-ordered kaolinite is by the band at 1115 cm-1 in the raw samples which tends to shift towards 1095 cm-1 in all the fired samples. The peaks at 563 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 can be assigned to anorthite and dickite respectively. The presence of quartz and anorthite is confirmed both by XRD and FTIR. The microstructural observations were done through the SEM images which visualized the vitrification of the fired bricks at higher temperatures. The refractory properties of the samples found through the XRF analysis are also appreciable. The present work suggests that the incorporation of the rejects into the clay mixture will be a valid route for the ceramic industries to reduce the costs of the ceramic process.

  11. Recycling PC and TV waste glass in clay bricks and roof tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, M; Guarini, G; Raimondo, M; Zanelli, C

    2009-06-01

    Disposal of PC monitors and TV sets is a growing problem, with over 40% of the weight of these systems comprised of waste glasses with high Pb (funnel) or Ba-Sr concentrations (panel), making them unsuitable for recycling and manufacturing new glass. A possible way to re-use these glasses is in the manufacturing of clay bricks and roof tiles. This possibility was appraised by laboratory simulation of the brickmaking process and technological characterization of unfired and fired products. The recycling of both funnel and panel glasses into clay bodies is technologically feasible, resulting in a substantially reduced plasticity behaviour during shaping-drying (implying a reduction of mechanical strength), and a promotion of sintering during firing. No significant release of Pb, Ba, and Sr was observed during the firing and leaching test for the carbonate-poor body; in contrast, some Pb volatilization during firing and Sr leaching were observed for the carbonate-rich body. Additions of 2 wt.% appear to be practicable, while 5 wt.% glass induces unacceptable modifications of technological properties. The recommended amount is within 2 and 4 wt.%, depending on the characteristics of the clay bodies. The main constraint is that the glass must have a particle size below the limit of the pan mills used in brickmaking (<1mm). PMID:19138838

  12. PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT MORTARS REPLACED BY GROUND WASTE BRICK IN DIFFERENT AGGRESSIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILHAMI DEMIR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the sulphate resistance of cement mortars when subjected to different exposure conditions. Cement mortars were prepared using ground waste brick (GWB as a pozzolanic partial replacement for cement at replacement levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5, 10%, 12.5 and 15%. Mortar specimens were stored under three different conditions: continuous curing in lime-saturated tab water (TW, continuous exposure to 5% sodium sulphate solution (SS, and continuous exposure to 5% ammonium nitrate solution (AN, at a temperature of 20 ± 3 ºC, for 7, 28, 90, and 180 days. Prisms with dimensions of 25×25×285 mm, to determine the expansions of the mortar samples; and another set of prisms with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm, were prepared to calculate the compressive strength of the samples. It was determined that the GWB replacement ratios between 2.5% and 10% decreased the 180 days expansion values. The highest compressive strength values were found for the samples with 10% replacement ratio in the TW, SS, and AN conditions for 180 days. The microstructure of the mortars were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX.

  13. Plane Geometry: From the Floor Plan of a House to the Quantity of Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Scott Puhl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of a potentially meaningful teaching strategy for plane geometry which was applied in high school as an activity of identifying and reconstructing students’ previous knowledge on spatial geometry. The proposal aims to promote the meaningful learning, encourage students as active and more autonomous subjects and show the importance of studying this content. The study began with reading a story about the fire of Kiss Nightclub, where overcrowding was cited as one of the causes. To understand the mathematical sense of overcrowding, the students built the 1 m² and simulated the situation of the club on the night of the tragedy. Further, taking advantage of the interest and involvement of students, they were challenged to build the floor plan of a house. For this, chosen and measured bricks and ceramic would use in building the house. Finally, in joint work, all critically analyzed the work of the groups, plans and models, making a comparison between the various projects. The evaluation of this experience was very positive, because the students were motivated, learning together, and realizing the significance and meaning of the study of areas of plane figures.

  14. Migration of itx (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jamnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, itx, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of itx in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. itx can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of itx was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of itx or other substances from its packages.itx is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (who categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of itx following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (efsa concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  15. Migration of ITX (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jamnicki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, ITX, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of ITX in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. ITX can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of ITX was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of ITX or other substances from its packages.ITX is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (WHO categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of ITX following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  16. Fiber Reinfoced Polymer Used for Flooding Protection of Engineering Structures Made of RC and Brick Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oprişan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural floods are becoming nowadays a frequent problem to be dealt with, by both the population and the authorities. Floods and flood related natural disasters act against the civil, industrial and agricultural structures by the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures of water. A set of protective solutions based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP composite materials, for structural elements of buildings subjected to flood loadings, is proposed and analysed. These solutions are achieved by using the hand lay-up forming technique utilizing glass, carbon or aramid fibers fabrics pre-impregnated with thermosetting epoxy, polyester or vynilester resins. The application of these FRP composites is carried out on reinforced concrete columns and beams as well as on brick masonry works aiming to increase in the overall load bearing capacity, especially against horizontal loads. An improved protection against excessive humidity is also envisaged. The Finite Elements Method based LUSAS software was used to simulate a partially flooded structure. The numerical modeling was carried out in both the un-strengthened and strengthened conditions of the structure in order to assess the increasing in load and deformation capacities of the structural elements. Volumetric finite elements were used for modeling the concrete and masonry members.

  17. A BioBrick compatible strategy for genetic modification of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Patrick M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant biotechnology can be leveraged to produce food, fuel, medicine, and materials. Standardized methods advocated by the synthetic biology community can accelerate the plant design cycle, ultimately making plant engineering more widely accessible to bioengineers who can contribute diverse creative input to the design process. Results This paper presents work done largely by undergraduate students participating in the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM competition. Described here is a framework for engineering the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with standardized, BioBrick compatible vectors and parts available through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://www.partsregistry.org. This system was used to engineer a proof-of-concept plant that exogenously expresses the taste-inverting protein miraculin. Conclusions Our work is intended to encourage future iGEM teams and other synthetic biologists to use plants as a genetic chassis. Our workflow simplifies the use of standardized parts in plant systems, allowing the construction and expression of heterologous genes in plants within the timeframe allotted for typical iGEM projects.

  18. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  19. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  20. Archaeometric study of bricks from the ancient defence walls around the town of Pavia in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on bricks sampled from the defense walls around the historic town of Pavia (northern Italy erected during Roman (uncertain and “Spanish”(sixteenth-seventeenth centuries times. An analysis of colour, macro- and micro-chemical composition,mineralogical clusters and structural-textural features showed that similar raw materials were used in the manufacture of these bricks, although certain variations were identified: particle size is finer in Roman bricks, while the “Spanish” version contains ground carbonate and “chamotte” additives. The “Spanish” bricks,fired at lower temperatures, are more porous. The wide range of firing temperatures used to make “Spanish” bricks was very likely related to the intended use. The sporadic presence of maghemite is discussed in the context of the atmosphere prevailing in the kilns. The “Spanish” bricks are lighter in colour as a result of their carbonate content and lower firing temperature. These characteristics, which affect the weather resistance of the different types of brick, should be taken into account in restoration work.Se investigan ladrillos recogidos en las murallas defensivas de la histórica ciudad de Pavía (norte de Italia, que fueron construidas en tiempos romanos (no establecidosy “españoles” (siglos XVI y XVII.En base al color, composición química tanto total como puntual, asociaciones mineralógicas y características texturales,se concluye que se utilizó una materia prima similar en ambas épocas, con algunas particularidades: granulometría más fina en los romanos, adición de carbonato molido y chamota en los “españoles”. Por su parte, la porosidad es mayor en los ladrillos “españoles”. El amplio rango de temperaturas de cocción observado para estos últimos debe estar relacionado con los distintos usos para los cuales fueron destinados. La presencia esporádica de

  1. Service Situation and Improvement Measures of Purging Plug Brick for Steel Ladle%钢包用透气砖的使用及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨幸福; 崔庆阳; 徐兵; 毛晓刚; 崔广进

    2012-01-01

    The service requirements and damage mechanism of the purging plug brick for steel ladle are analyzed, and the influencing factors for the service life of purging plug brick are analyzed and discussed from the design, the production process, the operating conditions and the smelting conditions. The measures of improving the use of the purging plug brick are put forward, and at the same time the safety of the purging plug brick should be ensured to avoid the abnormal ladle-to-ladle phenomenon, even breakout accident in using. And the development trend of the purging plug brick is discussed.%对钢包用透气砖的使用要求和损毁机理进行了分析,并从透气砖的设计、生产工艺、操作条件、冶炼条件等方面分析讨论了透气砖寿命的影响因素,提出了改善透气砖使用情况的措施,同时提出要保证透气砖的安全性,避免在使用的过程中出现非正常倒包现象,甚至漏钢事故.并对透气砖的发展方向进行了探讨.

  2. Research on basic mechanical properties of autoclaved fly ash brick%蒸压粉煤灰砖基本力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双龙; 闫欢欢

    2011-01-01

    按照《砌墙砖试验方法》(GB/T2542-2003)对蒸压粉煤灰砖进行砖的含水率、抗压强度、抗折强度试验。确定蒸压粉煤灰砖的基本力学指标,为编制辽宁省地方标准《蒸压粉煤灰砖建筑技术规范》提供试验依据。结果表明,蒸压粉煤灰砖含水率为2.96%,抗压强度为11.46MPa,抗折强度为1.68MPa,在实际工程上可替代普通烧结砖使用。%According to the GB/T 2542-2003 of masonry brick test method,the moisture content,compressive strength,transverse strength of the autoclaved fly ash brick are test.The results show that the autoclaved fly ash brick moisture content is 2.96 %,the compressive strength is 11.46 MPa,and the transverse strength is 1.68 MPa,so it can used as a substitute for the common fired brick in project.The mechanics index can provide a basis for the Liaoning standards of fly ash brick construction technical specifications.

  3. 茯砖茶加工工艺及保健功效研究进展%Advances in Processing Technology and Healthcare Effect of Fuzhuan Brick Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉杰丽; 杨勇; 袁丹丹; 刘飞; 陈晓燕; 朱希强; 张林军; 袁超

    2016-01-01

    在湖南黑茶系类产品中,茯砖茶的加工过程最复杂、时间最长,茯砖茶因其独特的风味和保健功效也是最受消费者喜爱的黑茶。本文对近年茯砖茶的加工工艺及其保健功效进行综述,并对茯砖茶研究的发展方向进行展望,从而为茯砖茶的加工利用奠定基础。%The processing of Fuzhuan brick tea is the most complex and longest among all kinds of Hunan dark tea products. Fuzhuan brick tea is popular for its unique flavor and healthcare effect. In this paper, the processing and healthcare effect of Fuzhuan brick tea in recent years are reviewed and the development direction of Fuzhuan brick tea is discussed, which lay the foundation for the processing and utilization of Fuzhuan brick tea.

  4. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr-1) was converted into harvested biomass (m3) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m-3. For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 103 m3 of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 103 m3 round wood and 240.8 x 103 m3 branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO2, 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH4, 442 t NOX, 288 t NO and 12 t N2O per annum. The combined CO2-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NOX and NO) is 455 666 t yr-1. While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management

  5. Preparation and Properties of Ceramic Facing Brick from East-lake Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LENG Guanghui; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; LAO Xinbin; Li Kun

    2012-01-01

    In order to utilize solid wastes,ceramic facing brick was made form East-lake sediment and some additives.The strength and freeze-thaw resistance of the samples were tested,and the crystal phases and microstructures were studied by XRD and SEM.The results indicate that the samples have a wide firing temperature range.The main crystal phases are CaAl2Si2O8,α-Al2O3,Fe2O3,which distribute uniformly in the samples.The sample have the best properties in the series ‘Ca-Al-Si',and water absorption (Wa),porosity (Pa),bulk density (D),bending strength and compressive strength are 7.24%,15.82%,2.19 g·cm-3,45.57 MPa and 56.81 MPa respectively,when the addition amount of East-lake sediment is 80% and the firing temperature is 1 100 ℃.In the series ‘K-Al-Si',the sample with the best properties was obtained when addition amount of East-lake sediment was 70% and firing temperature was 1 060 ℃.The water absorption,porosity,bulk density,bending strength and compressive strength are 7.62%,16.37%,2.15 g · cm-3,39.26 MPa,and 50.81 MPa respectively.They all come up to the national standardization,and meet the needs of manufacturing production.

  6. Contribution to the study of thermal properties of clay bricks reinforced by date palm fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhermeche, A.; Kriker, A.; Dahmani, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Saharan regions of Algeria are characterized by a hot and dry climate. The most used cement materials such as theconcrete or the mortar blocks have bad thermal characteristic. However, these regions have several local materials: clay, dune sand and some natural fibers, which are formerly proved their thermal efficiency. The price of construction material used therefore depends on the international market constantly destabilized by theeconomic crisis coupled with the energy crisis in recent times. To produce a framework of life at a lower cost, it is important, therefore, to circumvent the influence of the cost of energy by upgrading the local materials of construction. In order to improve thermal performances in Saharan building materials this study was lanced. The aim of this research isthen to fabricate some bricks using three local materials: namely the clay, sand dune and the fibers of date palm. The percentage of sand and fibers varies from 0% to 40% and 0% to 3% by mass respectively. A sand dune of Ain El Beida of Ouargla of Algeria was used. Clay was extracted from Beldet Amer of Touggourt Ouargla Algérie. The fibers used in this study were vegetable fibers from date palm of Ouargla Algeria. The results showed that increasing in the mass fraction of sand and of fiber were beneficial for improving thermal properties. As function of increasing the percentage of sand dune and fibers there were: A decrease in: thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity and there were an increase in the thermal resistance.

  7. Development of cleaner-burning brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Charles W; Corral, Alba Yadira; Lara, Antonio S

    2007-04-01

    The following results provide a comparison between net airborne contamination produced by the traditional form of kiln used in Northern Mexico and by those modified according to a design by Dr. Robert Marquez. What has become known as the MK style kiln was intended to significantly reduce contaminant emissions. The concept involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. Kilns of a pair are connected via clay brick channels. The roles are reversed after the initial kiln is refilled. Significant reductions in the particulate and gaseous emissions were achieved in the prototype system, but a connectional problem with recent kiln pairs has also limited the degree of operational success. The problem did not mask the potential of the MK kiln, as will be shown. Additional anticipated benefits to the owners of MK kilns, such as reduced operating cycles and decreased quantities of fuel, also have been verified. Key measurements made during all of the burns were of aerosol densities and buoyancies in the flues, kiln temperatures, and, on a number of occasions, chemical analyses of both aerosol and gaseous effluents. Continuous time histories of aerosol densities for most burns (of a total of -40) provide a basis for examining features and the effects of differing styles of operation with respect to burn efficiency and net contaminant masses. Covering the active kiln with a dome produces a net reduction in dry aerosol effluent mass of a factor between 5 and 10, whereas the addition of a filter kiln produces a net reduction of about a factor of 2. The use of used motor oil as a fuel further reduced aerosol contamination by -1 order of magnitude.

