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Sample records for brick

  1. Bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curties, H

    1921-11-18

    The invention relates to the production of bricks from Norfolk and other oil shales, and consists in the introduction into the powdered shale of potassium nitrate, or sodium nitrate, or a mixture of these two substances, with the object of purifying the shale from sulfur and other deleterious substances, and of preventing the formation of cores.

  2. Clay and concrete brick

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick is one of the most used and versatile building materials in use today. Bricks can be defined as modular units connected by mortar in the formation of a building system or product. Commonly the word brick is used to refer to clay bricks, which...

  3. Brick Lane Patchwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Monegato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay Brick Lane Patchwork takes its roots in the consideration that the most effective cultural representations of London Brick Lane are explicitly or implicitly linked to the nature of a patchwork. Many contemporary cultural representations made a vain and ambitious effort to portray the real soul(s of Brick Lane, without taking into consideration its complexity and, therefore, delivering a distinctive image of the area as if it was a single piece of cloth, not a whole quilt. Starting from already existing cultural representations of Brick Lane (Monica Ali's first novel Brick Lane and its filmic adaptation directed by Sarah Gavron, the poetic memoir Salaam Brick Lane - a Year in the New East End and the short film Brick Lane by Paul Makkar, which are going to be privileged squared cloths to be sewn in the above mentioned patchwork, the aim of this essay is both to detect its proper cultural representations and to sew an imaginative patchwork quilt, a new and multiple image of this London area enhancing its hybrid soul(s, its blending procedure and contemporary facets. Ali M., 2004, Brick Lane, Doubleday Black Swan, London.Gavron S., 2007, Brick Lane, Sony Pictures Classics.Hall T., 2005, Salaam Brick Lane - A Year in the New East End, John Murray Publishers, London. Makkar P., 2002, Brick Lane, Anapurna Films.

  4. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  5. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....

  6. Radiation shielding bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, G.J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation shielding brick for use in building dry walls to form radiation proof enclosures and other structures is described. It is square in shape and comprises a sandwich of an inner layer of lead or similar shielding material between outer layers of plastics material, for structural stability. The ability to mechanically interlock adjacent bricks is provided by shaping the edges as cooperating external and internal V-sections. Relatively leak-free joints are ensured by enlarging the width of the inner layer in the edge region. (author)

  7. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  8. The Brick Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  9. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  10. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  11. Can an Electron Rotate a Brick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2009-01-01

    In "The Theory of Almost Everything", Robert Oerter asserts the following: "Take a beam of electrons that are all spinning in the same direction and fire it at, say, a brick. If you could keep this up for long enough, and if there were no other forces acting on the brick, the electrons would transfer their rotation to the brick, and it would begin…

  12. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CADDET UK National Team.

    1997-01-01

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  13. Brick walls on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified

  14. Characterization of grog of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candido, V.S.; Pinheiro, R.M.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize a waste of red ceramic, grog, generated from the milling of defective pieces of bricks fired in a Hoffmann type furnace by a industry from Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ. The grog was tested for X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, dilatometry, sieving and sedimentation by gravity and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the grog is predominantly constituted of quartz, muscovite mica and hematite. The presence of kaolinite indicates that the bricks were fired at low temperatures, below 600 deg C. Finally, the characterization results indicated that the grog presents itself as an alternative non plastic material to be used in mixtures with clays for the production of red ceramics. (author)

  15. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  16. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-06-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  17. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  18. AN EXPERIMENT STUDY OF COMPARISON BETWEEN FLY ASH BRICK AND TRADITIONAL RED BRICKS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Joshi, Swastik Bhatnagar, Akshay Rawat, Sharad Chauhan, Shaurya Rawat; Mr. A. K. Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, effort have been made to study the different proportion percentage of fly ash bricks and been compared with traditional red bricks. Various test such as tolerance, water absorption, efflorescence and compressive strength test were conducted both fly ash as well as red bricks. In the experimental study we found that fly ash bricks are much stronger and absorb less water than fly ash bricks. We even have find the optimum percentage of fly ash to be used in a composition to get go...

  19. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  20. Mechanical properties on geopolymer brick: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, L. M.; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ming, L. Y.; Ibrahim, W. M. W.; Tahir, M. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    Bricks has stand for many years as durable construction substantial, especially in the area of civil engineering to construct buildings. Brick commonly used in the structure of buildings as a construction wall, cladding, facing perimeter, paving, garden wall and flooring. The contribution of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cement bricks production worldwide to greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this issue, some researchers have done their study with other materials to produce bricks, especially as a by-product material. Researchers take effort in this regard to synthesizing from by-product materials such as fly ash, bottom ash and kaolin that are rich in silicon and aluminium in the development of inorganic alumina-silicate polymer, called geopolymer Geopolymer is a polymerization reaction between various aluminosilicate oxides with silicates solution or alkali hydroxide solution forming polymerized Si-O-Al-O bonds. This paper summarized some research finding of mechanical properties of geopolymer brick using by-product materials.

  1. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajare, D.; Shvinka, V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  2. Utilization of Blended Waste Materials in Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement is considered a key raw material for brick production. However, excessive use of cement leads to a negative environment impact. Cement replaced with locally available waste materials has a significant potential to address this environmental impact, especially in the construction industry by contributing to cleaner production. The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of brick where cement is replaced by fly ash and palm oil fuel ash, waste materials typically available in Malaysia, where the construction industry is on the rise. To determine the performance of these bricks, a compressive strength test, a water absorption test, and a thermogravimetric analysis were carried out at different percentage combinations of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash. The results from the tests reveal that both fly ash and palm oil fuel ash incorporated bricks satisfy Class 1 and Class 2 load-bearing brick requirements according to the Malaysian Standard MS76:1972 along with water absorption requirements as per ASTM C55-11. The thermogravimetric analysis study confirms that the Ca(OH2 gradually decreases due to the increase of pozzolanic material contents (fly ash and palm oil fuel ash. Moreover, these newly developed bricks cost less than the conventional bricks.

  3. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  4. Drying brick masonry by electro-osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a fine grained, porous medium is applied an electric DC field, transport of matter occurs, and the transport mechanism in focus of the present study is electro-osmosis, which is transport of water. In laboratory it was shown possible to transport water inside a brick and brick/mortar system...... movement of water towards the cathode was seen. Thus the basis for utilizing the electro-osmotic effect for drying brick masonry is present, but proper electrodes still needs to be developed....

  5. Experimental study on compressive strength of sediment brick masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woen, Ean Lee; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Chao-Wei, Tang; Tamunif, Muhammad Thaqif

    2018-02-01

    The effects of pre-wetted unit bricks, mortar type and slenderness ratio of prisms on the compressive strength and failure mode of newly developed sediment brick have been evaluated and compared to clay brick and cement-sand bricks. The results show that pre-wetted sediment brick masonry exhibits higher compressive strength of up to 20% compared to the dry sediment masonry. Using cement-lime mortar leads to lower compressive strength compared to cement mortar. However, the sediment brick masonry with the cement lime mortar exhibit higher compressive strength in comparison with cement mortar masonry. More of diagonal shear cracks have been observed in the failure mode of the sediment bricks masonry compared to clay and cement-sand bricks masonry that show mostly vertical cracks and crushing. The sediment unit bricks display compressive strength in between clay and cement-sand bricks.

  6. Shielding walls against ionizing radiation. Lead bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The standard contains specifications for the shape and requirements set for lead bricks such that they can be used to construct radiation-shielding walls according to the building kit system. The dimensions of the bricks are selected in such a way as to permit any modification of the length, height and thickness of said shielding walls in units of 50 mm. The narrow side of the lead bricks juxtaposed to one another in a wall construction to shield against radiation have to form prismatic grooves and tongues: in this way, direct penetration by radiation is prevented. Only cuboid bricks (serial nos. 55-60 according to Table 10) do not have prismatic tongues and grooves. (orig.) [de

  7. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling

  8. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radionuclides and is therefore a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Lab. decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 100 metric tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 280 kPa (40 psig) rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a pump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process

  9. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling

  10. Lego Bricks and the Octet Rule: Molecular Models for Biochemical Pathways with Plastic, Interlocking Toy Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry J.; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J.; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D.

    2018-01-01

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids,…

  11. Measurement of natural radionuclides in bricks and brick-making clays from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagirl, G.; Rajamanan, B.; Ravisankar, R.; Thilaivelavan, K.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Meenkshisundram, V.

    2010-01-01

    In India, bricks as building materials are mainly prepared by clay using the deposited sediments of rivers, and the radionuclide contents in bricks and brick-making clays should vary with origin and geological condition. In this paper, the radionuclide contents of these materials from river bank areas of Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu India are measured by gamma ray spectrometer using NaI (Tl) detector, and compared with those of other countries. The radiation hazard indices, which are evaluated by radium-equivalent (Raeq) activity, are lower than that of NEA-OECD. (authors)

  12. Air pollution hazards in brick kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, M; Srivastava, R S; Minocha, A K; Gupta, R G [Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee (India)

    1994-02-01

    Three types of brick kiln - Bull's trench kiln of movable chimney type, Bull's trench kiln of fixed chimney type, and high draught kiln of normal capacity (25,000-30,000 bricks/day) fed manually with slack coal and other local fuels - were investigated for stack emissions. Dust and hydrocarbons were identified as chief pollutants. Particle size analysis of dust emitted from movable chimney kiln and its impact on ambient air quality were also studied. Based on these studies, recommendations have been drawn on their comparative pollution hazard and need for optimization of operational parameters to improve their thermal performance and reduce pollution emission. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity...

  14. Moisture transport over the brick/mortar interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Pel, L.

    1995-01-01

    The moisture transport in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and combined brick/mortar samples was studied using NMR. The experimental results show that the mortar is less permeable if it is cured bonded to the brick instead of cured separately. Models of the moisture transport are usually

  15. Mechanical properties of geopolymer lightweight brick with styrofoam pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Mohd; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Hussin, Kamarudin; Samson, W. Saiful Iskandar W.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of fly ash in brick as partial replacement of cement is gaining immense importance today, mainly on account of the improvement in the long-term durability of brick combined with ecological benefits. In this research, the lightweight brick was produced by using fly ash (class F) as a main material to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in the composition of brick. Class F Fly Ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and styrofoam pellet was added to the geopolymer mixture to produce lightweight brick. The brick was prepared in two methods that is wet method and dry method due to different brick composition which is dry method for composition with sand and wet method for composition without sand. The bricks were cured in room temperature at 7 aging days. After 7 days, the compressive strength, water absorption, and density of the brick were investigated, where the optimum ratio for the best bricks has been determined from the lightweight density and has compressive strength more than minimum standard requirement. The best bricks are further produce for curing at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days. Those bricks also were characterized using optical microscope to measure the distribution of styrofoam in brick structure. From the result obtained, the brick that cured at 60°C in oven at 28 aging days has high strength compare to brick that cured in room temperature and at 7 day cured. The water absorption is decreasing as the curing temperature and aging days increased whereas density is increasing.

  16. Development of improved bricks (LM) and use of new technologies for ecological bricks (LE) elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Zuñiga-Suárez, Alonso; Hernández-Olivares, Francisco; Fernández-Martínez, Francisco; Zuñiga, Berenice; Sánchez, Luis; Paladines, Juan; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar (Coordinador)

    2017-01-01

    Brick is a material that has been widely used in construction sector, however, it has not received the necessary attention in order to improve its performance, which has resulted a general lack of knowledge about its manufacturing processes such as: clay mines over-exploitation, ignorance of mixtures dosages and greenhouse gas emissions from wood burning. This research therefore aims to find a suitable mixture to produce improved bricks (LM) by analysing its mechanical prope...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOIL CEMENT BRICKS AND CHARACTERISTICS COMPRESSIVESTRENGTH OF BRICK MASONRY WALL

    OpenAIRE

    S. Divya; K. Nithya; S. Manoj Kumar; K. Saravanakumar

    2017-01-01

    This research is intended to provide detailed technical and economic information on the production of compressed cement stabilised soil bricks. These include information on suitable soil types, local stabilisers, stabilization techniques, production of compressed stabilized soil bricks and their economical value and potential. Critical review of related literatures show that soil types, proportions between soil and stabilizer and compaction pressure applied to the moist soil mix affects the q...

  18. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  19. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  20. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...

  1. Outside corner and method of making in the making lead brick (plain brick) using rotary table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Awwaluddin; Samuel Praptoyo

    2009-01-01

    It has been developed a tool that can be used for defining angles on the fabrication of lead bricks. The angles are both outside of the lead bricks that correspond to male and female shape respectively. The lead bricks should be in accordance to ISO 7212-1986 standard which has angle tolerance 90° 0 +15 for male and 90° 0 -15 for female. The accuracy of these angles is very important to maintain the equilibrium position of the bricks so that their arrangement will not lining or collapse. A rotary table is used for the fabrication to make easier in setting up any related working apparatus and to have precision measurement result. However, a lot of operator do not know yet how to operate such a rotary table to produce angle with such an eligible tolerance. Therefore, a method of measurement in machining lead brick process using a rotary table is necessarily required. This method will be used as a reference to have angle accuracy of 0,03° in producing outside and inside angles or male and female lead bricks. (author)

  2. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  3. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  4. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  5. A numerical study of internal brick stresses in AGR moderator bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Fahad, M. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tan, E.; Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Hall, G.N.; Marsden, B.J. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for studying the uncertainty in internal brick stresses was developed. • A computationally efficient methodology based upon a surrogate model was utilised. • Uncertainty in material relationships, particularly those related to secondary creep was the dominant source of uncertainty. - Abstract: Physically-based models are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR). These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions, and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Material relationships are primarily based upon data obtained from inspection campaigns at operating reactors. However, the data from trepanning campaigns do not provide information on some of the key relationships and parameters that affect the internal stresses generated within the moderator bricks. In this work we explore how uncertain material property relationships affect the internal brick stresses in early- and late-life. We describe two computer experiments designed to study early- and late-life brick stresses and report the results from global sensitivity analysis of the models. The work makes use of an emulator, a surrogate for the FE model, in order to make the sensitivity analyses computationally feasible.

  6. A numerical study of internal brick stresses in AGR moderator bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, K.; Fahad, M.; Tan, E.; Warren, N.; Hall, G.N.; Marsden, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for studying the uncertainty in internal brick stresses was developed. • A computationally efficient methodology based upon a surrogate model was utilised. • Uncertainty in material relationships, particularly those related to secondary creep was the dominant source of uncertainty. - Abstract: Physically-based models are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR). These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions, and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Material relationships are primarily based upon data obtained from inspection campaigns at operating reactors. However, the data from trepanning campaigns do not provide information on some of the key relationships and parameters that affect the internal stresses generated within the moderator bricks. In this work we explore how uncertain material property relationships affect the internal brick stresses in early- and late-life. We describe two computer experiments designed to study early- and late-life brick stresses and report the results from global sensitivity analysis of the models. The work makes use of an emulator, a surrogate for the FE model, in order to make the sensitivity analyses computationally feasible.

  7. Renewable energies for the production of bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedinger, F.

    2006-01-01

    The research for alternatives to the classical, mainly fossil, sources of energy sources within a high energy consumption sector as brick making can certainly be very rewarding. Within this framework the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of locally available biomasses and the integration of such a facility in a brick yard where all fermentation wastes, both liquid and solid, can be used can be considered a strategic and profitable business goal: reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels. From an environmental point of view the substitution of fossil fuels with fuels from renewable sources is certainly desire able. Into account might also be taken the possible profitable trade of emission certificates of different type

  8. Manufacture of reconstruction-bricks in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Valencia, Ma. Neftalí; Penagos, Armando Aguilar; Rojas, Denise Y. Fernández; López, Alberto López; Gálves, David Morillón

    2017-12-01

    In Mexico, around 33.600 tons of construction wastes are generated every day, Mexico City contributing for around tons/day, with fewer than 1.000 tons/day being sent to be recycled. For that reason the purpose of this study was to manufacture sustainable bricks, based on three types of wastes generated in the building industry: wood cutting residues, wastes from the excavation process (From Coapa and Cuautlancingo, Puebla, Mexico) and recycled aggregates. Water was added as kneading material, and Opuntia ficus-indica (mucilage) was supplemented as natural additive to improve the workability of the mixtures. Conventional firing process was substituted by drying in a solar drying chamber. Nine mixtures were prepared using 62% excavation wastes, 4% wood cutting residues and 11%, 17% and 34% recycled aggregates. These mixtures were classified in two groups depending on their granulometry: the first one denominated cementitious recycled aggregates only having granulometry from 25.4 mm, 9.52 mm to 6.35 mm to fines and the second group denominated all in one recycled aggregates having granulometry of 6.35 mm to fines. The quality of the sustainable bricks was evaluated according to compressive strength and water absorption parameters. The results of nine mixtures showed that the reconstruction-bricks manufactured with the mixture seven consisting of 9.52 mm and 6.35 mm construction residues (all in one) fines presented the highest strength values, lowest maximum initial absorption (4 g/min) compared to the norm NMX-C-037-ONNCCE-2013 which establishes that the maximum limit for walls exposed to the outside is 5 g/min. Using a solar desiccator made from construction residues, the bricks were dried in 11 days, the maximum temperature was 76 °C and the maximum solar radiation captured was 733.4 W/m2.

  9. Brane brick models in the mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Sebastián [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY,160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); The Graduate School and University Center, The City University of New York,365 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10016 (United States); Lee, Sangmin [Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    Brane brick models are Type IIA brane configurations that encode the 2dN=(0,2) gauge theories on the worldvolume of D1-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We use mirror symmetry to improve our understanding of this correspondence and to provide a systematic approach for constructing brane brick models starting from geometry. The mirror configuration consists of D5-branes wrapping 4-spheres and the gauge theory is determined by how they intersect. We also explain how 2d(0,2) triality is realized in terms of geometric transitions in the mirror geometry. Mirror symmetry leads to a geometric unification of dualities in different dimensions, where the order of duality is n−1 for a Calabi-Yau n-fold. This makes us conjecture the existence of a quadrality symmetry in 0d. Finally, we comment on how the M-theory lift of brane brick models connects to the classification of 2d(0,2) theories in terms of 4-manifolds.

  10. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  11. Performance evaluation of clay fly ash brick masonry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kute, S.; Deodhar, S.V. [K.K. Wagh College of Engineering, Panchavati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Despite inexorable trends of automation in manufacturing industry throughout the world, the conventional brick manufacturing practices have remained largely unchanged since the dawn of civilization in India. This has imposed restrictions on quality of bricks in general. The paper highlights the results derived from an extensive experimental work on performance evaluation of brick masonry. Four types of bricks, three values of joint thickness and fineness modulus of sand, and two grades of mortar with four different proportions were used as samples. Fly ash was from Nashik Thermal Power Station in Maharashtra, India. The results show that the brick masonry of 40% fly ash bricks and mortar with 20% fly ash as replacement to cement with 1:4 and 1:6 proportion gives optimum strength and advocates use of fly ash for this combination. 8 tabs.

  12. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints......, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a stronger mortar...

  13. Moisture transfer across the interface between brick and mortar joint

    OpenAIRE

    Derluyn, Hannelore; Moonen, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental and modelling work on moisture transport in masonry, with special attention to the liquid transport across the interface between brick and mortar joint. Experiments and simulations reveal that two aspects need to be taken into account: (1) the dependence of moisture transport properties on the curing of the mortar; (2) the presence of a hydraulic interface resistance between brick and mortar. The resistance is due to imperfect contact between brick and morta...

  14. Durability of compressed soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Valle, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers shows the evaluation process of the durability of compressed soil-cement bricks. A great number of tests were made to determine the behavior of bricks when they are compression loaded and under the influence of moisture. Two different types of soils were used to produce the bricks, a lime-clay soil and a sand one. The sand soil is very resistant. The other one has a limited use. An experimental design was used to test the bricks. It is a rotational and quadratic method with a hexagonal figure which contains replicas at the central point. This method ensures the reliability of test results. Otherwise, it would reduce the amount of specimens necessary for the tests. The optimun moisture content is obtained by using a press machine. It is more rational than the standard Proctor compactation test, because it applies the same type and amount of energy used to produce the bricks. The obtained results show the behavior differences between the two compressed soil-cement bricks subjected to the compression test, water absorption and wetting and drying tests. The durability tests results are very important in the possible use of the bricks produced.

    En el trabajo se evalúa la durabilidad de elementos aglomerados de suelo estabilizado. Se realiza un amplio número de ensayos encaminados a determinar el comportamiento frente a la acción de las cargas y la humedad de dos suelos con características diferentes: uno limo-arcilloso y el otro arenoso. Este último presenta resultados muy favorables en ambas direcciones. El otro, con un posible uso más limitado. Se emplea un método de diseño experimental del tipo rotacional cuadrático en hexágono, con réplicas en el punto central, el que garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de los ensayos, a la vez que disminuye la cantidad de especímenes a ensayar. Se determina la humedad óptima a utilizar en las diferentes dosificaciones empleando la máquina compactadora, que resulta m

  15. Bricks as indicators for an urban soil genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Thomas; Rokia, Sarah; Schwartz, Christophe; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    Bricks can be considered as anthropogenic markers since they are regularly found in urban soils worldwide. They are among the most resistent residues of building materials, therefore are called technogenic substrates. They have been dumped to urban soils since more than 4000 years and can be dated back to their burning using thermoluminescence. In Berlin, bricks have been piled up to more than 37 rubble mountains in the city after WW II. The devils mountain, the most prominent of them is higher than 60m. However, bricks are known not to be isolated in the soil but to fulfill soil functions due to their porosity. Therefore, they are nice research objects for soil scientists. The purpose of this study is to investigate abundance and functions of bricks in urban soils, focusing on plant nutrition and contamination aspects. Three different Berlin urban soils have been studied for their brick contents in the coarse and fine earth fractions by endless hand sorting. Light and scanning electron microscopy was then employed to investigate the bricks for proofs of plant roots. Third, CEC, pH, EC, Corg, nutrient storage (XRF) and availability (2:1 extract, ion chromatography, AAS) of bricks and fine earth fractions of the corresponding soil horizons have been investigated. The fine earth fractions of the investigated soils contain 3 to 5% of bricks, while the coarse fractions contain up to 50%. We found roots entering brick pores or at least attached to brick surfaces. Therefore, plants can use the water and nutrients stored in bricks. The CEC of bricks is grain size dependent and reaches a maximum of 6 cmolc kg-1 for particles smaller than 0.063 mm. This dependency is not explained by a low pore connectivity. Rather, it is the result of the restricted diffusion into the brick pore system due to the short shaking time in the CEC analysis protocol. From the nutrient storage and availabilities we conclude that bricks can better supply plants with K, Mg, Ca and S than the bulk

  16. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  17. Friction measurements of steel on refractory bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselstein, L.E.

    1981-08-01

    During startup or shutdown of a pool-type LMFBR, substantial shear stresses may arise between the base of the steel reactor vessel and the refractory brick support base. The magnitude of these stresses, which result from differences in thermal expansion, can be estimated if the friction coefficient is known. This report describes experiments to determine friction coefficients between 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel and several refractory materials and to examine effects to contact pressure, temperature, sliding velocity, lubricants, and surface condition

  18. Architectural Thermal Forms II: Brick Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural concept and design method that investigates the use of dynamic factors in evolutionary form finding processes. The architectural construct, phenotype, is based on a brick assembly and how this can be organized based upon material properties and environmental...... aspects selected from the factors used in the Fanger equations to determine perceived comfort. The work finds that the developed method can be applied as performance oriented driver, while at the same time allowing diversity and variation in the architectural design space....

  19. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  20. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj.; Jankovic, S.; Marinkovic, J.; Radovanovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author)

  1. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj; Jankovic, S [Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, J [Institute of Social Medicine, Statistics and Healt Research, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Radovanovic, Z [Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 13110 Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-12-31

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author) 1 tab., 30 refs.

  2. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool...

  3. Dimer pair correlations on the brick lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, C.S.O.; Nagle, J.F.; Sulinas, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Using exact methods, pair-correlation functions are studied in the dimer model defined on a brick lattice. At long distances these functions exhibit strongly anisotropic algebraic decay and, near criticality, the length scales diverge differently in the two principal directions. The critical exponents are v /sub x/ =1/2 and v /sub y/ =1. These results are in agreement with deductions drawn from recent exact finite-size scaling calculations. We also interpret our results in the light of domain wall theories of commensurate-incommensurate transitions, and in particular we study the relation of the present model to the discrete version of the Pokrovsky-Talapov model introduced by Villain

  4. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  5. Finite element stress analysis of brick-mortar masonry under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress analysis of a brick-mortar couplet as a substitute for brick wall structure has been performed by finite element method, and algorithm for determining the element stiffness matrix for a plane stress problem using the displacement approach was developed. The nodal displacements were derived for the stress in each ...

  6. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  7. An Exploration of the Nanoworld with LEGO Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Miller, Josiah D.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Obermaier, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    LEGO bricks can be used for a number of demonstrations of chemical structures and properties, especially at the nanoscale level. These bricks can also be used to model instrumentation that probes these structures and properties. Detailed resources about many of these demonstrations are located on the extensive Web site "Exploring the Nanoworld…

  8. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  9. Properties of bricks produced from Greenlandic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor; Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Chen, Wan

    2015-01-01

    miniature bricks (54×54×60 mm3) of MS from Sisimiut. Brick pellets were prepared in order to determine an optimal composition and production method, based on investigations of the firing temperature and time,forming pressure, initial forming water content, and content of granite waste (CR). Miniature bricks......This study investigated the possibility of a local brick production from fine grained marine sediments (MS) near Sisimiut, Greenland. The assessment is based on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks concerning the resistance to the harsh, Arctic weather conditions, together...... were then prepared according to the optimal conditions and formed at a pressure of 20 MPa, fired at 1020 ºC for 3.5 days at the brickwork Wienerberger Tegl in Helsinge, Denmark. The durability properties such as porosity, water absorption, bulk density, linear shrinkage, and compressive strength (only...

  10. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  11. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... are supplemented with results from laboratory measurements of water absorption coefficient by partial immersion. Based on obtained measurement results, simulations are made with external liquid water loads for determination of moisture conditions within the masonry of different surface treatments. Experimental...

  12. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  13. Enhancement in thermal and mechanical properties of bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibib Khalid S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of porous brick is proposed. Sawdust is initially well mixed with wet clay in order to create voids inside the brick during the firing process. The voids will enhance the total performance of the brick due to the reduction of its density and thermal conductivity and a minor reduction of its compressive stress. All these properties have been measured experimentally and good performance has been obtained. Although a minor reduction in compressive stress has been observed with increased porosity, this property has still been larger than that of the common used hollow brick. Data obtained by this work lead to a new type of effective brick having a good performance with no possibility that mortar enters inside the holes which is the case with the common used hollow bricks. The mortar has a determent effect on thermal properties of the wall since it has some higher thermal conductivity and density than that of brick which increases the wall overall density and thermal conductivity of the wall.

  14. Thermal Performance of the Storage Brick Containing Microencapsulated PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Gyu

    1998-02-01

    The utilization of microencapsulated phase change materials(PCMs) provides several advantages over conventional PCM application. The heat storage system, as well as heat recovery system, can be built to a smaller size than the normal systems for a given thermal cycling capacity. This microencapsulated PCM technique has not yet been commercialized, however. In this work sodium acetate trihydrate(CH 3 COONa · 3H 2 O) was selected for the PCM and was encapsulated. This microencapsulated PCM was mixed with cement mortar for utilization as a floor heating system. In this experiment performed here the main purpose was to investigate the thermal performance of a storage brick with microencapsulated PCM concentration. The thermal performance of this storage brick is dependent on PCM concentration, flow rate and cooling temperature of the heat transfer fluid, etc. The results showed that cycle time was shortened as the PCM content was increased and as the mass flow rate was increased. The same effect was obtained when the cooling temperature was decreased. For each thermal storage brick the overall heat transfer coefficient(U-value) was constant for a 0% brick, but was increased with time for the bricks containing microencapsulated PCM. For the same mass flow rate, as the cooling temperature decreased, the amount of heat withdrawn increased, and in particular a critical cooling temperature was found for each thermal storage brick. The average effectiveness of each thermal storage brick was found to be approximately 48%, 51% and 58% respectively

  15. A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...

  16. Construction sustainability with adobe bricks type elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Hegyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a criterion defined in the 80, which is essential in all fields of current activity. At the moment, it can not talk about development without being taken into account sustainability criteria. It presents the ensuring for an harmonious development, in line with current needs, without to endanger the possibility to develop and satisfy the needs of future generations. The buildings of adobe bricks-type elements ensure successfully the conditions imposed by this criterion. This type of construction ensures the responsible use of renewable natural resources, the possibility of reuse and recycling of materials, contributes to environmental protection and to pollution reduction, to energy saving and it provides a cleaner and healthier living environment. Not least, the buildings of this type are accessible in terms of cost and can contribute to the development of other fields such as eco-tourism.

  17. IN MY OPINION: Bricks, buildings and brickbats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1999-09-01

    You find that you want to erect a building. Presumably you know why - somewhere to live, somewhere to park a car, a kitchen extension, a shop, a gymnasium - a cathedral even. You explain your needs to an expert - an architect, someone who knows how to convert a (more or less) clearly defined aim into a workable plan. The architect consults with a builder, and together they estimate how many bricks, windows, pieces of wood, wires etc, etc they need to make the plan a reality. They should also give you a reasonably accurate estimate of the cost of the building. At least this is what happened when I had to get a new garage and wanted to extend a kitchen. It was all done professionally and both sides were satisfied. During the summer of 1999 interested parties are looking closely at the government's proposals for the next version of the National Curriculum. New National Curriculums appear much more often than I can afford to alter or extend my kitchen, and there seems to be a major difference in the way an educational system is constructed compared to the way a new building is built. If kitchen extensions were built using the educational method, the user (or customer, as I sometimes like to think of the teacher-pupil symbiosis) would find piles of bricks, window frames, wires and pieces of wood carefully dumped on the front garden. There would also be a rather brief set of instructions, plus some fairly rigid building regulations. We would then be asked to comment on this, and maybe a few extra bricks would be delivered or some taken away. As a nation of Do-it-Yourselfers we would of course cope. My experience of working with a team trying (with some success) to construct a coherent structure of learning based on the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 was instructive and character-building. Some vital pieces seemed to be missing (but we couldn't put them in because that would have overloaded the content). Some bits couldn't be fitted in anywhere, so we relied on a

  18. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  19. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  20. Utilization of portable effluent wastewater in brick manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Mahllawy, M.S.; El-Sokkary, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Portable wastewater is produced from sedimentation and filtration tanks in portable water treatment plants. Usually, this useless wastewater is drained into River Nile Canal and not to the sewer system causing a potential pollution. Wastewater has been taken from Portable Treatment Plant located at Qalubia Province, Delta, Egypt. Evaluation of raw materials was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermal analyses (DTA and TGA) as well as plasticity and drying sensitivity coefficient (DSC) measurements. Technological properties of fired bricks were investigated according to Egyptian and American Specifications. The obtained experimental results encourage substitution of the drained portable wastewater for the tap water in bricks manufacturing. Thus, utilization of the studied portable effluent wastewater in such industry is possible and fulfills the double target of saving drinking water used in clay bricks manufacturing, rather than its environmental pollution prevention. Keywords: Portable wastewater, tap water, clay building bricks, physicomechanical properties

  1. Use of Greenlandic resources for the production of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    of e.g. compression strength, open porosity and water absorption can be produced from the sediments. However, the properties largely depend on the processing of the sediment, e.g. firing procedure and initial treatments. • Addition of waste materials, such as the investigated bottom ash and mine...... of produced bricks. • to investigate the link between raw material characteristics, processing details and resulting technical characteristics of bricks produced from a representative sediment occurrence. Furthermore, in relation to the potential for incorporating waste in the produced bricks, the following...... characteristics. • Bricks are heterogeneous materials, which can accommodate materials of wide ranging compositions without losing their technical properties. For this reason, the ceramic industry has been identified as one of the major recipients for waste in the future. Wastes of different types are becoming...