  8. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  9. Laboratory Investigation on the Strength Gaining of Brick Aggregate Concrete Using Ordinary Portland Cement and Portland Composite Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque M H, Numen E H, Islam N., Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the laboratory investigation of strength variation of brick aggregate concrete made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC and Portland composite cement (PCC.The investigation was conducted by testing concrete cylinder specimens at different ages of concrete with concrete mix ratios: 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:4 by volume and with water cement ratios=0.45 and 0.60. The test result reveals that at the early age, concrete composed with OPC attained larger compressive strength than the concrete made of PCC. However, in the later age concrete made with PCC achieved higher strength than OPC.

  10. Geochemistry and mineralogy approaches to characterize brick and its lake sediments sources: Antioch Roman City (Southern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert, Aurelia; Benjelloun, Yacine; Chene, Grégoire; Strivay, David; De Sigoyer, Julia; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan; Fagel, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Southern Turkey) is situated close to the Antioch city. This last is located near the Amik Lake (Lake of Antioch) and close to the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault. During the Roman period, the Amik Plain was more densely occupied than at any time in its history [1]. The study focuses on the bricks and the lake sediments characterization in order to determine the source area as well as the technical productio...

  11. Near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to the calculation of Black Hole entropy in `t Hooft's brick-wall model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    A review and the latest results on the near-horizon expansion (conformal) approach to `t Hooft's brick-wall model calculation of Black Hole entropy developed recently by the speaker and his collaborators will be given in this talk. With mainly a graduate student audience in mind, the seminar will be pedagogical in nature, with emphasis on the ideas and logic of the methods and the insights gained with this approach more than on details. If time permits, possible future directions will also be mentioned.

  12. Retrospective dosimetry: Preliminary use of the single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol for the measurement of quartz dose in young house bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, D.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    In retrospective dosimetry, the total dose absorbed by some pre-existing dosemeters, such as house bricks or tiles, is used to derive the dose to the population arising from a nuclear accident. This paper uses the newly developed SAR protocol to determine the total dose in young house bricks from...... the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor site and from Roskilde, Denmark. For these samples, it is shown that high precision (similar to 1%) on the mean estimates of total dose can be achieved with similar to 20 independent measurements. The SAR total dose estimates of two Danish house bricks agree...... with the expected values based on their known age and confirms the absolute accuracy of the SAR method. It is concluded that a similar to 18 mGy fallout dose component can be detected on a background of similar to 100 mGy; this detection limit is controlled by uncertainties in the natural dose rare measurement...

  13. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego R.G. Tudela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at "Luz" Monastery, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments.Este artigo apresenta os resultados de datação por TL e OSL de solos, e fragmentos de tijolos de um túmulo, que foi ocupado por duas freiras mumificadas encontradas no Mosteiro da "Luz", localizado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As idades encontradas por TL e OSL foram comparadas às obtidas a partir de C-14 dos colágenos contidos em amostras de osso das múmias. A maioria das idades obtidas são do século XVIII. A espectroscopia de radiação-gama foi utilizada para avaliar concentrações de radioisótopos naturais nas amostras e para calcular as taxas de dose anual que resultaram em 3,0 a 5,3 Gy/kano. As concentrações radioativas são próximas daquelas obtidas através de Análise por Ativação de Nêutrons. Os conteúdos de elementos U, Th e Ce são superiores aos encontrados na maioria dos sedimentos.

  14. Heavy metals in brick kiln located area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: a case study from the city of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Khan, Murad Ali; Jan, F Akbar; Ahmad, I

    2010-07-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the burning issues of the world. In developed countries, there are lot of awareness about the environment and the impact of various industries on their life and surroundings. A little has been done in this direction in developing countries. In Pakistan, a big problem is the rapid conglomeration of the brick kilns in the outskirts of nearly all the urban centers to cope with the rapid construction work in big cities. A huge amount of low-grade coal or rubber tires is used as fuel in a very non-scientific manner. The purpose of the present study was to look into the impact of the brick kilns on the different aspects of environmental pollution caused by these kilns. Concentration of metals Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured on 36 soil samples collected from the area and the same number of plant samples in order to establish the distribution of heavy metals in the area and to determine the effect of this distribution on the surrounding atmosphere and the possible effects on human life.

  15. To overcome the appearance of the efflorescences by magnesium carbonate addition in a mass for manufacture of bricks of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemani, H.

    2011-01-01

    Following the tendency of some European countries the briquetiers develop further the aesthetic aspect of their products and, the supply of colors and, aspects of surface will be further extended. The recovery of the sustainability of facades in bricks apparent, the quality of raw materials, and their determination remain a major problem. The presence of soluble salts in the field is fairly harmful for the product terracotta because they are the cause of apparitions of efflorescences. To defeat this type of default our study is on an addition of MgCO3 a mixture of two kinds of clay. The doses MgCO3 were between (0,25-0,5-0,75-1-1,5%) of the dry mass to treat. With rates of clay yellow and, gray which are respectively (40-60%). In comparison with a previous study where the addition was BaCO3. Finished products obtained with 1% MgCO3 exhibited a better aesthetic aspect, of the qualities insulating, and a mechanical resistance significantly higher than the bricks ceramics ordinary marketed at the present time.

  16. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, M; Sahu, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); pnutritional assessments have shown that the women are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation. PMID:27005784

  17. Effect of moisture on the radon exhalation rate from soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA (Pakistan))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were carried out to study the effect of the moisture content on the radon exhalation rate from soil, sand and brick samples that were collected from the North West Frontier Province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, using CR-39-based radon dosimeters. After processing, samples were prepared by adding 15, 30 and 45% moisture contents (by weight) and were placed in plastic containers. The dosimeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples. These containers were then hermetically sealed and the dosimeters were exposed to radon for 60 to 65 days. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg.C for 16 h, and track densities were counted. From the measured track densities, exhalation rate was determined using two different approaches. Maximum average radon exhalation rates of 385 ± 86, 393 ± 31 and 362 ± 36 mBq m2 h-1 were observed at 30% moisture content from soil, sand and brick samples, respectively. A slight decrease in exhalation rate was observed in all samples at moisture content of 45%. According to the t-test, change in the exhalation rate as a function of humidity is significant at 95% confidence level. (authors)

  18. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards in Brick Samples Used in Tiruvannamalali District, Tamilnadu, India, With a Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Y; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2016-09-01

    The activity concentration of Ra, Th and K in brick samples used in Tiruvannamalai District of Tamilnadu has been determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration ranges from BDL to 16.02 Bq kg, 17.86 to 120.19 Bq kg, 240.09 to 481.35 Bq kg for Ra, Th, and K, respectively. The concentration of these radionuclides is compared with reported data from other countries. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rate (DR), annual effective dose rate (HR), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), criteria formula (CF), representative level index (RLI), activity utilization index (AUI), gamma index (Iγ), alpha index (Iα), the external hazard (Hex), and internal hazard (Hin) indices are calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. Multivariate statistical techniques (Pearson correlation, principal component analysis and cluster analysis) are used to study the relation between radionuclides and radiation hazards. The treatment of 14 radioactive variables sampled at 32 bricks by the factor and cluster analyses provided a possible interpretation of the collective data. The spatial distribution pattern of radionuclides has been depicted through the Kriging method using MapInfo software. PMID:27472752

  19. Assessment of Some Clay Deposits from Fatha Formation (M. Miocene for Brick Manufacturing in Koya Area, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawzat R. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of claystone sediments of Miocene age (Fatha Formation and their suitability to use them as raw materials in manufacturing of building clay brick in Kurdistan (Koya city. The study based on the field reconnaissance for three sites of claystones which were selected from three different locations within Fatha Formation in Koya city, includes Haibat-Sultan area, Koya-Sulaimania road and central of Koya city. The clay samples were subjected to particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogical analysis, plasticity index and XRD tests. Clay tiles were produced by using Semi-dry method under load 78 kN/mm² and fired at 950 C°. The produced clay tiles were subjected to water absorption, efflorescence, shrinkage and compressive strength tests. The research has shown that the plasticity index depends on the mineral composition of the raw materials. The grain size analysis of raw materials, physical properties and mechanical properties of the produced tiles has shown the suitability of the used raw materials in producing class bricks of class A (first class according to the requirements of specification of the Iraqi Standard (1993.

  20. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  1. Size-controllable DNA nanoribbons assembled from three types of reusable brick single-strand DNA tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Congzhou; Li, Xin; Song, Tao; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yanfeng

    2015-11-21

    Precise control of nanostructure is a significant goal shared by supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology and materials science. In DNA nanotechnology, methods of constructing desired DNA nanostructures using programmable DNA strands have been studied extensively and have become a promising branch of research, but developing universal and low-cost (in the sense of using fewer types of DNA strands) methods remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to assemble size-controllable DNA nanoribbons with three types of reusable brick SSTs (single-stranded DNA tiles), where the control of ribbon size is achieved by regulating the concentration ratio between manipulative strands and packed single-stranded DNA tiles. In our method, three types of brick SSTs are sufficient in assembling DNA nanoribbons of different sizes, which is much less than the number of types of unique tile-programmable assembling strategy, thus achieving a universal and low-cost method. The assembled DNA nanoribbons are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental observations strongly suggest the feasibility and reliability of our method. PMID:26367111

  2. Size-controllable DNA nanoribbons assembled from three types of reusable brick single-strand DNA tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Congzhou; Li, Xin; Song, Tao; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yanfeng

    2015-11-21

    Precise control of nanostructure is a significant goal shared by supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology and materials science. In DNA nanotechnology, methods of constructing desired DNA nanostructures using programmable DNA strands have been studied extensively and have become a promising branch of research, but developing universal and low-cost (in the sense of using fewer types of DNA strands) methods remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to assemble size-controllable DNA nanoribbons with three types of reusable brick SSTs (single-stranded DNA tiles), where the control of ribbon size is achieved by regulating the concentration ratio between manipulative strands and packed single-stranded DNA tiles. In our method, three types of brick SSTs are sufficient in assembling DNA nanoribbons of different sizes, which is much less than the number of types of unique tile-programmable assembling strategy, thus achieving a universal and low-cost method. The assembled DNA nanoribbons are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental observations strongly suggest the feasibility and reliability of our method.

  3. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  4. Productivity Loss from Occupational Exposure to Heat Stress: A Case Study in Brick Workshops/Qom-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohalah Hajizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat    stress    particularly    at    outdoor    workplaces    in    hot-dry    climates    can    disrupt    the physical or mental functions and effect negatively on human performance. We aimed to study the effect of heat stress on productivity loss among workers of brick workshops in Qom Province – central Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was performed on 184 workers in 40 brick workshops. Environmental parameters including dry temperature, natural wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were measured at three times during work shift. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature heat stress index was calculated based on equation provided by Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Potential  labor productivity losses due  to  heat  stress  were  determined using  a  graph presented already. The total average of WBGT was 31.84±3.46°C. WBGT index according to different jobs  was  39.48±8.2°C, 29.86±2.79°C, 29.31±0.97°C and  28.69±1.89°C for working in  kiln,  material handling,  working  on  conveyor and  making  adobe,  respectively.  The  average  loss  productivity  in mentioned tasks was 93.57±16.54, 66.58±20.58, 65.53±15.26 and 48.27±13.04 respectively, with total average of productivity loss 68.48±16.35%. The statistically significant relationships were found between WBGT values and percentage of loss productivity in total and for all understudy jobs (p<0.001. Heat stress can lead to decrease in labor productivity at outdoor workplaces like brick industries. According to climate change in the future and gradual global warming, paying more attention to the occupational health issues in outdoor workplaces at dry and warm environment seems to be more important than before. 

  5. 利用油页岩灰制备蒸压砖的试验研究%Study on preparation of autoclaved brick with oil shale ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高子栋; 潘红

    2015-01-01

    The autoclaved brick is prepared with the oil shale ash, the fly ash, the calcium carbide residue, the gyp⁃sum and the stone chips. The effect on properties of autoclaved brick is studied by changing the ratio of oil shale ash and fly ash. When the ratio of oil shale ash increases, the compressive strength and the flexural strength of au⁃toclaved brick increase first, and then decrease, and the drying shrinkage value keep increasing. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 30%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could achieves MU15. When the ratio of oil shale ash is 50%, the strength grade of autoclaved brick could also achieve MU10.%采用油页岩灰、粉煤灰、电石渣、石膏、石屑等作为原材料,制备了一种蒸压砖,研究了油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例对产品性能的影响。试验结果表明,随油页岩灰比例不断增大,蒸压砖的抗压强度、抗折强度均呈先提高后降低的变化趋势,干燥收缩值不断提高。当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为30%时,蒸压砖强度等级可达到标准JC239—2001《粉煤灰砖》中的MU15;当油页岩灰替代粉煤灰的比例为50%时,蒸压砖强度等级仍可达到MU10。

  6. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of radon exhalation rates in baked, unbaked bricks and cement were found (1.202±0.212 Bq m-2 h-1, (1.419±0.230 Bq m-2 h-1 and (0.386±0.117 Bq m-2 h-1 and their corresponding average radium activity and annual effective dose were found (0.956±0.169 Bq/kg, (1.13±0.184 Bq/kg, (0.323±0.098 Bq/kg and (33.96±5.99 µSv y-1, (40.3±6.51 µSv y-1 and (10.94±3.28 µSv y-1, respectively. Radon concentration, exhalation rate and their corresponding radium activity and annual effective dose were found higher in unbaked bricks as compared to baked bricks and cement but overall values of radon exhalation rate, annual effective dose and radium activity were found well below the world average values of 57.600 Bq m-2 h-1, 1100 µSv y-1 and 370 Bq/kg, respectively.

  7. Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the Short Lived Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a short lived climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.