  2. Durability of fired clay bricks containing granite powder

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, G. C.; Saboya, F.; Maia, P. C.; Alexandre, J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, hundreds of papers have been published on the benefits of including rock powder as a raw material in fired clay brick manufacture. Very little has been written, however, about the durability and long-term behaviour of the final product. As a rule, the ceramic bricks used in construction in developing countries are fired at low temperatures, which detracts from their mechanical performance. This is particularly visible in harsh environmental conditions, where weather...

  3. Solar conduction heat transfer in fired clay bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio-Garcia, E.; Andres Zarate, Esteban; Cordova, Quintiliano A. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, DACB, Cunduacan, Tabasco 86680 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J.; Campos-Alvarez, J. [CIE-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Mor 62580 (Mexico); Trevino-Palacios, Carlos G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. A.P. 51 Y 216. Puebla 72000 (Mexico); De la O-Leon, Hugo [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, DAIS, Cunduacan Tab (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    When somebody is interested in building a house in the year-round-hot and humid regions, faces with the decision of using modern construction block material or the traditional red fired clay brick material. We performed mechanical and thermal controlled measurements on walls made using both materials. We found that the ancient tradition of using fired clay bricks, for the weather conditions in central Tabasco, represents an excellent alternative in cost and energy savings for construction.

  4. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  5. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...... that there is a consistence with the literature of the glassy phase describing ion exchange at low pH and break down of the lattice in the glassy structure at high pH. At present remains examination of polished sections with SEM/EDX, measurements of each of the ionic contents in the brick matrix and new series with a longer...

  6. Sasol Coal`s `better brick` for colliery ventilation walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    Sasol coal has developed a better brick for construction of ventilation walls underground. It has proven to be a speedy and cost-saving alternative to the standard concrete block used for the purpose. The brick has an interlocking design ensuring that it is laid correctly. Unlike the conventional concrete block, the ventilation walls built for the new brick do not have to be plastered to achieve airtightness. The skills required to build such walls are minimal as the design of the brick makes it virtually impossible to lay it badly or unevenly - further facilitated by the absence of mortar. While introducing the new method Sasol Coal took the opportunity to introduce a purpose-made trailer for transporting the bricks, with the trailer doubling as a building platform on site. This has further contributed to the efficiency and speed of the operation. It has also reduced to a minimum the number of times the bricks are handled, thus cutting down on breakages. 1 fig.

  7. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  8. Comparative Study on the Cost of Building Public House Construction Using Red Brick and Interlock Brick Building Material in the City of Banda Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahayati, Nurul; Hayati, Yulia; Nursaniah, Cut; Firsa, T.; Fachrurrazi; Munandar, Aris

    2018-05-01

    Red brick and interlocking brick are the building materials that are often used for wall installation work on houses construction. In the development of building materials technology and cost savings, interlocking brick can be alternative to replace red bricks. In Aceh Province, the use of interlocking bricks is less popular compared to other big cities in Indonesia. Interlocking brick is made from a mixture of clay, concrete sand and compacted cement and one of the environmentally friendly materials because it does not burn the process like red brick material. It is named interlocking brick because the installation method is locked together and it serves as a structural and partition wall of residential buildings. The aims of this study are to compare the cost of building a house in Banda Aceh City using red brick and interlock brick building materials. The data were obtained from interviews and questionnaires distributed to respondents who had built houses in Banda Aceh City. The results concluded that the house construction cost using interlock brick offer lower construction cost at comparable quality rather than using red brick.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties in Clay Brick Masonry by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Clay Brick Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumavat, Hemraj Ramdas

    2016-09-01

    The compressive stress-strain behavior and mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its constituents clay bricks and mortar, have been studied by several laboratory tests. Using linear regression analysis, a analytical model has been proposed for obtaining the stress-strain curves for masonry that can be used in the analysis and design procedures. The model requires only the compressive strengths of bricks and mortar as input data, which can be easily obtained experimentally. Development of analytical model from the obtained experimental results of Young's modulus and compressive strength. Simple relationships have been identified for obtaining the modulus of elasticity of bricks, mortar, and masonry from their corresponding compressive strengths. It was observed that the proposed analytical model clearly demonstrates a reasonably good prediction of the stress-strain curves when compared with the experimental curves.

  10. Project Inner Brick - Colorful Plastic Bricks in Psychotherapy - An Introduction to Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidert László

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PIB is a research project pertaining to the psychotherapeutic potential of Lego bricks. This is based on Lego Group’s own method called Lego Seriousplay and Eric Berne's transactional analysis as a theoretical background. If we see it from the Lego’s aspect, our plan is a training like LSP. It is only alike because of the special application. We made a lot of modifications according to the original methodology. In this document we would like to present details of our research we have been working on for almost two years. The characteristics of our methodology will be illustrated, too.

  11. Properties of Nanocrystals-formulated Aluminosilicate Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conciauro

    2015-10-01

    insulating and/or mechanical properties. The nanocrystals- modified refractories showed variations in properties, with respect to the untreated aluminosilicate reference in heat- insulating performances (thermal diffusivities were measured by the “hot disk” technique. In general, they also showed improvements in mechanical compression resist‐ ance for all of the samples at 2 wt. %. The best heat insula‐ tion was obtained with the addition of nano-aluminium hydroxide at 2 wt. %, while the highest mechanical compres‐ sion breaking resistance was found with nano-CaCO3 at 2 wt. %. These outcomes were investigated with complemen‐ tary techniques, like mercury porosimetry for porosity, and Archimedes methods to measure physical properties like the bulk and apparent densities, apparent porosities and water absorption. The results show that the nano-alumini‐ um hydroxide modified bricks were the most porous, which could explain the best heat-insulating performances. There is a less straightforward explanation for the mechanical resistance results, as they may have relations with the characteristics of the pores. Furthermore, the nanoparti‐ cles may have possible reactions with the matrix during the heat treatments.

  12. How many bricks in a castle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Although Congress' intent in enacting the Oil Prevention Act was close to the mark, the events surrounding the Exxon Valdez spill (and several others) drove legislators to construct a law which, itself, often runs aground, spilling quasi-regulatory language and requirements into an already complex sea of laws and regulations. This has caused more than minor difficulties among the Federal and state governments, industry, concerned citizens, and environmental groups. Areas of concern include: worst case discharge definitions; certificates of financial responsibility; natural resource damage assessments and non-use values; lack of Federal preemption; redundant regulatory requirements occasioned by overlapping areas of jurisdiction and turf concerns among the Federal and state spill response regulators; and lack of a mandate for regulators to use risk assessments and cost benefit analyses in developing economically feasible spill response regulations. Other problem areas exist, but it is not the intent of this paper to cast stones into the existing rainbow slick of regulations. What's done is done, and now there is a second wave of bricks in the air that must be addressed; these relate to hazardous substances and hazardous materials emergency response (E/R)

  13. The influence of water saturation on mechanical properties of ceramic bricks – tests on 19th- century and contemporary bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysek, P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents test results concerning ceramic bricks produced in 1880’s. Bricks were obtained from a building erected as part of Archduke Rudolf barracks in Krakow. The tests helped to specify changes in brick compressive strength and hardness, caused by water saturation in the ceramic material. For comparison purposes, tests were also carried out on contemporary bricks. Tests showed that mechanical properties of the ceramic bricks in the water saturation state were worse than in the dry state. The impact of strong brick moisture on changes of mechanical parameters is essential in terms of safety assessment for brick structures.En el artículo se presentan los resultados del estudio de los ladrillos cerámicos producidos en los años 80 del siglo XIX. Los ladrillos se obtuvieron del edificio que forma parte de un conjunto de cuarteles del archiduque Rudolfo en Cracovia en Polonia. En los estudios se han determinado los cambios de la resistencia a la compresión y la dureza de los ladrillos, por efecto de la saturación de agua del material cerámico. A efectos comparativos, se han realizado también estudios de ladrillos producidos en la actualidad. Se ha comprobado que la saturación de agua de los ladrillos cerámicos lleva consigo una considerable disminución de las propiedades mecánicas. Por lo tanto, el impacto de la alta humedad de los ladrillos sobre el cambio de las propiedades mecánicas constituye un factor significativo en la evaluación de la seguridad en las construcciones de ladrillo.

  14. Development of new baked bricks based on clay and sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjeddou Omrane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in the field of building materials is oriented towards the recovery of waste to ensure the lightening of certain building elements and energy saving. The objective of this study is to produce a new bricks by adding sawdust to clay mixtures. The first part of this experimental work consists on detremining the proper manufacturing process and cooking diagram for these new bricks. In the second part, the effect of the maximum cooking temperature, the firing phase time's of the bricks and the sawdust prportion on the physical and mechanical properties of the new bricks have been studied. The studied properties are the absorption ratio, the unit weight and the compressive strength. The results showed that the addition of an increasing amount of sawdust tends to modify the physical and mechanical properties of the cooked samples. The presence of sawdust reduces the number of connections between the clay grains and produces a lighter, more absorbent and less resistant material. Finally, the results showed that the manufacture of bricks based on sawdust is possible.

  15. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  16. Pressure relief experiments on a cyclindrical carbon brick tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Weise, H.J.; Ennen, P.

    1978-08-01

    Pressure relief experiments have been carried out on a carbon brick tube. The outer diameter of the specimen was 580 mm, the inner diameter 280 mm, the length 800 mm. The experiments were made with helium at the temperature of the environment. The measurements were carried out in the pressure range from 15 upto 39 bar. The pressure loss was measured dependent on the initial pressure and on time at 5 positions uniformly distributed over the thickness of the tube wall and in the pressure vessel. The maximum pressure transients occurred amounted to approximately 60 bar/second. The maximum overpressure with respect to the environment which occurred in the carbon brick during the relief experiments was about 3.3 bar. The measurements distinctly showed the presence and the effects of inhomogeneities in the sample material. No damages or changes in the carbon brick, which could be regarded as a consequence of the experiments, were found. (orig./GSC) [de

  17. An accelerated test method for efflorescence in clay bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggan, John Edward

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the creation of accelerated efflorescence in clay bricks was undertaken with a view to creating a viable test procedure for determining efflorescence potential. The testing programme incorporated ambient conditions similar to those which promote efflorescence growth in bricks in use. Theoretical investigations into the physical mechanism underlying the creation of efflorescence directed the attempts to accelerate the process. It was found that calcium sulphate efflorescence could not be sufficiently accelerated such that a useful efflorescence test procedure could be proposed. The inability to produce accelerated efflorescence in brick samples was attributed to limitations associated with time dependent salt diffusion in the efflorescence mechanism. The preliminary testing that was undertaken into the creation of efflorescence prompted the use of acid assisted methods to accelerate efflorescence. The acid assisted method that was adopted to provide a possible indication of efflorescence potential relies upon the transformation of low solubility calcium to a more soluble form. The movement of the transformed salt is then induced by cyclic temperature exposure at temperatures similar to those experienced in Spring. The appearance of the transformed calcium salt on the surface of the brick specimen provides an indication of the efflorescence potential. Brick piers constructed on an exposed site and monitored over a 12 month period provided information on the validity of the acid assisted test method. The efflorescence observed on the piers correlated well with that predicted by the acid assisted test, suggesting that the new test has the potential to accurately predict the efflorescence potential of clay bricks Relationships between other properties such as air permeability, sorptivity and tensile strength were investigated such that an alternative method of predicting efflorescence could be achieved. It was found that (within the bounds of the

  18. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with ...

  19. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  20. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  1. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  2. Influence of pH during chemical weathering of bricks: Long term exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Charola, A. Elena

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of environmental weathering of bricks in historical structures, this study focuses on new bricks currently employed for restoration projects. The bricks were subjected to an accelerated chemical weathering test by immersion in solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 13 for differ...

  3. A brick-architecture-based mobile under-vehicle inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Page, David; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a mobile scanning system for real-time under-vehicle inspection is presented, which is founded on a "Brick" architecture. In this "Brick" architecture, the inspection system is basically decomposed into bricks of three kinds: sensing, mobility, and computing. These bricks are physically and logically independent and communicate with each other by wireless communication. Each brick is mainly composed by five modules: data acquisition, data processing, data transmission, power, and self-management. These five modules can be further decomposed into submodules where the function and the interface are well-defined. Based on this architecture, the system is built by four bricks: two sensing bricks consisting of a range scanner and a line CCD, one mobility brick, and one computing brick. The sensing bricks capture geometric data and texture data of the under-vehicle scene, while the mobility brick provides positioning data along the motion path. Data of these three modalities are transmitted to the computing brick where they are fused and reconstruct a 3D under-vehicle model for visualization and danger inspection. This system has been successfully used in several military applications and proved to be an effective safer method for national security.

  4. 75 FR 56556 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...)] Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... from China and Mexico of certain magnesia carbon bricks, provided for in subheadings 6902.10.10, 6902... the Act (19 U.S.C. 1671b(b)) and that imports of certain magnesia carbon bricks from China and Mexico...

  5. 75 FR 4528 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... the PRC and Mexico. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Initiation... Bricks from the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination With...

  6. Analysis of the major chemical compositions in Fuzhuan brick-tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzhuan brick-tea, a fungal-fermented tea, is commonly consumed in northwest China; in places such as Sinkiang and Tibet and is thought to be helpful in digestion. To better understand Fuzhuan brick-tea and its function on digestion, the Fuzhuan brick-tea's chemical compounds were surveyed at pivotal process phases, ...

  7. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Spiekman, M.E.; Pel, L.; Kopinga, K.; Larbi, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments show that using a fired-clay brick, the water is extracted out of the mortar within 3 minutes, whereas in the case of a sand-lime brick this takes about 10 minutes. Prewetting a

  8. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying : a NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Spiekman, M.E.; Kopinga, K.; Larbi, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance. The experiments show that using a fired-clay brick, the water is extracted out of the mortar within 3 minutes, whereas in the case of a sand-lime brick this takes about 10 minutes. Prewetting a

  9. Leaching and geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing coal wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Yassine; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Edahbi, Mohamed; Mansori, Mohammed; Hakkou, Rachid

    2018-03-01

    High amounts of mine wastes are continuously produced by the mining industry all over the world. Recycling possibility of some wastes in fired brick making has been investigated and showed promising results. However, little attention is given to the leaching behavior of mine wastes based fired bricks. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the geochemical behavior of fired bricks containing different types of coal wastes. The leachates were analyzed for their concentration of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn and sulfates using different leaching tests; namely Tank Leaching tests (NEN 7375), Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and pH dependence test (EPA, 1313). The results showed that the release of constituents of potential interest was highly reduced after thermal treatment and were immobilized within the glassy matrix of the fired bricks. Moreover, it was also highlighted that the final pH of all fired samples changed and stabilized around 8-8.5 when the initial pH of leaching solution was in the range 2.5-11.5. The release of heavy metals and metalloids (As) tended to decrease with the increase of pH from acidic to alkaline solutions while Mo displayed a different trend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Processes of Fatigue Destruction in Nanopolymer-Hydrophobised Ceramic Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Fic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1–5 and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6–10. Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication. The effect of the addition of nano silica and sonication on changes in the rheological parameters, i.e., viscosity and surface tension, was determined. Material fatigue was induced by cyclic immersion of the samples in water and drying at a temperature of 100 °C, which caused rapid and relatively dynamic movement of water. The moisture and temperature effect was determined by measurement of changes in surface hardness performed with the Vickers method and assessment of sample absorbability. The results provided an approximate picture of fatigue destruction of brick and hydrophobic coatings in relation to changes in their temporal stability. Additionally, SEM images of hydrophobic coatings in are shown.

  11. Perceptions of brick architecture : interview with Jeroen Geurst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyin, J.N.K.F.; Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    Jeroen Geurst (1960) studied architecture at Delft University of Technology and co-founded Geurst & Schulze architects with Rens Schulze in 1984. Over the span of more than three decades, the office has developed a large oeuvre of predominantly brick buildings. Geurst furthermore recently

  12. 3-dimensional analysis of FELIX brick with hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taek-Kyung; Lee, Soo-Young; Ra, Jung-Woong

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction on FELIX brick with a hole has been analyzed with 3-Dimensional EDDYNET computer code. Incorporating loop currents on hexahedral meshes, the 3-Dimensional EDDYNET program solves eddy current problems by a network approach, and provides good accuracy even for coarse meshes. (author)

  13. Effects of water on mortar-brick bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.J.W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of bond in masonry is, to a large extent, a function of the (i) the hydration conditions and (ii) the mortar composition of the mortar-brick interface. For insight into the effects of these parameters on bond performance it is essential to dispose of quantitative information about water

  14. Do Schools Still Need Brick-and-Mortar Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Mastrion, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Do all schools need brick-and-mortar libraries? In this article, Johnson and Mastrion share their contradictory thoughts to the question. Johnson says some schools don't need library facilities or programs or librarians. These schools' teachers and administrators: (1) feel no need for a collaborative learning space; (2) feel the ability to process…

  15. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  16. Identification of indigenous science in the brick-making process through ethnoscience study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuroso, H.; Supriyadi; Sudarmin, S.; Sarwi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find indigenous science in making bricks. In the brick-making process there are concepts of science used for generations obtained through local wisdom. This research method is descriptive qualitative by collecting data through interviews on brick-making home industries in Penggaron village of Semarang city and in Welahan village of Jepara. The result of the research indicates that the indigenous science is in the process of making bricks which includes materials composing, printing, drying, burning and brick quality testing. These findings can be integrated in the course of environmental physics.

  17. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Pressed Straw Concrete Brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, S.; Wijanarko, W.

    2018-03-01

    Rice straws have been widely used as wall filler material in China, Australia, and United States, by spinning them into hays with an approximate dimension of 40 cm of height, 40cm of thickness and 60 cm of width, using a machine. Then, the hays are placed into a wall frame until they fill it completely. After that, the wall frame is covered with wire mesh and plastered. In this research, rice straws are to be used as concrete brick fillers, by pressing the straws into hays and then putting them into the concrete brick mold along with mortar. The objective of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete brick, namely: compressive strength, specific gravity, and water absorption power. This research used experimental research method. It was conducted by using concrete bricks which had 400 cm of width, 200 cm of height, and 100 cm of thickness, made from rice straws, cement, sand, and water as the test sample. The straws were each made different by their volume. The mortars used in this research were made from cement, sand, and water, with the ratio of 1:7:0.5. The concrete bricks were made by pressing straws mixed with glue into hays, and then cut by determined variations of volume. The variations of hays volume were 0 m3, 0.000625 m3, 0.00075 m3, 0.000875 m3, 0.00125 m3, 0.0015 m3, 0.00175 m3, 0.001875 m3, 0.00225 m3, and 0.002625 m3. There were 3 samples for each volumes of hays. The result shows that the straw concrete bricks reached the maximum compressive strength of 1.92 MPa, specific gravity of 1,702 kg/m3, and water absorption level of 3.9 %. Based on the provided measurements of products in the Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian product standardization), the concrete bricks produced attained the prescribed standard quality.

  18. Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, A. de; Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. → The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. → Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

  19. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  20. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  1. Magnetic inclination from Brazilian bricks and application to Archeomagnetic dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, G. S.; Hartmann, G. A.; Trindade, R. I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth's magnetic field (EMF) is recorded in archeological baked materials carrying a stable remanent magnetization. This magnetic record can be used for indirectly date the archeological material by comparison with "reference curves" of the EMF. In this work we present magnetic inclination data from two different sites in southeastern Brazil, an ancient and a modern one: (a) a sampling at the ancient sugarcane mill Engenho Central de Piracicaba (ECP, 1881-1974 AD), and (b) a controlled survey at the modern brickyard Olaria Schiavolin (OS). Both of them are located in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Magnetic measurements included stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and low-field magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature. In OS, we collected 40 oriented bricks from 5 sampling points inside the brickyard oven in order to test the stability and reliability of their remanent magnetizations by comparing them with the local field (measured directly with a fluxgate magnetometer). We observed differences of +/- 3° between the local field and the IGRF. When magnetic inclinations are reported relative to the flat planes of the brick (the situation we face for real ancient bricks), the differences due to inclination of the burning plane and magnetic anomalies inside the oven never exceed 6°. These differences are averaged out by using a minimum of 6 bricks (~24 specimens) per sampling point to compute the inclination. In the ancient site ECP we collected 140 non-oriented bricks from 14 different walls; three of them were previously dated using historical records. Inclinations were defined using at least 6 bricks per wall, showing consistent average values within the same walls. When compared to the IGRF and GUFM1 models, the inclinations obtained for the dated walls agreed within the experimental error. We have then applied the same procedure to estimate the age of the remaining walls. Using

  2. Automation of TL brick dating by ADAM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Hirsl, P.; Jirousek, P.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Kanaval, J.

    2000-01-01

    Thermoluminescence has become an established dating method for ceramics and more recently for bricks. Based on the experiences of the work carried out since the late 1970's at the Rathgen-Forschungslabor in Berlin on the dating of bricks from historic architecture, and after evaluating all commercially available and some individually built automated and semi-automated TL-readers, a specially adapted machine for the fine grain dating of bricks was constructed in an interdisciplinary research project, undertaken by a team recruited from three faculties of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The result is the automated TL-reader ADAM-1 (Automated Dating Apparatus for Monuments) for the dating of historic architecture. Both the specific adaptation of the technique and the necessary optimal automation have influenced the design of this TL-reader. The principle advantage of brick as opposed to ceramic TL-dating emerges from the possibility of being able to obtain both a large number of samples and an above average quantity of datable material from each sample. This, together with the specific physical and chemical conditions in a brick wall, allowed a rethinking of the traditional error calculation and thus lower error margins as those obtained when dating ceramic shards. The TL-reader must therefore be able to measure and evaluate automatically numerous samples. The annular sample holder of ADAM-1 has 60 sample positions, which allow the irradiation and evaluation of samples taken from two locations. The thirty samples from one sampling point are divided into subgroups, which are processed in various ways. Three samples serve for a rough estimate of the TL sensitivity of the brick material. Nine samples are used for the measurement of 'natural TL' of the material. A further nine samples are used for testing the sensitivity of the material to beta radiation. The last nine samples serve for the testing of the sensitivity to alpha radiation. To determine the

  3. Natural radioactivity content and radionuclides leachability of bricks containing industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Nur Azna Mahmud; Muhamat Omar

    2012-01-01

    A study have been carried out using gamma-ray spectrometric system to determine the natural radioactivity level in bricks made from industrial waste and their associated radiation hazard. Brick-1 and brick-2 contained waste from coal power plant and granite industry, respectively. The leachability of radionuclides from these bricks was also investigated. The activity concentration values of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K are 64.25, 63.15, 67.9 and 254.19 Bq kg -1 , respectively in brick-1, and 193, 164.48, 164.63 and 1348.75 Bq kg -1 , respectively in brick-2. The radiation hazard indexes such as radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), representative level index (I γr ), external hazard index (H ex ) and internal hazard index (H in ) were calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. Results indicate that brick-1 showed less radiological hazard than brick-2. This suggested that brick-1 could be used in building construction without exceeding the proposed criterion level. The leachability of 226 Ra for bricks showed the activity concentration slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater for example 1 BqL -1 . (author)

  4. Characterization of AMC commercial bricks with different alumina qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, V.; Camerucci, Maria A.; Martinez, A.G. Tomba

    2011-01-01

    The study of commercial bricks Al 2 O 3 -MgO-C (AMC) has some advantages over the analysis of materials prepared in the laboratory, but requires a complete characterization. This paper presents the results of the characterization of commercial bricks AMC with different types of alumina aggregates used in ladles floor. The same is done by several complementary techniques: XRD, DTA / TGA, EPR, volume density and apparent porosity, dilatometric analysis, microstructural analysis by low magnification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with analysis Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and determination of mechanical properties at room temperature (Young's modulus, stress and strain at fracture). The main characteristics and differences in the composition and microstructure, essential data for further analysis of the mechanical behavior and resistance to slag attack of these refractories, are determined. (author)

  5. Ecofriendly bricks elaborated from coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generated during mining is one of the major environmental problems associated with this industrial activity. The best solution to overcome the environmental impact of this waste is to find recycling facilities in mass-produced products that can absorb the large quantities of these available byproducts. The present study shows the feasibility of using the coal waste of Moroccan Jerrada mining in the production of ecological brick. The first step consists of consecutive stages of crushing, grinding and heating at 650°C of the coal waste with a small amount of lime in order to promote the reactive products of elaborated binders. The second step of the process consists of mixing treated coal waste with a small amount of marble dust, sand, gravel, and water, then pressed and dried at room temperature to manufacture a laboratory ecofriendly bricks. The mechanical strength and thermal conductivity are investigated.

  6. UTILISATION OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURING OF MUD BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi BİNİCİ

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The population in the rural area of Turkey has increased due to KKP (in Turkish Köy-Kent Proje. Most of the buildings in the area are made out of limestone and adobe. But this material does not have sufficient resistance to earthquakes. The research in the field of construction at The University of Cukurova elaborates on the mechanical properties and workability of raw materials such as fibre, wheat stem, strafor, basaltic pumice and clay. The production of bricks using a significant fraction of mixed waste from wheat and different ratios of clay mixed with fibre, strafor, cement, gypsum, lime and basaltic pumice was investigated. This paper presents the use of waste in the construction of soft bricks at the KKP. The results of this study suggests that using these materials have many advantages such as energy savings, low cost and improvements in the final properties of products.

  7. Feasibility of using local bricks for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Menon, S.N.; Kadam, S.Y.; Koul, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising nuclear power industry, application of radioactive materials in medical industry, nuclear proliferation and terrorist activities pose risk of nuclear and radiological incidents. In the event of such an incident accurate radiation dosimetry is necessary to address the immediate and long term personal and public concerns. Absorbed radiation doses of occupationally exposed workers can be carried out using standard conventional dosimeters and monitoring systems. However, there is a growing concern about the estimation of radiation doses to non radiation workers or public in case of a nuclear or radiological accident occurring in large area which do not have adequate monitoring system. In such situations non conventional dosimeters such as bricks, tiles or other natural materials have been proposed for retrospective determination of dose. In this study we explore the use of OSL from quartz extracted from red bricks manufactured in kilns located in the Mumbai metropolitan region

  8. Growing and testing mycelium bricks as building insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yangang; Brewer, Matthew; El-Gharabawy, Hoda; Griffith, Gareth; Jones, Phil

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve energy performance of buildings, insulation materials (such as mineral glass and rock wools, or fossil fuel-based plastic foams) are being used in increasing quantities, which may lead to potential problem with materials depletions and landfill disposal. One sustainable solution suggested is the use of bio-based, biodegradable materials. A number of attempts have been made to develop biomaterials, such as sheep wood, hemcrete or recycled papers. In this paper, a novel type of bio insulation materials - mycelium is examined. The aim is to produce mycelium materials that could be used as insulations. The bio-based material was required to have properties that matched existing alternatives, such as expanded polystyrene, in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics but with an enhanced level of biodegradability. The testing data showed mycelium bricks exhibited good thermal performance. Future work is planned to improve growing process and thermal performance of the mycelium bricks.

  9. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  10. Unfired clay bricks – retention curves and liquid diffusivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Kristensen, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents retention curves and liquid diffusivities of two different types of unfired clay bricks, both produced in Denmark on commercial basis. The retention curves are determined by use of pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatuses. The liquid diffusivity is calculated on the ba...... on the basis of capillary rise of water measured by use of X-ray equipment. The data from the capillary rise of water is transformed by the Boltzmann transformation....

  11. Bright bricks, dark play: On the impossibility of studying LEGO

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the pleasures of LEGO do not end once the instructions in a particular set have been followed and the model depicted on the box is accurately realized. Generations of children have —just as the manufacturers intended— pulled apart the pristine model and begun again, making new vehicles, environments and creatures. The new set joins the larger box of LEGO full of older bricks, and is mixed and hybridized. This hybridization has become particularly evident in rec...

  12. Asessing the New Way of Working : Bricks, Bytes and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    de Kok, A.; Koop, J.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The world in which we work is changing. Information and communication technologies transform the work environment, providing the flexibility of when and where to work. The New Way of Working (NWOW) is a relatively new phenomenon that provides the context for these developments. It consists of three distinct pillars that are referred to as Bricks, Bytes and Behaviour. These pillars formed the basis for the development of the NWOW Analysis Monitor that enables organisations to determine their c...

  13. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as well as powder (CBP. The first phase of the research focuses on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and micro-structural analysis (MSA were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight, higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and environmental aspects are imperative.

  14. Wave Manipulation in Metamaterials: A LEGO® Bricks Enabled Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    In this work, we show how simple, reconfigurable arrangements of LEGO® bricks can be turned into the building blocks of an experimental platform for the investigation of wave phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach involves the assembly of reconfigurable specimens consisting of patterns of bricks on a baseplate and the use of a 3D laser vibrometer to reconstruct global and local wave features. The ability to seamlessly transition between different topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental verification and proof of concept in the arena of mechanical metamaterials engineering. The intuitive nature of the brick-and-baseplate assembly paradigm can also be leveraged to implement families of intuitive lab demonstrations with significant didactic and scientific outreach potential. The versatility of the platform is tested through a series of experiments that illustrate a variety of wave manipulation effects, such as waveguiding and seismic isolation, both in periodic and disordered topologies. We acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (Grant CMMI-1266089).

  15. Volumetric radioassay of lead bricks being considered for unrestricted release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Losinski, S.J.; Seal, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The hardware, software, and a protocol have been developed for the screening of lead bricks for free release or recycle from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The procedure for measuring the background from a sampling of ''clean'' lead bricks and for deducing the decision limits (in pCi/g) have been developed. At the decision limit, a radioactive lead brick would be detected with 95% confidence if it were present. The total and peak efficiencies of a 2.54-cm diameter x 2.54-cm high NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for the counting geometry of the present study were measured with a mixed radionuclide standard and calculated with a Monte Carlo program, CYLTRAN. The deduced decision limit for the counting conditions of the present study were 0.0588 pCi/g by analyzing the entire spectrum and 0.256 pCi/g by analyzing the 661-keV peak region for a 900-second count

  16. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  17. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  18. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  19. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function.