  8. LEACHABILITY OF CHROME FROM MAGNESIA-CHROMITE REFRACTORY BRICKS CORRODED BY Cu/CuO- Na2O.2SiO2 SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Medved

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of magnesia-chromite refractory brick with Cu-Na2O.2SiO2 and CuO-Na2O.2SiO2 melts are studied and the chemical durability of corrosion products in water is evaluated. The corrosion tests confirm intensive infiltration of the slag melts into the tested refractory bricks and formation of Cr(6+ compounds. The molten copper partially oxidizes during corrosion test by air and penetrates into bricks. Interactions among periclase (MgO and chromite (FeCr2O4 grains with the melt Na2O.2SiO2 and copper oxides makes possible to form several compounds (e.g. Cu2MgO3, CuCrO4, CaCrO4, Na2CrO4, MgCrO4. Just the marked yellow spots, which were observed on the corroded brick surface after 30 days of free storage, suggest hydration of the high-temperature corrosion products. The yellow color of spots points out to chromates as Na2CrO4 and MgCrO4, which are well soluble in water. The leaching of corroded bricks in water (batch leaching test of a ratio of S (solid : W (water = 0.1 taking up to 28 days confirmed the Cr, Na, Mg and Ca ions leach-out. The pH value of solution increased up to 9 during leaching mainly as a consequence of elevated Na+ ion concentration. The Cr ion concentration rises in the solution up to 1 mmol.l-1. The observed moderate decrease of Cr ion concentration in the solution with the length of leaching indicates super-saturation of the solution and precipitation of the products.

  9. The effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis%低氟砖茶干预饮茶型氟中毒效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波; 刘庆斌; 刘学慧; 姜志立; 英殿双; 张晓明; 田淑彩; 盖长城; 王革

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effectiveness of low-fluoride brick tea on brick-tea-type fluorosis.Methods From 2007 to 2010,a 3-year-intervention trial,using low-fluoride brick tea without additives(fluorine content of 94.8-128.0 mg/kg),was carried out in Cuogang Township,Hulunbeier City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,and resident from 35 Mongolia pastoralists households were involved in the trial.The followings were compared before and after the intervention trial:fluorine levels in brick tea,milk tea,blood,urine,daily fluoride intake through brick tea,the changes of X-ray,bone density and blood biochemistry indexes.Fluorine content in brick tea,milk tea,blood and urine was determined by ion selective electrode method; dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean method; clinical osteofluorosis was diagnosed using the reference of "Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis Diagnosis of Clinical Classification" (GB 16396-1996) ; X-ray skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the reference of "Skeletal Fluorosis X-ray Diagnosis" (WS 192-1999); bone density was determined according to the reference standard of diagnosis of osteoporosis of WHO.Results Before the intervention trial fluorine content of tea[(4.38 ± 2.43)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(1.00 ± 0.41)mg/L,t =6.56,P < 0.01] ; blood fluorine content in the population[(0.068 ± 0.018)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial[(0.054 ± 0.025)mg/L,t =3.24,P < 0.01]; urinary fluoride content [(3.17 ± 1.97)mg/L] was higher than that after the trial [(1.57 ± 0.77)mg/L,t =5.78,P < 0.01]; fluoride intake through milk tea [(7.89 ± 6.76)mg/d] was higher than that after the trial[(1.71 ± 1.42)mg/d,t =7.62,P < 0.01].The skeletal fluorosis rate was 32.79%(20/61),no new patient was found after the trial; bone mineral density was improved,and the value before the trial(-0.74 ± 1.18) was lower than that after the trial(-0.56 ± 1.18,t =2.14,P < 0.05).Blood biochemistry:cholesterol and low density lipoprotein

  10. Characteristics of T-type fired porous brick%烧结T型多孔功能砖的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪有坤; 苏恩龙

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces ten functions of T-type fired brick, such as, loading, insulation, heat insulation, sound insulation, anti-shake, shear capacity, leak-free mortar, outer wall anti-leakage, blocking joints cold bridges and decoration. The new multifunction machine has a functional advantage than vacuum extruder.%介绍砖坯十项功能:承重、保温、隔热、隔音、防颤、抗剪切能力,免漏砂浆、外墙防渗漏、阻断灰口冷桥、可装饰性.新型多功能成型机对比真空挤出机的功能优势性.

  11. Qualitative Study on Clinico-Social Problems of Brick-Kiln Workers: A Study from Anand-Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Sharma, Arun Varun, Mansi Patel

    2013-01-01

    Results: In the current study it was found that the condition of these migrant brick kiln workers is very pathetic on account of number of conditions. All the workers were migrant and marginal workers with migration duration of 8 months every year and then they are going back to the native place. These workers were mostly illiterate or had primary education. Females were unedu-cated. These workers are getting daily wages and there is no holi-day as such. The days these workers don’t work are non-paid days. Almost all these workers complained of bodily pains. Children in these families are usually suffering from respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and intestinal infections. Conclusions: Irrespective of the migration status, local gover-nance should do something for their benefit and health so that some decent work can be ensured.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  13. Energy intensity and economic performance in small scale bricks and foundry clusters in India: does energy intensity matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper probes energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises with reference to two energy-intensive small-scale industry (SSI) clusters in the state of Karnataka in India. Based on analysis of primary data collected from 38 bricks enterprises and 31 foundries, the paper brought out that there is a positive relationship not only between energy intensity and share of energy cost in total variable cost but also between energy intensity and value of output. But there is a negative relationship between energy intensity and factor productivities. Energy made a statistically significant contribution to economic performance in terms of returns to scale. Those small enterprises, which were less energy intensive, achieved higher returns to scale than those, which were more energy intensive. Therefore, it is imperative for Indian Policy Makers to include 'energy efficiency improvement' programmes as part of the strategy for enhancing SSI competitiveness

  14. From Playroom to Lab: Tough Stretchable Electronics Analyzed with a Tabletop Tensile Tester Made from Toy‐Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettlgruber, Gerald; Siket, Christian M.; Drack, Michael; Graz, Ingrid M.; Cakmak, Umut; Major, Zoltan; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Bauer, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Toy bricks are an ideal platform for the cost‐effective rapid prototyping of a tabletop tensile tester with measurement accuracy on par with expensive, commercially available laboratory equipment. Here, a tester is presented that is not only a versatile demonstration device in mechanics, electronics, and physics education and an eye‐catcher on exhibitions, but also a powerful tool for stretchable electronics research. Following the “open‐source movement” the build‐up of the tester is described and all the details for easy reproduction are disclosed. A a new design of highly conformable all‐elastomer based graded rigid island printed circuit boards is developed. Tough bonded to this elastomer substrate are imperceptible electronic foils bearing conductors and off‐the‐shelf microelectronics, paving the way for next generation smart electronic appliances. PMID:27588259

  15. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio L.M., E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br [Faculdades de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATECs/CEETEPS/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Estadual de Educacao Tecnologica Paula Souza; Morais, Jose L.; Morais, Daisy de; Piedade, Silvia C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Munita, Casimiro S.P.; Hazenfratz, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at 'Luz' Monastery, located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments. (author)

  16. Effects of Elazig region waste brick and limestone powder on engineering properties of self-compacting mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Açıkgenç

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of using mineral additives on Self compacting Mortar's (SCM strength and viscosity properties. As Self-compacting concrete (SCC contains less coarse aggregate than conventional concrete, mortar forms the basis of the design of SCC. Therefore, this study was found to be appropriate to use mortar. In addition, the properties of SCC such as required strength, durability and workability makes a good production of concrete inevitable. While Providing this properties, it has been presented in many studies that mineral additive (silica fume, fly ash, limestone powder, blast furnace slag etc. and certain amount of powder material requirement is essential especially in terms of workability and consistency of SCC. Furthermore, it was aimed to prevent environmental health threats by wastes released disorderly and to add new powder material to be used in SCC and finally to reduce the cost of both transport and cement by using limestone and waste brick powder. For this purpose, 23 types of mortars, in which cement was partially replaced of limestone and waste brick powder, were produced. The mini slump flow and V-funnel tests were used to assess the workability and the self compactivity properties of the fresh mortars, and the viscosity of mortars were also measured. The hardened properties of SCM specimens including the compressive strength and tensile strength in bending were investigated and all tests were performed for 3, 7, 28 and 91 days. Moreover, capillary water absorption test were performed and, total water absorption and porosity rates of all specimens were measured.

  17. Utilization of MSWI Fly Ash in Making Ceramic Brick and Product Characterization%生活垃圾焚烧飞灰制陶瓷砖表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海英; 赵由才; 祈景玉

    2011-01-01

    为了探索生活垃圾焚烧飞灰资源化利用途径,在对飞灰化学组成及矿物成分分析的基础上,利用飞灰、黄陶土、耐火砂及长石研制陶瓷砖,最佳配比方案为:飞灰20%,黄陶土61%,长石10%,耐火砂10%,分析了最佳配比制品的吸水率、抗压强度、微观结构及水平振荡浸出毒性.结果表明:飞灰属SiO-AlO-金属氧化物体系,主要矿物成分是钙硅酸盐及铝硅酸盐等,可用于制陶瓷砖;最佳配比制品达MU15强度等级,满足抗风化的要求;随煅烧温度的升高,制品结构不断密实化,960℃烧成的制品显示出完全烧结的特点,960~1 000℃烧成的制品中出现明显的晶化、玻璃化过程.最佳配比制品重金属浸出毒性完全达标,重金属的浸出率与坯体相比大大降低.%Based on chemical and mineralogical composition analysis, MSWI fly ash, together with yellow ceramic clay,ripe sand and feldspar, was used to make ceramic brick, to explore a new way of fly ash recycling. An orthogonal test was designed to determine the optimum mixing ratio of materials, which registers 20% fly ash,60% yellow ceramic clay, 10%feldspar and 10% ripe sand. Besides, water absorption, compressive strength, microstructure and HVEP leaching toxicity were performed on ceramic bricks made in accordance with the optimum mixing ratio of materials. It is found that main mineralogical components of fly ash are calcium silicates and alumino-silicates, registering as a SiO2-Al2O3-metal oxides system, which can be used as a raw material of ceramic brick. Ceramic bricks made in accordance with the optimum mixing ratio register MU15 in terms of compressive strength and meet requirements of anti-weathering based on its water absorption.The bricks are much more hardened with increase of sintering temperature. The bricks sintered at 960 ℃ show characteristics of complete sintering, and obvious crystallization and vitrification process was seen in bricks sintered

  18. Influence of the type of lightweight clay brick on the equivalent thermal transmittance of different types of façades on buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equivalent thermal transmittances of different façades built using commercial clay bricks with three different thicknesses and façades made using the same method but with ceramic bricks with optimized rhomboidal interior geometry. Equivalent thermal transmittances of 0.300 W/m2·K were recorded for the rhomboidal brick with a thickness of 0.290 m and a façade with thermo-acoustic insulation and a large format brick on the interior, but the final thickness of the façade was 0.445 m. For ventilated façades made of the proposed rhomboidal brick with thicknesses of 0.290 and 0.240 m an 8–9% improvement was found, with values of 0.312 W/m2·K and 0.339 W/m2·K, respectively. It can be concluded that in view of the small difference in thermal terms, the best option is to use a brick 0.240 m thick, as the overall thickness of the façade will not then exceed 0.300 m.En el presente trabajo se comparan las transmitancias térmicas equivalentes de diferentes fachadas ejecutadas con bloques comerciales de tres espesores 0,290 m, 0,240 m y 0,190 m, con el mismo montaje pero con un bloque cerámico optimizado con geometría interior romboidal. Se ha obtenido una transmitancia térmica equivalente de 0,300 W/m2·K para el ladrillo con geometría romboidal de 0,290 m de espesor y pared con aislamiento termoacústico y gran formato en el interior, con un espesor total de fachada de 0,445 m. Para fachadas ventiladas con el ladrillo romboidal propuesto con espesores de 0,290 y 0,240 m, se obtiene una mejora de un 8%–9%, con valores de 0,312 W/m2·K y 0,339 W/m2·K, respectivamente. Podemos concluir que, dada la pequeña diferencia en términos térmicos, la mejor opción es el uso de ladrillos de 0,240 m de espesor, siempre y cuando el espesor total de fachada no exceda los 0,300 m.

  19. 再生骨料级配对再生混凝土多孔砖干燥收缩的影响%Effect of aggregate gradation on drying shrinkage of recycled concrete perforated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡利; 梁建国; 杨伟军; 李鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    The drying shrinkage of recycled concrete perforated brick with different content of broken bricks and recycled fine aggregate was tested. The test results show that the drying shrinkage of recycled concrete perforated brick increases with the raising of broken bricks content,and decreases with the raising of recycled fine aggregate content.%对不同碎砖和细骨料含量的再生混凝土多孔砖进行干燥收缩率试验研究.结果表明,再生混凝土多孔砖干燥收缩率随碎砖骨料掺量的增加而增大,随着细骨料掺量的增加而减小.

  20. Comparative study on fast classification of brick samples by combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis using stand-off and table-top laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on historical aspect, during archeological excavation or restoration works of buildings or different structures built from bricks it is important to determine, preferably in-situ and in real-time, the locality of bricks origin. Fast classification of bricks on the base of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra is possible using multivariate statistical methods. Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was applied in this case. LIBS was used to classify altogether the 29 brick samples from 7 different localities. Realizing comparative study using two different LIBS setups — stand-off and table-top it is shown that stand-off LIBS has a big potential for archeological in-field measurements. - Highlights: • Comparison of two potentially field-deployable LIBS setups is introduced. • The aim is classification of LIBS spectra of brick samples into several localities. • LDA filled with PCA scores is proposed as an effective classification method. • An influence of brick firing temperature on LIBS spectra is discovered and examined

  1. Nature and origin of white efflorescence on bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars of modern houses evaluated by portable Raman spectroscopy and laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; Trebolazabala, Josu; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Bricks and mortar currently constitute one of the most important building materials used in the construction of most modern facades. The deterioration of these materials is caused primarily by the impact of numerous external stressors, while poor manufacturing quality, particularly of mortars, can also contribute to this process. In this work, the non-invasive Raman spectroscopy technique was used to identify the recently formed deterioration compounds (primarily sulfates and nitrates) in bricks, artificial stones, and joint mortars from detached houses in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Basque Country, North of Spain), as well as to investigate the deterioration processes taking place in these materials. Additionally, to confirm and in some cases complement the results obtained with Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were also carried out.

  2. An evaluation of the composition of soil cement bricks with construction and demolition waste - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i2.9377

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Anderson da Silva Segantini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires the existence of a production network that includes the reuse of construction waste for new materials. Current analysis investigates an optimal soil-cement composition made up of construction and demolition waste for the manufacture of pressed bricks. Soil-cement bricks were manufactured from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, A-4 classified fine sandy soil and cement CP II Z 32. Laboratory tests, comprising test compaction, optimum water content and maximum dry specific weight, consistency limits, grain size distribution and linear shrinkage, were made to characterize the materials researched. Compressive strength and absorption tests were also undertaken in different combinations of composition. Results showed that the application of CDW improved soil-cement qualities and reduced shrinkage of the material used.

  3. Quality Formation Mechanism and Healthcare Function of Sichuan Brick Tea%四川边茶的品质形成机理及保健功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹瑶; 齐桂年; 刘婷婷; 李伟; 陈智雄

    2013-01-01

    Sichuan brick tea has a long history of processing and is the daily necessity of the minority living in the Sichuan-Tibet region.In this paper,the changes of the quality components of the tea along with the key process,the essence of fermentation and the healthcare function of Sichuan brick tea were reviewed.%四川边茶具有悠久的加工历史,是川藏地区少数民族同胞的生活必需品.综述了四川边茶加工过程中关键工序与品质成分主要变化的关系、渥堆的实质及保健功能.

  4. Strength Measure of Assembled Lightweight Brick and Discussion%装配式轻型砖的强度测定及其思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕巧巍; 张福贵

    2001-01-01

    本文总结了目前具有最大孔洞率的装配式轻型砖的抗压、抗剪强度测定结果,发现其抗压、抗剪强度甚为理想这一重要事实,进一步提出了此装配式轻型砖作为半承重、半围护的新型围护结构材料的设想,从而为充分发挥其装配式轻型砖的承载潜力,设计出更加经济合理的工业与民用建筑打下基础。%The measure result of compressive strength and shearing strengthof assembled lightweight brick with biggest hole rate in China is summarized in the paper. On the basis of the better compressive strength and shearing strength, the paper raises the idea of utilizing the assembled lightweight brick as a new type of semi-load-bearing wall materials, and fully develop the load-bearing of the assembled lightweight brick.

  5. 活性粉末混凝土路面砖的经济性分析%The Economic Analysis of Reactive Powder Concrete Pavement Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 王亚洲

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the features and advantages of reactive powder concrete (RPC) pavement brick, and in the material composition of reactive powder concrete as the economy of the urban road brick are analyzed. Using of the reactive powder concrete pavement brick in Municipal Engineering can significantly increase the road service performance and durability, and play an important role in the future development of the road.%本文主要介绍了活性粉末混凝土(RPC)路面砖的特点和优势,并从材料组成上对活性粉末混凝土用作城市路面砖的经济性进行了分析。市政工程中采用活性粉末混凝土做路面砖,可以显著提高道路使用性能及耐久性,在未来道路发展中占有重要作用。

  6. Development of Semi—Graphite Carbon—Silicon Carbide Brick and Its Application in Slag Forming Zone of Large—sized Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOYun-zhong; CHENQian-wan

    1994-01-01

    Based on the damage mechanism of the lining at the slag forming zone of the blast furnace and the charactieristics of various refractory ma-terials,the methods to increase the service life of the lining at the slag forming zone have been found:(1) to improve the capacity of the blast furnace brick lining subjet to heat impact;(2) to reduce the working side temperature of the brick lining.On this basis,the semi-graphitized ,high temperature electrically calcined anthracite and silicon carbide etc ,were used as the main raw materials,Through a lot of experiments the proper raw material mix and grain size compo-sition were determined,In addition ,a suitable amount of additives and binders was added.After high pressur forming,high temperature firing and grinding ,the semi-graphitic carbon-silicon carbide bricks with close dimension tler-ances and ideal physical and chemical properties have been made.They have been applied in some blast furnaces,such as No.11(2580 m3) and No.6(1050 m3) blast furnaces etc.at Anshan Iron and Steel Company,and the problem of short service life at slag forming zone of blast furnace has been solved.

  7. 6m焦炉炉门砖减薄技术研究%Research on the oven door brick thinning technology of 6m coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明

    2015-01-01

    Experiment was carried out to study the methods of thinning the existing oven door brick and reducing heat loss on the surface of oven door. The result shows that if the oven door brick is thinned by 80mm and installed with an additional new type high temperature resistant insulating plate,maintenance of oven door is easier, heat loss on the surface of oven door is less, effective volume of coking chamber is increased and consequently coke output is increased. The thinned brick can meet the requirement of oven door.%试验研究了现有型式的炉门砖如何减薄及降低炉门表面散失的热量,试验可知,炉门砖减薄80mm,同时增加新型耐高温隔热板,维修方便,可降低炉门散热造成的热量损失,增加炭化室有效容积,增加焦炭产量,完全能够满足焦炉炉门的需要.

  8. Single Hole Bottom of Coking Chamber Brick Replacement Process%单孔炭化室底砖更换的工艺过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴安庆

    2012-01-01

    Coke oven is composed of a variety of refractory bricks of complex structure of industrial furnace.Coke oven in the production process for many reasons,will make the coke oven refractory brick erosion or damage occurs,in order to ensure continuous production of the coke oven,furnace body of the repair is generally in the hot repair under.The paper briefly introduces the single hole bottom of coking chamber brick replacing the whole process,for reference.%焦炉是由各种耐火砖砌筑而成结构复杂的工业窑炉。焦炉在生产过程中由于很多原因,会使焦炉耐火砖出现剥蚀或损坏,为了保证焦炉的连续生产,炉体的各项维修一般都在热态修补下进行。文章简要介绍了单孔炭化室底砖整体更换的工艺过程,供同行参考。

  9. 再生骨料混凝土多孔砖技术研究%Research on recycled aggregate concrete perforated brick technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐传军

    2014-01-01

    分析了国内外再生骨料生产混凝土多孔砖技术研究和应用现状,从建筑垃圾再生骨料分类及其评价方法、混凝土多孔砖配比设计、力学性能、防裂抗裂等方面提出了将来研究方向,为再生骨料生产混凝土多孔砖技术研究和应用提供参考。%The paper analyzes the research on recycled aggregate concrete perforated brick technique at home and abroad and its application, points out its following research from classification of recycled aggregate of architectural rubbish and its evaluation methods,proportion ratio de-sign for concrete perforated brick,dynamic performance,and crack control,so as to provide some reference for the production of the recycled ag-gregate concrete perforated brick.

  10. CRISPathBrick: Modular Combinatorial Assembly of Type II-A CRISPR Arrays for dCas9-Mediated Multiplex Transcriptional Repression in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Brady F; Toparlak, Ö Duhan; Guleria, Sanjay; Lebovich, Matthew; Stieglitz, Jessica T; Englaender, Jacob A; Jones, J Andrew; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2015-09-18

    Programmable control over an addressable global regulator would enable simultaneous repression of multiple genes and would have tremendous impact on the field of synthetic biology. It has recently been established that CRISPR/Cas systems can be engineered to repress gene transcription at nearly any desired location in a sequence-specific manner, but there remain only a handful of applications described to date. In this work, we report development of a vector possessing a CRISPathBrick feature, enabling rapid modular assembly of natural type II-A CRISPR arrays capable of simultaneously repressing multiple target genes in Escherichia coli. Iterative incorporation of spacers into this CRISPathBrick feature facilitates the combinatorial construction of arrays, from a small number of DNA parts, which can be utilized to generate a suite of complex phenotypes corresponding to an encoded genetic program. We show that CRISPathBrick can be used to tune expression of plasmid-based genes and repress chromosomal targets in probiotic, virulent, and commonly engineered E. coli strains. Furthermore, we describe development of pCRISPReporter, a fluorescent reporter plasmid utilized to quantify dCas9-mediated repression from endogenous promoters. Finally, we demonstrate that dCas9-mediated repression can be harnessed to assess the effect of downregulating both novel and computationally predicted metabolic engineering targets, improving the yield of a heterologous phytochemical through repression of endogenous genes. These tools provide a platform for rapid evaluation of multiplex metabolic engineering interventions. PMID:25822415

  11. Effect of microstructure on slag resistance of Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks%Al2O3-Cr2O3砖显微结构对抗渣性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红刚; 李鹏涛; 付建莹; 闫双志; 王刚; 耿可明

    2014-01-01

    The slag resistance of two Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks (with 10 mass%Cr2 O3 )A and B were researched using static crucible method and rotary slag method,respectively.The results show that,two Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 bricks have similar properties such as apparent porosity,bulk density,thermal shock resistance,and chem-ical compositions.Brick B has higher strength than brick A.Compared with brick B:brick A has smaller in-ner pores,because the white corundum aggregates in brick A are smoother and denser with continuous particle size distribution;Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 solid solution in brick A is smaller,crossing and forming net structure with small gaps,which reduces the penetration and wear of slag to refractories,meaning that brick A has better slag resistance than brick B.It’s obvious that optimizing microstructure is an effective way to im-prove the slag resistance of Al2 O3-Cr2 O3 materials.%分别采用静态坩埚抗渣法和回转抗渣法,对w(Cr2 O3)=10%的A和B两种Al2 O3-Cr2 O3砖进行了抗渣性能对比。结果发现:两种砖的化学组成、显气孔率、体积密度和抗热震性相近,B砖强度优于A砖的。但由于与B砖相比,A砖内部气孔尺寸更小,所用电熔白刚玉骨料形貌平滑,较为致密,粒度呈连续式分布,且A砖中Al2 O3-Cr2 O3固溶体发育较小,相互交错,形成了孔隙较小的空间网状结构,这种显微结构显著降低了熔渣对耐火材料的渗透和破坏,使A砖的抗渣性优于B砖的。因此,制备微气孔化结构的制品是提高Al2 O3-Cr2 O3材料抗渣性能的有效途径。

  12. Influence of the process control on the thermal energy requirement of convection dryers in the brick industry; Einfluss der Prozessfuehrung auf den thermischen Energiebedarf von Konvektionstrocknern in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretau, Anne

    2008-06-10

    Brick manufacturing demands high amount of energy. The energy flow analysis inside the brick factory shows that the convective drying of green bricks consumes more than half of the total thermal energy required for brick manufacturing. Therefore this paper deals with the theoretical analysis and investigation for the energy requirement of green bricks. For this, a physical-based model has been developed, which describes the dependence of drying-kinetics as well as the energy-requirement interims of the process parameter like mass of the supply air. It turns out that the specific energy requirement substantially depends on temperature and humidity of the ambience air and also supply air mass flow and its temperature. Due to the continuous temperature rise of the green bricks during the second drying section the specific energy requirement increases significantly with the progressive motion of the drying in a chamber dryer. This is due to the fact that the green brick as well as the air conditioning distance more and more from the cooling limit. Just a low part of the dryer exhaust air is saturated. The exhaust air is continuously sucked out and the green bricks are pulled inside the dryer. So the exhaust air has a relatively higher water saturation. On general, continuous dryers have a lower energy requirement than chamber dryer. For the both types of dryers, the mathematical model shows that the increasing of the supply air temperature combined with a commensurate subsidence of supply air mass flow, results in a reduction of drying energy requirement. The change of other essential parameters of drying like green brick thickness, and density as well as the moisture diffusion coefficient, and the vapour diffusity which are only important in the second drying section are of comparatively negligible effect. The developed mathematical model is successfully implemented for the energy investigation in the industrial dryers. The increase in supply air temperature results

  13. The properties of sand-lime bricks manufactured with the use of waste moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the laboratory research data on potential applications of selected mould and core mix wastes and dusts fromregeneration processes as alternative or supplementary materials to be added to natural silica sands used in manufacturing of sand-limebricks. The rational behind this solution is the large silica content in used moulding and core mix, their matrices being high-quality natural silica sands. The research program shall involve obtaining the series of silicate sample products, press-formed and made from mixtures containing the waste materials discussed here. In the course of laboratory tests autoclaved materials shall be manufactured, including sand-lime bricks. Apart from conventional components: natural silica sand and quicklime, the prepared mixture shall contain pre-processed mould and core mix and dusts from regeneration processes, depending on the type of applied binder. The previously mentioned wastes from the foundry processes were introduced to the basic composition mix as substitutes for silica sand, ranging from 0-100 % (by weight. Potential applications of these wastes were explored using the comparative analysis, covering the basic functional parameters of two types of materials: the reference material made from conventional constituents and several experimental formulas containing additives, differing in qualitative and quantitative composition. Characteristics of thus obtained materials are supported by selected SEM+EDS test results.

  14. Applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) in occupational heat stress assessment: a case study in brick industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatani, Javad; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Yousefi, Azam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as an innovative and science-based index in public health researches, in occupational heat stress assessment. All indoor and outdoor workers (200 people) of Brick industries of Shahroud, Iran participated in the research. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured; then UTCI and WBGT (wet-bulb globe temperature) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oral temperature, skin temperature, tympanic temperature and heart rate of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT indices were 34.2 ± 2°C, 21.8 ± 1.8°C in the outdoor environments and 38.1 ± 4.4°C, 24.7 ± 3.3°C at the indoor environments, respectively. There were the weak inverse relationships between UTCI and WBGT indices at the outdoor environments and physiological responses such as systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. However, there were no similar results for indoor environments. The significant relationships were found between UTCI and WBGT at both indoor and outdoor environments. Both UTCI and WBGT indices are suitable for assessing the occupational heat stress. Although, UTCI index seems more appropriate for heat stress assessment in the environments with low humidity and air velocity. PMID:26320731

  15. How two-dimensional brick layer J-aggregates differ from linear ones: excitonic properties and line broadening mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Arend G; Knoester, Jasper; Nelson, Keith A; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    We study the excitonic coupling and homogeneous spectral line width of brick layer J-aggregate films. We begin by analysing the structural information revealed by the two-exciton states probed in two-dimensional spectra. Our first main result is that the relation between the excitonic couplings and the spectral shift in a two-dimensional structure is different (larger shift for the same nearest neighbour coupling) from that in a one-dimensional structure, which leads to an estimation of dipolar coupling in two-dimensional lattices. We next investigate the mechanisms of homogeneous broadening - population relaxation and pure dephasing - and evaluate their relative importance in linear and two-dimensional aggregates. Our second main result is that pure dephasing dominates the line width in two-dimensional systems up to a crossover temperature, which explains the linear temperature dependence of the homogeneous line width. This is directly related to the decreased density of states at the band edge when compared...

  16. Effect of High-Temperature Slag on Refractory Bricks in Coal-Water Slurry Gasifier%高温熔渣对水煤浆气化炉耐火砖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进波

    2012-01-01

    对使用后的耐火砖残砖进行取样分析,以了解高铬砖显微结构和成分变化,找出水煤浆气化炉向火面高铬砖受熔渣侵蚀损毁的机理.结果表明:对于结构相同的耐火砖,在高温熔渣侵蚀耐火砖的过程中,主要影响因素是熔渣的成分、工作温度、耐火砖的致密度和杂质含量,熔渣中的SiO2含量是造成渣蚀的直接原因,而耐火砖的工作温度、致密度和杂质含量决定了渣蚀的速率.%An analysis is made of samples taken from residual pieces of used refractory bricks, so as to understand the microstructure of high-chromium bricks and their change in composition and find out the mechanism of damage on the side of high-chromium bricks facing the fire by slag erosion in the coal-water slurry gasifier. The results show that for bricks of the same structure the main influencing factors in the course of refractory bricks eroded by high-temperature slag are the composition of the slag working temperature, densification and impurity content of the bricks, and the SiO2 content of the slag is the direct cause for slag erosion, while the working temperature, densification and impurity content of the bricks determine the rate of slag erosion.