  20. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  1. Development of low thermal conductivity brick using rice husk, corn cob and waste tea in clay brick manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Nor Sarwani Mat; Deraman, Rafikullah; Hamzah, Mohamad Hazmi

    2017-12-01

    The consumption of energy for cooling the indoor environment of buildings in Malaysia is high and mostly related to poor thermal performance of the building envelope. It is evident that reducing energy consumption of buildings has become vital, taking into considerations the limitation of conventional energy resources and the adverse effects associated with the use of such type of energy on the environment. Therefore, selecting the proper thermal properties of a building envelope play a major role in determining the energy consumption patterns and comfort conditions in enclosed spaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of rice husk (RH), corn cob (CC) and waste tea (WT) as an additive agent in a fired clay brick manufacturing to produce an improved thermal conductivity of final brick product. In the execution of this study, these agricultural wastes were mixed together with clay soil in different percentages, ranging from 0 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % by weight. Physical and mechanical properties including soil physical properties, density, shrinkage, water absorption, compressive strength as well as thermal conductivity were measured, reported and discussed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990, BS 3921: 1985, MS 76: 1972: Part 2 and ASTM C 518. The results show that RH at 7.5 % is the most effective combination to achieve low thermal conductivity of fired clay brick. This finding suggests that RH waste is a potentially good additive material to be used for thermal properties enhancement of the building envelope.

  2. Investigating the Utility of Iron Ore Waste in Preparing Non-fired Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Shreekant R.; Mangalpady, Aruna; Vardhan, Harsha

    2017-10-01

    Iron ore waste is a major problem for mine owners due to the difficulty involved in its storage, handling and other environmental related issues. An alternative solution to this is utilisation of iron ore waste (IOW) as some value added product in construction industry. An attempt has been made in this paper in examining the possibility of making non-fired bricks from iron ore waste with some additives like cement and fly-ash. Each of the additives were mixed with IOW in different ratios and different sets of bricks were prepared. The prepared IOW bricks were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and their respective compressive strength and percentage of water absorption were determined. The results show that IOW bricks prepared with 9% and above cement and with 28 days of curing are suitable for brick making and meet the IS specifications. It was also observed that the weight of the prepared bricks with 9% cement with 28 days of curing varies between 2.35 and 2.45 kg whereas the weight of compressed fire clay bricks varies from 2.80 to 2.89 kg. Results also show that the cost of bricks prepared with cement ranging from 9 to 20% is comparable to that of commercially available compressed bricks.

  3. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuyns, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.cappuyns@kuleuven.be; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product.

  4. Dredged sediments as a resource for brick production: Possibilities and barriers from a consumers’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Deweirt, Valentine; Rousseau, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumers are suspicious towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Technical quality, safety and environmental impacts are considered key characteristics. • Public has insufficient knowledge on bricks produced from dredged sediments. • Sensitization and provision of information to customers are of primary importance. - Abstract: A possible solution for the oversupply of dredged sediments is their use as a raw material in brick production. Despite the fact that several examples (e.g., Agostini et al., 2007; Hamer and Karius, 2002; Xu et al., 2014) show that this application is feasible, some economic, technical and social limitations interfere with the development of a market of dredged materials in brick production in Flanders. While we describe the main characteristics of the supply side, we focus on the limitations and barriers from the demand side in the present study. Based on a consumers survey we analyze consumers’ risk perceptions and attitudes towards bricks produced from dredged sediments. Consumers in Flanders are rather suspicious with respect to bricks produced from dredged sediments and their risk perception is mainly determined by the possibility of a bad bargain (brick of inferior quality) and the connotation with chemical contamination. The willingness to pay for bricks made from dredged sediments is mainly influenced by the age of the respondents, as well environmental awareness, and the respondents’ belief in their ability to influence environmental problems. Sensitization and information of customers seems to be of primary importance to make dredged-sediment-derived bricks a successful product

  5. THE IMPACT OF BRICK KILN OPERATION TO THE DEGRADATION OF TOPSOIL QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sirajul Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is a big environmental issue for the agriculture of Bangladesh as it was observed that the agricultural production in the soil close to the brick kiln was lesser than the same soil far from brick kiln. The study was conducted to assess the impact of brick kiln operation to the degradation of topsoil quality at Singair of Kalihati upazila in Tangail, Bangladesh, during the period of July to December 2013. The Soil was collected from areas close to the brick fields and far from the brick fields at a depth of 0-15 cm. The Electrical Conductance (EC was found almost double in the soil samples close to the brick field than the soil samples far from brick field. The organic mattter content in the soil sample close to the brickfield was significantly lower than that of the far soil sample. The mean values of total N, available P and S were also significantly lower in the soil samples close to the brick kiln, 0.05%, 12.4, and 8.36 ppm respectively in the close soils, while 0.06%, 24.6, and 11.7 ppm respectively in the far soil. There were no significant changes observed in the other elements.

  6. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  7. Age and growth of the brick soldierfish, Myripristis amaena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Anderson J.; Radtke, Richard L.

    1989-09-01

    Otoliths (sagittae) of the coral reef fish, Myripristis amaena, the brick solderfish were examined internally by Scanning Electron Microscope methods to observe microincrements. The daily nature of increment deposition was validated through tetracycline and acetazolamide marking experiments. Utilization of multivariant mathematical models relating age to otolith size and fish size demonstrated that age could be reliably determined from body measurements and otolith weight measurements. Consequently, M. amaena grows slowly, maturing at about 6 years of age, lives at least 14 years and reaches at least 215 mm SL.

  8. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  9. Corrosion mechanism of carbon brick in the blast furnace hearth by potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Zhuang-zhuang; Deng, Yong; Fan, Xiaoyue

    2017-11-01

    Alkali plays a significant role in the formation of brittle layer of carbon brick in the blast furnace hearth. The brittle layer in a commercial blast furnace hearth was investigated. Large amounts of potassium compounds were found in the brittle layer. Subsequently, the carbon bricks which reacted with potassium in the simulation of blast furnace hearth under different contents of potassium in the brick (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt.%) during various reaction times (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h) were experimentally studied. Finally, the formation mechanism of the brittle layer in carbon brick was clarified. The investigation results show that a large number of cracks are present in the brittle layer. The average potassium content in the brittle layer is 1 wt.%. According to the experimental results, cracks in the carbon brick can be formed by the attack of potassium. The reason for the formation of the brittle layer in the carbon brick is that the liquid potassium permeates into the carbon brick through the pores and cracks, and then reacts with SiO2 and Al2O3 in CO atmosphere. The generated potassium compounds nepheline and leucite lead to the volume expansion and the damage of the carbon brick.

  10. The utilization of brick walls for resisting earthquake in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J.; Benedicta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Many structures in Indonesia use reinforced concrete frames with brick walls as their infill. Commonly, the engineers consider brick walls as the partitions and count them as the non-structural elements in the structure design. However, brick walls are capable of resisting earthquake by yielding high stiffness to the structure in case the brick walls are integrated well with the frames. It will reduce the non-structural destructions that happen to structures which is one of the most frequently impacts in the earthquake. This paper will take the effects of applying brick walls as the structural elements up by comparing it with the structure using brick walls as the partitions. The modeling of the brick walls uses the equivalent spectrum method meanwhile the seismic analysis uses the respon spectrum method. The utilization of brick walls can cause the decrement of the natural period to 42%. It also reduce the structure displacements to 53% in X-direction and 67% in Y-direction and the story drifts to 57% in X-direction and 71% in Y-direction. Otherwise, it causes the increment of the base shear only up to 3% in X-direction and 7% in Y-direction.

  11. 75 FR 57442 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... and Mexico. See Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from China and Mexico (Investigation Nos. 701- TA-468... Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... the People's Republic of China (PRC). On September 8, 2010, the ITC notified the Department of its...

  12. 75 FR 21346 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...)] Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... of subsidized imports from China or less-than-fair-value imports from China or Mexico of certain... bricks from China and Mexico are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within the...

  13. Micromechanical models to guide the development of synthetic 'brick and mortar' composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begley, M.R.; Philips, N.R.; Compton, B.G.; Wilbrink, D.V.; Ritchie, R.O.; Utz, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a micromechanical analysis of the uniaxial response of composites comprising elastic platelets (bricks) bonded together with thin elastic perfectly plastic layers (mortar). The model yields closed-form results for the spatial variation of displacements in the bricks as a

  14. Experimental investigation of clay fly ash bricks for gamma-ray shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann Harjinder Singh; Mudahar, Gumel Singh [Dept. of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala (India); Brar, Gurdarshan Singh [Dept. of Higher Education, Additional Project Director, Chandigarh (India); Mann, Kulwinder Singh [Dept. of Applied Sciences, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (India)

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to determine the effect of fly ash with a high replacing ratio of clay on the radiation shielding properties of bricks. Some interaction parameters (mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, effective atomic number, effective electron density, and absorption efficiency) of clay fly ash bricks were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector at 661.6 keV, 1,173.2 keV, and 1,332.5 keV. For the investigation of their shielding behavior, fly ash bricks were molded using an admixture to clay. A narrow beam transmission geometry condition was used for the measurements. The measured values of these parameters were found in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The elemental compositions of the clay fly ash bricks were analyzed by using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. At selected energies the values of the effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities showed a very modest variation with the composition of the fly ash. This seems to be due to the similarity of their elemental compositions. The obtained results were also compared with concrete, in order to study the effect of fly ash content on the radiation shielding properties of clay fly ash bricks. The clay fly ash bricks showed good shielding properties for moderate energy gamma rays. Therefore, these bricks are feasible and eco-friendly compared with traditional clay bricks used for construction.

  15. Evaluation of the potential for using Greenlandic marine sediments for brick production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor

    2016-01-01

    Fine grained marine sediments from near the Greenlandic towns of Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut were assessed as raw materials for local production of building bricks. The assessment included both analysis of the sediment characteristics and physical properties of miniature test brick...

  16. Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Entropy Inside and Outside the Brick Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文彪

    2003-01-01

    Applying the generalized uncertainty relation to the calculation of the free energy and entropy of a Reissner Nordstrom black hole inside the brick wall, the entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon. This is compared with the entropy calculated via the original brick wall model. The entropy given by the original brick wall model comes from the outside of the brick wall seemingly.The inside result using generalized uncertainty relation is similar to the outside result using original uncertainty relation, and the divergence inside the brick wall disappears. It is apparent that the cutoff is something related to the quantum theory of gravity.

  17. Reliability of using nondestructive tests to estimate compressive strength of building stones and bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd Elhakam Aliabdo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationships between Schmidt hardness rebound number (RN and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV versus compressive strength (fc of stones and bricks. Four types of rocks (marble, pink lime stone, white lime stone and basalt and two types of burned bricks and lime-sand bricks were studied. Linear and non-linear models were proposed. High correlations were found between RN and UPV versus compressive strength. Validation of proposed models was assessed using other specimens for each material. Linear models for each material showed good correlations than non-linear models. General model between RN and compressive strength of tested stones and bricks showed a high correlation with regression coefficient R2 value of 0.94. Estimation of compressive strength for the studied stones and bricks using their rebound number and ultrasonic pulse velocity in a combined method was generally more reliable than using rebound number or ultrasonic pulse velocity only.

  18. GPU-based simulations of fracture in idealized brick and mortar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Pro, J.; Kwei Lim, Rone; Petzold, Linda R.; Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.

    2015-07-01

    Stiff ceramic platelets (or bricks) that are aligned and bonded to a second ductile phase with low volume fraction (mortar) are a promising pathway to produce stiff, high-toughness composites. For certain ranges of constituent properties, including those of some synthetic analogs to nacre, one can demonstrate that the deformation is dominated by relative brick motions. This paper describes simulations of fracture that explicitly track the motions of individual rigid bricks in an idealized microstructure; cohesive tractions acting between the bricks introduce elastic, plastic and rupture behaviors. Results are presented for the stresses and damage near macroscopic cracks with different brick orientations relative to the loading orientation. The anisotropic macroscopic initiation toughness is computed for small-scale yielding conditions and is shown to be independent of specimen geometry and loading configuration. The results are shown to be in agreement with previously published experiments on synthetic nacre.

  19. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set density of lightweight brick ameliorates with M3824 additive and CM3 cement mortar for significant impact. Under conditions of technology and economic, the results of this study as reference for market-oriented marketing and commercialization of production.

  20. Desalination of a brick by application of an electric DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    developing an electrochemical desalination method for brick masonry. Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with one type of bricks that were contaminated with either NaCl or KCl through submersion in salt solutions prior to application of current. It was seen that NaCl was slower supplied...... to the brick during submersion and slower removed in the applied electric field than KCl. This indicates that the removal rate of chloride depends on the associated cation and this must be taken into account when desiding the duration of full scale actions. The electrochemical desalination was very efficient...... and 99% removal of chloride was obtained. The final concentration in the brick after treatment was less than 10 mg Cl/kg and this concentration is unproblematic. When low salt concentrations were reached during the electrochemical treatment, electroosmotic dewatering of the brick started, showing...

  1. 29 CFR 570.64 - Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and kindred products (Order 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.64 Occupations involved in the manufacture of brick, tile, and... term clay construction products shall mean the following clay products: Brick, hollow structural tile...

  2. Damage to historic brick masonry structures. Masonry damage diagnostic system and damage atlas for evaluation of deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, K. van; Binda, L.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Franke, L.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the research on brick masonry degradation supported by the D.G. XII is presented. The project is delivering the following: ► Damage Atlas of ancient brick masonry, a book with a description of the types of damage, and their possible causes, in ancient brick masonry structures; ► Masonry

  3. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units--which we call metamaterial bricks--each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  4. Building the Platform of Digital Earth with Sphere Split Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jinxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grids, a modeling framework for big geo-spatial data, is always used to build the Digital Earth platform. Based on the sphere split bricks (Earth system spatial grids, it can not only build the true three-dimensional digital Earth model, but also can achieve integration, fusion, expression and application of the spatial data which locates on, under or above the Earth subsurface. The theoretical system of spheroid geodesic QTM octree grid is discussed, including the partition principle, analysis of grid geometry features and coding/ decoding method etc, and a prototype system of true-3D digital Earth platform with the sphere split bricks is developed. The functions of the system mainly include the arbitrary sphere segmentation and the visualization of physical models of underground, surface and aerial entities. Results show that the sphere geodesic QTM octree grid has many application advantages, such as simple subdivision rules, the grid system neat, clear geometric features, strong applicability etc. In particular, it can be extended to the ellipsoid, so it can be used for organization, management, integration and application of the global spatial big data.

  5. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  6. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  7. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointud, R.; Rispal, Ch.; Le Garec, M.

    1959-01-01

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm 2 . The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm 2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author) [fr

  8. Simplified analytical model for thermal transfer in vertical hollow brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente, S [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France); Petit, M [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France); Javelas, R [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-01

    A modern building envelope has a lot of little cavities. Most of them are vertical with a high height to thickness ratio. We present here the conception of a software to determine heat transfer through terra-cotta bricks full of large vertical cavities. After a bibliographic study on convective heat transfer in such cavities, we made an analytical model based on Karman-Polhausen`s method for convection and on the radiosity method for radiative heat transfer. We used a test apparatus of a single cavity to determine the temperature field inside the cavity. Using these experimental results, we showed that the exchange was two-dimensional. We also realised heat flux measurements. Then we expose our theoretical study: We propose relations between central core temperatures and active face temperatures, then between outside and inside active face temperatures. We calculate convective superficial heat transfer because we noticed we have boundary layers along the active faces. We realise a heat flux balance between convective plus radiative heat transfer and conductive heat transfer, so we propose an algorithm to calculate global heat transfer through a single cavity. Finally, we extend our model to a whole hollow brick with lined-up cavities and propose an algorithm to calculate heat flux and thermal resistance with a good accuracy ({approx}7.5%) compared to previous experimental results. (orig.)

  9. Durability of Compressed Earth Bricks: Assessing Erosion Resistance Using the Modified Spray Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this paper is part of research directed at establishing optimal stabilization strategy for compressed bricks. The deployment context for the use of the compressed bricks was Dar es Salaam (Tanzania where manually fabricated bricks are increasingly being used in low cost housing units. This discussion specifically focuses on strategies that can be used to counter deterioration due to wind-driven rain erosion. The impact of using cement, lime, fiber and a commercial stabilizing fluid was assessed. Factory-produced bricks were used for benchmarking. The durability of the bricks was assessed using the “modified” Bulletin 5 Spray Test. The different brick specimens were sprayed with water at 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa over one-hour time period while measuring the depth of erosion every 15 minutes. Factory-produced bricks hardly eroded at both 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa pressure levels. The maximum depth of erosion for Soil-Cement bricks ranged from a maximum of 0.5 mm at 2.07 MPa water pressure to 0.8 mm at 4.14 MPa. The maximum and minimum depths of erosion for Soil-Cement-Lime bricks were 25mm and 17 mm respectively. The inclusion of natural fiber in the bricks resulted in a sharp increase of the erosion depth to a maximum of 40 mm at 2.07 MPa and 55 mm at 4.14 Mpa. As the use of natural fibers and lime enhances some physio-mechanical properties, further research is necessary to determine ways of achieving this goal while maintaining acceptable levels of erosion resistance.

  10. Molecular mechanics of DNA bricks: in situ structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, Scott Michael; Li, Chen-Yu; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Yoo, Jejoong

    2016-01-01

    The DNA bricks method exploits self-assembly of short DNA fragments to produce custom three-dimensional objects with subnanometer precision. In contrast to DNA origami, the DNA brick method permits a variety of different structures to be realized using the same library of DNA strands. As a consequence of their design, however, assembled DNA brick structures have fewer interhelical connections in comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures. Although the overall shape of the DNA brick objects has been characterized and found to conform to the features of the target designs, the microscopic properties of DNA brick objects remain yet to be determined. Here, we use the all-atom molecular dynamics method to directly compare the structure, mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of DNA brick and DNA origami structures different only by internal connectivity of their consistituent DNA strands. In comparison to equivalent DNA origami structures, the DNA brick structures are found to be less rigid and less dense and have a larger cross-section area normal to the DNA helix direction. At the microscopic level, the junction in the DNA brick structures are found to be right-handed, similar to the structure of individual Holliday junctions (HJ) in solution, which contrasts with the left-handed structure of HJ in DNA origami. Subject to external electric field, a DNA brick plate is more leaky to ions than an equivalent DNA origami plate because of its lower density and larger cross-section area. Overall, our results indicate that the structures produced by the DNA brick method are fairly similar in their overall appearance to those created by the DNA origami method but are more compliant when subject to external forces, which likely is a consequence of their single crossover design. (paper)

  11. Durability of fired clay bricks containing granite powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier, G. C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, hundreds of papers have been published on the benefits of including rock powder as a raw material in fired clay brick manufacture. Very little has been written, however, about the durability and long-term behaviour of the final product. As a rule, the ceramic bricks used in construction in developing countries are fired at low temperatures, which detracts from their mechanical performance. This is particularly visible in harsh environmental conditions, where weathering causes severe deterioration. The present paper describes the impact of weathering on clay bricks containing from 0 to 10% granite powder, an industrial by-product. The specimens were fired at 500, 700 or 900 ºC and subsequently exposed to natural environmental conditions or accelerated laboratory weathering. Their physical and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the effect of the composition of raw materials on fired clay product durability.

    En las últimas décadas se han publicado cientos de artículos sobre las ventajas de incluir polvo de roca como materia prima en la fabricación de los ladrillos cerámicos. Sin embargo, la durabilidad y el comportamiento a largo plazo del producto final han sido objeto de pocas investigaciones. Por lo general, los ladrillos cerámicos empleados en la construcción en los países en vías de desarrollo se cuecen a temperaturas bajas, lo que impide el desarrollo de sus propiedades mecánicas. Esto queda especialmente patente cuando las condiciones ambientales son severas, en cuyo caso la meteorización puede provocar un deterioro importante. En este artículo se describe el efecto de la meteorización en ladrillos cerámicos que incorporaban entre un 0 y un 10% de polvo de granito, que es un derivado industrial. Las probetas se cocieron a 500, 700 o 900 °C y luego se sometieron a condiciones ambientales naturales o a un proceso de laboratorio de meteorización acelerada. Se evaluaron sus

  12. Heat and Moisture Transport and Storage Parameters of Bricks Affected by the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Jerman, Miloš; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The effect of external environment on heat and moisture transport and storage properties of the traditional fired clay brick, sand-lime brick and highly perforated ceramic block commonly used in the Czech Republic and on their hygrothermal performance in building envelopes is analyzed by a combination of experimental and computational techniques. The experimental measurements of thermal, hygric and basic physical parameters are carried out in the reference state and after a 3-year exposure of the bricks to real climatic conditions of the city of Prague. The obtained results showed that after 3 years of weathering the porosity of the analyzed bricks increased up to five percentage points which led to an increase in liquid and gaseous moisture transport parameters and a decrease in thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the studied bricks was done using both reference and weather-affected data. The simulated results indicated an improvement in the annual energy balances and a decrease in the time-of-wetness functions as a result of the use of data obtained after the 3-year exposure to the environment. The effects of weathering on both heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of the analyzed bricks and on their hygrothermal performance were found significant despite the occurrence of warm winters in the time period of 2012-2015 when the brick specimens were exposed to the environment.

  13. Feasibility study on utilization of palm fibre waste into fired clay brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Zaman, N. N.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Malaysia is the second largest of palm oil producer after Indonesia, which contribute to 50 % of palm oil production. With this demand, the increasing of palm oil plantation over the years has led to the large production of agricultural waste, for example palm fibre waste. This study investigates different percentages of palm fibre (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) to be incorporated into fired clay brick. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1 °C/min heating rate up to 1050 °C. The effects of manufacture bricks on the physical and mechanical properties of manufactured brick were also determined. All brick samples were tested due to the physical and mechanical properties which include dry density, firing shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS), water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. Findings show that increasing palm fibre waste affected the properties of brick, which decreased their density, besides increased firing shrinkage, IRS, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. However, all the manufactured brick still followed the requirement.

  14. Characterization of refractory brick based on local raw material from Lampung Province - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad; Suryana, Yayat I.; Isnugroho, Kusno; Aji, Bramantyo B.; Birawidha, David C.; Hendronursito, Yusup

    2018-04-01

    Refractories are non-metallic inorganic materials that are difficult to melt at high temperatures and used in high-temperature casting industries. Refractories are classified into their constituent mineral feed stocks, refractories having typical plot properties commonly called fire bricks. In the manufacture of refractory bricks that exist in the market during the use of mangrove materials derived from abroad that is from China. In this research the refractory brick materials used are quartz sand, feldspart, kaolin, bentonite, and ball clay. All materials come from local Lampung Province - Indonesia. The experiment, there are 7 kinds of experimental composition, made of plot shape with size 230 mm, 65 mm in thickness, 114 mm height mould using manual press machine with 10 tons power and burning at 1400°C for 5 hours. Refractory brick product is done by physical test in the form of porosity, specific gravity, compressive strength and XRF and SEM characteristics. The result of XRF characteristic of refractory brick composition of 1 to 5 compared to the refractory brick type SK 34 in the market and the result of composition 1 is a composition close to refractory brick composition type SK 34 namely SiO2 is 54.21 %, Al2O3 is 25.38 % and test Physical of Bulk density is 2.25 g/cm3, porosity is 18.98 % and compressive strength is 325 kg/cm2.

  15. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosusceptibility of historical bricks from the Bač fortress: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the conservation of cultural heritage objects has led to a greater interest in the appearance of biocorrosion. The aim of this paper is to point out the correlation between the growth of fungi isolated from the fortress of Bač and the contact angle value of the bricks from the fortress in order to determine the brick susceptibility to biodegradation. Three types of bricks (red, yellow and roan and three isolates of Penicillium spp., as well as one isolate of Cladosporium sp., were used during the experiments. A suspension of fungi in soil extract solution was inflicted on the surface of the bricks and then the samples were incubated. The study showed that the red bricks with cut surface and the roan bricks with broken surface are the most susceptible to the biocorrosion process. Based on the obtained results, Cladosporium sp. can be considered as the most important biodeteriogenic factor on the bricks built in the walls of the Bač fortress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  17. Thermal Transmittance of Porous Hollow Clay Brick by Guarded Hot Box Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonsoo

    2018-03-01

    The thermal property of a porous hollow clay brick was determined by measuring the thermal transmittance of the wall made of porous hollow clay bricks. Prior to the production of porous hollow clay bricks, nonporous and porous tiny clay bricks were prepared to determine the physico-mechanical properties by modifying the amount of wood flour and firing temperature. The bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and then fired in an electric furnace. Their physico-mechanical properties were measured by water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, and compressive strength. The porous tiny clay bricks were produced with three types of wood flour: coarse wood flour (1-0.36 mm), medium-sized wood flour (0.36-0.15 mm), and fine wood flour (cement bricks. The two walls had a thermal transmittance of 1.42 and 2.72 W\\cdot m^{-2}\\cdot K^{-1}, respectively. The difference in thermal transmittance was due to the pores created with fine wood flour (< 0.08 mm) as a pore-forming agent.

  18. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best condition was red mud content of 40% and sintering at 1050 °C for 2 h. ► Bricks’ weight loss was caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. ► Bricks’ sintering shrinkage depended on the sodium and iron compounds of red mud. ► Sintering can strengthen bricks and decrease leaching concentration of toxic metal. - Abstract: The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050 °C and sintering time of 2 h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards.

  19. A new strain based brick element for plate bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belounar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new three-dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W at each of the eight corner nodes as well as at the centroidal node. The displacement field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility equations and the static condensation technique is used for the internal node. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.

  20. Brick-Burning Kiln from the Zhaiyk Fortified Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmenov Murat D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a description of the brick-burning kiln, which was discovered during the 2012 excavations on the medieval Zhaiyk fortified site (Western Kazakhstan oblast. A similar object had been discovered on the site in 2002. Kilns of similar design were known on the vast territories of Southeastern Europe and Central Asia in the 10th-15th cc. In the 13th-15th centuries, they were widely spread in the territory of the Golden Horde. The analysis of their design, combined with written sources and ethnographic data, allows reconstructing the operation process of such kilns in general lines. The finds of kilns on the Zhaiyk settlement make it possible to suggest that in the 13th-14th centuries there existed a developed construction materials production in the territory of the settlement.

  1. Strengthening masonry walls made of brick blocks with FRCM composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing more types of masonry walls made of brick blocks with the aim to define their mechanical characteristics and possibilities of external strengthening of walls with FRCM composites are presented in this paper. The characteristic compressive strengths, elasticity modulus and shear strengths of the various types of the walls were obtained on the basis of these testing results. Comparison between experimental results and values obtained by analytical approach in accordance with the current standard, European standards EN 1996 and the American standard ACI 530 is presented in this paper. After testing walls with application of compressive forces on the walls diagonal the cracked walls samples have been strengthened with selected types of FRCM composites. It was determined that the shear resistance of the walls after strengthening has increased significantly.

  2. Pythagoras on the rocks. A proof with bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cagol

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper a practical and simple proof of the Pythagorean theorem is proposed. It uses colourful interlocking plastic bricks with two shapes: a cube that measures two centimeters on each side and a right prism where the base is a right-angled isosceles triangle and the two equal rectangular faces are the same as those of the cubic brick. The proof is designed for primary school children (but also for preschool children and begins by telling the legend of Pythagoras, who discovered his theorem by looking at the floor tile pattern of Polycrates’ palace. This proof takes into account only right-angled isosceles triangle but it is possible to show the validity of Pythagorean theorem for all right-angled triangles by building a simple proof by rearrangement. Pitagora on the rocks. Una dimostrazione con i mattonciniIn questo breve contributo viene proposta una semplice dimostrazione pratica del teorema di Pitagora, utilizzando mattoncini a incastro di plastica colorata di due forme: un cubo di due centimetri per lato e un prisma retto la cui base è un triangolo isoscele rettangolo e nel quale le due facce equivalenti sono uguali a quelle del mattoncino cubico. La dimostrazione è rivolta a bambini della scuola primaria (ma, eventualmente, anche in età prescolare e prende le mosse dalla leggenda secondo la quale Pitagora avrebbe scoperto il suo teorema mentre stava osservando il pavimento piastrellato del palazzo di Policrate, tiranno di Samo. Da questa dimostrazione – che prende in considerazione solo triangoli rettangoli isosceli – è poi possibile passare a una dimostrazione del teorema di Pitagora per tutti i triangoli rettangoli.

  3. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficient of recycled concrete brick wall could be effectively reduced when combined with the EPS insulation board, and the sandwich insulation type was better than that of external thermal insulation type.

  4. Corrosion resistance of cement brick on an organo-mineral base in a hydrogen sulfide medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, A G; Belousov, G A; Pustovalov, V I; Skorikov, B M

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of strength tests of cement brick made of different types of cement as a function of the composition of the mixing liquid and storage conditions. It is established that cement brick made of cement on a cinder base mixed in hydrogen sulfide water possesses the highest corrosive resistance to hydrogen sulfide attack. A marked increase in corrosion resistance is observed in cement brick on an organo-mineral base. Results of industrial tests of organo-mineral grouting mortar in a hydrogen sulfide medium are demonstrated.

  5. Light brick mortar with low thermal conductivity for stressed brickwork. Types, properties, limits of application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plank, A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-03-01

    Between 40 and 50% of the total energy consumption are used for space heating. 40% of the total heat loss dissipate through external walls due to transmission. The heat insulation properties of a brickwork is decisively determined by the mortar joints. Using light brick mortars with low thermal conductivity an improvement of the total thermal insulation of nearly 20% can be reached in most of the cases. The mechanical properties of these mortars that differ from the common mortars decisively reduce the application of the light brick mortar in brick working and require special measures for stability which are described in detail.

  6. Influence of Waste Brick Powder in the Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Letelier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick and concrete are the main materials contributing to demolition and construction waste. Considering this precedent, the effects of using both residuals in medium strength concretes are analyzed. Waste brick powder is used as a cement replacement in three different levels: 5%, 10%, and 15%, and it is tested in concretes with no recycled aggregates and concretes with 30% of recycled coarse aggregates replacing natural ones. The compressive strength, the flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity are calculated and compared to a control concrete with no brick powder and no recycled aggregates. The effects of the simultaneous use of both residuals on the physical properties of the recycled concrete are highlighted. Results show that 15% of cement can be replaced by waste brick powder together with 30% of recycled aggregates without suffering significant losses in the strength of the final material when compared to a control concrete.