  17. “自保温轻集料混凝土砖”执行标准的讨论%Discussion on Performance Standards of Self-insulating Concrete Brick of Lightweight Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芝; 沈培荣

    2013-01-01

    根据对混凝土砖的检测及相关标准的研究认为:《轻集料混凝土小型空心砌块》(GB/T15229)不能作为用建筑垃圾生产的“自保温轻集料混凝土砖”产品标准,《混凝土小型空心砌块试验方法》(GB/T4111-1997)也不适用于“自保温轻集料混凝土砖”的检测;用建筑垃圾生产的再生混凝土砖应制订专门的产品标准;“自保温轻集料混凝土砖”目前可参照农业部编制的《混凝土普通砖和装饰砖》(NY/T 671-2003)作为产品检测依据。%According to the study on the testing and relevant standard of concrete brick,Lightweight aggregate concrete small hollow block GB/T15229 cannot be used as product standards of self-insulation concrete brick of lightweight aggregate produced from construction waste;Test method for con-crete small hollow block GB/T4111-1997"is also unadoptable to the detection of self-insulating concrete brick of lightweight aggregate. Recycled con-crete brick produced from construction waste should formulate special product standards;Self-insulating concrete brick of lightweight aggregate can take reference from Common Concrete bricks and decorative bricks NY/T 671-2003 by the Department of Agriculture as the basis for product testing.

  18. Experimental study on shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry in Xinjiang region%新疆地区蒸压粉煤灰实心砖砌体抗剪性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁康; 陈燕华; 常新军; 何志军

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved fly ash brick is classified as one new wall material to replace fired brick, promoting the shear property of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry is very important for improving the earthquake resistance and crack resistance of masonry structure.Because of fluting the surface of brick,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry would be improved. In the paper,the shear property of ribbed autoclaved fly ash brick masonry, common autoclaved fly ash brick masonry and fired brick have been comparative studied,and the earthquake resistance and crack resistance measures have been discussed under the premise of relative standard citations,in order to provide the theoretical basis for autoclaved fly ash brick's further promotion and application in Xinjiang which is located in seismic high-incidence area, while have climate characteristics of dry climate, high annual temperature difference,high diurnal temperature difference.%蒸压粉煤灰砖属于可以替代烧结普通砖的新型墙体材料,提高蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体的抗剪性能是改善此类砌体结构抗震、抗裂能力的关键.带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖通过改善砖的外形,在砖的表面开槽形成肋状,可提高砖砌体的抗剪能力.本文对带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体、普通蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体和烧结普通砖砌体的抗剪性能进行了比较研究,并结合相关规范条文探讨了带肋蒸压粉煤灰砖的有关抗震、抗裂措施,为蒸压粉煤灰砖在地处地震高发区同时具备气候干燥,年温差、日温差大的新疆地区推广应用提供理论依据.

  19. Design of an annual output of 200 million fly ash brick loading line%年产2亿块粉煤灰砖装车线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏魁

    2012-01-01

      Fly ash brick loading line is at the end of a production process in fly ash brick production line. With the expansion of the scale of brick production line, automatic loading car appears especially urgent. This paper introduces the fly ash brick automatic loading line composition, working principle and application and equipment design, which is helpful to the design and application fly ash brick automatic loading line.%  粉煤灰砖装车线是粉煤灰砖线生产的最后一道生产工序,随着砖线生产规模的扩大,自动化装车就显得尤为迫切。为此介绍了粉煤灰砖自动化装车线的组成、工作原理及其应用及设备的设计,从带垛蒸养车进入装车线再到蒸养车的分离、砖垛的装车及空蒸养车继续前行进入下一工作环节的整个过程都作了说明,对粉煤灰砖自动化装车线设计及应用有一定的帮助作用。

  20. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  1. 废旧砖在GRC中的再生利用研究%Research on recycling use of waste brick in GRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海丽

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, by using the orthogonal design method, the effects of fly ash and waste brick aggregate on GRC was researched, the effects of replacement ratio of waste brick aggregate on the recycled aggregate GRC was further researched. The results show that the strength of recycled aggregate GRC improves with the increase of the replacement ratio of waste brick aggregate. When the replacement ratio of fly ash to P·0 cement was 20%, alkali-resistant glass fiber volume ratio was 1.5% and waste brick to natural sand was 35%-45%,the mechanical properties can reach or exceed to the one of GRC with natural sand; and when the volume replacement ratio reached to 45% ,the performance of GRC is optimal, the 7d and 28 d tensile strength can increase 38.5% and 38.3% respectively and the compressive strength can increase 25.3% and 9.1% respectively.%采用正交设计方法研究了粉煤灰及再生砖骨料对GRC的影响,并进一步研究了再生砖骨料的取代率对再生骨料GRC的影响及变化规律.结果表明,再生骨料GRC的强度随废砖取代率的提高呈增长趋势,当粉煤灰取代普通水泥20%,耐碱玻纤体积率1.5%,废旧砖取代天然砂35%~45%时,可达到或超过天然砂GRC的力学性能:其中再生骨料取代天然砂体积率为45%时,再生骨料GRC的抗折和抗压强度最大,7d与28d抗折强度分别可增长38.5%和38.3%,抗压强度分别可增长25.3%和9.1%.

  2. Restudy of the Hen Period "Pictorial Brick with a Scene of Transplanting Rice Seedings"%汉代“薅秧画像砖”再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴林

    2002-01-01

    The picture about Hao Yang ( a kind of work in paddyfields) in the carvedbrick of the Han Dynasty unearthed in Xin Du County, Southwest China's Si Chuan Prov-ince, shows the fact that ancient people were working in the paddyfield. It is a lovely de-scription of the main facts of the people's farming and living in ancient China, which ex-pose rice transplanting, weeding, irrigating and farmers cooperating each other in thefield. In addition, the designing, scuphure of the picture and organic contact with thetwo parts of the picture make the carved brick abundant animations. Thereby, we can getstill indepther thoughts about its value.

  3. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径

  4. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  5. Instrumentation and measurements of temperatures of a load of bricks in a tunnel kiln using natural gas; Instrumentacao e medicao de temperaturas em uma carga de tijolos no interior de um forno tunel a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, T.G.; Lehmkuhl, W.A.; Hartke, Rafael Fernando; Dadam, A.P.; Nicolau, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The analysis of the thermal efficiency of ceramics kilns, a big difficulty is the experimental determination of the temperature distribution inside the kiln load. The biggest challenge is the instrumentation, since the sensors should accompany the brick load through out the kiln, which may reach a length greater than 100 m, with their connection cables exposed to temperature greater than 300 deg C. These results are important to identify under what conditions are submitted internal layers of the brick load, to determine the best brick arrangements in cart load. This work permits a best understanding of firing cycles used in the tunnels kilns. The mathematical treatment and understanding of the data will permit to create experimental analysis tools, which should be useful in other problems. (author)

  6. Forensic investigation of brick stones using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brick stones collected from different production facilities were studied for their elemental compositions under forensic aspects using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The aim of these examinations was to assess the potential of these methods in forensic comparison analyses of brick stones. The accuracy of the analysis methods was evaluated using NIST standard reference materials (679, 98b and 97b). In order to compare the stones to each other, multivariate data analysis was used. The evaluation of the INAA results (based on the concentrations of V, Na, K, Sm, U, Sc, Fe, Co, Rb and Cs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis is presented as an example. The results derived from the different analytical methods are consistent. It was shown that elemental analysis using the described methods is a valuable tool for forensic examinations of brick stones.

  7. ANALYSIS ON THE WAY OF RECLAIMING AND UTILIZING POLISHING SCRAP OF POLISHED BRICKS%抛光砖抛光废料的回收利用途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔木; 王欣丹; 王艳; 李丹

    2011-01-01

    The output of polishing scrap of ceramics polished bricks is very more, it makes environmental contamination badly, it is a world problem of puzzling production of polished bricks. In this paper, the feasibility methods on reclaiming and utilizing of polishing scrap of polished bricks were dissertated by means of research result on this aspect.%陶瓷抛光砖抛光废料产出量很大,严重污染周边环境,是困扰抛光砖生产的世界性难题.本文通过对此方面的研究结果,着重论述了陶瓷抛光砖抛光废料回收利用的可行性方法.

  8. Discussion on imported beverage bottle brick as raw material%关于进口废PET饮料瓶砖的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞堃; 池昌; 刘孟春; 包海涛

    2012-01-01

    从环保和经济的角度出发,我国已逐步放开废PET饮料瓶(砖)的进口。随着废PET饮料瓶(砖)的大量进口,相关问题也逐渐凸显出来。本文结合进口废PET饮料瓶(砖)监督管理工作实际,从检测指标、企业管理等方面进行探讨,提出相应意见和建议。%In consideration of environmental protection and economy, China has gradually liberalized the import of waste PET beverage bottle brick. While along with the large amount of import, some problems emerged. Combined with the administration and management practice, the paper discussed the detection index, enterprise management and other aspects of import waste PET beverage bottle brick, and put forward corresponding opinions and suggestions.

  9. Production technology of low silicon iron copper tailings autoclaved brick%低硅铜铁尾矿生产蒸压砖的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景明; 唐怀志

    2013-01-01

      以低硅铜铁尾矿为主要原料,掺入适量矿渣、铜渣、硅铝酸盐、硫酸盐、碳酸盐组成的固化剂经过加压成型后,在183℃温度的蒸压养护下制成标准砖,该砖平均抗压强度达到13.6 MPa,抗冻性能指标合格,固体废弃物利用率达到90%以上.%The paper introduces a kind of autoclaved brick, which is made of low silicon copper iron tailings as a main raw material, and appropriate mixture of amount of slag, copper slag, aluminosilicate, sulfates, carbonates as curing agent. The mixture is pressed into brick and cured at 183 ℃, which can reach 13.6 MPa of average compressive strength and qualified frost resistance index.

  10. 微膨胀高铝砖的生产与应用%Production and application of tiny expansive high alumina brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华云; 李明晶; 王佑宝

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the high alumina brick made of high quality bauxite and mullite compound as major raw materials ,with kyanite ,andalusite ,sillimanite and pyrophyllite as expanding agents,with soft clay as bonding agent ,and with certain amount of additives ,then calcined under appropriate temperature ,which has been sucessfully used for ladle lining to produce low carbon steel and strainless steel .Tiny brick expension appears at the high temperature and allows a good integrity of the ladle lining for a better erosion resistance .%采用优质高铝矾土和莫来石合成料为主要原料,添加蓝晶石、红柱石、硅线石(简称三石)和叶蜡石等作膨胀剂,使用软质黏土作结合剂,再外加适量添加剂,经适宜温度焙烧制成高铝砖,并成功应用于冶炼低碳钢、不锈钢等钢包内村。该砖在高温区使用时产生微膨胀,使钢包内衬具有良好的整体性,从而提高抗侵蚀性。

  11. We love bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Exhibition at Utzon Center main Exhibition room, 300 m2. Three architectural Offices , E+N, CUBO and Gramazio and Kohlers work are exhibited alongside the Utzon(x) project. Mix of print, models and video projections....

  12. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    As well as accelerators to boost particles up to high energy, physicists need detectors to see what happens when those particles collide. This lead glass block is part of a CERN detector called OPAL. OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  13. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  14. Beyond bricks and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2010-11-01

    Geoscience has played a key role in the recovery of Haiti since the earthquake, but warnings were not heeded in the political sphere. Along with better houses, an adaptive disaster-management infrastructure that incorporates science needs to be built.

  15. Bricking a Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Goldman Sachs created the acronym BRIC in 2001,neither the economists nor the rest of the world imagined that Brazil,Russia,India and China would finally sit together to build up a substantial platform one day.

  16. Inheritance and Development of Hui Islamic Bricks Carving Art in Ningxia%宁夏回族伊斯兰砖雕艺术传承及其发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文军

    2015-01-01

    Ningxia Hui Islamic brick carving art is an integration of Islamic cultural and China ’ s traditional brick carv-ing art, and is the important carrier of the study the origin and the cultural integration on China ’s brick carving.The Islam-ic brick carvings in Ningxia has characteristics of rich themes and exquisite craft , which could help the combination of Hui Muslims art with China ’ s traditional art with flexibility in using .%宁夏回族伊斯兰砖雕融合中国传统砖雕艺术与伊斯兰文化,是研究中国砖雕艺术源流与文化融合现象的重要艺术载体。宁夏境内具有代表性的伊斯兰砖雕题材丰富,工艺精美,能够将回族艺术不喜空白的艺术特征与中国传统画中的留白意境较好地结合,灵活运用。

  17. Composition of mortar as a function of distance to the brick-mortar interface : A study on the formation of cured mortar structure in masonry using NMR, PFM and XRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Larbi, J.A.; Pel, L.; Pers, N.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    The formation of cured mortar structure in masonry was studied using multiple experimental techniques. Starting with fresh mortar, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure the water extraction during brick laying. After curing, the composition of cured mortar was investigated with polari

  18. Composition of mortar as a function of distance to the brick-mortar interface: A study on the formation of cured mortar structure in masonry using NMR, PFM and XRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Larbi, J.A.; Pel, L.; Van der Pers, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of cured mortar structure in masonry was studied using multiple experimental techniques. Starting with fresh mortar, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure the water extraction during brick laying. After curing, the composition of cured mortar was investigated with polari

  19. Clone-based comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from biodeteriorating brick buildings of the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the bacterial communities in four samples of historical materials (plaster, brick, and wood) derived from buildings located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka, Poland. For this purpose a molecular strategy based on the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries was used. In total, 138 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (∼600bp) were obtained and compared. The clones belonged to phyla Proteobacteria (classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The plaster samples predominantly contained clones closely related to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, brick samples contained Gammaproteobacteria, while wood samples had Actinobacteria clones. Interestingly, the historic plaster and brick samples contained the following bacteria with known and described biodeterioration potential: chemoorganotrophic Streptomyces sp. and Pseudonocardia sp., halotolerant or halophilic Rubrobacter sp., Salinisphaera sp. and Halomonas sp. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that amongst the bacterial species detected and identified none occurred on all the tested historical materials. The 16S rRNA clone library construction method was successfully used for the detection and diversity determination of bacterial communities inhabiting brick barracks located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Brzezinka.