  7. Brick and Structural Clay Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for brick and structural clay products by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  8. Screening of waste for use in clay-based bricks in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2014-01-01

    Clay-based ceramics, such as bricks, are heterogeneous materials, which can incorporate raw materials ofwide ranging compositions, without impairing their technical properties (Dondi et al., 1997a,b). Due to thisability, bricks have become a popular material in waste management research worldwide...... and several studies have demonstrated that clay-based bricks and tiles can successfully accommodate waste types,such as incineration ashes, mine tailings and dredged harbour sediments (Zhang et al., 2011; Roy et al.,2007; Mezencevova et al., 2012). In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact...... a strong tradition for masonry structures. In Greenland, for example, bricks are neither currently produced locally nor frequently appliedfor construction purposes. Recent studies have, however, established that deposits of marine glaciogeneclay, which are found throughout the former glaciated areas...

  9. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  10. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  11. Heat and damp transport in cavity bricks. Waerme- und Feuchtetransport in Hochlochziegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, M

    1987-11-19

    The aim of this work is a systematic measurement of the structural effect of cavity bricks on the thermal insulation and thermal storage values depending on the material values of the bricks and the mortar. The arrangement and orientation of the hollow spaces and their dimensions should be varied. Brick shapes with socalled handle slots, which give more convenient handling, and with mortar pockets instead of mortar gaps, should be taken into account in the investigation. Special attention should be paid to the heat transport mechanism in the hollow spaces, where thermal conduction, thermal radiation and convection heat transport are superimposed on one another. The second main aim of the work is the calculation of the coupled heat and damp transport in hollow bricks. The heat and damp transport is described by a coupled system of differential equations, where the decisive transport coefficients should be shown as a function of the variables determining the transport processes. (orig./MM).

  12. Proposal of Design Formulae for Equivalent Elasticity of Masonry Structures Made with Bricks of Low Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of low elastic modulus are occasionally used in some developing countries, such as Indonesia and India. Most of the previous research efforts focused on masonry structures built with bricks of considerably high elastic modulus. The objective of this study is to quantify the equivalent elastic modulus of lower-stiffness masonry structures, when the mortar has a higher modulus of elasticity than the bricks, by employing finite element (FE simulations and adopting the homogenization technique. The reported numerical simulations adopted the two-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs using quadrilateral elements with four nodes. The equivalent elastic moduli of composite elements with various bricks and mortar were quantified. The numerically estimated equivalent elastic moduli from the FE simulations were verified using previously established test data. Hence, a new simplified formula for the calculation of the equivalent modulus of elasticity of such masonry structures is proposed in the present study.

  13. The effect of sintering time on recycled magnesia brick from kiln of the cement plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, B. B.; Rosalina, D.; Azhar; Amin, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research aim was to investigate the effect of sintering time on reuse waste of magnesia brick from the rotary kiln of the cement plant. Reuse of the magnesia brick was carried out by mixed the kaolin as the binder. Spent refractory was used as aggregate with the composition of 85% spent refractory and 15% kaolin clay, respectively. The reuse brick then was molded with the size of 5x5x5 cm using hydraulic press under a load of 10 tons in order to forms green body. Green body then dried and sintered at 1200 °C with time variation of 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Thus, for comparison reuse brick was tested to its apparent porosity, the bulk density, and Cold Crushing Strength (CCS). The effect of kaolin addition as binder was also discussed.

  14. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  15. Global consolidation of industries and business failures: insights from brick-and-mortar and online outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Although online platforms are increasingly seen as a linchpin for firms competing in the 21st century, our understanding of competition between the traditional brick-and-mortar and online outlets, and how this can lead to different types of business failures, remains limited. In the light of the disjointed nature of the current streams of research, we propose an integrated framework that classifies the differential effects of online and brick-and-mortar competition. Based on a review of the l...

  16. Utilisation of Sepidrud dam basin sediments in fired clay bricks: laboratory scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi-Chenari, R.; Rabanifar, H.; Veiseh, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing disposal methods for dam basin sediments are not free from the environmental pollution and the ecological imbalance. At present, a new way to treat the dredged sediments to manufacture bricks is being investigated, prioritizing waste recovery over its deposition in landfills. However, construction materials such as clay bricks must comply with the international and local standards. Considering the perpetual availability of the sediments, particle sizing and their chemical compo...

  17. Helminthiasis Prevalence in Brick Makers at Lambada Peukan Village, Aceh Besar Region, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Syahrizal, Dedy; Mustika, Cut; Ikhsan,; Azhary, Mulkan

    2011-01-01

    Helminthiasis are the common health problem in the develop country. WHO prediction 400 million people had infection of helminthiasis. Soil is the usual media to transmitted helminth to human (soil transmitted helminthiasis). One of the rule worker that has hard contact to helminth is the brick maker. This activity usual doing with convensional technique.The objective of this devotion are to knowing helminthiasis prevalence on brick maker in Lambada Peukan Village. The primer data is the co...

  18. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, F. B.; Amaral, M. C.; Bou-Issa, R. A.; Holanda, J. N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste) as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, wa...

  19. Drying of Ceramic Hollow Bricks in an Industrial Tunnel Dryer: A Finite Volume Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    F Tavares; S Neto; E Barbosa; A Lima; C Silva

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the drying of industrial hollow bricks in a tunnel dryer cross flow type. The theoretical model is based on mass and energy conservation equations applied to air and product. To validate the methodology, numerical and experimental results for the moisture content and the temperature of brick during the drying in an industrial scale are compared and a good correlation was obtained. Results of moisture content and temperature of the product, and temperature, relative hu...

  20. "The Brick People" by Alejandro Morales, novel and documentary: A story of intercultural (mis)communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lanslots, Inge; Van Hecke, An

    2015-01-01

    "The Brick People" by Alejandro Morales, novel and documentary: A story of intercultural (mis)communication The focus of this study is an analysis of the novel The Brick People published by the Chicano author Alejandro Morales in 1988 and its homonymous documentary film from 2012. Both narrations are based on a true story, namely the lives of Mexican immigrants at the beginning of the twentieth century, who worked as employees in Simons Brickyard in Los Angeles, California. Simons Brickya...

  1. Yearbook of the brick-making industry 1984. Ziegeleitechnisches Jahrbuch 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellbach, G

    1984-01-01

    The following problems of the field of brick baking technology are discussed: 1. Structure of the brick-making industry of West Germany; 2. Waste recovery and utilisation; 3. Tunnel furnace processes (projecting and optimisation; 4. Light mortar; 5. Interdependences between passive use of solar energy, heat storage capacity of a building, heating energy consumption and room climate; 6. Research activities of the Institut fuer Ziegelforschung Essen e.V.; 7. Pore structure for ceramic materials; 8. Documentation; 9. New technical developments.

  2. Using Bonding Enamel-Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Initial tests with enameled metal straps cracked all the test cylinders and straps would not pull out BUILDING STRONG® New Strong Durable Ties...BUILDING STRONG® Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry Structures Principal Investigator: Steven C...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Bonding Enamel -Coated Steel Fixtures to Produce More Durable Brick/Masonry

  3. Smart bricks for strain sensing and crack detection in masonry structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes the novel concept of smart bricks as a durable sensing solution for structural health monitoring of masonry structures. The term smart bricks denotes piezoresistive clay bricks with suitable electronics capable of outputting measurable changes in their electrical properties under changes in their state of strain. This feature can be exploited to evaluate stress at critical locations inside a masonry wall and to detect changes in loading paths associated with structural damage, for instance following an earthquake. Results from an experimental campaign show that normal clay bricks, fabricated in the laboratory with embedded electrodes made of a special steel for resisting the high baking temperature, exhibit a quite linear and repeatable piezoresistive behavior. That is a change in electrical resistance proportional to a change in axial strain. In order to be able to exploit this feature for strain sensing, high-resolution electronics are used with a biphasic DC measurement approach to eliminate any resistance drift due to material polarization. Then, an enhanced nanocomposite smart brick is proposed, where titania is mixed with clay before baking, in order to enhance the brick’s mechanical properties, improve its noise rejection, and increase its electrical conductivity. Titania was selected among other possible conductive nanofillers due to its resistance to high temperatures and its ability to improve the durability of construction materials while maintaining the aesthetic appearance of clay bricks. An application of smart bricks for crack detection in masonry walls is demonstrated by laboratory testing of a small-scale wall specimen under different loading conditions and controlled damage. Overall, it is demonstrated that a few strategically placed smart bricks enable monitoring of the state of strain within the wall and provide information that is capable of crack detection.

  4. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: A growing but unrecognised problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Berg, Leon J.L. van den; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull’s Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. - Highlights: ► Demand for bricks is increasing in many parts of Asia. ► Fluoride emissions from brick kilns may pose a threat to peri-urban agriculture. ► We found extensive injury to fruit orchards close to brick kilns in Peshawar. ► Local farmers suffered large economic losses but did not identify brick kilns as a cause of this. ► The extent of crop damage from brick kilns with poor emission control in the region may not be fully recognised. - Hydrogen fluoride emissions from brick kilns may cause extensive but unrecognised damage to peri-urban crops in Asia.

  5. The preliminary application of OSL in comparison with TL for authentication of ancient Chinese bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Tang Qiang; Li, Mike; Zhang Chunxiang

    2005-01-01

    The single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol with optically stimulated luminenscence (OSL) was applied to measure the equivalent dose (ED) of ancient Chinese bricks ranging in age from 180 to 1600 years. In the protocol, sensitivity changes can be corrected by using OSL response to a fixed test dose during measurement. For comparative study between OSL and TL, thermoluminescence (TL) measurement procedures were also applied to determine the paleodose of the bricks. Both results of OSL and TL are in agreement with the known ages of the bricks, and the paleodose ratios(ED OSL / ED TL ) are between 0.96 and 1.21, mean value 1.08+/-0.02. The annual doses of the bricks, estimated by the paleodoses and the known ages, range from 5.07 to 6.79mGy/a, comparable with the measured annual dose values of the bricks. Therefore, it is concluded that the SAR protocol is a rapid and effective OSL technique to authenticate Chinese bricks

  6. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  7. Management of spent shea waste: An instrumental characterization and valorization in clay bricks construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-06-01

    This work studies the reuse of spent shea waste as an economic construction material in improving fired clay bricks manufacture aside providing a novel approach to ecofriendly managing its excessive generated from the shea agroindustry. For this purpose, the influence of spent shea waste addition on the chemical, mineralogical, molecular bonding and technological properties (i.e. compressive strength and water absorption) of the fired clay bricks were extensively investigated. The results indicated that the chemical, mineralogical, phase transformations, molecular bonding and thermal behavior of the produced bricks were practically unaffected by the addition of spent shea waste. However, spent shea waste addition increased the compressive strengths and water absorptions of the brick products. Potential performance benefits of reusing spent shea waste was improved fluxing agents, energy-contribution reaction, excellent porosifying effect, reduced thermal conductivity and enhanced compressive strengths of the brick products. This research has therefore provided compelling evidence that could create newfound route for the synergistic ecofriendly reuse of spent shea waste to enhance clay brick construction aside being a potential mainstream disposal option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles as construction materials: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to investigate about the potential use of coal fly ash along with other natural and solid wastes for the production of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study is based on the comprehensive reviews available from the previous experimental data on coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study intendeds to provide the essential technical information and data for the use of fly ash mix with other solid wastes and reveal their suitability as construction materials. It has been found that samples were non-hazardous in nature and vigorously used as an additional construction materials and their compositions are perfectly fit to make the strong composite material for bricks and tiles. The three past studies have been demonstrated that, fly ash based bricks and roof tiles provides a sustainable supplement to the traditional clay bricks and roof tiles, that not only increases the efficiency of traditional bricks and roof tiles but also helps significantly to reduce the environmental issues associated with the disposal of these waste materials. In addition to this study highlights the potential use of fly ash for producing sustainable construction materials.

  9. Clay bricks prepared with sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash – A sustainable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Saleem Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the clay bricks produced by the addition of the two agricultural waste materials i.e. sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash. Disposing off these waste materials is a very challenging task and is a hazard to environment. The sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash were collected locally from the cities of Peshawar and Wazirabad, respectively. These were mixed with the clay for brick manufacturing in three different proportions i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by weight of clay. Mechanical i.e. compressive strength and modulus of rupture and durability properties i.e. water absorption; freeze-thaw and sulphate resistance of these bricks were evaluated. Test results indicated that the sulphate attack resistance and efflorescence of clay bricks incorporating sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash have been increased significantly. However, no significant effect on mechanical properties was observed. Furthermore, the additions of wastes have reduced the unit weight of bricks which decrease the overall weight of the structure leading to economical construction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of waste materials in brick manufacturing can minimize the environmental burden leading towards more economical and sustainable construction.

  10. Optimizing the Physical, Mechanical and Hygrothermal Performance of Compressed Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Obonyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on findings from research that assesses the potential for enhancing the performance of compressed earth bricks. A set of experiments was carried out to assess the potential for enhancing the bricks’ physical, mechanical and hygrothermal performance through the design of an optimal stabilization strategy. Three different types of bricks were fabricated: soil-cement, soil-cement-lime, and soil-cement-fiber. The different types of bricks did not exhibit significant differences in performances when assessed on the basis of porosity, density, water absorption, and compressive strength. However, upon exposure to elevated moisture and temperature conditions, the soil-cement-fiber bricks had the highest residual strength (87%. The soil-cement and soil-cement-lime bricks had residual strength values of 48.19 and 46.20% respectively. These results suggest that, like any other cement-based material, compressed earth brick properties are affected by hydration-triggered chemical and structural changes occurring in the matrix that would be difficult to isolate using tests that focus on “bulk” changes. The discussion in this paper presents findings from a research effort directed at quantifying the specific changes through an analysis of the microstructure.

  11. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  12. Biocalcification using B. pasteurii for strengthening brick masonry civil engineering structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Supriya H; Sarode, D D; Lele, S S

    2014-01-01

    Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation in bricks by bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (NCIM 2477) using a media especially optimized for urease production (OptU) was demonstrated in this study. Effect of biocalcification activity on compressive strength and water absorption capacity of bricks was investigated. Various other parameters such as pH, growth profile, urease activity, urea breakdown and calcite precipitated were monitored during the 28 days curing period. Efficiency of B. pasteurii to form microbial aided calcite precipitate in OptU media resulted into 83.9% increase in strength of the bricks as compared to only 24.9% with standard media, nutrient broth (NB). In addition to significant increase in the compressive strength, bricks treated with B. pasteurii grown in OptU media resulted in 48.9 % reduction in water absorption capacity as compared to control bricks immersed in tap water. Thus it was successfully demonstrated that microbial calcification in optimized media by Bacillus pasteurii has good potential for commercial application to improve the life span of structures constructed with bricks, particularly structures of heritage importance.

  13. Micromechanical models to guide the development of synthetic ‘brick and mortar’ composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Philips, Noah R.; Compton, Brett G.; Wilbrink, David V.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Utz, Marcel

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a micromechanical analysis of the uniaxial response of composites comprising elastic platelets (bricks) bonded together with thin elastic perfectly plastic layers (mortar). The model yields closed-form results for the spatial variation of displacements in the bricks as a function of constituent properties, which can be used to calculate the effective properties of the composite, including elastic modulus, strength and work-to-failure. Regime maps are presented which indicate critical stresses for failure of the bricks and mortar as a function of constituent properties and brick architecture. The solution illustrates trade-offs between elastic modulus, strength and dissipated work that are a result of transitions between various failure mechanisms associated with brick rupture and rupture of the interfaces. Detailed scaling relationships are presented with the goal of providing material developers with a straightforward means to identify synthesis targets that balance competing mechanical behaviors and optimize material response. Ashby maps are presented to compare potential brick and mortar composites with existing materials, and identify future directions for material development.

  14. Evaluation of mechanical design fire brick at test section on the HeaTiNG-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Haryanto; Riswan Djambiar; Sagino; Edy Sumarno

    2013-01-01

    The activity was carried out due to the modification of the heating in the HeaTiNG-02 test section. Modification of the heater needs to be done to overcome the obstacles that arise as part of the test section is used. Constraint that often arises is the fall of the heating source with super khantal material when it reaches a certain temperature. To mitigate the super khantal position is initially converted into a vertical position horizontal. The change from vertical to horizontal position on super khantal cause any deformities in refractory fire brick which serves as a support super khantal. Manufacture of refractory design fire brick formation and mechanical strength evaluation performed using CATIA V5 R20 software. Evaluation of fireproof rock mechanics to be based on the mechanical properties of alumina as a refractory material of fire brick. The results of the analysis have a fire brick design stress greater than the bend strength alumina materials, so that the necessary checks before and after the experiment as well as the replacement of refractory fire brick if something is broken. Translational greatest displacement 0.453 mm at a temperature of 1575 K did not give any meaningful form. Thus the refractory fire brick design can be used as heating source support in the HeaTiNG-02 test section with checks before and after the operation. (author)

  15. Characterization, reproduction and optimization of traditional adobe bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Eftychiou, Marina; Costi de Castrillo, Maria; Illampas, Rogiros

    2013-04-01

    Adobe bricks were first introduced 10-12,000 years ago. Extensive use of the material throughout the centuries has led to strong local traditions of building with earth and has established adobe masonry as an important feature of the international architectural heritage. Today, despite no longer being a prevalent building material, adobes are still in use, since a number of earthen structures survive worldwide. Furthermore, the simplicity, low cost and almost negligible embodied energy associated with the production of adobes, as well as their good thermal and acoustic properties, render them an attractive option for use in contemporary sustainable construction. Therefore, several ongoing research projects internationally investigate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of traditional adobe bricks and the design/production of optimized adobes, with improved characteristics, for use in contemporary architecture. Here, we present ongoing research on adobe bricks carried out in the framework of the project E& IXEIPH EI / POION/0609/41, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus, through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. Our work focuses on the characterization of traditional adobes, their reproduction and optimization in the laboratory to produce materials with improved physicomechanical properties. Results up-to-date show that traditional adobes are mostly composed of random quantities of silt and clay. Calcite is also predominant in relevant X-ray diffraction analyses. The average capillary water absorption coefficient (measured against a saturated sponge surface) of samples collected from market suppliers rarely exceeds 1 mm/min1 -2, while their thermal conductivity is around 0.55 W/mK. The response of traditional adobes to compression is characterized by intense deformability. The average compressive strength recorded depends on the form of test specimen (cube, cylinder, prism). Samples with aspect

  16. Basis and classification of efflorescences in construction bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The efflorescence problem in clay products and more specifically in construction bricks is a pathology which produce a decrease in the aesthetic quality of buildings. Their types and causes are very different and only a review of all the variables and classification can allow to start the understanding of this phenomenon. Basically, the migration of soluble salts from different sources is the responsible of this pathology. Here is shown directly and briefly the main principles of efflorescece formation with some of the most frequent examples.

    El problema de las eflorescencias en productos de tierra cocida y en concreto en los ladrillos de construcción, constituye una patología que disminuye la calidad estética de los edificios. Sus tipos y causas son muy diversas y sólo una revisión, de todas las clases y variables que influyen en la aparición de eflorescencias, puede permitir empezar a comprender este fenómeno. Fundamentalmente es la migración de sales solubles de distinta procedencia la responsable de esta patología. Se muestran, de una manera directa y resumida, los principios básicos de formación de eflorescencias, con ejemplos de las más frecuentes.

  17. Brick castles of Panemune regional park: Aspects of regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Genytė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of brick castles of Panemunė Regional Park in Lithuania was influenced by the political, economic, and social environment. The motives of their regeneration was the function of state border defence, installation of fortifications for the occupation of new lands, function of defence of the state internal and transit trade routes, function of the protection of noblemen’s property, and the function of strengthening of the territorial control. Two characteristic castle development tendencies were revealed: one witnessed further development under local construction traditions, while another reflected the examples of the European construction. The architecture of castles was shaped by the military tactics, development of military technique, local terrain, the wellbeing of the castle owners, their hierarchical role and demands, construction traditions, and the development of construction technology. The architectural forms varied from dungeon to palace. The changing social demands encouraged the choice of new solutions for castle regeneration in order to increase the comfort level conditions and cost-effectiveness of the premises.

  18. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran

  19. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material. Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide. Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures. In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  20. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Coz Diaz, J.J.; Rodriguez, A. Martin; Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Biempica, C. Betegon [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Nieto, P.J. Garcia [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown. [Author].

  1. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz del Coz, J.J. [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)]. E-mail: juanjo@constru.uniovi.es; Nieto, P.J. Garcia [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Rodriguez, A. Martin [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Biempica, C. Betegon [Department of Construction, University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Viesques No 7, Dpcho. 7.1.02 Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown.

  2. Non-linear thermal analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls by the finite element method and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz del Coz, J.J.; Nieto, P.J. Garcia; Rodriguez, A. Martin; Martinez-Luengas, A. Lozano; Biempica, C. Betegon

    2006-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to the non-linear complex heat transfer analysis of light concrete hollow brick walls. The non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner holes of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the conductivity mortar and two values for the brick. Finally, the numerical and experimental results are compared and a good agreement is shown

  3. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Iqbal, A.

    2005-01-01

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  4. Properties of Normal and Recycled Brick Aggregates for Production of Medium Range (25–30 MPa Structural Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvash Chandra Paul

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the properties of normal and recycled brick aggregates to produce a medium range (25–30 MPa compressive strength of structural grade concrete. Up to date, brick aggregates are commonly used in structural concrete in some South Asian and African countries. Many concrete structures which were built in the last century are made from brick aggregates and some of them are already in a position of ending of their service life. At the same time, population and economic growth is forcing the demolition of many old structures. Therefore, there is a huge flow of construction and demolition waste and thereby it is necessary to recycle the waste to overcome the problem of occupying the landfill sites. For this study, recycled brick aggregates were collected from the various demolished building sites and their physical and mechanical performance were then compared with the concrete made from normal brick aggregates. It is found that the mechanical properties of recycled brick concrete are comparable to that of normal brick aggregate at medium strength level. The production cost of recycled brick concrete is also found to be 10–12% lower than normal brick aggregates.

  5. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  6. Utilization of Yatagan Power Plant Fly Ash in Production of Building Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önel, Öznur; Tanriverdi, Mehmet; Cicek, Tayfun

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion, which accumulates in large quantities near the coal-fired power plants as waste material. Fly ash causes serious operational and environmental problems. In this study, fly ash from Yatağgan thermal power plant was used to produce light-weight building bricks. The study aimed to reduce the problems related to fly ash by creating a new area for their use. The optimum process parameters were determined for the production of real size bricks to be used in construction industry. The commercial size bricks (200 × 200 × 90-110 mm) were manufactured using pilot size equipment. Mechanical properties, thermal conductivity coefficients, freezing and thawing strengths, water absorption rates, and unit volume weights of the bricks were determined. Etringite (Ca6Al2 (SO4)3 (OH)12 25(H2O)) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (2CaO.SiO2.4H2O) were identified as the binding phases in the real size brick samples after 2 days of pre-curing and 28 days curing at 50° C and 95% relative moisture. The water absorption rate was found to be 27.7 % in terms of mass. The mechanical and bending strength of the brick samples with unit volume weight of 1.29 g.cm-3 were determined as 6.75 MPa and 1,56 MPa respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fly ash bricks was measured in average as 0,340 W m-1 K-1. The fly ash sample produced was subjected to toxic leaching tests (Toxic Property Leaching Procedure (EPA-TCLP 1311), Single-step BATCH Test and Method-A Disintegration Procedure (ASTM)). The results of these tests suggested that the materials could be classified as non-hazardous wastes / materials.

  7. ZettaBricks: A Language Compiler and Runtime System for Anyscale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarasinghe, Saman [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-27

    This grant supported the ZettaBricks and OpenTuner projects. ZettaBricks is a new implicitly parallel language and compiler where defining multiple implementations of multiple algorithms to solve a problem is the natural way of programming. ZettaBricks makes algorithmic choice a first class construct of the language. Choices are provided in a way that also allows our compiler to tune at a finer granularity. The ZettaBricks compiler autotunes programs by making both fine-grained as well as algorithmic choices. Choices also include different automatic parallelization techniques, data distributions, algorithmic parameters, transformations, and blocking. Additionally, ZettaBricks introduces novel techniques to autotune algorithms for different convergence criteria. When choosing between various direct and iterative methods, the ZettaBricks compiler is able to tune a program in such a way that delivers near-optimal efficiency for any desired level of accuracy. The compiler has the flexibility of utilizing different convergence criteria for the various components within a single algorithm, providing the user with accuracy choice alongside algorithmic choice. OpenTuner is a generalization of the experience gained in building an autotuner for ZettaBricks. OpenTuner is a new open source framework for building domain-specific multi-objective program autotuners. OpenTuner supports fully-customizable configuration representations, an extensible technique representation to allow for domain-specific techniques, and an easy to use interface for communicating with the program to be autotuned. A key capability inside OpenTuner is the use of ensembles of disparate search techniques simultaneously; techniques that perform well will dynamically be allocated a larger proportion of tests.

  8. Wood fuel use in Tanzania rural-based industries. Brick kiln studies in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwele, P.M.; Mbise, H.A.; Mwihava, N.C.X.; Svenningsson, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    About 90% of the annual total energy consumed in Tanzania is biomass-based, mainly in the form of wood fuel. Small-scale brick-making is one of the major consumers of wood fuel, with Arusha, Iringa and Mbeya being the main areas where brick-making activities take place. In 1993, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) proposed a project to undertake studies on fuelwood in small rural industries of Tanzania, particularly brick-making. The study on wood fuel utilisation involved field measurements and analyses with the aim of establishing major sources of energy losses and to recommend measures regarding fuel switching, kiln thermal efficiency improvements, and the yield and quality of bricks. The positive feedback would mean reduced demand for fuelwood and hence reduced deforestation rate and therefore environmental protection. The implementation of the project, which commenced in 1994, involved field measurements in order to establish kiln performances as well as laboratory tests to determine the qualities of the fired bricks. At a later stage of implementation, efforts were made to consider other potential fuels (sawdust and coal) for firing the kilns. The main indicators of kiln performance include thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption (SEC), which is sometimes referred to as specific fuel consumption (SFC; yield; and quality. The average SEC for Mbeya region was found to vary from 1.11 to 1.54 while for Iringa region the range was from 1.21 to 1.84 MJ/kg fired brick. The data for Arusha was in the range of 0.76 to 3.3 MJ/kg of fired brick. The low SEC may not necessarily give a reasonable indication of the kiln performance because kiln operators in Mbeya mould larger size bricks which are unloaded from incomplete firing conditions. The fired bricks at Babati (Arusha), though of work-size, are of low quality and consume very little wood fuel. Findings obtained under the SADC project four

  9. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  10. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  11. Preliminary study on immobilization of buffing dust by solidification method in ceramic brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliansyah, Ahmad Tawfiequrrahman; Prasetya, Agus; Putra, Arif Eka; Satriawan, Humam Budi

    2017-11-01

    Leather-based industries generate a substantial amount of hazardous solid and liquid wastes in their process. One of the solid wastes is buffing dust, which is fine particulates containing fat, tanning, dyes and chromium. From 1 ton of leather processed, approximately 2-6 kg of buffing dust is generated. Chromium in the buffing dust is carcinogenic, so a proper handling is highly required. Solidification is a method commonly used to immobilize toxic material. Hence, the material is trapped in a matrix made of binding agents to minimize its mobility. However, a very small amount of the materials is sometimes released to the environment during storage. This study investigates leaching process of chromium from immobilized buffing dust in ceramic brick. Buffing dust, which contains chromium, is solidified by mixing it with clay at certain compositions and fired in a muffle furnace to produce a ceramic brick. Performance of the solidification process is evaluated by measuring the leaching of chromium in the leaching test. The results show that the solidification has significantly reduced the potential release of chromium to the environment. Higher of the firing temperature, less chromium is leached from ceramic brick. The chromium concentration of leachate water from 800°C brick is 0.376 ppm, while those from 850 and 900°C brick are 0.212 and 0.179 ppm respectively.

  12. Research on the performance of sand-based environmental-friendly water permeable bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Runze; Mandula; Chai, Jinyi

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of the amount of admixture, the water cement ratio, the aggregate grading, and the cement aggregate ratio on the mechanical service properties and of porous concrete pavement bricks including strength, water permeability, frost resistance, and wear resistance. The admixture can enhance the performance of water permeable brick, and optimize the design mix. Experiments are conducted to determine the optimal mixing ratios which are given as; (1) the admixture (self-developed) within the content of 5% of the cement quality; (2) water-cement ratio equal to 0.34; (3) cement-aggregate ratio equal to 0.25; (4) fine aggregate of 70% (particle size 0.6-2.36mm); and coarse aggregate of 30% (particle size: 2.36-4.75mm). The experimental results that the sand-based permeable concrete pavement brick has a strength of 35.6MPa and that the water permeability coefficient is equal to 3.5×10-2cm/s. In addition, it was found that the concrete water permeable brick has good frost resistance and surface wear resistance, and that the its production costs are much lower than the similar sand-based water permeable bricks in China.

  13. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, durability, and compressive strength, microstructure and mineral phases of soil-cement bricks. Microstructural evolution was evaluated via confocal microscopy. The experimental results showed that the solid wastes behave as charge material and influenced both technical properties and microstructure of the soil-cement bricks. It was found that up to 15 wt% of welding flux slag waste and up to 30 wt% of avian eggshell waste could be added into the soil-cement bricks for use as building material.

  14. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  15. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (pworkers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV 1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF 25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (pworkers with workers.

  16. Effect of Crushed Glass Cullet Sizes on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Red Clay Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce Peña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of clear waste glass from bottles added on 20 to 30 wt.% and variable particle size (<500, <300, and <212 μm, into clay mixtures for the handmade brick manufacturing process. The bricks were manufactured with mixtures of clay, crushed glass, and water in different proportions, homogenized, casted in wooden molds, air-dried at room temperature for 72 h, and sintered at 1000°C for 12 h. Total shrinkage, water absorption, compressive strength, microstructure, and phase composition are discussed with respect to glass content and its particle size. The results indicate that increasing the content of glass and decreasing its particle size enhanced significantly the brick properties of water absorption and compressive strength by up to 18.5% and 6.8 MPa, for bricks with 30 wt% and particle size lower than 212 μm. It is proposed that decreasing the glass particle size its surface area increases allowing easier melting of glass by lower energy consumption, reducing porosity and enhancing brick properties.

  17. The durability of fired brick incorporating textile factory waste ash and basaltic pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binici, Hanifi [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Univ., Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Yardim, Yavuz [Epoka Univ., Tirana (Albania). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2012-07-15

    This study investigates the durability of fired brick produced with additives of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice. The effects of incorporating waste ash and basaltic pumice on durability and mechanical properties of the clay bricks were studied. Samples were produced with different ratios of the textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice added and at different fire temperatures of 700, 900, and 1 050 C for 8 h. The bricks with additives were produced by adding equal amounts of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice, separately and together, with rates of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The produced samples were kept one year in sodium sulphate and sodium nitrate and tested under freezing - unfreezing and drying - wetting conditions. Then compression strength and mass loss of the samples with and without additives were investigated. The test results were compared with standards and results obtained from control specimens. The results showed that incorporations up to 10 wt.% of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice is beneficial to the fired brick. Both textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice were suitable additives and could be used for more durable clay brick production at 900 C fire temperature. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banibrata Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. Material and Methods: For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Results: Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%, hands (93%, knees (86%, wrists (85%, shoulders (76% and neck (65%. Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%, carrying bricks (95% and molding (87%. The results showed a significantly lower p value < 0.001 in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and PEFR in brick field workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. Conclusions: This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  19. Investigation of isothermal water infiltration into fired clay brick by scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.; Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    A method based on neutron scattering was proposed to investigate isothermal water infiltration in porous media. Two different kinds of fired clay bricks were investigated. While the sample absorb water, scattered neutrons from the different wetted regions, along the flow direction were continuously recorded. The results were discussed in terms of the theory of water infiltration in unsaturated porous media as well as by an anomalous diffusion approach. It was shown that the infiltration process in the Canadian clay brick (CCB) is Fickian and the water diffusivity was analytically determined, while it is non-Fickian in the Egyptian clay brick (ECB). The infiltration process in ECB can be modeled as a two stage Fickian process, at the low and high absorption times. The anomalous diffusion approach failed to describe the diffusion process in the ECB at all water contents. (author)

  20. The use of a cubesat to validate technological bricks in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimbahy, E.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Savini, G.; Iafolla, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the FP7 program FISICA (Far Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment), we are developing a cubesat platform which will be used for the validation in space of two technological bricks relevant for FIRI. The first brick is a high-precision accelerometer which could be used in a future space mission as fundamental element for the dynamic control loop of the interferometer. The second brick is a miniaturized version of an imaging multi-aperture telescope. Ultimately, such an instrument could be composed of numerous space-born mirror segments flying in precise formation on baselines of hundreds or thousands of meters, providing high-resolution glimpses of distant worlds. We are proposing to build a very first space-born demonstrator of such an instrument which will fit into the limited resources of one cubesat. In this paper, we will describe the detailed design of the cubesat hosting the two payloads.

  1. Preparation of Baking-Free Brick from Manganese Residue and Its Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of waste residue produced during the electrolytic preparation process of manganese has nowadays brought about serious environmental problems. The research on utilization of manganese slag has been a hot spot around the world. The utilization of manganese slag is not only environment friendly, but also economically feasible. In the current work, a summarization of the main methods to produced building materials from manganese slag materials was given. Baking-free brick, a promising building material, was produced from manganese slag with the addition of quicklime and cement. The physical properties, chemical composition, and mechanical performances of the obtained samples were measured by several analyses and characterization methods. Then the influence of adding materials and molding pressure during the preparation of baking-free brick samples on their compressive strength properties was researched. It is concluded that the baking-free brick prepared from manganese residue could have excellent compressive strength performance under certain formula.

  2. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseoglu, K.; Polat, M.; Polat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  3. Improving the Bearing Strength of Sandy Loam Soil Compressed Earth Block Bricks Using Sugercane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan W. Salim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable and sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in developing countries cannot be underemphasized. Compressed Earth Bricks have gained acceptability as an affordable and sustainable construction material. There is however a need to boost its bearing capacity. Previous research show that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a soil stabilizer has yielded positive results. However, there is limited research on its effect on the mechanical property of Compressed Earth Brick. This current research investigated the effect of adding 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash on the compressive strength of compressed earth brick. The result showed improvement in its compressive strength by 65% with the addition of 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash.

  4. Diffusion and electromigration in clay bricks influenced by differences in the pore system resulting from firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport in porous materials has been subject of study for several decades. However, the interaction between the pores and the overall pore system make it complicated to obtain a clear picture and predict diffusion and electromigration (transport induced by an applied electric field). Specific...... to the distance to the surface.The influence of the pore system on ion transport through the water saturated pore system of the bricks was supported by measurements for calculation of the electrical resistance and an increasing resistance was found for increasing brick firing temperatures. The effective diffusion...... the pore system to contribute to an overall understanding of ion transport in porous materials.The pore system in bricks are influenced by the firing degree, clay mixture composition and ion content. The present paper focuses on the pore system and effects from clay mixture composition and ion content were...

  5. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  6. Consumers Attitudes towards Internet and Brick and Mortar Store Channels Switching Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh MADAHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available he purpose of this study is to examine the role of consumers’ behavioral attitude and intention toward channel switching behavior in regards to Internet and brick and mortar store channels in Malaysia. The survey instrument administered to the Malaysian consumers from regions of Klang Valley and Penang. A total of 497 completed surveys were obtained. Partial least squares (PLS based structural equation modeling (SEM technique was used to analyze data. A total of 497 completed surveys were obtained. Findings showed that compatibility and complexity were significant in predicting attitude in regard to switching channel from Internet to brick and mortar store. Relative advantage and compatibility were relevant in predicting attitude in brick and mortar store channel. Attitude also significantly affected channel switching intention regarding to both channels. Our findings reveal that gender and intention significantly affect channel switching behavior.

  7. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam

    2015-09-01

    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  8. Transport-related CO2 effects of online and brick-and-mortar shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Anne; Toporowski, Waldemar; Zielke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares transport-related CO2 emissions of online and brick-and-mortar shopping based on supply, delivery, order and travel data related to one multi-channel clothing retailer. A sensitivity analysis sheds more light on how situational factors, such as the customers’ travel distances......, returns, the use of public transport modes and information behavior via different channels influence the outcome of this comparison. The results show that online retailing causes lower CO2 emissions under many conditions. Nevertheless, the brick-and-mortar channel is more environmentally friendly when...... travel distances are small. The radius for which brick-and-mortar shopping has an advantage increases when returns, shifts in the use of public transport and information behavior are also considered....

  9. Development of eco-friendly porous fired clay bricks using pore-forming agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, Cecile; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Vedrenne, Emeline; Vilarem, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Today, clay bricks are facing technological challenges and are uncompetitive compared to materials such as concrete. Their performance must be improved if they are to stand up to the competition. Increasing environmental concerns over the accumulation of unmanaged wastes from agricultural or industrial productions have made these good candidates for incorporation into building materials to improve their performance. This process leads to the formation of pores in the bricks, producing lightweight and sustainable building materials. This paper reviews the different pore-forming agents from renewable or mineral resources as described in the literature. It also presents the impact of pore-forming agents on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of clay bricks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Limits of environmental management for the brick marker industry of municipality of Itagui -Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero A, Humberto; Machado, Jenny; Paniagua P, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    The brick maker activity in the municipality of Itagui this located within the Jabalcona's river basin (river Medellin's affluent), this is the two types, artisan and technified, each one of them are technical economic and socially different but they generate negative environmental impacts to the atmosphere. An environmental management adapted is directly related with three sectors, they are the institutions (the environmental authorities, the universities and association of brick marker united AS - LUNSA, the community and the companies, they must have clear environmental management guidelines for each work that generates environmental impacts negatives. This paper shows environmental management guidelines for the brick maker industry in the municipality of Itagui, with base in the territorial ordaining plan (2000-2003) like a contribution to the environmental ordaining of the municipality

  11. A new method to determine thermophysical properties of PCM-concrete brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Rui; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    . The equivalent specific heat distributions of 4 wt% and 6 wt% PCM-concrete brick were determined using this method. We found that the accuracy (the relative error of the calculated cp based on the inverse problem and their real values ranges from 10.43% to 19.4%) was acceptable for engineering use...... the shortcomings of using traditional testing methods to measure thermophysical properties of PCM-concrete brick. We then proposed a new method based on the inverse problem, which deals with the measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat of PCM-concrete brick during the phase change process....... The influences of the temperature segments span and optimization algorithms were analyzed. The results showed that the Sequential Quadric Programming (SQP) method provides the highest accuracy and least complexity compared with the Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Optimization methods. Finally, we...

  12. 75 FR 11517 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... December 11, 2009, the petitioner alleged that Refmex made comparison-market sales of bricks at prices... initiated an investigation to determine whether Refmex made comparison-market sales of bricks at prices... (for example, antioxidants can be added to the mix from trace amounts to 15 percent by weight as...

  13. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 28194 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the Final Results of the 2010-2011... of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482-4047... duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The period of...

  15. Precise age and biostratigraphic significance of the Kinney Brick Quarry Lagerstätte, Pennsylvanian of New Mexico, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Spencer G.; Allen, Bruce D.; Krainer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Kinney Brick Quarry is a world famous Late Pennsylvanian fossil Lagerstätte in central New Mexico, USA. The age assigned to the Kinney Brick Quarry (early-middle Virgilian) has long been based more on its inferred lithostratigraphic position than on biostratigraphic indicators at the quarry. We...

  16. 75 FR 57257 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From Mexico and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Carbon Bricks From Mexico and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... China and Mexico (Investigation Nos. 701-TA-468 and 731-TA-1166-1167 (Final), USITC Publication 4182... from Mexico Prelim); and Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China...

  17. Analysis of characteristic aroma of fungal fermented Fuzhuan brick-tea by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.Q.; Mo, H.Z.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhuan brick-tea is a popular fermented Chinese dark tea because of its typical fungal aroma. Fungal growth during the production process is the key step in achieving the unique colour, aroma and taste of Fuzhuan brick-tea. To further understand the generation of the characteristic aroma, changes

  18. Effect of flood conditions on the deterioration of porous clay-based brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, L.; Tomor, A.

    2017-12-01

    Man-made materials represent an increasingly large proportion of geomaterials that are used to build up a rapidly expanding urbanised landscape. The deterioration of such materials is of increasing concern, in particular in light of the projected increase in storm and flood events and their associated high water levels. The effect of prolonged saturation in porous materials, man-made as well as natural, can lead to accelerated deterioration. This can be of particular concern for load-bearing structural materials, for example bridges. In this study, the effect of moisture movement has been investigated for brick masonry, as one of the most commonly used porous building materials. Saturation of brick masonry can be of particular concern for historical masonry, such as masonry arch bridges in conjunction with under increasing levels of long-term traffic loading. While flooding can lead to scour and sudden collapse of bridges, saturation can also lead to accelerated medium and long-term deterioration. A series of small-scale laboratory tests have been carried out on brick masonry to identify the effects of saturation on the material properties and changes in the rate of deterioration. Brick masonry prisms have been loaded to failure under quasi-static and long-term cyclic compression and monitored with the help of acoustic emission technique, accelerometers, linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), permeametry and brick surface hardness measurements. Under quasi-static loading saturated samples showed significant reduction in the load capacity and increased fracture development. Under fatigue loading the number of cycles to failure reduced significantly for saturated specimens and characteristic changes in material parameters have been related to stages of fatigue deterioration. Test results indicated that increasing flood events can accelerate moisture-related deterioration in porous brick masonry.

  19. Evaluation of external exposures of the population of Ozyorsk, Russia, with luminescence measurements of bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Jacob, P; Ulanovsky, A; Fiedler, I; Mokrov, Y; Rovny, S

    2009-11-01

    Recently discovered historical documents indicate that large releases of noble gases (mainly (41)Ar and radioactive isotopes of Kr and Xe) from the Mayak Production Association (MPA) over the period from 1948 to 1956 may have caused considerable external exposures of both, inhabitants of Ozyorsk and former inhabitants of villages at the upper Techa River. To quantify this exposure, seven brick samples from three buildings in Ozyorsk, located 8-10 km north-northwest from the radioactive gas release points, were taken. The absorbed dose in brick was measured in a depth interval of 3-13 mm below the exposed surface of the bricks by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Generally, luminescence properties using TL were more favorable for precise dose determination than using OSL, but within their uncertainties the results from both methods agree well with each other. The absorbed dose due to natural radiation was assessed and subtracted under the assumption of the bricks to be completely dry. The weighted average of the anthropogenic dose for all samples measured by TL and OSL is 10 +/- 9 and 1 +/- 9 mGy, respectively. An upper limit for a possible anthropogenic dose in brick that would not be detected due to the measurement uncertainties is estimated at 24 mGy. This corresponds to an effective dose of about 21 mSv. A similar range of values is obtained in recently published dispersion calculations that were based on reconstructed MPA releases. It is concluded that the release of radioactive noble gases from the radiochemical and reactor plants at Mayak PA did not lead to a significant external exposure of the population of Ozyorsk. In addition, the study demonstrates the detection limit for anthropogenic doses in ca. 60-year-old bricks to be about 24 mGy, if luminescence methods are used.

  20. Pure Play vs. Bricks-and-Clicks: Who Reaps the Benefits of Virtual Retailing?

    OpenAIRE

    Youlong Zhuang; Albert L. Lederer

    2006-01-01

    Pure play and bricks-and-clicks represent today’s two major retailing models. The current study answers four questions comparing the two models in terms of the e-commerce benefits achieved and information systems management practices used to achieve them. It applies a Web-based survey to compare 69 pure plays to 348 bricks-and-clicks retailers in terms of the market expansion, customer service, back-end efficiency, inventory management, and cost reduction benefits reaped, as well as in term...

  1. Compressive behavior of energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wu, Cai

    2018-03-01

    The energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has a broad development prospects due to its merits of thermal insulation, energy conservation, beautiful, and natural. The construction and characteristics of this wall are introduced and analyzed in this paper. Experimental studies of samples are also conducted to investigate its compressive performance. The results show that the energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has high compressive capacity. It has considerable application prospect, the study in this paper provides foundation to further studies.

  2. Trace Elements Analysis of Archeological Brick Samples Collected from Different Historical Placs in Rajshahi Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Shapan K.; Matin, Mohammed A.; Hoque, Mohammed M.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine brick samples were collected from different temples and palaces, namely Paharpur, Kumarpur, Gaurbari, Puthia and Natore in Rajshahi Division in Bangladesh. The samples were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) method. The elemental data sets have been analyzed in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences among the collected samples and identify the origin of these brick samples. Most of the crustal elements have enrichment factor (EF) values close to unity. Only Cu and Pb have high values that may come from painting as these have been collected from temples and palaces.(author)

  3. A continuous OSL scanning method for analysis of radiation depth-dose profiles in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.; Poolton, N.R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of a method for directly measuring radiation depth-dose profiles from brick, tile and porcelain cores, without the need for sample separation techniques. For the brick cores, examples are shown of the profiles generated by artificial irradiation using...... the different photon energies from Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma sources; comparison is drawn with both the theoretical calculations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, as well as experimental measurements made using more conventional optically stimulated luminescence methods of analysis....

  4. Drying of Ceramic Hollow Bricks in an Industrial Tunnel Dryer: A Finite Volume Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tavares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the drying of industrial hollow bricks in a tunnel dryer cross flow type. The theoretical model is based on mass and energy conservation equations applied to air and product. To validate the methodology, numerical and experimental results for the moisture content and the temperature of brick during the drying in an industrial scale are compared and a good correlation was obtained. Results of moisture content and temperature of the product, and temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity of drying air as a function of drying time and position in the dryer are presented and analyzed.

  5. Study of the influence of agricultural waste on the porosity of clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelouah Nasser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of two organic residues on the porosity of clay bricks. The insulation capacity of the brick increases with increasing the porosity. Combustible organic additions are often used to form pores. The formation of the more homogenous porous structure is favourably impacted by using the crushed rough olive stones containing oil. Plasticity, bulk density and mechanical properties were studied. The additions of organic residues have proved successful to form pores while maintaining the mechanical properties in the limits of the Algerian norms.

  6. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every

  7. Techno - economic and leachability effect of Ca2SiO4 interlocking composite brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboonruang, Weerapol; Yongam-nuai, Prayoon; Suphadon, Nutthanun

    2017-07-01

    This work studied the possibility to produce the new novel calcium silicate ceramic kiln ash composite brick (CSCACB) which was the combination of the local Ratchaburi soil and calcium silicate kiln ash (CSCA) wasted from the ceramic industry. The chemical and physical properties of the composite brick were investigated. Also, the mechanical properties such as the compressive strength, flexural strength and as well as the leachability property were determined. By summary, this invented materials has enough quality to produce as local commercial products considered by the strength properties, environmental effect, price and appropriated implementation.

  8. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turanli, L.; Bektas, F.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased

  9. Basic Deformation Parameters of Solid Clay Bricks and Small Masonry Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bouška

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic mechanical properties of clay brick masonry and its components were experimentally investigated in the laboratories of the Klokner Institute. The test specimens of masonry materials and the relevant mechanical properties have been identified in solid clay bricks and cement-lime mortar. The aim of the research activity was to study both the deformability of the prevailing type of clay masonry in the existing buildings, i.e. the masonry made from the solid clay units and the lime-cement mortar, and the most important mechanical properties of masonry components.

  10. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the

  11. Assessment of macro and micro nutrients around brick kilns agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Farhad Sikder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is well known as one of the main sources of air pollution; however, the pollutants produced from it do not remain in the air, they ultimately fall down to the soil and pollute the surroundings, therefore, this study was carried out to assess the status of macro (N, P, K and S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu in the agricultural environment near the brick kilns of Young Brahmaputra and Jamuna Floodplain soils. Composite soil and plant samples were collected from four distances such as 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m in three different sites. Sulphur (2352–3378 mg kg−1, Zn (86–156 mg kg−1 and Cu (24.7–46.9 mg kg−1 are found in the elevated levels near brick kiln soils that is released due to burning of poor quality coal and fire woods. The alarming news is that plant uptake of S and micro nutrients in the nearest areas of the brick kilns are significantly higher than the areas far from the brick production and their concentration ranges from 23 mg kg−1 to 101 mg kg−1 for Zn, 10–41 mg kg−1 for Cu, 35–1309 mg kg−1 for Fe, 26–126 mg kg−1 for Mn and 2590–mg kg−1 for S. Data indicates both soil and plant received maximum amount of micronutrients and S concentrations within 500–1000 m distances from brick kilns. Iron and Mn concentrations vary within a permissible limit but the plant uptake is high. Nitrogen concentrations is increasing with the distance from the brick kilns in both soils and plants but no definite pattern of P and K accumulation was found. Research suggested avoiding agricultural practice nearby brick kiln soils due to micronutrient contamination in order to preserve adjoined agricultural environment.

  12. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    was chosen. Salt profiles from three different bricks within this area clarified two bricks with low ion contents and one with a high ion content which is representative for church vault constructions. The idea of using a climate chamber for dissolution of present salts for minimizing additional water supply...... problematic in relation to church vault constructions with murals as the surface deterioration can result in loss of valuable cultural heritage. An electrochemical method has been investigated with focus on possible use for desalination of salt loaded vault constructions with murals in laboratory scale...

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Crack-Path Selection in a Brick and Mortar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Manoharan, Mohan; Johnson, Curtis A.

    Many natural composite materials rely on organized architectures that span several length scales. The structures of natural shells such as nacre (mother-of-pearl) and conch are prominent examples of such organizations where the calcium carbonate platelets, the main constituent of natural shells, are held together in an organized fashion within an organic matrix. At one or multiple length scales, these organized arrangements often resemble a brick-and-mortar structure, with calcium carbonate platelets acting as bricks connected through the organic mortar phase.

  14. A simple economic and quantitative method for the removal of uranium from Gogi mine water using powdered red brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Usha; Cyriac, Bincy; Hegde, G.N.; Premadas, A.; Rai, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and economical method for the removal of uranium from Gogi mine water using the powdered red brick as a good adsorbent is discussed. Preliminary studies for the removal of uranium using brick showed encouraging results. Further studies were carried to find the amount and size of brick for the quantitative removal of uranium. The results of these studies showed that 50 g of brick with 10 mesh size was enough to remove uranium quantitatively from 100 ml of mine water containing 1800 μg/L of uranium. However the column studies indicated considerable decrease (∼ 5 g for 100 ml of mine water) in the amount of brick required to remove uranium from 100 ml of mine water

  15. Effects of coal and wheat husk additives on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of clay bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Iqbal, Y.; Muhammad, R.

    2017-07-01

    The use of by-products as additives in brick industry is gaining increased research attention due to their effective role in decreasing the total energy needs of industrial furnaces. In addition, these additives leave pores upon burning, causing a decrease in thermal conductivity and affect the mechanical properties of bricks as well. In the present study, various proportions of coal and wheat husk were used as additives in the initial ingredients of clay bricks. Microstructure, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal diffusivity, water absorption, shrinkage, compressive strength and bulk density of fired clay bricks with and without additives were investigated. Clay bricks containing 5–15wt.% additives were found to be within the permissible limits for most of the recommended standard specifications. (Author)

  16. Assessment of occupational health problems and physiological stress among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-06-01

    The brick field industry is one of the oldest industries in India, which employs a large number of workers of poor socioeconomic status. The main aim of the present investigation is i) to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among brick field workers, ii) to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders and physiological stress among brick field workers compared to control workers. For this study, a total of 220 brick field workers and 130 control subjects were selected randomly. The control subjects were mainly involved in hand-intensive jobs. The Modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Thermal stress was also assessed by measuring the WBGT index. The pulmonary functions were checked using the spirometry. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by recording the heart rate and blood pressure of the workers prior to work and just after work in the field. Brick field workers suffered from pain especially in the lower back (98%), hands (93%), knees (86%), wrists (85%), shoulders (76%) and neck (65%). Among the brick-making activities, brick field workers felt discomfort during spading for mud collection (98%), carrying bricks (95%) and molding (87%). The results showed a significantly lower p value workers compared to the control group. The post-activity heart rate of the brick field workers was 148.6 beats/min, whereas the systolic and diastolic blood pressure results were 152.8 and 78.5 mm/Hg, respectively. This study concludes that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in unhealthy working conditions for a long period of time.

  17. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed by e...

  18. A comparative study between OSL and TL techniques for the dating of ancient chinese bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Li, M.; Tang Qiang; Zhang Chunxiang

    2004-01-01

    The single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to measure the paleodose of ancient Chinese bricks with an age range from 180 to 1600 years. In the protocol, sensitivity changes can be corrected by using OSL response to a fixed test dose during measurement. For comparative study between OSL and TL, thermoluminescence (TL) measurement procedures were also applied to determine the paleodose of the bricks. Both results of OSL and TL are in good agreement with, and the paleodose ratios (De OSL /De TL ) are between 0.96 and 1.21, with a mean value of 1.08 ± 0.07. The annual dose of the bricks, estimated by the paleodoses and the known ages, ranges from 5.07 to 6.85 mGy/a, comparable with the measured annual dose values. Therefore, it is concluded that the SAR protocol is a rapid and effective OSL technique to authenticate Chinese bricks. (authors)

  19. A core-monitoring based methodology for predictions of graphite weight loss in AGR moderator bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Fahad, M.; Hall, G.; Marsden, B.J. [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A statistically-based methodology for estimating graphite density is presented. • Graphite shrinkage is accounted for using a finite element model. • Differences in weight loss forecasts were found when compared to the existing model. - Abstract: Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method are often used to model changes in dimensions and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (temperature, fluence and weight loss ‘field variables’), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of graphite under these conditions. The weight loss field variables are calculated using a reactor chemistry/physics code FEAT DIFFUSE. In this work the authors consider an alternative data source of weight loss: that from a longitudinal dataset of density measurements made on small samples trepanned from operating reactors during statutory outages. A nonlinear mixed-effect model is presented for modelling the age and depth-related trends in density. A correction that accounts for irradiation-induced dimensional changes (axial and radial shrinkage) is subsequently applied. The authors compare weight loss forecasts made using FEAT DIFFUSE with those based on an alternative statistical model for a layer four moderator brick for the Hinkley Point B, Reactor 3. The authors compare the two approaches for the weight loss distribution through the brick with a particular focus on the interstitial keyway, and for the average (over the volume of the brick) weight loss.

  20. Utilization of Sandy Soil as the Primary Raw Material in Production of Unfired Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to use sandy soil as the main raw material in making unfired bricks. The sprayed-cured brick specimens were tested for compressive and flexural strength, rate of water absorption, percentage of voids, bulk density, freezing/thawing, and water immersion resistance. In addition, the microstructures of the specimens were also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. The test results show that unfired brick specimens with the addition of ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS tend to achieve better mechanical properties when compared with the specimens that added cement alone, with GGBS correcting particle size distribution and contributing to the pozzolanic reactions and the pore-filling effects. The test specimens with the appropriate addition of cement, GGBS, quicklime, and gypsum are dense and show a low water absorption rate, a low percentage of voids, and an excellent freezing/thawing and water immersion resistance. The SEM observation and XRD analysis verify the formation of hydrate products C–S–H and ettringite, providing a better explanation of the mechanical and physical behavior and durability of the derived unfired bricks. The results obtained suggest that there is a technical approach for the high-efficient comprehensive utilization of sandy soil and provide increased economic and environmental benefits.

  1. Possible brick wall effect at 400 GeV in Isabelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1978-01-01

    The distortion of the working line, due to space charge forces, is estimated. It is found that the brick wall effect may occur at 400 GeV, due to working line distortion because of electron neutralization of the beam. The smallness of the beam at 400 GeV makes it difficult to correct the working line distortion by exciting octupole correction coils

  2. Water footprint and life cycle assessment of concrete roof tile and brick products at PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octavia, Caesara; Laurence; Hartono, Natalia

    2017-12-01

    PT. XYZ is an Indonesian company engaged in manufacturing concrete roof tile and paving block. The company has not paid attention to the environmental and human health aspects of their production activity, where there is so much water used and discarded during the production process and no water treatment for the wastewater produced. Therefore this topic proposed in order to determine the resulting impacts from the production processes of concrete roof tile and brick at PT. XYZ on the environment and human health. The impact on the environment and human health were identified through water footprint assessment (WFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). Through the WFA accounting, it is known that the amount of water needed to produce a concrete roof tile is 21.384 L which consists of 16.433 L blue water and 4.951 L grey water, whereas for a brick is 10.496 L which consists of 10.48 L blue water and 0.016 L grey water. With ReCiPe midpoint (H) method, it is known that the dominant impact categories generated in one batch production processes of concrete roof tile and brick are natural land transformation, marine eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and freshwater eco-toxicity, where those impact categories represent the average of 75.5% from overall impact category for concrete roof tile and brick products.

  3. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  4. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Hariharan [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Klocke, Steve [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  5. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  6. Pulmonary dysfunctions, oxidative stress and DNA damage in brick kiln workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, R; Khaliq, F; Subramaneyaan, M; Ahmed, R S

    2012-11-01

    Brick kilns in the suburban areas in developing countries pose a big threat to the environment and hence the health of their workers and people residing around them. The present study was planned to assess the lung functions, oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in brick kiln workers. A total of 31 male subjects working in brick kiln, and 32 age, sex and socioeconomic status matched controls were included in the study. The lung volumes, capacities and flow rates, namely, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity (IC), maximal expiratory flow when 50% of FVC is remaining to be expired, maximum voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow rate and vital capacity were significantly decreased in the brick kiln workers. Increased oxidative stress as evidenced by increased malonedialdehyde levels and reduced glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma were observed in the study group when compared with controls. Our results indicate a significant correlation between oxidative stress parameters and pulmonary dysfunction, which may be due to silica-induced oxidative stress and resulting lung damage.

  7. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Ernesto; Imbimbo, Maura; Sacco, Elio

    2011-01-01

    In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP) materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out. PMID:28880008

  8. Rainwater Quality Measurements in the Area of Bricks Manufacturing at Kajhu Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina .

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of rainwater quality measurement has been done in brick manufacturing area of Kajhu, Aceh Besar. The measurements are taking place in the three different places when the rain fall from the sky in Kajhu area. The physical parameters that will be measured are pH, TDS, conductivity and potential of electricity.

  9. Case study of fly ash brick manufacturing units at Kota in Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y.; Saxena, B. K.; Rao, K. V. S.

    2018-03-01

    Kota Super Thermal Power Station of 1240 MW is located at Kota in Rajasthan, India. The quantity of fly ash generated by it is about 1.64 to 2.03 million tonnes per year. This fly ash is being utilized for making bricks, tiles, portland pozzolana cement, construction of highways, and other purposes. 1.79 million tonnes of fly ash was utilized for different applications in one year duration from April 01st, 2015 to March 31st, 2016. Out of this total utilization, 0.6439 million tonnes (36.06 %) of fly ash was used for making bricks, blocks, and tiles. In this paper, a case study of two fly ash brick manufacturing units using fly ash produced from Kota Super Thermal Power Station is described. These units produce about 15,000 and 20,000 bricks respectively by employing 10 and 16 workers each and are making a profit of about Rs. 6,000 and Rs. 8,000 per day in one shift.

  10. Dependence of Capillary Properties of Contemporary Clinker Bricks on Their Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Maria; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary clinker bricks are applied for outer layers of walls built from other materials and walls which should have high durability and aesthetic qualities. The intended effect depends not only on the mortar applied but also on clinker properties. Traditional macroscopic tests do not allow to predict clinker behaviour in contact with mortars and external environment. The basic information for this issue is open porosity of material. It defines the material ability to absorb liquids: rain water (through the face wall surface) and grout from mortar (through base surface). The main capillary flow goes on in pores with diameters from 300 to 3000nm. It is possible to define pore distribution and their size using the Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry method. The aim of these research is evaluation of clinker brick capillary properties (initial water absorption and capillary rate) and analysis of differences in microstructure of the face and base wall of a product. Detailed results allowed to show pore distribution in function of their diameters and definition of pore amount responsible for capillary flow. Based on relation between volume function differential and pore diameter, a differential distribution curve was obtained which helped to determine the dominant diameters. The results obtained let us state that face wall of bricks was characterized with the lowest material density and open porosity. In this layer (most burnt) part of pores could be closed by locally appearing liquid phase during brick burning. Thus density is lower comparing to other part of the product.

  11. Damages to masonry due to interaction(s) between mortar and brick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugt, L.J.A.R. van der

    1995-01-01

    Masonry consists of brick and mortar. Next to the laying mortar there can be a separate pointing mortar as well. Each of these components can suffer damage. Such damages, of course, have to do with the properties of the components and with the agressiveness of the environment. However, next to their

  12. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying. An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. The water extraction is an important parameter that determines, e.g., the stiffness of the mortar due to compaction of the cement particles and the bond strength of the cured-mortar interfaces but allo

  13. An evaluation of low back pain among female brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among brick field workers and to explore attributed causes of LBP, investigate the relationship between LBP and psychophysical and psychosocial factors and measure the impact of LBP. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire along with Body Part Discomfort scale were administered to brick field workers (N = 148). Working posture of the participants was assessed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method. The study showed that 70 % of the female workers reported LBP due to awkward working posture for prolonged period of time. This was mainly reported by brick moulders. 45 % reported LBP due to manual material handling (MMH) and 40 % due to awkward lifting of heavy objects (brick). The study shows that the LBP is more prevalent (OR 1.59 and 95 % CI 0.411-6.207). 78 % of the female workers want the job rotation to relieve from their job monotony. LBP occurred among female workers due to awkward posture, repetitive work and MMH. This study also stated that psychosocial cause of LBP is inadequacy income, monotony work, job dissatisfaction. Working posture analysis REBA suggests that all the working postures are high-risk level.