  20. 环氧丙烷装置皂化电石渣处理方案%Feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛海; 吴学亮

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了皂化废电石渣用于生产蒸压粉煤灰砖的可行性。%The feasibility scheme of epoxy propane saponification Calcium carbide slag produce autoclaved fly ash brick was introduced.

  1. Study on preparation of autoclaved brick by Yellow River silt and fly ash added waste papermaking liquor%利用造纸黑液和粉煤灰-泥砂制备蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新爱; 关润伶

    2014-01-01

    以粉煤灰、黄河泥砂为主要原料,炉渣为骨料,石灰、石膏为激发剂,用造纸黑液代替水做拌和液制备黄河泥砂-粉煤灰蒸压砖。结果表明,造纸黑液代水制备蒸压砖是可行的,制备的蒸压砖可以达到JC 239-2001《粉煤灰砖》规定的MU25级的质量要求。%Autoclaved brick is prepared by fly ash and Yellow River silt as main materials, waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The results show that it is feasible to make autoclaved brick by waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The autoclaved brick meets the demand of MU25 grade in JC 239-2001 (fly ash bricks) standard.

  2. 利用电厂粉煤灰制备蒸养标准砖%Preparation of Standard Brick with Coal Ash of Power Plant by Steam Curing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣令坤; 张金山; 赵俊梅

    2011-01-01

    利用包头地区电厂粉煤灰、少量水泥、河砂,在碱性复合激发剂存在的情况下通过湿热养护工艺制成承重标准砖.试验采用单因索试验设计,得到粉煤灰掺量58.3%的粉煤灰砖,湿热养护28 d抗压强度18.7 MPa,抗折强度3.4 MPa.对影响砖体强度的几个主要因素进行了分析.%The load-bearing standard brick was prepared by coal ash from a power plant of Baotou by wet thermo-curing method under alkaline compound activator, with addition of small quantity of cement and river sand. Through the singlefactor experiments,the bricks with fly ash contents of up to 58.3% were obtained and its compressive strength of the brick reached 18.7 MPa,and bending strength 3.4 MPa at thermo-curing of 28 d. Then,some factors influencing the hardness of the brick were analyzed.

  3. It was nice with the brick so now I'll click: The effects of offline and online experience, perceived benefits, and trust on Dutch consumers' online repeat purchase intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion; Segers, Mariel; Kurosu, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors influencing Dutch consumers’ intention to continue purchasing from a brick-and-click clothes shop’s online channel after an initial commercial exchange. Results on the online survey with 513 respondents reveal that their repeat online purchase intention is

  4. Research on brick carving cultural protection through digital technology in Gan su Linxia%甘肃临夏砖雕文物保护数字化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑刚

    2016-01-01

    The digital media technology for digital protection of Linxia brick carving culture is a significant cultural projects. Linxia brick carving digital protection adopts Artec 3D digital scanning and 360o panoramic image technology, which is based on database, realization of brick structure of 3d virtual data created, Linxia brick carving is established digital system for the protection of cultural relics.%采用数字媒体技术对临夏砖雕文化进行数字化保护是一项意义重大的文化工程。临夏砖雕的数字化保护采用Artec 三维数字扫描和360度全景图像技术,以数据库为依托,实现砖雕结构的三维虚拟数据的创建,建立了临夏砖雕文物保护数字化系统。

  5. 青海省僧侣饮茶型氟中毒现况分析%Brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生英; 鲁青; 杨萍; 陈萍; 李生梅; 喇翠玲; 姜泓; 何多龙; 吴海坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution and harm of brick-tea type fluorosis in monks in Qinghai Province.Methods Twenty-eight temples were selected as survey sites from 28 counties of Qinghai Province.The amounts of drinking tea-water of each monk and the brick tea capita consumption per temple each year were recorded.Drinking water,tea water and urine samples of monks were collected and fluorine content was tested; dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 years and of adult monks over the age of 16 were examined; clinical skeletal fluorosis of monks 16 years of age and older and X-ray skeletal fluorosis of all adult monks in the temple were examined.Fluorine content in drinking water,brick tea and urine was tested using F-ion selective electrode.Dental fluorosis was checked using the dental fluorine diagnostic criteria (WS/T 208-2001),and skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed based on the endemic skeletal fluorosis diagnosis standard (WS 192-1999).Results A total of 28 copies of drinking water samples were tested,and mean water fluoride was (0.26 ± 0.13) mg/L; in the 69 copies of brick tea,the mean fluoride value was 667.12 mg/kg; a total of 777 adult monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (1 943.93 ± 1 078.93)ml; a total of 224 children monks,the average daily drinking water of brick tea was (795.09 ± 389.81)ml; annual per capita consumption of brick was 5.30 kg; adult daily fluoride intake was 4.47 mg,child was 1.83 mg; the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 29.07%(291/1 001),the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of 8-12 years old children was 39.74%(93/234),the adult was 26.00%(202/777); the prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 4.76%(37/775); and the prevalence rate of X-ray skeletal fluorosis was 4.88%(2/41).The geometric mean of adult urinary fluoride was 1.11 mg/L(0.15-10.00 mg/L) of the 777 copies of urine samples tested,and that value of children was 1.23 mg/L(0.08-6.62 mg/L) of the 224 copies of samples

  6. Influência de aditivos na produção de blocos cerâmicos Influence of additives on the production of ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Macedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A indústria oleira nacional possui uma grande importância econômica e social, movimentando bilhões de reais e empregando milhões de pessoas. No entanto, apresenta uma grande defasagem tecnológica, o que se reflete na produção de peças de baixa qualidade e em uma grande quantidade de perdas na produção. Assim, visando melhorar a qualidade dos blocos cerâmicos esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a influência de aditivos no comportamento de plasticidade de massas para produção de blocos cerâmicos e nas propriedades físicas dos corpos produzidos com as massas aditivadas. Foram utilizados cinco massas industriais e dez aditivos durante o estudo. Foi analisada a influência dos aditivos nos limites de Atterberg das massas e selecionados os aditivos que reduziam os limites de plasticidade. Foram preparadas formulações com os aditivos selecionados e conformados corpos de prova por extrusão. Determinou-se o módulo de ruptura à flexão após secagem e queima e a absorção de água após queima desses corpos de prova. Com base nos resultados pode-se concluir que alguns aditivos reduzem o limite de plasticidade das massas e melhoram significativamente o comportamento mecânico após secagem e após queima.The Brazilian ceramic brick industry has an important economic and social role, with a billionaire market and generating millions of jobs. However, this industry presents an outdated technology, which causes the production of low quality bodies and high production losses. Objecting improve the quality of ceramic brick this work evaluated the influence of additives on the plasticity of formulations used for the production of ceramic bricks and on the physical properties of samples produced with additive formulations. Five formulations and ten additives were studied. The influence of additives on the Atterberg limits was analyzed. Additives that reduced the plasticity limit were selected, formulations were produced and test

  7. 陶瓷抛磨废料免烧砖的制备与强度研究%Strength Researched on Baking-free Brick of Polished Waste Material from Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌俊; 杨福伟; 朱方才; 陈志川; 郑彩华

    2014-01-01

    陶瓷抛光砖的产量已位居我国瓷砖产量第一位,其生产的陶瓷抛磨废料已严重污染环境。笔者使用陶瓷抛磨废料替代部分石粉和砂制备免烧砌墙砖,研究结果发现:在未添加激发剂时,陶瓷废料的加入降低了砖坯强度;当加入1%自制激发剂后,与陶瓷废料活性成分生成硅酸钙(CSH)和钙矾石(AFt),可使砖坯强度提高2~3倍,并可明显降低生产成本,最大降幅可达26.8%。%With the development of the manufacturing sector of polished brick,the polished waste material had seriously pol-luted the environment.This paper has studied with polished waste material to replace stone powder and sand to manufac-ture baking-free brick.Results showed that without adding booster,the strength of baking-free brick gradually de-creased with the increase of the polished waste material content.Adding 1% booster improved the strength of baking-free brick 2 to 3 times,significantly reduced produce cost of brick raw material,the biggest reduce rate reached 26.8%.

  8. 再生砖骨料混凝土梁斜截面抗剪承载力分析%Analysis of anti-shear capacity of slope section for recycled brick aggregate concrete beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纯合; 翟爱良; 陈树建; 季昌良; 赵爱华

    2013-01-01

    实验研究了再生砖骨料混凝土梁斜截面的抗剪极限承载力、破坏形态和裂缝开展等情况,并与普通混凝土梁进行对比.分析再生砖骨料混凝土梁的抗剪机理,提出了适用于再生砖骨料混凝上梁的抗剪承载力公式.实验与分析结果表明:再生砖骨料混凝土梁和普通混凝土梁的破坏形态和裂缝开展情况相似,但再生砖骨料混凝土梁的抗剪极限承载力低于普通混凝土梁.采用提出的抗剪承载力公式计算再生砖骨料混凝土梁的抗剪极限承载力是可行的,有一定的安全储备.%The paper studied the ultimate bearing capacity, the fracture morphology and the crack development situation of diagonal section of the recycled brick aggregate concrete beam, and contrasted the beam with common concrete one. By analyzing the shear mechanism of the recycled brick coarse aggregate concrete beams, this paper provided a formula related to the shear capacity of recycled brick aggregate concrete beams. The results show that the fracture morphology and crack development of the recycled brick coarse aggregate concrete beam is similar to common concrete beam, but the ultimate bearing capacity is less then that of the common concrete beam. The formula can be used to calculate the bearing capacity of the recycled brick coarse aggregate concrete beam and contains a certain security reserve.

  9. 金矿尾矿粉生产蒸压砖的研究%Use of gold mine tailings in autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁善磊; 付强

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the raw material preparation of autoclaved gold mine tailings brick, which consists of gold mine tailings and fly ash as the main raw material, activated material and admixture as auxiliary materials, and the mixture is moistened and shaped according to the process requirements.%介绍了利用工业废弃物金矿尾矿粉和粉煤灰为主要原料,辅以激发材料、外加剂,混合均匀,加适量水湿拌,加压成型,按养护工艺要求,经蒸压养护后制成金矿尾矿粉蒸压砖。

  10. Surveillance on Fluorosis of Brick Tea Type in Ruoergai County, 2011%2011年若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 为及时掌握若尔盖县饮茶型氟中毒病区居民户合格砖茶普及情况,动态评价病区人群饮茶型地氟病流行趋势,为采取针对性干预措施提供依据.方法 2011年对5个监测村50个居民户采集砖茶并测定茶氟含量,检测8 ~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况及成人氟骨症X线患病情况.结果 检测村民砖茶氟含量最小值为502.05 mg/kg,最大值为1 513.4 mg/kg;平均值为990.28 mg/kg,无合格份数,日人均摄氟量达5.23 mg;检查137名8~12岁儿童,共检出极轻度及以上氟斑牙病例15例,检出率为10.95%;共X线拍摄成人氟骨症111名,检出49例氟骨症患者,检出率为44.14%.结论 若尔盖县属于饮茶型氟中毒高流行区,农牧民群众处于高摄氟状态;成人氟骨症病情重,呈现慢性氟中毒蓄积.%Objective To master the situation of the household eligible brick tea in tea type fluorosis area of Ruoergai county, dynamically evaluate the epidemic trend of brick tea fluorosis and provide evidence for the targeted intervention. Methods Brick tea from 50 villages in 5 surveillance sites were collected to examine fluoride content. Dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 and X - ray of adult skeletal fluorosis were examined. Results The minimum value of brick tea fluoride content was 502. 05 mg/kg, while the maximum value was 1 513. 4 mg/kg, and the average was 990. 28 mg/kg. There was no qualified copies. The daily incept of fluoride was 5. 23 mg per capita; 137 children aged 8 - 12 were checked, in which 15 cases with dental fluorosis were checked out, the detection rate was 10. 95% ; 111 skeletal fluorosis cases were got X - ray photoed, 49 cases with skeletal fluorosis were checked out, with the detection rate 44. 14%. Conclusions Ruoergai county is a tea type fluorosis endemic area, farmers and herdsmen in the highly fluoride incept status; the illness of adult skeletal fluorosis is severe, showing the accumulation of chronic fluorosis.

  11. The detection and identification to a brick structure residential building%某砖混结构住宅楼检测鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贺君

    2015-01-01

    Taking a brick structure residential building as an example,this paper made detection and identification to the residential building foundation,upper structure component,material strength and structure bearing capacity etc. ,and put forward corresponding reinforcement sug-gestion for its detection results,in order to assure the safety,applicability and durability of building structure.%以某砖混结构住宅楼为例,对该住宅楼地基基础、上部结构构件、材料强度及结构承载力等进行了检测鉴定,并针对其检测结果提出了相应的加固建议,以保证建筑结构的安全性、适用性及耐久性。

  12. Hints on cost- and energy saving during lime-sand brick production; Hinweise zur Kosten- und Energieeinsparung bei der Kalksandstein-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, W.