  14. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voroshilov, Ivan, E-mail: Nixon.06@mail.ru; Endzhievskaya, Irina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru; Vasilovskaya, Nina, E-mail: icaend@mail.ru [FSAEI HVE Siberian Federal University, 82 Svobodny Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660130 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg \\ m{sup 3}, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W \\ m {sup *} °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  15. LEGO bricks used as chemotactic chambers: evaluation by a computer-assisted image analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarà, A; Chimenti, M

    2004-01-01

    One of the main techniques used to explore neutrophil motility, employs micropore filters in chemotactic chambers. Many new models have been proposed, in order to perform multiple microassays in a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible way. In this work, LEGO bricks have been used as chemotactic chambers in the evaluation of neutrophil random motility and chemotaxis and compared with conventional Boyden chambers in a "time-response" experiment. Neutrophil motility throughout the filters was evaluated by means of an image-processing workstation, in which a dedicated algorithm recognizes and counts the cells in several fields and focal planes throughout the whole filter; correlates counts and depth values; performs a statistical analysis of data; calculates the true value of neutrophil migration; determines the distribution of cells; and displays the migration pattern. By this method, we found that the distances travelled by the cells in conventional chambers and in LEGO bricks were perfectly identical, both in random migration and under chemotactic conditions. Moreover, no interference with the physiological behaviour of neutrophils was detectable. In fact, the kinetics of migration was identical both in random migration (characterized by a gaussian pattern) and in chemotaxis (characterized by a typical stimulation peak, previously identified by our workstation). In conclusion, LEGO bricks are extremely precise devices. They are simple to use and allow the use of small amounts of chemoattractant solution and cell suspension, supplying by itself a triplicate test. LEGO bricks are inexpensive, fast and suitable for current diagnostic activity or for research investigations in every laboratory.

  16. Physical properties and consumer reaction to use of compressed wood bricks in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Robert Gorman; Karen. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    In late 2008, a group of business people and entrepreneurs in southeast Alaska became aware of a compressed wood brick product that could be used as an alternative fuel in existing wood-burning stoves and heating equipment. The product differed from many others on the market in that it contained no additive to promote binding and burn characteristics. In 2009, local...

  17. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lopez-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistant masonry bricks of homogeneous and controlled density are a new contribution in the production of bricks of better quality. First, the soil was stabilized with CaOH which leads to a decrease in its volumetric changes. Then, they were compacted with a specific energy for obtaining an optimal and maximum controlled density to ensure an increase in strength. Our results show that two optimal compaction energies can be considered with respect to the variation of optimum moisture in masonry bricks of expansive soil stabilized with lime. The first is when the optimal humidity reaches its smallest value (integrated soil lumps and the second is when humidity increases (disintegrated soil lumps, after reaching its lowest value. We also conclude that high compaction energy does not improve density values.

  18. The analysis of lightweight brick strength pressure with mixture of glass powder and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsi; Liang, William

    2018-03-01

    Little by little the engineers research how the development of concrete that can utilize waste. In the utilization of the waste, it can be functioned as mixing material which the chemical or the physical traits of the used goods contain similarity to the mixture of concrete in general, one of them is glass powder as the substitute of cement. The glass powder that utilizes is the one that is sifted through sieve No. 200 as much as 10% of the weight of the cement. The testing specimen of the concrete brick is make of the mixture with the ratio of 1:7, then is added with the foaming agent (1:30) and silica fume (10% of the weight of the cement). Furthermore, visual examination, absorption, net weight and testing specimen compressive strength. The data analysis uses the reference of SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989 regarding Concrete Brick for the Match for the Wall. Foaming Agent is make by using modified hand drill and brace. The testing specimen uses the brick mold with the size of 40 cm x 20cm x 10 cm. Based on this research, it shows that the quality that results from brick is still qualified based on SNI 03 – 0349 – 1989.

  19. rice husk as filler rice husk as filler in the production of bricks using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    block [1].The effect of palm fruit fibre in clay bricks was also investigated by Akinyele and Abdulraheem,. [2], they observed ... the Rice Husk ash at 8% improves the compressive ... that 5% mix of the material acts as a filler in concrete because ...

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damla, N.; Cevik, U.; Kobya, A.I.; Celik, A.; Celik, N.; Yildirim, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were 34 ± 14, 34 ± 13 and 462 ± 175 Bq.kg -1 , respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured to be 34 ± 14, 33 ± 12 and 429 ± 161 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Ra eq values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg -1 , equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a -1 recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: → In this study, the distribution of natural radionuclides in brick and roofing tile samples used in Turkey were studied. → Associated

  1. Determination of heavy metals in agricultural soil adjacent to functional brick kilns: a case study of rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achakzai, K.; Khalid, S.; Bibi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Brick making is one of the growing industry of Pakistan which had great contribution in the development of country. In order to meet the demands of urbanization the industry's production rate is also increasing. This has lead to the combustion of enormous amount of coal and other materials thus deteriorating the quality of environment. Brick kilns in developing countries are considered as one of the important source of pollution. Heavy metals are one of the reported pollutants from brick kilns and are highly persistent, non-biodegradable in nature and are serious threat to the environment. The aim of the current study was to assess the level of heavy metals in the soil and vegetation around three selected brick kilns sites in Rawalpindi. The study was conducted from October 2013 to May 2014. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil and plants were determined with standard protocols. The investigated concentration of heavy metals in plants and soils were compared with the WHO standards. It was found that the concentrations of all studied metals were above the permissible limits especially at agriculture soil located adjacent to brick kilns. However, at few sites the concentrations were found below the permissible limits. The results of study showed that brick kilns have great potential of deteriorating the quality of environment so, it is recommended that the monitoring of soil and plants around brick kilns should be carried out on regular basis in order to develop control measures to prevent the impacts of heavy metals pollution. (author)

  2. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  3. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  4. Occupational Health Hazards of Women Working in Brick Kiln and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G Vaidya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In brick kiln and construction industry the exposure to carbon monoxide and silica dust is the most common occupational hazard to the workers in these industries. A study on occupational health hazards of working women in these two unorganized sectors was undertaken by Lokmanya Medical Research Centre. Objectives: To study the effect of work site environment on the health of the women working in brick kiln and construction industry. An attempt was also made to study the seasonal changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide and dust at the worksite. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the working women (age 18-40 years at brick kilns and construction sites during summer and winter season. They were examined primarily to assess the effect of working environment on health. Gasteck Detector Pump of model 800 and air sampling instrument (SKC Air Check–52 were used to measure concentration of carbon monoxide and dust in the air respectively. Results: There were 66% of women who were in the age group of 18-40 years and most of them (94% were married. At brick kiln sites, average CO exposure was 62.8 ppm and 55.5 ppm and average dust exposure was 3 3 146.1 mg/m and 91.4 mg/m in summer and winter season respectively.At construction sites, average dust exposure was 41.5 ppm and 90.8 ppm in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both exposure to CO and dust were more in summer than in winter in brick kiln industry whereas in construction industry the exposure to dust was more in winter season. A high level of morbidity in the form of headache, bodyache, problems with vision, cough and breathlessness were observed in both industries. It is strongly recommended to take pollution control measures.

  5. Black carbon, organic carbon, and co-pollutant emissions and energy efficiency from artisanal brick production in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Maiz, Pablo; Monsivais, Israel; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Munguia, Jose Luis; Cardenas, Beatriz; Fortner, Edward C.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Kolb, Charles E.; Knighton, Walter B.

    2018-04-01

    In many parts of the developing world and economies in transition, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious source of urban air pollution. Many are both energy inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and other atmospheric pollutants into local communities, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. However, only a very limited number of studies are available on the emission characteristics of brick kilns; thus, there is a need to characterize their gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors to better assess their overall contribution to emissions inventories and to quantify their ecological, human health, and climate impacts. In this study, the fuel-, energy-, and brick-based emissions factors and time-based emission ratios of BC, OC, inorganic PM components, CO, SO2, CH4, NOx, and selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three artisanal brick kilns with different designs in Mexico were quantified using the tracer ratio sampling technique. Simultaneous measurements of PM components, CO, and CO2 were also obtained using a sampling probe technique. Additional measurements included the internal temperature of the brick kilns, mechanical resistance of bricks produced, and characteristics of fuels employed. Average fuel-based BC emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.58 g (kg fuel)-1, whereas BC/OC mass ratios ranged from 0.9 to 5.2, depending on the kiln type. The results show that both techniques capture similar temporal profiles of the brick kiln emissions and produce comparable emission factors. A more integrated inter-comparison of the brick kilns' performances was obtained by simultaneously assessing emissions factors, energy efficiency, fuel consumption, and the quality of the bricks produced.

  6. How to examine flaking sex evaluation of the float bus bottom brick; Furotobasubotomu renga no furekingu sei hyoka shiken hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, R. [Yotai Refractories Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    After it was used in the float law glass dissolution drawer fireplace bottom, a countermeasure was established by answer, laboratory simulation and high temperature load deformation investigation that that cause was in performance about incumbent elephant of the bottom department clay brick which becomes clear from the second. Though it accompanies melting metal tin and Na that it got into the inside of the brick is a cause as for formation, is expected future development by the high research of the practical use which effective measure was taken against by the organization of the clay brick and the improvement of the physical nature. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Preliminary Report on Engineering Properties and Environmental Resistance of Ancient Mud Bricks from Tell El-Retaba Archaeological Site in the Nile Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzciński Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological site Tell el-Retaba in north-eastern Egypt, about 35 km to the west of Ismailia city, is located in the middle of Wadi Tumilat, a shallow valley running from the Nile Delta to the Bitter Lakes, along which flows the Suez Canal. In ancient times the valley was a route between Egypt and Syro-Palestine, strongly fortified in the New Kingdom times (16th–11th century BC. Mud bricks were analyzed from two parts of the Wall 1 (core of grey-brown bricks and inner extension of green bricks in a fortress which existed during the Ramesses II times. Grain-size composition of the studied bricks was almost identical in both parts of the wall, suggesting the same source material for a production of brick. However, significant differences were observed in physical and mechanical properties (uni-axial compressive strength in both types of bricks. Bricks from the core had lower bulk density, higher porosity and soak faster, whereas their resistance parameters were much lower than those of the bricks from the inner extension. The reason for such large differences in brick properties was a technology of their production, particularly proportion of components, water volume added during brick formation or density degree. Brick preparation and in consequence, physical-mechanical properties had direct influence on preservation of defensive structures during environmental changes related to changes of groundwater and surface water levels or of precipitation. Ancient Egyptians responsible for construction works in mud brick structures of the fortress must have had good knowledge and experience. This could be observed particularly for the heaviest and most important construction element that is the defensive wall, founded on well-densified deposits. It was also testified by higher resistance of green bricks from the inner extensions, which probably originated slightly later and were intended to reinforce a weaker core built of grey-brown bricks.

  8. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  9. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Compressed Earth Brick (CEB Containing Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of brick in construction is commonly used, especially in the construction of buildings and infrastructure. Various studies have been conducted to produce methods that can increase the strength of brick at the same time can reduce the cost of manufacturing bricks. In order to reduce cost of manufacturing, one of the solution applied was by using waste as part of bricks production materials. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SuCaB ash was used as a part of compressed earth brick (CEB by replacing the quantity of cement for SuCaB ash. The study focused on the physical and mechanical properties of CEB containing SuCaB and the optimum percentage of SuCaB ash as partial cement replacement in CEB. There are 4 types of percentages used; 0%, 20%, 25% and 30% from cement content. All mixed use the same water content of 30% of cement content by weight and the ratio for cement: laterite soil used was 1: 6. A total of 72 specimen with size of 100mm × 50mm × 40mm was produced. The test conducted were Initial Rate Absorption Test (IRA, Density Test, Dimensions Test, Compression Test and Water Absorption Test. From the experimental results, the optimum SuCaB ash percentage as cement replacement in CEB was 20%. It recorded the highest compressive strength of 16.23 MPa at 28 days while for the Initial Rate Absorption test, it lies within the range specified. The density of CEB containing 20% of SuCaB shows slightly lower value where it decreased for about 0.4% from the control specimen. From this study, it can be concluded that waste materials such as sugarcane bagasse can be used as part of construction materials. However, further study needs to be conducted such as on the energy consumption, chemical properties and others to enhance the knowledge on this area before it can be applied into the brick production.

  10. Clay-brick firing in a high-temperature solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda-Munoz, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: gvilledam@ipn.mx; Castaneda-Miranda, A. [Computation & amp; Mechatronic Studies Division, Universidad Politecnica de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: acastaneda@upq.edu.mx; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpless@ipn.mx; Vega-Duran, J.T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Pineda-Pinon, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: jpinedap@ipn.mx

    2011-10-15

    The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900 degrees Celsius and 1050 degrees Celsius; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 * 0.61 * 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 * 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber. [Spanish] El proceso de coccion para la produccion de tabiques de arcilla en hornos tradicionales genera contaminacion atmosferica cuando los desechos industriales y domesticos se usan como combustibles. Aqui se presenta una alternativa, utilizando la energia solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla. Estamos desarrollando un sistema para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla para alcanzar temperaturas entre 900 grados centigradosy 1050 grados centigrados; estas temperaturas son suficientemente altas para cocer tabiques o productos ceramicos similares. El presente articulo describe el diseno y caracterizacion de los componentes de un horno solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla con una camara con dimensiones internas de 0.48 * 0.61 *× 0.64 m. Para dirigir los rayos solares a la camara de coccion, un heliostato

  11. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid...... waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different...... brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m3) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m3) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more...

  12. Impact of using lightweight eco-bricks as enclosures for individual houses of one story on zones of high seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fired clay bricks are widely developed by focusing on the use of several wastes with the aim of obtaining lightweight materials. Despite research having provided positives experiences, most of these showed an important reduction of compression strength. This issue must be highlighted in particular, when seismic areas are considered. However, despite compression strength decreases in some cases the energy that can be absorbed by the brick might be increased. Hence, this paper tests and shows physical and mechanical properties of newly fired clays made by adding different percentages of sawdust. Results are used for calculating the response of an individual one-story house to medium intensity earthquakes. It is concluded that the use of bricks, with up to 5% sawdust added, is an ecological way for recycling these agro-wastes, while its behaviour against earthquakes performs better than other solutions, such as common perforated bricks.

  13. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function values among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2016-07-03

    Brick manufacturing process releases large amounts of silica dust into the work environment due to the use of silica-containing materials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impairment of lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the different groups of brick field workers in comparison with control subjects. A total of 250 brick field workers and 130 unexposed control subjects were randomly selected in which demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and lung function values were recorded. The result showed significantly lower p value (workers when compared with control group. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was dyspnea (46.8%), phlegm (39.2%), and chest tightness (27.6%). Dust exposure in working environment affected the lung function values and increased the respiratory symptoms among the brick field workers.

  14. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  15. Impact of using lightweight eco-bricks as enclosures for individual houses of one story on zones of high seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Muñoz, V.P.; Muñoz, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Fired clay bricks are widely developed by focusing on the use of several wastes with the aim of obtaining lightweight materials. Despite research having provided positives experiences, most of these showed an important reduction of compression strength. This issue must be highlighted in particular, when seismic areas are considered. However, despite compression strength decreases in some cases the energy that can be absorbed by the brick might be increased. Hence, this paper tests and shows physical and mechanical properties of newly fired clays made by adding different percentages of sawdust. Results are used for calculating the response of an individual one-story house to medium intensity earthquakes. It is concluded that the use of bricks, with up to 5% sawdust added, is an ecological way for recycling these agro-wastes, while its behaviour against earthquakes performs better than other solutions, such as common perforated bricks. [es

  16. Assessment of firing conditions in old fired-clay bricks: The contribution of X-ray powder diffraction with the Rietveld method and small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Alberto, E-mail: viani@itam.cas.cz [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, Centre of Excellence Telč, Batelovská 485, CZ-58856 Telč (Czech Republic); Sotiriadis, Konstantinos [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, Centre of Excellence Telč, Batelovská 485, CZ-58856 Telč (Czech Republic); Len, Adél [Wigner Research Centre for Physics HAS, Konkoly-Thege 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Šašek, Petr; Ševčík, Radek [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, Centre of Excellence Telč, Batelovská 485, CZ-58856 Telč (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-15

    Full characterization of fired-clay bricks is crucial for the improvement of process variables in manufacturing and, in case of old bricks, for restoration/replacement purposes. To this aim, five bricks produced in a plant in Czech Republic in the past have been investigated with a combination of analytical techniques in order to derive information on the firing process. An additional old brick from another brickyard was also used to study the influence of different raw materials on sample microstructure. The potential of X-ray diffraction with the Rietveld method and small angle neutron scattering technique has been exploited to describe the phase transformations taking place during firing and characterize the brick microstructure. Unit-cell parameter of spinel and amount of hematite are proposed as indicators of the maximum firing temperature, although for the latter, limited to bricks produced from the same raw material. The fractal quality of the surface area of pores obtained from small angle neutron scattering is also suggested as a method to distinguish between bricks produced from different raw clays. - Highlights: • Rietveld method helps in describing microstructure and physical properties of bricks. • XRPD derived cell parameter of spinel is proposed as an indicator of firing temperature. • SANS effectively describes brick micro and nanostructure, including closed porosity. • Fractal quality of pore surface is proposed as ‘fingerprint’ of brick manufacturing.

  17. An e-Commerce like platform enabling bricks-and-mortar stores to use sophisticated product recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Thorben; Raffelsieper, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Compared to online-retailers, bricks-and-mortar stores have only limited possibilities to understand consumer preferences, their intentions, and their feedback. The first are able to evaluate clickstream data collected on their web-pages alongside the actual purchase data to put together a comprehensive view on individual customers. Bricks-and-mortar stores on the other hand have to rely solely on the evaluation of scanner data collected at the point of sale (POS). Thus, akin to the Event Hor...

  18. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  19. A comprehensive study of the energy absorption and exposure buildup factors of different bricks for gamma-rays shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Sayyed

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been performed on different bricks for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (µ/ρ, energy absorption buildup factor (EABF and exposure buildup factor (EBF were determined and utilized to assess the shielding effectiveness of the bricks under investigation. The mass attenuation coefficients of the selected bricks were calculated theoretically using WinXcom program and compared with MCNPX code. Good agreement between WinXcom and MCNPX results was observed. Furthermore, the EABF and EBF have been discussed as functions of the incident photon energy and penetration depth. It has been found that the EABF and EBF values are very large in the intermediate energy region. The steel slag showed good shielding properties, consequently, this brick is eco-friendly and feasible compared with other types of bricks used for construction. The results in this work should be useful in the construction of effectual shielding against hazardous gamma-rays. Keywords: Brick, Mass attenuation coefficient, Buildup factor, G-P fitting, Radiation shielding

  20. Performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate with different mix design ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Mazenan, P. N.; Zahir, Z.; Shahidan, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is focuses to the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste and to determine the optimum mix ratio of bricks containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, it indicates that the replacement of RCA shows an increasing strength as the strength starts to increase from 25% to 50% for both mix design ratio. The strength for RCA 75% volume of replacement started to decrease as the volume of PET increase. However, the result of water absorption with 50% RCA and 1.0% PET show less permeable compared to control brick at both mix design ratio. Thus, one would expect the density of brick decrease and the water absorption to increase as the RCA and PET content is increased.

  1. Evaluation of the Performance and Microstructure of Ecofriendly Construction Bricks Made with Fly Ash and Residual Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lung Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the engineering performance and the microstructural characterization of ecofriendly construction bricks that were produced using a binder material made from a mixture of class-F fly ash (FA and residual rice husk ash (RHA. Unground rice husk ash (URHA was used as a partial fine aggregate substitute (0–40%. The solid bricks of 220 × 105 × 60 mm in size were prepared by mixing FA and RHA with an alkaline solution and fine aggregates, formed by compressing the mixture in a steel mold under 35 MPa of forming pressure, and then cured at 35°C and 50% relative humidity until the required testing ages. The tests of compressive strength, water absorption, and bulk density were conducted in accordance with relevant Vietnamese standards in order to estimate the effect of the URHA content on the engineering performance of the hardened bricks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to determine the microstructure and the phase composition of the brick samples. The results show that properties of these bricks conformed to relevant Vietnamese standards. Therefore, FA and RHA are potential candidate materials for producing ecofriendly construction bricks using geopolymerization technology.

  2. Energy Conservation in Optical Fibers With Distributed Brick-Walls Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier; Ghozlan, Hassan; Kramer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    A band-pass filtering scheme is proposed to mitigate spectral broadening and channel coupling in the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) fiber optic channel. The scheme is modeled by modifying the NLS Equation to include an attenuation profile with multiple brick-wall filters centered at different frequencies. It is shown that this brick-walls profile conserves the total in-band energy of the launch signal. Furthermore, energy fluctuations between the filtered channels are characterized, and conditions on the channel spacings are derived that ensure energy conservation in each channel. The maximum spectral efficiency of such a system is derived, and a constructive rule for achieving it using Sidon sequences is provided.

  3. An improved thin film brick-wall model of black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wen Biao

    2001-01-01

    The authors improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives them a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick-wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L/sup 3/ as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon. (12 refs).

  4. Characterization of grog of bricks; Caracterizacao de chamote de blocos de vedacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, V.S.; Pinheiro, R.M.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize a waste of red ceramic, grog, generated from the milling of defective pieces of bricks fired in a Hoffmann type furnace by a industry from Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ. The grog was tested for X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, dilatometry, sieving and sedimentation by gravity and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the grog is predominantly constituted of quartz, muscovite mica and hematite. The presence of kaolinite indicates that the bricks were fired at low temperatures, below 600 deg C. Finally, the characterization results indicated that the grog presents itself as an alternative non plastic material to be used in mixtures with clays for the production of red ceramics. (author)

  5. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of cement mortar made with brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new building materials is a current problem where researchers are trying to find the right materials for each region and returning cheapest countries. Recycling and recovery of waste are now considered as a promising solution to meet the deficit between production and consumption and protecting the environment. This work focused on the study of the effect of brick waste in the production of cement mortar with substitution rates ranging from 5-30% by weight of cement and to compare its performance with fresh and hardened state with ordinary mortar considered as control mortar. Compressive and tensile strengths up to 28 days of age were compared with those of controlled mortar. Water absorption was also measured at 28 days of age. The test results indicate the beneficial effect of brick waste powder on performance of cement mortar with an optimum of 15% of cement weight substitution.

  7. Production of building elements based on alkali-activated red clay brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Robayo-Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the feasibility of reusing a red clay brick waste (RCBW in order to produce building elements such as blocks, pavers and tiles, by using the technique of alkaline activation. The production of these building elements was based on the design of a hybrid mortar with 48.61 MPa of compressive strength, at 28 curing days at room temperature (25 °C. The hybrid mortar was synthesized by adding 10% by weight of Portland cement (OPC to the RCBW, Red Clay Brick Waste. As alkaline activators were used commercial industrial grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. Building elements were physically and mechanically characterized, according to Colombian Technical Standards (NTC. This technology process is presented as an alternative for the reuse of RCBW and its contribution to the environmental sustainability.

  8. The rate of diffusion into advanced gas cooled reactor moderator bricks: an equivalent cylinder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyte, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The graphite moderator bricks which make up the moderator of an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor (AGR) are of many different and complex shapes. Many physico-chemical processes that occur within these porous bricks include a diffusional step and thus to model these processes it is necessary to solve the diffusion equation (with chemical reaction) in a porous medium of complex shape. A finite element technique is applied to calculating the rate at which nitrogen diffuses into and out of the porous moderator graphite during operation of a shutdown procedure for an AGR. However, the finite element method suffers from several disadvantages that undermine its general usefulness for calculating rates of diffusion in AGR moderator cores. A model which overcomes some of these disadvantages is presented (the equivalent cylinder model) and it is shown that this gives good results for a variety of different boundary and initial conditions

  9. Use of the pre-dose technique for environmental dosimetry. [Thermoluminescence from fired bricks or tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailiff, I K [Durham Univ. (UK). TL Lab.; Haskell, E H [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City (USA). Radiobiology Div.

    1984-01-01

    The pre-dose effect associated with the 110/sup 0/C TL peak of quartz is the basis of a dating technique developed at the Oxford Laboratory, and now in use to date pottery and brick at the Durham Laboratory. Recently its use for the measurement of fallout gamma dose has been initiated at the University of Utah. Using quartz extracted from fired brick, the technique has been shown to be sufficiently sensitive to measure doses in the region of 10 mGy. The complexities of the technique encountered during dating in its upper range (approx. 5 Gy) are equally apparent in its lower range (10 mGy). With a common interest in the pre-dose technique, the research that is being performed to apply the technique through its full range in environmental dosimetry is discussed.

  10. Manipulating waves with LEGO® bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO ® bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms

  11. Manipulating waves with LEGO bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO® bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms.

  12. Manipulating waves with LEGO{sup ®} bricks: A versatile experimental platform for metamaterial architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celli, Paolo, E-mail: pcelli@umn.edu; Gonella, Stefano, E-mail: sgonella@umn.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-08-24

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile, fully reconfigurable experimental platform for the investigation of phononic phenomena in metamaterial architectures. The approach revolves around the use of 3D laser vibrometry to reconstruct global and local wavefield features in specimens obtained through simple arrangements of LEGO{sup ®} bricks on a thin baseplate. The agility by which it is possible to reconfigure the brick patterns into a nearly endless spectrum of topologies makes this an effective approach for rapid experimental proof of concept, as well as a powerful didactic tool, in the arena of phononic crystals and metamaterials engineering. We use our platform to provide a compelling visual illustration of important spatial wave manipulation effects (waveguiding and seismic isolation), and to elucidate fundamental dichotomies between Bragg-based and locally resonant bandgap mechanisms.

  13. Retrospective dosimetry using Japanese brick quartz: A way forward despite an unstable fast decaying OSL signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    signals has been carried out towards identification of common source traps. It is observed that OSL from Japanese brick quartz shows unusual luminescence characteristics; in particular, the initial fast decaying OSL signal contains a dominant (>90%) thermally unstable component related to the 85 °C TL...... peak, which necessitates a prior heat treatment. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol is developed and tested using thermal treatments intended to isolate a stable dosimetric signal. A minimum detection limit of 65 mGy is then estimated using this protocol. Following irradiation using 60Co...... of Japanese brick quartz examined here can be used to derive precise estimates of accident dose, and, possibly to distinguish between sources of gamma radiation in a nuclear accident. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the existence of an unstable fast decaying OSL signal in quartz derived from...

  14. Comparative Study of the Use of Different Biomass Bottom Ash in the Manufacture of Ceramic Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Felipe Sesé, Manuel Ángel (UNIR); Martínez-Martínez, S; Pérez-Villarejo, L

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the suitability of several types of biomass bottom ashes [wood bottom ash (WBA), pine-olive pruning bottom ash (POPBA), olive stone bottom ash (OSBA), and olive pomace bottom ash (OPBA)] as an alternative source to replace ceramic raw material in the production of clay bricks. The clay and biomass bottom ash were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) (crystallinity), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) (chemical composition), carbon, nitrogen, hydroge...

  15. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  16. Subleading contributions to the black hole entropy in the brick wall approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Shankaranarayanan, S.; Sriramkumar, L.

    2008-01-01

    The brick wall model is a semiclassical approach to understand the microscopic origin of black hole entropy. In this approach, the black hole geometry is assumed to be a fixed classical background on which matter fields propagate, and the entropy of black holes supposedly arises due to the canonical entropy of matter fields outside the black hole event horizon, evaluated at the Hawking temperature. Apart from certain lower dimensional cases, the density of states of the matter fields around black holes cannot be evaluated exactly. As a result, often, in the brick wall model, the density of states and the resulting canonical entropy of the matter fields are evaluated at the leading order (in terms of (ℎ/2π)) in the WKB approximation. The success of the approach is reflected by the fact that the Bekenstein-Hawking area law - viz. that the entropy of black holes is equal to one-quarter the area of their event horizon, say, A H - has been recovered using this model in a variety of black hole spacetimes. In this work, we compute the canonical entropy of a quantum scalar field around static and spherically symmetric black holes through the brick wall approach at the higher orders (in fact, up to the sixth order in (ℎ/2π)) in the WKB approximation. We explicitly show that the brick wall model generally predicts corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in all spacetime dimensions. In four dimensions, we find that the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are of the form [A H n logA H ], while, in six dimensions, the corrections behave as [A H m +A H n logA H ], where (m,n)<1. We compare our results with the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy that have been obtained through the other approaches in the literature, and discuss the implications.

  17. Conditioning for definitive storage of radioactive graphite bricks from reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Koch, C.; Tassigny, C. de; Vidal, H.; Raymond, A.

    1990-01-01

    The decommissioning of gas-graphite reactors in the EC (e.g. French UNGGs, British Magnox reactors and AGRs, and reactors in Spain and in Italy) will produce large amounts of graphite bricks. This graphite cannot be accepted without particular conditioning by the existing shallow land disposal sites. The aim of the study is to examine the behaviour of graphite waste and to develop a conditioning technique which makes this waste acceptable for shallow land disposal sites. 18 kg of graphite core samples with an outside diameter of 74 mm were removed from the G2 gas-cooled reactor at Marcoule. Their radioactivity is highly dependent on the position of the graphite bricks inside the reactor. Measured results indicate an activity range of 100-400 MBq/kg with 90% Tritium, 5% 14 C, 3% 60 Co, 1.5% 63 Ni. Repeated porosity analyses showed that open porosity ranging from 0 to 100 μm exceeded 23 vol% in the graphite. Water penetration kinetics were investigated in unimpregnated graphite and resulted in impregnation by water of 50-90% of the open porosity. Preliminary lixiviation tests on the crude samples showed quick lixidegree of Cs (several per cent) and of 60 Co, and 133 Ba at a lesser degree. The proposed conditioning technique does not involve a simple coating but true impregnation by a tar-epoxy mixture. The bricks recovered intact from the core by robot services will be placed one by one inside a cylindrical metallic container. But this container may corrode and the bricks may become fragmented in the future, the normally porous graphite will be unaffected by leaching since it is proved that all pores larger than 0.1 μm will be filled with the tar-epoxy mixture. This is a true long-term waste packaging concept. The very simple technology required for industrial implementation is discussed

  18. Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, Kenneth; Han, Mengjie; Håkansson, Johan; Meng, Xiangli; Rudholm, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region sp...

  19. The yellow brick road: total quality management and the restructuring of organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckman, A

    1994-01-01

    The paper offers a critique of Total Quality Management . It is essentially in three parts: the first examines the rise of TQM through the western experience of Japanese development, second it examine the nature of TQM's promised cultural change and, finally questioning the very notion of 'quality'. It explores this development as - taking a metaphor from the work of Philip Crosby one of the 'guru's of Total Quality - a journey down the yellow brick road. The development of TQM being rich in ...

  20. Influence of the mechanical properties of lime mortar on the strength of brick masonry

    OpenAIRE

    PAVIA, SARA

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper aims at improving the quality of lime mortar masonry by understanding the mechanics of mortars and masonry and their interaction. It investigates how the mortar?s compressive and flexural strengths impact the compressive and bond strength of clay brick masonry bound with calcium lime (CL) and natural hydraulic lime (NHL) mortars. It concludes that the strength of the bond has a greater impact on the compressive strength of masonry than the mortar?s st...

  1. Characterising a historical bridge’s bricks in Popayán (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Galindo Díaz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the procedures and results of studying the physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical cha-racterisation of the bricks originally used in a masonry arch bridge; the bridge was built in the first half of the 18th century in the city of Popayán, Colombia. Core-samples were thus extracted from the bridge’s lower area and sub-jected to different laboratory tests. Physical-mechanical characterisation quantified values related to dry weight, sus-pended weight, saturated weight, porosity, apparent gravity, apparent density and maximum load values, cold com-pression resistance and elasticity modulus. The results revealed the bricks’ high porosity and their low resistance to compression stress. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation involved a combination of tests including X-ray diffract-tion (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR. Several mi-nerals found led to deducting the source of the raw material, as well as verifying some brick production characteris-tics of the time in the said region. Tridimite, cristobalite, magnetite and calcium carbonate were some of the phases formed by the temperatures reached while firing the bricks, while potassium sulphate presence in one of the samples conveyed the nature of the construction materials’ production characteristics. Combining XRD and XPS analysis pro-vided information about firing temperature and the new mineralogical phases appearing at the end of this process; FTIR proved functional OH and Si-O-Si group presence. These bricks’ characteristics provided valuable data for res-toration purposes, formulating a new brick from raw material complying with reconstruction requirements.

  2. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Sett

    2014-02-01

    : We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  3. Thermal performance of unfired clay bricks used in construction in the north of France: Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fayçal El Fgaier; Zoubeir Lafhaj; Franck Brachelet; Emmanuel Antczak; Christophe Chapiseau

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate and to study the sustainability and the qualities of the earthen construction in real conditions. A demonstrative building was designed and built with unfired clay bricks, were industrially produced by the factory “Briqueteries du Nord” (BdN). This industrial plant is located in the north of France. This project aims to create conditions for the development of earthen construction techniques in the north of France. Moreover, it aims to prove the b...

  4. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  5. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  6. Application of Optimum Compaction Energy in the Development of Bricks Made with Construction Trash Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Lara, T.; Gonzalez-Vega, C. L.; Hernandez-Zaragoza, J. B.; Rojas-Gonzalez, E.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Salgado-Delgado, R.; Garcia-Hernandez, E.; Cerca, M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, bricks frequently show different densities and therefore different resistances because the compaction energy is not considered in their production. Expansive soils represent a problem for light buildings over them because of volumetric instability. A generalized solution has been to extract them and substitute them by inert soil; thus they become construction trash. So, in this work the compaction energy aspect and the use of construction trash soils in the elaboration of resistan...

  7. Toward Applications for DNA Nanotechnology-More Bricks To Build With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-06-16

    Another brick in the wall: DNA nanotechnology has come a long way since its initial beginnings. This would not be possible without the continued development of methods for DNA assembly and new uses for DNA as a material. This Special Issue highlights some of the newest building blocks for nanodevices based on DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-04-01

    Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg)-contaminated urban areas in the world. Exposure is amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. The objectives of this study were to compare two Hg-leaching procedures, and their application as risk-assessment screening tools in Hg-contaminated adobe brick homes in Huancavelica. The purpose was to evaluate potential health implications, particularly for children, after ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles. Hg was measured in adobe brick and dirt floor samples from 60 households by total Hg extraction, simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction, and sequential selective extraction (SSE), which provides more detailed data but is resource-intensive. Most of the Hg present in samples was relatively insoluble, although in some households soluble Hg species were present at concentrations that may be of concern after ingestion. A strong correlation was identified between results from simulated GF extraction of adobe bricks and dirt floors and the more soluble fractions of Hg from SSE. Simulated GF extraction data were combined with ingestion and body mass characteristics for small children to compare potential risk of ingestion of Hg-contaminated soil with current health standards. Simulated GF extraction can be used as a risk assessment screening tool for effective allocation of time and resources to households that have measurable concentrations of bioaccessible Hg. Combining simulated GF extraction data with health standards enables intervention strategies targeted at households with the greatest potential health threat from ingestion of Hg-contaminated particles.

  9. Water-repellent preservative treatment of brick molding prior to factory priming improves paint service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Alan S. Ross; Peter Sotos; Chuck Cheeks

    2001-01-01

    One end of each piece of brick molding (about 35 mm long) was dipped in a water-repellent preservative (WRP). Following the WRP treatment, the sections were divided into two groups and painted with one of two different primers formulated to be typical of factory-applied primers. Each of the primed groups was further divided into four groups to determine the effect of...

  10. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  11. Physicochemical, Mineralogical and Microscopic Evaluation of Sustainable Bricks Manufactured with Construction Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Aguilar-Penagos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, enormous volumes of construction and demolition wastes are generated: 170 million tons/year in the USA, 500 million tons/year in the European Union (EU and 12 million tons/year in Mexico. Alternative uses for these heterogeneous materials, such as the manufacture of sustainable bricks, are potential solutions to this growing environmental issue. Based on previous studies, and in compliance with Mexican standards, four different types of secondary materials were utilized in the composition of a sustainable brick matrix. Temperature and solar radiation used for drying purposes were determined, as well as weight loss, resistance and initial maximum absorption. In order to characterize the resulting matrix, observations were made with a scanning electron microscope, and the chemical composition of the samples was determined by detecting basic compounds using mapping through SEM-EDS microanalysis, connected to the SEM unit. Finally, thermogravimetric analyses were performed to correlate mechanical and chemical behavior, and resistance to high temperatures of the mixtures. The results obtained showed that all-in-one (AiO is the most appropriate material for brick manufacturing, Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage improves physical properties, such as increased compressive strength and reduced water absorption, while wood residues, clay minerals and illite enhance mechanical properties.

  12. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  13. Evaluation of bricks durability using destructive and nondestructive methods (DT and NDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cultrone, G.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical-mechanical behaviour of solid bricks treated with consolidants and/or water-repellents in accelerated aging tests to determine their durability. The bricks were manufactured with a quartz-rich clay lacking in carbonates to which was added small amounts of different additives (calcite, dolomite or sodium chloride. During the manufacturing process, we attempted to replicate solid bricks similar to those used in many Cultural Heritage buildings. We have concluded that silicon resin gives the best results, whatever the additive used, whereas acrylic resin gives the least satisfactory results.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento físico-mecánico de ladrillos macizos tratados con productos consolidantes y/o hidrofugantes frente a ensayos acelerados de alteración para evaluar su durabilidad. En la fabricación de las piezas cerámicas se ha utilizado un material arcilloso rico en cuarzo y sin carbonatos al que se han añadido pequeñas cantidades de distintos aditivos (calcita, dolomita o sal. En el proceso de elaboración se han intentado reproducir ladrillos macizos similares a los empleados en muchos edificios del Patrimonio Arquitectónico. Se concluye que el uso de resina de silicona proporciona los mejores resultados, cualquiera que sea el aditivo añadido, mientras que los resultados menos satisfactorios se han calculado cuando se ha empleado una resina acrílica.

  14. Degradation of Alumina and Magnesia Chrome refractory bricks in Portland cement kiln – Corrected version*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Addi K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In cement plants, the refractory products are particularly confronted to partially liquid oxide phases at temperature ranging between 900°C and 1700°C. All constituents of these products have to resist not only to thermal constraints, but also to the thermochemical solicitations which result from contact material/coating. In order to study the phenomenon of degradation of refractory bricks in cement kilns and to identify the causes of their degradation, we proceed to the examination of industrial cases in cement kiln. Many chemical tests of the degraded refractory bricks have been done and the results acquired were compared to the ones not used. The analysis of the results is doing using different techniques (Loss of ignition, X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction. The results show that the degradation of the used bricks in the clinkering and cooling zone is due to the infiltration of aggressive elements such us sulphur, alkali (Na2O, K2O .... The chemical interaction between the Portland clinker phases and refractory material has also an importance on the stability of the coating and consequently on the life of the refractories.

  15. Tunable Gas Permeability of Polymer-Clay Nano Brick Wall Thin Film Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite (MMT) clay and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient. After 40 polymer-clay layers have been deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below 0.35 cm^3/m^2 . day when the pH of PEI solution is 10. This low permeability is due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall creates an extremely tortuous path at thicknesses below 250 nm and clay concentration above 80 wt%. A 70-bilayer PEI-MMT assembly has an undetectable OTR (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day), which equates to a permeability below SiOx when multiplied by its film thickness of 231 nm. With optical transparency greater than 86% and the ability to be microwaved, these thin film composites are good candidates for flexible electronics packaging and foil replacement for food.

  16. Infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence from modern bricks in retrospective dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayer, M.; Goeksu, H.Y.; Dalheimer, A.; Bayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    It has frequently been observed that certain roof tiles and bricks, especially from relatively modern European buildings, do not contain enough quartz grains in a suitable grain size range to permit dose reconstruction using thermoluminescence (TL) or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. In this paper the feasibility of using infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) on the feldspar fraction of such bricks and tiles has been investigated. Appropriate preheating treatments were employed in order to select the most stable signals, and procedures were developed to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The possible effect of anomalous fading under application of these procedures was tested. In the dose range above 100 mGy, it has been demonstrated that using IRSL on the feldspar fraction of such material provides a feasible alternative to the use of green-light-stimulated luminescence (GLSL) on the quartz fraction, for the purposes of retrospective dosimetry. Furthermore, since the use of IRSL as described in this paper involves the measurement of polymineral fine grain fractions of bricks, a technique for the calibration of the built-in β source against the γ source in Secondary Standard Dosimetry facilities for routine use of the technique is described

  17. Assessments of the stresses and deformations in an RBMK graphite moderator brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.J.; Davies, M.A.; Marsden, B.J.; Bougaenko, S.E.; Baldin, V.D.; Demintievski, V.N.; Rodtchenkov, B.S.; Sinitsyn, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The RBMK reactors, designed by RDIPE (Moscow), are graphite moderated and cooled by light water. Graphite dimensions and thermo-mechanical properties change significantly in a complex manner during reactor life due to fast neutron damage and these changes have implications on the safe operation of all graphite moderated reactors. A joint programme of work is being carried out between AEA Technology (UK) and RDIPE (Russia) to assess the life of the RBMK graphite stack under normal operating conditions. The programme has included the modelling of graphite dimensional changes due to irradiation through reactor life and the assessment of the implications of these changes on the stresses and deformations in the graphite stack. Calculations have been carried out to assess the deformations of a moderator brick over a period from start of life up to 30 years of operation. The assessment have also included an analysis of the stresses in the bricks so that the time to brick failure could be determined. This paper describes the RBMK core design, the data and assessment methodology used in the analysis of the RBMK core and presents some results from analyses of the Leningrad Unit 1 RBMK reactor. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs

  18. Influence of light masonry mortar on the thermal insulation of a solid brick wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupke, C

    1980-12-01

    For calculations of the thermal insulation of structural components according to DIN 4108 and to the Thermal Insulation Ordinance, characteristic data of thermal conductivity are used which are contained in DIN 4108 and in the Bundesanzeiger in Supplements to the publication of material characteristics for the calculation of thermal insulation according to the Thermal Insulation Ordinance. For masonry, this value is equivalent to the thermal conductivity of the bricks, including mortar joints. The mortar considered is standard mortar, group II, according to DIN 1053. In the last few years, in order to improve the thermal insulation, mortars of low thermal conductivity and low volume weight - so-called light masonry mortars - have been used to an increasing extent. The improvement in thermal conductivity as compared with standard mortar is referred to as ..delta..lambda; it depends mostly on the thermal conductivity of the light mortar and the bricks. In the article, the laws governing the influence of light masonry mortar on the thermal insulation of masonry of solid bricks and solid blocks are reviewed.

  19. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  20. Evaluation of the behavior of brick tile masonry and mortar due to capillary rise of moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of the behaviour of old brick masonry in facing the rising damp problem, multiple tests were made in the laboratory: water absorption, moisture content, apparent porosity, temperature and thermal camera imaging on brick masonry and its components: brick and mortar. This has allowed us to determine which of the previous tests is the best in predicting the behaviour of a real wall. In addition, the tests have also helped in defining a process to evaluate the moisture content of walls in a buildings, which is important for heritage restoration projects.Para un mejor conocimiento del comportamiento de las fábricas antiguas de ladrillo frente a la ascensión capilar de agua, se han realizado en laboratorio ensayos de absorción de agua, de contenido de humedad, de porosidad aparente, de temperatura e imágenes con cámara termográfica sobre muros de fábrica y sus materiales componentes: ladrillo y argamasa. Ello ha permitido inferir cuál es el ensayo realizado a los ladrillos que mejor predice el comportamiento del muro real. También ha permitido definir un procedimiento para evaluar el contenido de humedad de fábricas existentes, importante para los proyectos de restauración del patrimonio construido.

  1. Development of a Crush and Mix Machine for Composite Brick Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sothea, Kruy; Fazli, Nik; Hamdi, M.; Aoyama, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Currently, people are more and more concerned about the environmental protection. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have bad effect on the environment and also human health. In addition, the amounts of municipal solid wastes are increasing due to the economic development, density of population, especially in the developing countries and they are recycled in a little percentage. To address this problem, the composite brick forming machine was designed and developed to make brick using combination of MSW and mortar. The machine consists of two independent parts, crusher and mixer part, and molding part. This paper explores the design of crusher and mixer part. The crusher has ability to cut MSW such as wood, paper and plastic into small size. There are two mixers; one is used for making mortar and other use for making slurry. FEA analyses were carried out to address the suitable strength of the critical parts of the crusher which ensures that crusher can run properly with high efficiency. The experimentation of the crusher shows that it has high performance for cutting MSW. The mixers also work very well in high efficiency. The results of composite brick testing have been shown that ability of the machine can performance well. This is the innovation of crush and mix machine which is portable and economic by using MSW in replacement of sand.

  2. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  3. Sand Cement Brick Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Fine-Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Khalid Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the usage amount of the concrete is increasing drastically. The construction industry is a huge consumer of natural consumer. It is also producing the huge wastage products. The usage of concrete has been charged to be not environmentally friendly due to depletion of reserve natural resources, high energy consumption and disposal issues. The conservation of natural resources and reduction of disposal site by reuse and recycling waste material was interest possibilites. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and mechanical properties of sand cement brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and to determine the optimum mix ratio containing recycled concrete aggregate. An experiment done by comparing the result of control specimen using 100% natural sand with recycled concrete aggregate replacement specimen by weight for 55%, 65%, and 75%. The sample was tested under density, compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption to study the effect of using recycled concrete aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks. The result shows that the replacement of natural sand by recycled concrete aggregate at the level of 55% provide the highest compressive and flexural strength compared to other percentage and control specimen. However, if the replacement higher than 55%, the strength of brick was decreased for compressive and flexural strength, respectively. The relationship of compressive-flexural strength is determined from statistical analysis and the predicted result can be obtained by using equation ff,RCA = 0.5375 (fc0.3272.

  4. Technical and environmental characterisation of recycled aggregate for reuse in bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorlini Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste mud coming from an aggregate washing plant was formerly used as filling material for a pond, aimed at the recovery of an abandoned quarry. Once completed the filling capacity of the pond, the need for identifying a possible reuse of mud produced by the plant arose in order to avoid landfill disposal. Therefore, mud has been geometrically, physically and chemically characterised for its recovery as construction material. A variety of tests was carried out on mud samples as required by EN technical specifications and by Italian environmental standards, focusing particularly on leaching behaviour. The tested material showed satisfactory physical and chemical properties and a release of pollutants below the limits set by the Italian code. Many mix-designs for the production of unfired bricks made of waste mud, sand and straw, stabilised and non-stabilised with lime, gypsum or cement, were developed. The bricks were tested in order to evaluate mechanical properties and leaching behaviour. Mud bricks provided remarkable compressive strength, even if not suitable for structural elements. The use as interior design to minimise humidity changes and to facilitate a thermal insulation is fostered, thus strengthening the so-called green building economy.

  5. PENERAPAN LEGO BRICKS DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SEBAGAI STRATEGI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KECERDASAN MATEMATIS SISWA DALAM MENGHITUNG BILANGAN BERPANGKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Rahma Setyani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hasil pembelajaran dan mendeskripsikan kecerdasan matematis siswa dalam menghitung bilangan berpangkat setelah menggunakan lego bricks pada siswa kelas III Tahassus MIS Ta’allamul Huda. Penelitian ini menggunakan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini dengan model pembelajaran Cooperative Learning. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas III ahassus MIS a’allamul Huda yang berjumlah 24 siswa. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi dan wawancara, selanjutnya dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan penerapan lego bricks pada perhitungan bilangan berpangkat meningkat pada setiap siklusnya. Pada tahap Pra Siklus, hanya 40% siswa yang lulus dalam mengerjakan soal-soal dari bilangan berpangkat, kemudian pada Siklus I berdasarkan hasil observasi didapatkan kenaikan yang signifikan yaitu 80% siswa yang lulus dalam mengerjakan soal mengenai bilangan berpangkat. Masih ada 20% siswa yang masih kesulitan dalam mengerjakan soal tersebut. Selanjutnya setelah dilakukan perbaikan, pada Siklus II didapat kenaikan yang luar biasa yaitu seluruh kelompok siswa lulus dalam mengerjakan soal mengenai bilangan berpangkat. Hal tersebut dibuktikan kembali melalui hasil post test pada tahap Pasca Siklus dimana nilai seluruh siswa berada diatas kriteria ketuntasan minimum, yaitu 85-100 sehingga penerapan lego bricks untuk meningkatkan kecerdasan matematis siswa dalam menghitung bilangan berpangkat dikatakan berhasil.

  6. Tracked ultrasound calibration studies with a phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehl, Marie; Walsh, Ryan; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    In this study, spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound was compared by using a calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks and two 3-D printed N-wire phantoms. METHODS: The accuracy and variance of calibrations were compared under a variety of operating conditions. Twenty trials were performed using an electromagnetic tracking device with a linear probe and three trials were performed using varied probes, varied tracking devices and the three aforementioned phantoms. The accuracy and variance of spatial calibrations found through the standard deviation and error of the 3-D image reprojection were used to compare the calibrations produced from the phantoms. RESULTS: This study found no significant difference between the measured variables of the calibrations. The average standard deviation of multiple 3-D image reprojections with the highest performing printed phantom and those from the phantom made of LEGO® bricks differed by 0.05 mm and the error of the reprojections differed by 0.13 mm. CONCLUSION: Given that the phantom made of LEGO® bricks is significantly less expensive, more readily available, and more easily modified than precision-machined N-wire phantoms, it prompts to be a viable calibration tool especially for quick laboratory research and proof of concept implementations of tracked ultrasound navigation.

  7. "Bricks and mortar" self-assembly approach to graphitic mesoporous carbon nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulvio, P. F.; Mayes, R.; Wang, X. Q.; Mahurin, S., M.; Bauer, J. C.; Presser, V.; McDonough, J.; Gogotsi, Y.; Dai, S.

    2011-04-20

    Mesoporous carbon materials do not have sufficient ordering at the atomic scale to exhibit good electronic conductivity. To date, mesoporous carbons having uniform mesopores and high surface areas have been prepared from partially-graphitizable precursors in the presence of templates. High temperature thermal treatments above 2000 °C, which are usually required to increase conductivity, result in a partial or total collapse of the mesoporous structures and reduced surface areas induced by growth of graphitic domains, limiting their applications in electric double layer capacitors and lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we successfully implemented a “brick-and-mortar” approach to obtain ordered graphitic mesoporous carbon nanocomposites with tunable mesopore sizes below 850 °C without using graphitization catalysts or high temperature thermal treatments. Phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons act as mortar to highly conductive carbon blacks and carbon onions (bricks). The capacitance and resistivity of final materials can be tailored by changing the mortar to brick ratios.

  8. Development of Nano TiO2–Geopolymer Functional Composite as Antifouling Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wardani Nurul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study is to examine the ability of nano TiO2 – geopolymer functional composite as antifouling bricks. The samples were synthesized through alkali-activation method at 70°C for 1 hour by mixing metaclay with TiO2 nanoparticles and activated with sodium silicate solution. There were two series of samples produced, namely, GT_A with addition of 2% nanoTiO2 and GT_B with addition of 4% nano TiO2 relative to the mass of metaclay. The samples were immersed in water and in 1M H2SO4 solution for 4 days to examine the resistance of composites in hars environment. The x-ray diffraction (XRD was performed to examine the chemical compositions of the samples before and after environmental test. The morphology of the samples surfaces was examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Based on this study, sample GT_A shows its excellent properties as antifouling bricks. The addition of nano TiO2 was found to improve the quality of geopolymers as a high performance bricks.

  9. Evaluation of using crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete layer within rigid highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwash Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the present studies related to the field of highway pavement construction technique tend to make use of the local available materials as substitutes for the imported and necessary materials for some of the practical application. For this reason this research aims at looking for the prospect of used locally available aggregate such as crushed clay bricks for the aim of producing proper concrete with suitable thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental investigations have been carried out to asses the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate by free manually crushed Brick with percentages (10, 20, 30 and 40% of virgin coarse aggregate in concrete mix for highway rigid pavement. While the percentage (0% replacement represent reference mix. Mix proportion based on the target of compressive strength for all replacement percentage of (33 MPa at (28 days to achieve AASHTO requirement for highway concrete rigid pavement .The results of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity refers to better performance (less thickness of concrete layer with large spacing between contraction or expansion joints and less stresses due to warping induced concrete layer for concrete mix with 20% crushed brick as replacement of coarse aggregate.

  10. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  11. Distribution and removal of organochlorine pesticides in waste clay bricks from an abandoned manufacturing plant using low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xin; Li, Fasheng; Kelly, Ryan M; Xue, Nandong

    2018-04-01

    The distribution of pollutants in waste clay bricks from an organochlorine pesticide-contaminated site was investigated, and removal of the pollutants using a thermal desorption technology was studied. The results showed that the contents of HCHs in both the surface and the inner layer of the bricks were slightly higher than those of DDTs. The total pore volume of the bricks was 37.7 to 41.6% with an increase from external to internal surfaces. The removal efficiency by thermal treatment was within 62 to 83% for HCHs and DDTs in bricks when the temperature was raised from 200 to 250 °C after 1 h. HCHs were more easily removed than DDTs with a higher temperature. Either intraparticle or surface diffusion controls the desorption processes of pollutants in bricks. It was feasible to use the polluted bricks after removal of the pollutants by low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

  12. Climate change-induced heat risks for migrant populations working at brick kilns in India: a transdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Kownacki, Karin; Kjellberg, Siri M.; Gooch, Pernille; Dabaieh, Marwa; Anandh, Latha; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2018-03-01

    During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied. Around Chennai, the situation is alarming since occupational heat exposure in the hot season from March to July is already at the upper limits of what humans can tolerate before risking serious impairment. The aim of the study was to identify new pathways for change and soft solutions by both reframing the problem and expanding the solution space being considered in order to improve the quality of life for the migrant populations at the brick kilns. Technical solutions evaluated include the use of sun-dried mud bricks and other locally "appropriate technologies" that could mitigate the worsening of climate change-induced heat. Socio-cultural solutions discussed for empowering the people who work at the brick kilns include participatory approaches such as open re-localization, and rights-based approaches including the environmental sustainability and the human rights-based approach framework. Our analysis suggests that an integrative, transdisciplinary approach could incorporate a more holistic range of technical and socio-culturally informed solutions in order to protect the health of people threatened by India's brick kiln industry.

  13. Tests and Analysis of the Compressive Performance of an Integrated Masonry Structure of a Brick-Stem-Insulating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suizi Jia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, for low buildings, an integrated wall structure of a brick-stem-insulating layer, which plays a major part in both heat preservation and force bearing. The research team has tested the thermal performance of the structure, the results of which are satisfying. To further study the force-bearing performance, the paper carries out compressive tests of specimens of different structural design, with two types of bricks, i.e., clay and recycled concrete bricks; three types of stems, i.e., square-shaped wood, square-shaped steel pipe and circular steel pipe; and one type of insulating layer, i.e., fly ash masonry blocks. Afterward, the force bearing performance, damage that occurred, compressive deformation and ductility of all of the specimens are compared. On the sideline, the structure is applied in the construction of a pilot residence project, yielding favorable outcomes. The results indicate that in comparison with a brick wall with an insulating layer sandwiched in between, the integrated wall structure of bricks and fly ash blocks is a more preferable choice in terms of compressive performance and ductility. The integrated wall structure of brick-stem-fly ash blocks delivers much better performance to this end. Note that regarding the stem’s contribution to compressive strength, circular steel pipe is highest, followed by square-shaped steel pipe and then square-shaped wood. The compressive performance of the sandwiched blocks surpasses that of the two brick wall pieces combined by a large margin.

  14. Quality evaluation of soil-cement-plant residue bricks by the combination of destructive and non-destructive tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis de C. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Residues from agricultural activity can be used to improve the quality of soil-based bricks, constituting an interesting alternative for their destination. The technical quality of soil-cement-plant residue bricks was evaluated by the combination of non-destructive and destructive methods. A predominant clayey soil, Portland cement and residues of husks of both rice and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, in mass, in substitution to the 10% cement content were used. The bricks were submitted to destructive (water absorption and compressive strength and nondestructive (ultrasound tests for their physical and mechanical characterization. Results from both destructive and non-destructive tests were combined to determine the quantitative parameter named “anisotropic resistance” in order to evaluate the quality of the bricks. The addition that promoted best technical quality was 10% residue content, regardless of the residue type. The anisotropic resistance proved to be adequate for the technical quality evaluation of the bricks.

  15. The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiping; Deng, Qiufeng; Li, Chao; Xie, Yue; Dong, Zeqin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-30

    Novel lightweight bricks have been produced by sintering mixes of zinc smelting slag and clay. A two-stage sintered process has been proposed to recovery of Zn and Pb and reutilization of the zinc smelting slag. In the first stage of the process, called reduction and volatilization procedure, zinc and lead were reduced by the carbon contained in the zinc smelting slag and volatilized into the dust, and the dust can be used as a secondary zinc resource. In the second stage of the process, called oxidation sintering procedure, a lightweight brick was produced. Samples containing up to 60 wt.% zinc smelting slag and 40 wt.% kaolin clay were reduced at 1050°C for 6h, and then sintered at 1050°C for 4h. The recoveries of Zn and Pb from the brick are 94.5 ± 0.6% and 97.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. Low bulk density (1.42 g cm(-3)) and relatively high compressive strength (2 2MPa) sintered bricks were produced, and the leaching toxicity of the sintered bricks was below the regulatory thresholds of Chinese National Standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial variability in the coefficient of thermal expansion induces pre-service stresses in computer models of virgin Gilsocarbon bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arregui-Mena, José David; Margetts, Lee; Griffiths, D.V.; Lever, Louise; Hall, Graham; Mummery, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors test the hypothesis that tiny spatial variations in material properties may lead to significant pre-service stresses in virgin graphite bricks. To do this, they have customised ParaFEM, an open source parallel finite element package, adding support for stochastic thermo-mechanical analysis using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. For an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor brick, three heating cases have been examined: a uniform temperature change; a uniform temperature gradient applied through the thickness of the brick and a simulated temperature profile from an operating reactor. Results are compared for mean and stochastic properties. These show that, for the proof-of-concept analyses carried out, the pre-service von Mises stress is around twenty times higher when spatial variability of material properties is introduced. The paper demonstrates that thermal gradients coupled with material incompatibilities may be important in the generation of stress in nuclear graphite reactor bricks. Tiny spatial variations in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Young's modulus can lead to the presence of thermal stresses in bricks that are free to expand. - Highlights: • Open source software has been modified to include random variability in CTE and Young's modulus. • The new software closely agrees with analytical solutions and commercial software. • Spatial variations in CTE and Young's modulus produce stresses that do not occur with mean values. • Material variability may induce pre-service stress in virgin graphite.

  17. Combined multi-analytical approach for study of pore system in bricks: How much porosity is there?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coletti, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.coletti@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Cultrone, Giuseppe [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Maritan, Lara; Mazzoli, Claudio [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    During the firing of bricks, mineralogical and textural transformations produce an artificial aggregate characterised by significant porosity. Particularly as regards pore-size distribution and the interconnection model, porosity is an important parameter to evaluate and predict the durability of bricks. The pore system is in fact the main element, which correlates building materials and their environment (especially in cases of aggressive weathering, e.g., salt crystallisation and freeze-thaw cycles) and determines their durability. Four industrial bricks with differing compositions and firing temperatures were analysed with “direct” and “indirect” techniques, traditional methods (mercury intrusion porosimetry, hydric tests, nitrogen adsorption) and new analytical approaches based on digital image reconstruction of 2D and 3D models (back-scattered electrons and computerised X-ray micro-Tomography, respectively). The comparison of results from different analytical methods in the “overlapping ranges” of porosity and the careful reconstruction of a cumulative curve, allowed overcoming their specific limitations and achieving better knowledge on the pore system of bricks. - Highlights: •Pore-size distribution and structure of the pore system in four commercial bricks •A multi-analytical approach combining “direct” and “indirect” techniques •Traditional methods vs. new approaches based on 2D/3D digital image reconstruction •The use of “overlapping ranges” to overcome the limitations of various techniques.

  18. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  19. Spatial variability in the coefficient of thermal expansion induces pre-service stresses in computer models of virgin Gilsocarbon bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arregui-Mena, José David, E-mail: jose.arreguimena@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Margetts, Lee, E-mail: lee.margetts@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Griffiths, D.V., E-mail: d.v.griffiths@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Lever, Louise, E-mail: louise.lever@manchester.ac.uk [Research Computing, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hall, Graham, E-mail: graham.n.hall@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mummery, Paul M., E-mail: paul.m.mummery@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the authors test the hypothesis that tiny spatial variations in material properties may lead to significant pre-service stresses in virgin graphite bricks. To do this, they have customised ParaFEM, an open source parallel finite element package, adding support for stochastic thermo-mechanical analysis using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. For an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor brick, three heating cases have been examined: a uniform temperature change; a uniform temperature gradient applied through the thickness of the brick and a simulated temperature profile from an operating reactor. Results are compared for mean and stochastic properties. These show that, for the proof-of-concept analyses carried out, the pre-service von Mises stress is around twenty times higher when spatial variability of material properties is introduced. The paper demonstrates that thermal gradients coupled with material incompatibilities may be important in the generation of stress in nuclear graphite reactor bricks. Tiny spatial variations in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and Young's modulus can lead to the presence of thermal stresses in bricks that are free to expand. - Highlights: • Open source software has been modified to include random variability in CTE and Young's modulus. • The new software closely agrees with analytical solutions and commercial software. • Spatial variations in CTE and Young's modulus produce stresses that do not occur with mean values. • Material variability may induce pre-service stress in virgin graphite.