    2001-05-01

    The publication contains hints for reduction of energy consumption and cost in lime-sand brick production. The information was compiled by Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie e.V. and was derived from technical discussions of the master seminars on production technology of the years 1995 - 2000, consultations form member organizations, or from other sources. [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Zusammenstellung von Hinweisen zur Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und der Kostensenkung bei der KS-Produktion und soll eine Hilfestellung bei entsprechenden Rationalisierungsmassnahmen in den Mitgliedsunternehmen sein. Die hier aufgefuehrten Hinweise und Anregungen entstammen den Fachdiskussionen der Meisterseminare zur Produktionstechnik aus den Jahren 1995 bis 2000, Beratungsgespraechen fuer Mitgliedsunternehmen oder wurden dem Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie eV freundlicherweise fuer die Gemeinschaftsarbeit zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  13. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A.; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB), whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam. PMID:27384575

  14. Numerical Analysis of Interface Bonding between Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Clay Brick%FRP 与砖界面粘结性能的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕辉; 罗才松; 黄田良

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed to this paper to simulate the bonding stress distribution on the interface be-tween fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)and brick based on finite element software ABAQUS.Using the numerical model, the load-displacement curve and the bonding stress distributions of FRP-brick interface are obtained,which shows the model is feasible.Bond bearing capacity increases with the increase of FRP′s bond length.When the bond length reaches a certain value,bond bearing capacity does not increased,but it can improve the ductility of the specimens,and raise the limit displacement.%利用有限元软件 ABAQUS 建立纤维复合材料(FRP)-砖界面分析模型,模拟其粘结应力分布,加载端荷载-位移曲线及界面应力的传递过程,并与试验结果进行对比分析。结果表明:数值模拟结果与试验结果吻合较好,采用的 FRP-砖界面计算模型具有可行性;粘结承载力随着 FRP 与砖粘结长度的增加而增加,当粘结长度达到某一定值后,粘结承载力基本不增长,此时增加粘结长度可改善试件的延性,增加试件的极限位移。

  15. Application on Residual Heat Circulated Utilization System of Coal Rejects Brick Making%煤矸石制砖余热循环利用系统及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏龙; 牛永胜; 孟杰; 王建学

    2012-01-01

    According to the utilization issue of great residual heat occurred from the coal rejects brick making process,the paper discussed the feasibility of the waste heat recovery and utilization from the smoke discharging and moisture removing of the coal rejects brick making.The paper had a study on the waste heat recovery and utilization technology of moisture removing and smoke discharging.Taking a coal rejects brick plant of a mine as an example,an analysis was conducted on the operation effect and the economic and social benefits of the flue gas residual heat utilization project of the brick making in the mine coal rejects brick plant.The research showed that the recovery technology combined with the thermal pump technology and the thermal pipeline technology could have an effective chain utilization of the residual heat from the moisture removing and smoke discharging in the coal rejects brick plant.The outlet water temperature of the new chain smoke cooler could be stabilized over 60 ℃ and the outlet water temperature of thermal pump unit would be ranging from 45~55 ℃.Those two thermal water could meet the mine heat supply requirements with different way and could replace the boilers for the heat supply.Therefore,the energy conservation and emission reduction effects would be remarkable.%为利用煤矸石制砖过程产生的大量余热,探讨了煤矸石制砖排烟、排潮废热回收利用的可行性,研究了排潮、排烟废热回收利用工艺,并以某煤矿矸石砖厂为例,对煤矿矸石砖厂制砖烟气余热利用工程运行效果和经济、社会效益进行分析。研究表明:采用热泵技术与热管技术相结合的回收工艺可实现矸石砖厂排潮、排烟余热的有效梯级利用,新型梯级烟冷器出水温度稳定在60℃以上,热泵机组出水温度在45~55℃,能满足不同供热形式的煤矿用热需求,可替代锅炉供热,节能减排效果显著。

  16. Mosses as indicators of atmospheric pollution of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) in the vicinity of coal-fired brick kilns in north-eastern suburbs of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of toxic elements Cd, Pb and other heavy metals has been carried out Rawalpindi - Islamabad region using the moss monitoring technique. The carpet moss samples (Hypnum Cupressiforme) were collected over an area of 196 km2 around lignite/coal-fired brick kilns for regular periods of time during 1997-1999. The elements were extracted into solution with multiacid digestion and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal contents in moss samples from sites adjacent to coal-fired brick kilns was higher as compared to samples collected from the sites away from that sources. The results obtained by the 'BIOMONITORING' technique, for the first time in this area, are presented. (author)

  17. 变电站蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体围墙裂缝分析与防治%Analysis and Prevention of Substation of Autoclaved Fly Ash Brick Masonry Wall Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华

    2014-01-01

    本文结合变电站工程实际,分析了变电站工程蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体清水围墙裂缝产生的原因,从蒸压粉煤灰砖的生产、构造设计及砌筑施工等几个方面提出了防治措施。%Combining with the actual substation engineering, Analyzed the causes of transformer substation project of autoclaved fly ash brick masonry wall cracks in water, Puts forward the prevention measures from the aspects of production, structure design and masonry construction of autoclaved fly ash brick.

  18. Jin Dynasty Brick Reliefs from Shanxi Province in the Luoyang Museum of Ancient Arts%洛阳古代艺术博物馆藏山西金墓画像雕砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婵菲; 王爱文

    2011-01-01

    洛阳古代艺术博物馆征集到一批金代雕砖,雕砖内容有门吏、乐伎、孝子故事、花卉、动物、力士等。其中孝子故事砖上有包括孝行排行、孝子姓名等内容的榜题,还有两块花枝童子雕砖。根据文献记载,花枝童子图像应定名为化生图。%The Luoyang Museum of Ancient Arts acquired a group of Jin Dynasty brick reliefs with gatekeepers, musicians, scenes from the filial son stories, flowers, animals, and muscular males. "Ihe bricks with filial son story scenes each have a piety ranking with

  19. The Science and Technology Performance of BRICKS and its Enlightenment to China%“金砖”四国的科技表现及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷之明; 马瑞敏

    2011-01-01

    从科研生产力、科研影响力、科研创新力和科研发展力4个方面,对中国、俄罗斯、印度和巴西这4个新兴经济体(简称“金砖”四国)的科技表现进行了分析.%This paper studies the science and technology of four countries including China, Russia, India and Brazil that are called BRICKS for abbreviation from four aspects, such as research product, research influence, research innovation, research development. This paper is to find the advantages and inferior strengths of BRICKS, and provides some thoughts and references to China and promotes the harmony development of their economy, politics and technology.

  20. Time- and energy optimization during drying of green bricks taking specially into account the second drying period. Final report; Zeit- und Energieoptimierung der Trocknung von Ziegelrohlingen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des zweiten Trocknungsabschnittes. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, K.; Telljohann, U.

    2004-04-15

    Dryers of the brick industry are constructed according to empirical findings. Measurements are available only for the first drying period, the rest is speculation. The author investigated the processes going on inside the green brick during drying. This will provide the basis for a simulation program for calculating time-dependent moisture distributions, vibrational states and green brick temperatures, from which the required dryer air conditions and heat transfer processes can be derived. Brick producers and plant constructors will be enabled to design the drying process for high-speed drying without loss of quality and with higher economic efficiency. (orig.) [German] Die Auslegung von Trocknern der Ziegelindustrie und verwandter Branchen basiert bis heute ausschliesslich auf empirischen Erkenntnissen. Diese werden durch wissenschaftliche Arbeiten lediglich zum ersten Trocknungsabschnitt gestuetzt. Eine in Betriebsablaeufe integrierte messtechnische Erfassung des Uebergangs vom ersten zum zweiten Trocknungsabschnitt ist nicht moeglich. Fachleute schaetzen, dass der Uebergang 'etwa zur halben Anfangsfeuchte' stattfindet; diese Annahme ist jedoch aeusserst ungenau. Man unterstellt ferner, dass der erste Trocknungsabschnitt ungefaehr mit dem Zeitraum uebereinstimmt, in dem sich die mit erheblichen Riss- und Verkruemmungsgefaehrdungen einhergehende Rohlingsschwindung abspielt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein mathematisches Modell der Vorgaeng erstellt, die sich im Rohling waehrend der Trocknung abspielen. Es bildet die Grundlage fuer ein Simulationsprogramm zur Berechnung von zeitabhaengigen Feuchteverteilungen, Schwindungszustaenden und Rohlingstemperaturen. Daraus lassen sich dann fuer den Betrieb die notwendigen Trocknerluftzustaende und Waermeuebergaenge ermitteln. Diese Daten versetzen Ziegler und insbesondere Anlagenbauer in die Lage, den Trocknungsprozess verlaesslich so zu gestalten, dass Ziegelrohlinge ohne Qualitaetsmangel mit hoechstmoeglicher

  1. 生活垃圾焚烧炉渣制砖技术及产业化研究%Research of the brick-making technology and its industrialization by using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁惠群; 吴雁群; 徐鎏焯

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research is to realize the efficient utilization of(MSWIBA) as a resource for the production of fire-free brick by replacing the traditional aggregates.%研究的目的是利用生活垃圾焚烧后产生的炉渣作为骨料,生产免烧砖,实现生活垃圾焚烧炉渣的资源化利用。

  2. 环境温度对蒸压粉煤灰砖混合料消化的影响%Effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建营

    2012-01-01

      The paper analyzes the effect of environmental temperature on slaking of autoclaved fly ash brick mixture, and the relationship between mixture and environmental temperature.%  分析了蒸压粉煤灰砖影响混合料消化的因素,分析了混合料与环境温度的关系,并对某企业存在的问题给出了解决办法。

  3. Pilot scale test on autoclaved brick production by semi-dry desulfurization by-products%半干法脱硫灰生产蒸压砖中试试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 陈传敏; 赵毅; 卢林; 王涛; 杨艳芬

    2011-01-01

    The semi-dry desulfurization by-products are difficult to be utilized. Pilot scale study on the production technology of autoclaved brick which was mixed with semi-dry desulfurization by-products, slag and quicklime. The results show that autoclaved brick mixed with 50% semi-dry desulfurization ash and 10% quicklime dosage can meet the mechanical properties of MU20 strength grade. The mineral, such as hydrated calcium silicate, hydrated calcium aluminate and hydration sulphoaluminate, formed in autoclaved process can strengthen the strength of autoclaved brick.%为了解决半干法脱硫灰难以利用的问题,用脱硫灰、炉渣和CaO进行了蒸压砖生产的中试试验研究.研究表明:生产强度等级为MU20的脱硫灰蒸压砖,脱硫灰的掺量可控制在50%左右,CaO的掺量控制在10%左右.蒸压过程中形成的水化硅酸钙、水化铝酸钙和水化硫铝酸钙等矿物有利于增强蒸压砖强度.

  4. 轴心受压砖砌体结构加固中混凝土利用系数的确定%Method of Defining Concrete Utilization Coefficient in Strengthening of Axial Compression Brick Masonry Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时卫民; 江世永; 付玉辉

    2001-01-01

    Base on the stress-strain relationship and ultimate strain of brick masonry and concrete,the stress-strain relationship between later concrete and original brick masonry is deduced.A new concept of boundary fracture of new and old materials is developed.A method of defining concrete utilizatian ceefficiant is givan in axial compression brick masonry structure strengthened by concrete.%根据砖砌体和混凝土的应力-应变关系及极限应变值,从理论上推导了后加混凝土与原砌体之间的应力-应变关系,提出了新旧材料界限破坏的概念,并按此概念给出了轴心受压砖砌体采用外包混凝土加固时混凝土利用系数的确定方法。

  5. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant; Desenvolvimento de tijolos com incorporacao de cinzas de carvao e lodo provenientes de estacao de tratamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-07-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  6. 明清北京城墙砖珍稀图形款识初析%The Analysis Of Precious Moulage Of Brick Beijing City Wall In Ming Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青

    2016-01-01

    明清铭文城墙砖是建筑物料与文字结合的产物,是承载历史信息的珍贵实物史料。其中一些稀有的图形款识体现出特殊的历史文化意义,这些质朴、粗放的古代建筑物料借助其特有的艺术情趣传达着人们对吉祥、兴旺的美好向往。通过对铭文砖图形款识艺术文化内涵的分析和研究,能更清晰地展现出这些几乎被世间遗忘的文化元素特有的艺术魅力。%Ancient inscriptions of brick city wal is the combination of words and building of special building materials,politics,economy, culture, art is a record during the Ming and qing dynasties and the precious heritage of life information.In the brick city wal of the artistic appeal of rare graphical inscriptionshas the more rich significance These plain extensive ancient building materials. Convey the beautiful yearning for the auspicious and prosperous people.On the analysis of the inscription inscription art brick graphics cultural value and renew, Make these almost forgotten by the world of art element Show unique artistic charm.

  7. Study on seismic behavior of the ancient brick pagoda%某古砖塔抗震性能分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小蓉

    2011-01-01

    以某古砖塔为例,探讨了现存古塔的抗震性能.基于有限元理论,针对该古砖塔进行动力特性实地勘测,通过输入不同地震波对该塔动力特性、小震阶段及大震阶段动力反应进行了比较深入的研究.采用SAP2000对该古塔的动力特性和小震阶段及大震阶段动力反应进行分析.得出的结论为:在小震作用下,小塔和主塔连接处应力集中现象明显,是结构的薄弱部位;在小震和大震作用下,小塔顶相对主塔顶的侧移都超出结构位移限值,有破坏或倾覆的危险.本文较深入的研究,从理论上解释了古砖塔的主要震害特点.%Takes example for some brick pagoda; its seismic behavior is analyzed. Based on the finite element theory,we survey the dynamic properties of the ancient pagoda. By inputting different seismic waves, we conduct the in-depth research to the dynamic properties, to the motive reflects of the ancient in small earthquake stages and in big earthquake stages. We use SAP2000 to analyze the ancient pagoda on the dynamic properties and dynamic response analysis of minor earthquake stage and major earthquake stage. We draw a conclusion: in minor earthquake stage the stress concentration phenomenon of the small pagoda and the chief pagoda attachment point is obvious,which is the weak spot of the structure. In minor earthquake stage with major earthquake stage the sides way of the small spire against the chief spire all surpasses the displacement limiting of the structure. The pagoda has the danger of destruction or overturning. The thorough research of this paper explains the primary earthquake damage characteristic of ancient brick pagodas in theory.

  8. 陶粒赤泥粉煤灰免烧砖性能研究%Research on properties of red mud fly ash from the burn exemption autoclaved brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敦强; 徐捷; 周国栋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the requirement of national energy conservation and environmental protection, we use the waste red mud and fly ash of Shandong Xinfa Aluminum and Electricity Group as the main raw material and with lime and cement as sharpened agent to produce red mud ceramsite fly ash from burn from autoclaved brick that is pressured molding by the pressure brick machine and natural curing. In order to make the industrialization production and substitute for clay brick, we make a quantitative analysis of the ratio of raw material and production process. Then, we get the reasonable ratio of raw materials and production process parameters, and discusse the influence of the ratio of raw material and production process parameters on the performance of the products. The results show; 1. When the composition is made up of 25% red mud, 18% fly ash, 45% ceramsite and 12% cement, brick products have the highest intensity; 2. When the composition is made up of 18% red mud, 21% fly ash, 50% ceramsite and 11% cement, the strength of the brick products meets the requirements, heat insulation performance is improved greatly and other physical properties also meet the requirement.%基于国家节能环保的要求,以山东信发铝电集团的废弃物赤泥、粉煤灰为主要原料,用石灰、水泥作为激化剂,经压砖机压制成型,自然养护来生产赤泥陶粒粉煤灰免烧免蒸压砖.为了使其工业化生产并能代替粘土砖,对原材料配比和生产工艺进行了定量分析,得出了合理的试验配方和生产工艺参数,探讨了原材料配比和生产工艺参数对砖制品性能的影响.结果表明:(1)当25%赤泥、18%粉煤灰、45%陶粒、12%水泥时,砖制品的强度最高.(2)当18%赤泥,21%粉煤灰,50%陶粒和11%水泥时,强度满足要求,保温性能大大提高,吸水率、冻融性和放射性等各方面物理特性符合要求.

  9. 双渠道环境下零售商定价策略及竞争行为分析%The Analysis on Pricing and Competition Strategy of Brick-and-Click Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 吴迪

    2011-01-01

    将实体店与网上商店分别抽象为均匀分布点和圆心,建立环形市场模型.并基于消费者对双渠道无偏好的条件,以网购额外成本与单位距离交通成本比值为变量,以双渠道的零售商整体利润、其他传统零售商利润皆达到最大为目标,推导出市场均衡时双渠道零售商和传统零售商的需求、最优定价、均衡利润的表达式,并分析了实体店数量变动对以上各因变量的影响.分析得到,若实体店较多,网购成本较高,双渠道策略不一定能带来竞争优势;网络定价应低于自身实体店定价,但是否低于其他零售商实体店定价随自变量变化而异.%Salop Circular Model was improved on account of dual channel retailing market and non-digital attribute of goods factor was introduced into the consumer utility function. The ration of shopping online cost and transport costs per unit distance was set as the independent variable and the profit maximization of both Brick-and-Mortar and Brick-and-Click retailers as the goal.Then the expressions of demand distribution, the optimal pricing, the profit of both Bricks-andMortar and Brick-and-Click retailers in the market equilibrium were given and how the dependent variables were impacted by the number of Brick-and-Mortar store was studied.

  10. 松江砖刻照壁文物保护工程勘察%On observation of protection for carved brick screen walls at Songjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许利军; 陈洋; 李占鸿

    2012-01-01

    针对松江砖刻照壁风化日益严重并存在倾斜的现状进行分析,采用三维激光扫描仪对照壁进行精细化测绘并根据扫描数据进行分析、绘制立面图,由测绘及勘察结果对照壁损坏原因进行分析并提出相应的加固修缮建议。%The paper analyzes the current status for the carved brick screen walls at Songjiang, which suffer from the serious weathering and inclination, adopts the three-dimension laser scanner to undertake the refined mapping of the screen walls, analyzes these scanned data, and draws the stereogram, analyzes the damages of the screen walls according to the surveyed and observed results, and points out respective repair suggestions.

  11. 废黏土砖再生胶凝材料评价及应用%Evaluation and Application of Waste Fired Clay Brick Renewable Gelled Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩涛; 靳秀芝

    2015-01-01

    Effect of waste fired clay brick powder ( WFCB ) used as regenerated binding material on water requirement of normal consistency,setting time and compressive strength of cement are studied in this paper. The results show that,WFCB can increase the water requirement of normal consistency of cement and shorten the setting time. WFCB has low pozzolanic activity and it can decrease the compressive strength of cement if used as regenerated binding material.%研究了废黏土砖粉( WFCB)作为再生胶凝材料,对水泥标准稠度用水量、凝结时间和抗压强度的影响。结果表明,废黏土砖粉加入到水泥中,会引起水泥标准稠度用水量的增加和凝结时间的缩短;废黏土砖粉的火山灰活性较低,用作再生胶凝材料会降低水泥的抗压强度。

  12. 特异型硅砖泥料制备工艺%Production process of raw material for special shape silica brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 朱莎莎

    2015-01-01

    In the design of new type of 7. 63m large coke oven and top combustion hot blast stove, a lot of molding difficult special shape bricks are required, which brings great difficulties to production and quality management. Because the original production process has been unable to meet the needs of the production and quality management, so a new production process of raw materials is developed to guarantee the good plasticity of raw materials to be shaped and meet the requirements of production and prepare products with high compressive strength and low porosity.%新型7. 63m大型焦炉和顶燃式热风炉设计中出现了大量的难以成型的异形砖,这给生产和质量管理工作带来了巨大的难度. 由此看来,使用原有的泥料制备工艺已经无法满足生产和质量的需要. 因此,制定出一种新的泥料制备工艺,该工艺既能保证泥料具有较好的可塑性能,利于成型,满足生产需要,又能保证成品具有高耐压强度和低气孔率.

  13. Repair of the bottom bricks of 6 m coke oven coking chamber%6m焦炉炭化室底部砖的修补

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠平; 朱婷婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for overall repair of the bottom bricks of coking chamber, and proposes a control plan for temperature management during repairing. Practical production shows that the repaired coking chamber has similar indexes with other coking chambers, and from which coke can be pushed out easily. Therefore, the risk of high temperature radiation to human body is reduced and the service life of coke oven is prolonged.%介绍了对炭化室底部砖进行整体修补的方法,并对期间的温度管理提出了控制方案,生产实践表明,该炭化室推焦正常,各方面指标与其他炭化室无明显差异,降低了高温辐射对人体的伤害,延长了焦炉的使用寿命。

  14. A STUDY OF MECHANISM OF GLAZE FORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF BURNING GLAZED BRICK ON THE BASIS OF BEIDELLITE CLAY AND MINERAL COTTON WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Vdovina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. It is essential to establish the values of temperature coefficient of linear expansionof glaze and ceramic material containing beidellite clay and waste products of mineral cotton,and to examine the mechanism of glaze formation in the course of burning by means of infraredspectroscopy and electronic microscopy.Results. The formation of glaze of type ЩЛСО involves glass phase separation which precedescrystallization process.Conclusions. The study of thermoprocessed monoliths shows that liquation structure considerablydecreases at temperatures of 700 оС and 950 оС. Temperature interval of liquation is a function ofglaze thermal treatment conditions. It is shown that crazing resistance of glazed products is determinedby correlation of average temperature coefficients of linear expansion of mass and glaze,therefore, to obtain heat-resistant glazed ceramic brick with temperature coefficient of linear expansion6.53 · 10-4 оС, it is necessary to use glaze of type ЩЛСО with temperature coefficient oflinear expansion 6.45 · 10-4 оС.

  15. 北京地区农村砖木结构振动台试验研究%Shaking table test on a typical brick-timber structure model in rural areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满生; 杨威; 陈俞; 纪晓东; 赵作周; 钱稼茹

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the seismic resistant capacity of typical brick-timber structures in rural areas of Beijing, a 2/3 scaled typical brick-timber structure model with timber columns, wood roof and brick peripheral walls was designed and tested on a shaking table, which is a single-story brick-timber structure with three bays. According to the national seismic design code GB50011 ,the seismic precautionary intensity is 8 for most rural areas in Beijing. Different dynamic base excitation levels, such as design small earthquake with PGA =0. 072g, design middle earthquake with PGA = 0.2g and great earthquake with PGA =0.4g respectively, were input to the model. Dynamic responses and cracking characteristics on the brick walls were recorded. Based on the test results, the seismic resistant capacity of the model was obtained and analyzed. It was found that due to different lateral resisting stiffness of the front wall and the back wall for different door or window openings, the response of the front wall was far greater than that of the back wall in the longitudinal direction. This leads to out plan flexure of the end brick wall, some key technologies for how to strengthen and retrofit the existing rural brick-timber structure in Beijing are pointed out.%为了了解北京地区典型砖木结构(木柱支撑,木屋盖,外砖墙)农村住宅结构的抗震能力,根据北京地区这类农村住宅结构的调研结果,本文介绍了一座典型砖木结构单层三开间农村住宅2/3缩尺振动台试验结构模型的设计与动力试验结果.按照北京地区8度抗震设防的要求,分别完成了模型在设计小震(0.072g)、中震(0.2g)和大震(0.4g)条件下的振动台动力试验,量测了模型的动力响应,记录了不同激励水平下模型的开裂情况.基于试验结果,分析了这种结构的抗震能力以及该类型房屋的抗震薄弱点,为制定这类结构的抗震加固方案提供依据.

  16. Exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strgar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, exploration of clays suitable for the manufactoring of porous brick products was conducted in two phases in the area of Bomčev Breg, Goričko. In the course of the first phase, at the beginning of the year 1992, geological prospecting of sediments (mostly clays and clayey sands of the Upper Triassic to Pliocene age was conducted in Goričko, precisely in the area between Grad and Kuzma. The objective of this phase was to identify narrow areas with the deposits of clays suitable for the manufacturing of porous brick products. The area of Bomčev Breg was singled out as a perspective ground for further exploration and drilling (Figure 1.On the basis of the results obtained during the first phase of the exploration detailed geological exploration, which included drilling and partial laboratory investigations of clay, was conducted in May and June 1992. During this phase nine boreholes of a total length of 150 m were drilled (Figure 3.Samples of clay were taken from each core, and laboratory tests, mostly swelling, were carried out in controlled environment by LECA, Ges.m.b.H from Fehring, Austria.On the basis of data obtained from borehole drilling and interpretations of geological sections it can be summarized that the following three lithological types can be identified in the area of Bomčev Breg:-dark brown, brown, light brown, grey brown and greyish, in places speckled, silty fine sand and mica clay-olive greyish, fine silty and mica, partly plastic, clay-brown (limonitized, light brown and greyish clayey sand, containing silt and mica, in places with rare quartz pebbles, not more than 12 mm in diameterThe transition from one lithological type to another is not sharp but rather gradual with the exception of sandy beds where the transition is more distinct.During the prospecting phase in the area of Bomčev Breg 10 samples, marked B-1 to B-10, were taken from the boreholes drilled in the form of a mesh, 100 x 100 m, and 1 sample

  17. Comparative study of the variation of the hydric properties and aspect of natural stone and brick after the application of 4 types of anti-graffiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, O.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article a comparative study of the behaviour of different commercial anti-graffiti on natural stone and brick is presented. 8 different European substrates were selected and 4 commercial anti-graffiti of different chemical nature were applied on these substrates. The variations of their hydric properties and aspect (colour and gloss with regard to the untreated substrates were later studied in the laboratory. The results obtained permitted to assess the suitability of 4 of the main types of chemical formulations employed to be used as anti-graffiti. This study concludes that the sacrificial anti-graffiti with polymeric paraffins in its composition presents the lowest reductions of the hydric properties of the studied substrates, being also the variations in colour the least perceptible.

    En este artículo se presenta un estudio comparativo del comportamiento de diferentes tipos de anti-graffiti comerciales sobre piedra natural y ladrillo. Para ello se seleccionaron 8 tipos de sustratos porosos de diferentes países europeos, sobre los que se aplicaron 4 anti-graffiti de distinta naturaleza química. Posteriormente se estudiaron las variaciones en sus propiedades hídricas y de aspecto (color y brillo con respecto a los sustratos no tratados, en el laboratorio. Los resultados obtenidos han permitido evaluar la idoneidad de 4 de los principales tipos de formulaciones químicas más frecuentemente utilizadas como anti-graffiti sobre sustratos porosos. El estudio concluye que el antigraffiti de sacrificio de composición parafínica es el producto que reduce en menor medida las propiedades hídricas de los sustratos porosos estudiados, y que menores cambios de color produce en los mismos.

  18. Study on Inlfuence of Iron Tailing Content and Firing System on Performance of Fired Bricks%铁尾矿掺加量及烧成制度对烧结砖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘连花; 左然芳; 索也兵; 杜高翔

    2013-01-01

    Fired bricks were prepared with iron tailings, clay and coal gangue based on analysis of the basic characterizations. The test investigated the inlfuence of iron tailings content and ifring system on the performance of ifred bricks. The results showed that the content of iron tailings and temperature had important inlfuence on the performance of ifred bricks. The water absorption and compressive strength were reduced when the content of iron tailings increased from 20%to 55%, while the volume density had a little change. The volume density and water absorption were decreased;the compressive strength was increased with the rise of ifring temperature. When the holding time was prolonged, the compressive strength was gradually increased and the volume density and water absorption had a little change. When the ifring temperature was below 900℃, the ifred bricks produced many fractures and it is known as“lime blowing”. The optimal condition of ifred brick preparation was:the content of iron tailings 45%, ifring temperature 1000℃, the holding time 120 min. The compressive strength of ifred brick reached the requirements of GB5101-2003 strength grade MU20.%在对铁尾矿、黏土、煤矸石等原料性质进行分析的基础上,按照一定配比制备烧结砖,考察了铁尾矿掺加量及烧成制度对烧结砖性能的影响。结果表明,铁尾矿掺加量、烧成温度、保温时间均对烧结砖性能有较大影响。随着铁尾矿掺加量从20%增加到55%,烧结砖体积密度变化不大,吸水率和抗压强度逐渐减小;随着烧成温度的升高,烧结砖试样体积密度、吸水率逐渐减小,抗压强度逐渐增大;随着保温时间的延长,烧结砖试样抗压强度逐渐增大,体积密度和吸水率变化不大。烧结砖试样有轻微泛霜现象和一定的石灰爆裂现象,当烧成温度低于900℃时,石灰爆裂现象更严重。制备烧结砖的最优条件为:铁尾矿掺加量45%

  19. Preparation of long afterglow luminescence ceramic glaze brick with recycling waste glass and its properties%废玻璃再生利用制备长余辉蓄光釉面砖及其性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕霄; 林元华; 张中太; 唐子龙; 温长英

    2001-01-01

    SrAl2O4 :Eu, Dy long afterglow luminescence powders were synthesized by the traditional ceramicpreparing method. The main emission peak lies in a 520 nm wavelength, and the afterglow time was longerthan 20 h. The long afterglow luminescence glaze was obtained by calcining the mixture of low melt point B -Si glass and SrAl2O4: Eu, Dy luminescence materials. Waste glass, small amount of additives and clay wereused as the main raw materials of ceramic brick, and the low melting point luminescent glaze was coated onthe ceramic brick. Finally, the long afterglow ceramic glaze brick can be fabricated under suitable synthesisconditions.%利用传统陶瓷制备方法合成了SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy长余辉发光粉体,该磷光体主发射波长位于520nm,余辉时间长达20h以上.将该发光粉掺人适量的低熔点玻璃料,经780℃烧成30 min合成了性能较好的低温发光釉料.以废玻璃、粘土为主要原料添加其它少量助剂,经过成型、预烧,将低温发光釉料涂覆在其上,在一定温度下烧成,制得长余辉蓄光釉面砖.

  20. 蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压性能试验研究%AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE AXIAL COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF AUTOCLAVED FLY ASH BRICK MASONRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斐; 何晓雁; 乔建新

    2011-01-01

    36 autoclaved fly ash brick masonries are built for axial compressive tests.An experiment is carried out with the strength of both masonry and mortar serving as the basic parameters and the dial indicator used for measuring the deformation of masonries.Based on the experiment, the development features of cracks and the deformation patterns of masonries under compressure are analyzed.In light of the results of axial compressive tests of all the 36 masonries, a calculative formula of the compressive strength of autoclaved fly ash brick is established, which will supply experimental data for compiling regional technical codes.And, thus, the application of autoclaved fly ash brick will be extended.%试验以块体和砂浆强度为基本参数,砌筑36个蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体试件进行轴心受压试验,并配合百分表量测砌体变形.通过蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体轴心受压试验,分析了砌体受压时裂缝的发展特点和变形规律,根据36个试件的抗压试验结果,建立了蒸压粉煤灰砖砌体抗压强度的计算公式,为相关规范的编制提供试验数据,以利于蒸压粉煤灰砖的推广应用.