  20. Experimental study on the influence of the opening in brick-masonry wall to seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidiawati, Tanjung, Jafril; Medriosa, Hamdeni

    2017-10-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures with brick-masonry infills are commonly used in developing countries and high-risk seismic area, such as Indonesia. Significant researches have been carried out for studying the seismic performance of RC frame structures with brick-masonry infills. Only few of them focused on effects of the opening in the brick-masonry infill to the seismic performance of the RC frame structures. The presence of opening in brick-masonry infill is often used for placing doors and windows as well, however, it may reduce the seismic performance of the RC frame structure. In the current study, they influence of the opening in brick-masonry infills to the seismic performance RC frame structure will experimentally evaluated. Five of 1/4-scaled single story and single bay RC frame specimens were prepared, i.e. an RC bare frame, a clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame and three of clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame with openings in the brick-masonry infills. The last three specimens were clay brick infilled RC frame with a center opening, clay brick infilled RC frame with two openings used for placing the windows and clay brick infilled RC frame with opening for placing the door. The specimens pushed over by applying the static monotonic lateral load to the upper beam of the RC frame structures. The incremental of the lateral load and the lateral displacement of RC frame's column was recorded during test. The crack propagation and the major cracks were also observed to identify the mechanism failure of specimens. As the results, the opening in the brick-masonry wall controls the failure mechanism, the lateral strength and the stiffness of the overall of infilled RC frame structure. The diagonal shear crack pattern was found on brick-masonry wall without opening, on other hand the different crack patterns were observed on brick-masonry wall with openings. Although the opening in the brick masonry infill reduced the lateral strength and stiffness of

  1. Enhancement of insulating properties of brick clay by renewable agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Bánhidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes (byproducts in various segments of brick and tile industry is increasing continuously. These additives, which are previously mixed into the raw or compound clay, start to ignite during the firing process, providing extra thermal energy inside the product and decreasing the required external energy need. Besides this effect, the combustion of additives increases the porosity of the final product resulting in enhanced thermal insulation properties. In this paper the effect of some common agricultural wastes (sawdust, rice-peel and seed-shell on the thermal properties of brick clay products was investigated. The brick samples were prepared from the mixture of the yellow and gray clay in the ratio of 4:1, water content was between 15.57-16.67 wt.% and the pore-forming additives in concentrations 0, 4 and 7 wt.%. To measure the steady state thermal conductivity of the clay mixtures, samples with dimensions of 300×300×50 mm were prepared. Drying and firing were performed using the industrial partner’s standard procedures. Precise thermal conductivity data was measured, using a RAPID‑K type static thermal conductivity instrument. The results showed that increasing the quantity of agricultural byproducts in the clay mixture significantly decreases the thermal conductivity of the final products, while only a minor reduction in the mechanical strength was observed. It was found that the most efficient byproduct additive was the sunflower seed‑shell. With the addition of only 7 wt.% seed‑shell to the basic clay the thermal conductivity decreased from 0,27 W/m·K to 0,17 W/m·K (i.e. ~36%.

  2. Measuring of the moisture content in brick walls of historical buildings - the overview of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of measuring the moisture content of brick walls in buildings of high historical value. It includes a classification of known methods used to measure the moisture content and their valorisation with regards to the legitimacy of using them in historical buildings. Moreover, the most important considerations for conducting such measurements are also described, which include the choice of an appropriate method for a specific situation, the determination of a correlative or hypothetical dependency for equipment used in tests and also the method of distributing measurement points.

  3. Utilisation of Sepidrud dam basin sediments in fired clay bricks: laboratory scale experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi-Chenari, R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing disposal methods for dam basin sediments are not free from the environmental pollution and the ecological imbalance. At present, a new way to treat the dredged sediments to manufacture bricks is being investigated, prioritizing waste recovery over its deposition in landfills. However, construction materials such as clay bricks must comply with the international and local standards. Considering the perpetual availability of the sediments, particle sizing and their chemical composition and the results of physical and qualification tests on Sepidrud Dam basin sediments it can be concluded that the utilization of basin sediments as a full or partial replacement in clay brick production will lead to the production of quality bricks that meet all the regulatory limits in the standards. This research is novel in view of both increasing the reservoir effective volume capacity and preventing the use of alternative land quarries which are mainly covered by green land.Los métodos actuales de eliminación de los sedimentos de las cuencas de las presas no están exentos de problemas de contaminación ambiental y ecológicos. En la actualidad, se está investigando la posibilidad de utilizar los sedimentos dragados para la fabricación de ladrillos, dando prioridad a su valoración como residuos frente a su depósito en vertederos. Sin embargo, los ladrillos, como otros materiales de construcción, deben de cumplir con las correspondientes normas nacionales e internacionales. Teniendo en cuenta la disponibilidad permanente de los sedimentos, el tamaño de sus partículas y su composición química y los resultados físicos de las pruebas de calificación de los sedimentos de la cuenca Sepidrud Dam, en este estudio se ha concluido su viabilidad como materiales de reemplazo total o parcial de las materias primas convencionales, para la producción de ladrillos. Estos ladrillos cumplen además con las normas vigentes. Este es un estudio novedoso

  4. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  5. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation....... After the initial tests the surface of the wall was treated with mortar and a new series of test was performed. The wall with and without treatment performed almost equal during the influence of driving rain, and during the later drying phase, the difference was equally small....

  6. Mechanical-physical experimental tests on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Antonio; Dessı, Enzo; Landolfo, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    Hemp is an agricultural product used for various applications. In the Civil Engineering field, only a limited use of this natural material, called the "green pig" since exploitation of all its constituent parts is allowed, has been done. For this reason, in the paper an experimental activity on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp components has been performed. Compression and bending tests have been carried out on specimens manufactured with hemp shives and fibres, respectively. The achieved results have shown that hemp products change the failure modes from brittle to ductile, leaving basically unaltered the strength capacity of reinforced specimens with respect to unreinforced ones.

  7. Characterization of ceramic bodies to produce bricks from Campos Goytacazes, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.L.P. de; Maia, F.S.; Petrucci, L.J.T.; Pessanha, E.M.; Paixao, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work has for objective to study comparatively the characteristics and technological properties of four typical ceramic bodies from the region of Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ used to fabricate red ceramics. The characterization techniques used were: X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dilatometry. Specimens were molded by extrusion and then fired at 750, 850 and 950 deg C. The evaluated firing properties were: linear shrinkage and water absorption. The results showed that the investigated ceramic bodies have similar chemical and mineralogical composition. It is also concluded that the bodies are adequate to produce bricks. (author)

  8. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomachot, C.; Matsuoka, N.; Kuchitsu, N.; Morii, M.

    2005-07-01

    Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan) exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  9. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomachot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. Properties of palm oil fuel ash cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Aris, S.; Muthusamy, K.; Uzer, A.; Ahmad, S. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution caused by the disposal of solid wastes generated from both palm oil industry and cockle shell trade has motivated researches to explore the potential of these wastes. Integrating these wastes in production of construction material is one of the ways to reduce amount of waste thrown at dumping area. Thus, the present investigation investigates the performance of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial fine aggregate replacement. All mixes used contain 20% of POFA as partial cement replacement. Total of six mixes were prepared by adding a range of pulverized cockle shell that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% as partial sand replacement. The mixes were prepared in form of brick. All the water cured samples were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength until 28 days. Findings show that brick produced using 20% pulverized cockle shell exhibit the highest compressive strength and flexural strength also the lowest water absorption value.

  11. Determination of attenuation properties of massive ceramic bricks cladded with mortars containing barite used as protective barrier for radiodiagnostic rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda S.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Costa, Paulo R.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Pereira, Marco A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the properties of attenuation of the walls built with massive ceramic bricks to be used as protection barriers in environments of Medicine and Dentistry, when submitted to X-ray diagnosis. Massive ceramic bricks are used thoroughly in constructions as a calking element. The properties of attenuation of these materials were obtained starting from the application of the model of Archer to a group of attenuation curves with wide beams generated in the tensions of 70, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 150 kVp. A radiological equipment of constant potential was used in the Laboratory of IEE/USP, two cameras of ionization of 6cm 3 , coupled to two radiation monitors. The results show that for a tension of 100kVp, the thickness of 10cm of wall made with massive ceramic bricks corresponds to 1mm of lead. (author)

  12. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and fission products in brick samples fabricated and used in and around greater Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Alam, M.S.; Miah, F.K.; Alam, B.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured by using gamma ray spectroscopy in different types of brick samples (bangla, ceramic and picket) fabricated and used in the urban areas of Dhaka city and its suburbs. A knowledge of gamma radioactivity is necessary to adopt preventive measures to minimise the harmful effects of ionising radiation. The radium equivalent activity concentrations, external and internal hazard indices (Hext and Hint) in these brick samples were determined and were found to be comparable with those of other countries. (author)

  13. Thermo physical properties of lateritic soil bricks: Influence of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, P.; Noumowe, A.; Kofane, T.C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study carried out in order to determine the properties of local materials used as construction materials. Cement stabilized compressed bricks were tested. The thermal properties of lateritic soil based materials were determined. The objectives of work reported in this paper are to determine the effect of addition of pozzolan or sawdust in lateritic soil brick on the thermal properties. It was shown that the effect of the incorporation of pozzolan or sawdust is the decreasing of the thermal conductivity and density. The moisture content of these materials can modify their thermal performance. Thus a study of the influence of the water content on the thermal conductivity k and the thermal diffusivity a is presented. The thermal conductivity, as a function of water content, increases rapidly between O% and 12% for lateritic soil. The thermal diffusivity curve presents a maximum for values of water content of 15% for lateritic soil and 8% for lateritic soil-pozzolan or lateritic soil- sawdust. (author)

  14. SHAPE AND CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK VAULTS. CRITERIA, METHODS AND TOOLS FOR A POSSIBLE CATALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any. The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.

  15. Wide brick tunnel randomization - an unequal allocation procedure that limits the imbalance in treatment totals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-04-30

    In open-label studies, partial predictability of permuted block randomization provides potential for selection bias. To lessen the selection bias in two-arm studies with equal allocation, a number of allocation procedures that limit the imbalance in treatment totals at a pre-specified level but do not require the exact balance at the ends of the blocks were developed. In studies with unequal allocation, however, the task of designing a randomization procedure that sets a pre-specified limit on imbalance in group totals is not resolved. Existing allocation procedures either do not preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation or do not include all allocation sequences that comply with the pre-specified imbalance threshold. Kuznetsova and Tymofyeyev described the brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every step and, in the two-arm case, includes all sequences that satisfy the smallest possible imbalance threshold. This article introduces wide brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that allows all allocation sequences with imbalance not exceeding any pre-specified threshold while preserving the allocation ratio at every step. In open-label studies, allowing a larger imbalance in treatment totals lowers selection bias because of the predictability of treatment assignments. The applications of the technique in two-arm and multi-arm open-label studies with unequal allocation are described. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Economic aspects of interlocking hollow brick system designed for industrialized building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Saggaff, Anis; Ngian, Shek Poi; Sulaiman, Arizu

    2017-11-01

    Construction industry has moved forward into a technology driven where a transition is in progress from conventional method to a more advanced and mechanised system known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS). However, the need to implement the IBS should be well understood by all construction players such as designer, architect, contraction, erectors and construction workers. Therefore, there is a need to educate all these construction players which should be spearheaded by authorities such as Construction Industrial Development Board where enforcement trough building by laws as well as initiative to those that adopt the IBS in their construction. This paper reports on economic aspects of using interlocking hollow brick system in construction as an alternative method offered for Industrialized Building System. The main objective is to address the economic aspects of using interlocking block system in terms of time, costs, and utilization of manpower and to present some of the experimental tests results related to Interlocking Hollow Brick System (IHBS). Example of savings from the use of IHBS is presented in this paper by comparing the construction of two storey terrace house with build-up area of about 200 square meter with conventional construction method of typical reinforced concrete construction (RCC) compared to IHBS. The comparison shows that the implementation of IHBS can reduce construction time, cost, and utilization of man power up to 26.6% compared to the conventional method. Moreover, the construction time using IHBS can also be reduced by up to 50% as compared to the conventional construction.

  17. Comparison between TRM and FRP strengthening systems at preventing buckling failure of brick masonry walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Maso, E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP and Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM have been studied, compared and applied to strengthen brick masonry walls. The comparison of their performance against second order bending effects is addressed in this paper for the first time. Experimental and analytical data from previous researches and new analytical data for TRM cases are summarised, ordered and systematically compared to analyse the structural response of strengthened brick masonry walls. The results show a similar performance for both systems in terms of load bearing capacity and in-plane response. However, TRM strengthened cases showed greater lateral deformation than FRP ones.Materiales tipo Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP y Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM han sido estudiados, comparados y aplicados para reforzar muros de fábrica de ladrillo. La comparación de su comportamiento frente a efectos de flexión de segundo orden se abordada en este artículo por primera vez. Datos experimentales y analíticos de investigaciones previas y nuevos datos analíticos para los casos de TRM son resumidos, ordenados y sistemáticamente comparados para analizar la respuesta estructural de los muros de fábrica de ladrillo reforzados. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento similar de los dos sistemas respecto su capacidad de carga y su respuesta en el plano. Los casos reforzados con TRM mostraron desplazamientos laterales superiores a los reforzados con FRP.

  18. Transparent, Ultrahigh-Gas-Barrier Films with a Brick-Mortar-Sand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Xu, Simin; Yan, Hong; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2015-08-10

    Transparent and flexible gas-barrier materials have shown broad applications in electronics, food, and pharmaceutical preservation. Herein, we report ultrahigh-gas-barrier films with a brick-mortar-sand structure fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of XAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH, X=Mg, Ni, Zn, Co) nanoplatelets and polyacrylic acid (PAA) followed by CO2 infilling, denoted as (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2. The near-perfectly parallel orientation of the LDH "brick" creates a long diffusion length to hinder the transmission of gas molecules in the PAA "mortar". Most significantly, both the experimental studies and theoretical simulations reveal that the chemically adsorbed CO2 acts like "sand" to fill the free volume at the organic-inorganic interface, which further depresses the diffusion of permeating gas. The strategy presented here provides a new insight into the perception of barrier mechanism, and the (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2 film is among the best gas barrier films ever reported. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F H; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A

    2013-01-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  20. A novel method for a multi-level hierarchical composite with brick-and-mortar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kristina; Wolff, Michael F. H.; Salikov, Vitalij; Heinrich, Stefan; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2013-07-01

    The fascination for hierarchically structured hard tissues such as enamel or nacre arises from their unique structure-properties-relationship. During the last decades this numerously motivated the synthesis of composites, mimicking the brick-and-mortar structure of nacre. However, there is still a lack in synthetic engineering materials displaying a true hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel multi-step processing route for anisotropic 2-level hierarchical composites by combining different coating techniques on different length scales. It comprises polymer-encapsulated ceramic particles as building blocks for the first level, followed by spouted bed spray granulation for a second level, and finally directional hot pressing to anisotropically consolidate the composite. The microstructure achieved reveals a brick-and-mortar hierarchical structure with distinct, however not yet optimized mechanical properties on each level. It opens up a completely new processing route for the synthesis of multi-level hierarchically structured composites, giving prospects to multi-functional structure-properties relationships.

  1. Utilization of Baggase Waste Based Materials as Improvement for Thermal Insulation of Cement Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Eeydzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials having low thermal load and low thermal conductivity will provide thermal comforts to the occupants in building. In an effort to reduce the use of high energy and waste products from the agricultural industry, sugarcane bagasse and banana bagasse has been utilize as an additive in the manufacture of cement brick. The aim of this study is to investigate the insulation and mechanical properties of brick that has been mixed with bagasse and its effectiveness as thermal insulation using heat flow meter. Waste bagasse is being treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and is characterized using SEM and XRF. The samples produced with two different dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and 215mm × 102.5mm × 65mm for thermal conductivity test. Next, the sample varies from 0% (control sample, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in order to determine the best mix proportion. The compressive strength is being tested for 7, 14 and 28 days of water curing. Results showed that banana bagasse has lower thermal conductivity compared to sugarcane bagasse used, with compressive strength of 15.6MPa with thermal conductivity 0.6W/m.K.

  2. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20746 (United States); Paul, R. [Chemical Sciences Division, NIST, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  3. Protein Assembly and Building Blocks: Beyond the Limits of the LEGO Brick Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yaakov

    2017-09-26

    Proteins, like other biomolecules, have a modular and hierarchical structure. Various building blocks are used to construct proteins of high structural complexity and diverse functionality. In multidomain proteins, for example, domains are fused to each other in different combinations to achieve different functions. Although the LEGO brick metaphor is justified as a means of simplifying the complexity of three-dimensional protein structures, several fundamental properties (such as allostery or the induced-fit mechanism) make deviation from it necessary to respect the plasticity, softness, and cross-talk that are essential to protein function. In this work, we illustrate recently reported protein behavior in multidomain proteins that deviates from the LEGO brick analogy. While earlier studies showed that a protein domain is often unaffected by being fused to another domain or becomes more stable following the formation of a new interface between the tethered domains, destabilization due to tethering has been reported for several systems. We illustrate that tethering may sometimes result in a multidomain protein behaving as "less than the sum of its parts". We survey these cases for which structure additivity does not guarantee thermodynamic additivity. Protein destabilization due to fusion to other domains may be linked in some cases to biological function and should be taken into account when designing large assemblies.

  4. Measurement of alpha radioactive air pollutants in fly ash brick dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kant, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period lead to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present study indoor radon monitoring has been carried out in fly ash brick dwellings in some villages/towns of district Faridabad, Haryana (India) using alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. The radon concentration levels in fly ash brick dwellings varied from 197 to 448 Bq m -3 with an average of 277±13 Bq m -3 while annual effective dose received by the occupants varied from 3.4 to 7.7 mSv with an average of 4.8±0.2 mSv. These results have been compared with the radon levels found in cemented and mud dwellings taken from our studies for these dwellings. These studies were also made simultaneously along with fly ash dwellings using same technique and in the same regions

  5. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital....

  6. Social Bricks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Can social sustainability be built? In this paper the potentialities and challenges of the concept of social sustainability are explored based on a collaboration project between the Danish Building Research Institute, a Danish social housing association and the Green Building Council Denmark......, aiming to better integrate standards of social sustainability in the application of certification systems like DGNB. The paper relates theory on social sustainability to the ways it is used in practice, and discusses whether and how social sustainability can be measured and certified in renewal...... and construction of housing and neighbourhoods. It is put forward that a certification has to take into account the housing complex’ or neighbourhood’s relation to the surrounding city, its development over time, its flexibility towards future needs and its social organisation and operation. Further, the interplay...

  7. Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri, October 14, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ury, Connie Jo., Ed.; Baudino, Frank, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings document the fifth year of the "Brick and Click Libraries Symposium", held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. Thirty five peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, written by academic librarians, and presented at the symposium are included in this volume. Many of the entries have…

  8. Hydrogen fluoride effects on local mung bean and maize cereal crops from peri-urban brick kilns in south asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, M.N.; Ahmad, S.S.; Zia, A.; Iqbal, M.S.; Shah, H.; Mian, A.A.; Shah, R.U.

    2014-01-01

    Increased urbanisation throughout South Asia has increased the number and output of the brick kilns that typically surround major cities, but the environmental and health impacts of their atmospheric emissions are poorly understood in Pakistan. We report the negative effects of hydrogen fluoride

  9. The influence of the pore structure on the moisture transport in lime plaster-brick systems as studied by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, C.; Pel, L.; Kunecký, J.; Slížková, Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental analysis of the porous structure and drying kinetics of lime-based plasters and plaster-brick systems using different methods. The effect of adding a water-repellent admixture (linseed oil) to the plasters was also evaluated. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was

  10. Comprehensive study on mechanical properties of lime-based pastes with additions of metakaolin and brick dust

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nežerka, V.; Slížková, Zuzana; Tesárek, P.; Plachý, T.; Frankeová, Dita; Petráňová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, October (2014), s. 17-29 ISSN 0008-8846 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV008 Keywords : microstructure * mechanical properties * CaO * metakaolin * brick dust Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008884614001239

  11. 75 FR 45097 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import... the United States at less-than-fair-value (LTFV), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930... Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 11517 (March 11, 2010) (Preliminary...

  12. Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of mixtures with large amorphous contents. The case of stoneware ceramics and bricks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gualtieri, A. F.; Riva, V.; Bresciani, A.; Maretti, S.; Tamburini, M.; Viani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), s. 835-846 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : amorphous phases * bricks * ceramics * internal standards * quantitative phase analysis Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S160057671400627X

  13. 75 FR 45467 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... the People's Republic of China: Verification of Fengchi Import & Export Co., Ltd. of Haicheng City... Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping... from the People's Republic of China; Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Critical...

  14. 78 FR 70918 - Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Brokerage and Handling Use of Partial Adverse Facts Available for Unreported U.S. Sales Value Added Tax... Comment 8: Value Added Tax [FR Doc. 2013-28551 Filed 11-26-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P ... at Less Than Fair Value: Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China AGENCY...

  15. Analysis and optimization of the heat-insulating light concrete hollow brick walls design by the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del; Betegon Biempica, C.; Prendes Gero, M.B. [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No 7, 33204 Gijon (Asturias) (Spain); Garcia Nieto, P.J. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Asturias) (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Department of Public Works, owners and building proprietors are demanding high-capacity heat-insulating exterior masonry components specifically for further energy savings. For housing and industrial structures there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical material behaviour, with respect to an energy conscious and ecological design, which fulfils all strength and serviceability requirements. The major variables influencing the thermal conductivity of masonry materials are illustrated in this work by taking blocks made from no-fine lightweight concrete and different mortar properties. The finite element method (FEM) is used for finding accurate solutions of the heat transfer equation for five different light concrete hollow brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the mortar conductivity and three different values for the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of five hollow brick geometries by means of the mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Finally, conclusions of this work are exposed. (author)

  16. Analysis and optimization of the heat-insulating light concrete hollow brick walls design by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del; Garcia Nieto, P.J.; Betegon Biempica, C.; Prendes Gero, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Department of Public Works, owners and building proprietors are demanding high-capacity heat-insulating exterior masonry components specifically for further energy savings. For housing and industrial structures there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical material behaviour, with respect to an energy conscious and ecological design, which fulfils all strength and serviceability requirements. The major variables influencing the thermal conductivity of masonry materials are illustrated in this work by taking blocks made from no-fine lightweight concrete and different mortar properties. The finite element method (FEM) is used for finding accurate solutions of the heat transfer equation for five different light concrete hollow brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. The conduction and convection phenomena are taking into account in this study for three different values of the mortar conductivity and three different values for the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of five hollow brick geometries by means of the mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Finally, conclusions of this work are exposed

  17. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  18. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  19. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  20. Embodied Energy and CO2 Analyses of Mud-brick and Cement-block Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abanda F.Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In building projects, the extraction of vast quantities of materials is too common. The extraction of materials and the erection of buildings consume embodied energy and emit carbon dioxide (CO2 that impact negatively on the environment. Therefore it is necessary to consider embodied energy and CO2 amongst other factors in selecting building materials for use in building projects. In most developing countries, building environmental performance analysis has yet to gain interest from the construction community. However, with recent increase in sustainability awareness, both developed and developing nations have engaged in efforts to tackle this challenge. Embodied energy and CO2 are among the leading parameters in assessing environmental building performance. In Cameroon, studies about the assessment of embodied energy and CO2 of building projects are scarce. Hence, professionals find it difficult to make alternative choices for building materials to use in their different building projects. This study uses a detailed process analysis approach supported by two popular housing types in Cameroon (mud-brick and cement-block houses to assess the embodied energy and CO2 impacts from building materials. The emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM tool was used to validate the computational results of the process analysis method. The findings revealed the embodied energy and CO2 for the mud-brick houses are 137934.91 MJ (2007.8 MJ/m2 and 15665.56 Kg CO2 (228.03 Kg CO2/m2; the cement-block houses are 292326.81 MJ (3065.51 MJ/m2 and 37829.19 Kg CO2 (396.7 Kg CO2/m2 respectively. Thus, the cement-block house expends at least 1.5 times more embodied energy and emits at least 1.7 times more embodied CO2 than mud-brick house. Although these findings cannot be generalized, they nonetheless indicate the importance of considering embodied energy and CO2 in making alternative choices for use in different building projects.

  1. The exploitation of sludge from aggregate plants in the manufacture of porous fired clay bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro-Trenado, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates (gravel and sand are, after water, the Earth’s second most used natural resource, representing about 50% of all consumed mineral resources. Aggregate production generates a large quantity of waste from the aggregate washing process. This waste is made up of suspended solids – sludge – which has a great environmental impact. It is deposited in huge troughs because of the impossibility of discharging it directly into rivers. Many plants have incorporated decanters and filter presses to separate the solid from the liquid fraction. This paper evaluates the possibility of exploiting the solid fraction (i.e. sludge in the manufacture of fired clay bricks. The added value of these bricks is, on the one hand, the exploitation of sludge as a currently useless waste product, and on the other, the use of this sludge to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of conventional fired clay bricks.Los áridos son la segunda materia prima más consumida en la Tierra después del agua, representando alrededor del 50% de todos los recursos minerales consumidos. El proceso de elaboración de estos áridos genera una gran cantidad de residuos procedentes de su lavado. Se trata de partículas sólidas en suspensión – lodos – de gran impacto ambiental, que se depositan en grandes charcas ante la imposibilidad de verterlos directamente al rio. Muchas empresas han incorporado decantadores y filtros de prensa para separar la fracción solida de la líquida. El presente trabajo evalúa la posibilidad de utilizar la fracción sólida, es decir el barro, para la fabricación de piezas cerámicas. El valor añadido de estas piezas es por un lado el aprovechamiento del barro como producto residual, que en estos momentos es desechable, y por otro, conseguir que este barro mejore las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la cerámica convencional.

  2. Evaluation of Work Fatigue in Loading Workers Using Muscle Fatigue Assessment Method (MFA: A Case Study in a Brick Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Omid Kalte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Work fatigue is one of the main causes of workrelated musculoskeletal disorders and reduced productivity in industry. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate work fatigue, especially muscle fatigue, to determine the permissible workload. This study aimed to evaluate muscle fatigue of brick field workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on transportation sector workers in Pey Dezh Brick Production Company, Golestan, Iran in 2015. In this research, the qualitative of Muscle Fatigue Assessment (MFA method was used to assess the level of fatigue. Duration of each task and frequency of efforts were determined using the level of effort to obtain a numerical result for comparison with the standard level. Results: The evaluated task was to remove paired bricks from the conveyor and transfer them to trailer truck by workers. The final results revealed that lower back tolerated the most amount of pressure (score=323, followed by the shoulders and wrist of the right hand (scores=313, which were assigned to the fatigue level. Therefore, the highest total fatigue of workload was imposed on these body parts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the upper limbs of workers incurred the highest burden in lifting bricks, and there was a in risk of WMSDS due to high workload. Therefore, it is recommended that working systems be improved through rotating work and reducing the number of transferred bricks to avoid risks caused by accumulation of fatigue.

  3. Optimization of thermal conductivity lightweight brick type AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) effect of Si & Ca composition by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli; Wiryawan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Lightweight brick is the most important component of building construction, therefore it is necessary to have lightweight thermal, mechanical and aqustic thermal properties that meet the standard, in this paper which is discussed is the domain of light brick thermal conductivity properties. The advantage of lightweight brick has a low density (500-650 kg/m3), more economical, can reduce the load 30-40% compared to conventional brick (clay brick). In this research, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the thermal conductivity of lightweight brick type Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC). Based on the training and evaluation that have been done on 10 model of ANN with number of hidden node 1 to 10, obtained that ANN with 3 hidden node have the best performance. It is known from the mean value of MSE (Mean Square Error) validation for three training times of 0.003269. This ANN was further used to predict the thermal conductivity of four light brick samples. The predicted results for each of the AAC1, AAC2, AAC3 and AAC4 light brick samples were 0.243 W/m.K, respectively; 0.29 W/m.K; 0.32 W/m.K; and 0.32 W/m.K. Furthermore, ANN is used to determine the effect of silicon composition (Si), Calcium (Ca), to light brick thermal conductivity. ANN simulation results show that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing Si composition. Si content is allowed maximum of 26.57%, while the Ca content in the range 20.32% - 30.35%.

  4. Effect of molarity in geo polymer earth brick reinforced with fibrous coir wastes using sandy soil and quarry dust as fine aggregate. (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palanisamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies are mainly carried out on strength development for various grades of geo-polymer mortar with varying molarity (M for producing geo-polymer earth brick (GPEB. The studies are focused on use of more sandy soil sieved from the raw earth available at site and quarry dust on replaced with river sand for making the un-burnt brick. The brick is reinforced with fibrous coir waste to increase shear strength and further pressed by hand compaction. Geo-polymer mortar is based on an inorganic alumina silicate binder system and it has more advantages of quick strength gain, negligence of water curing, best mechanical properties, eco-friendly, sustainable and alternate to ordinary Portland cement (OPC based mortar. Fly Ash (FA, Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, sandy soil sieved from earth and Quarry Dust (QD are mixed with alkaline solution in different molarities 6 M, 8 M and 10 M to prepare specimens. Specimens are tested against workability, compressive strength, and water absorption test, rate of water absorption, abraded test and also fiber content of the brick. The research found that the brick is made by FA & GGBS as binders and soil & quarry dust as fine aggregate in ratio of 0.5:0.5:1.75:0.25 with fibrous coir waste 1% and alkaline solution 10 M for preparing mortar to produce, excellent compressive strength, low water absorption, low rate of absorption, good abrasive resistance etc., The new brick is placed an alternate to compressed stabilized earth block, cement block and traditional burnt brick. Keywords: Fiber reinforced geo-polymer earth brick, Geo-polymer mortar using sandy soil and quarry dust as fine-aggregate, Nature fibrous coir wastes, Un-burnt brick, Alternate to compressed stabilized earth block

  5. Value engineering on the designed operator work tools for brick and rings wells production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Bidiawati J., R.; Muchtiar, Yesmizarti; Wariza, Ragil Okta

    2017-06-01

    Operator working tools in making brick and ring wells were designed and made, and the value engineering was calculated to identify and develop the function of these tools in obtaining the balance between cost, reliability and appearance. This study focused on the value of functional components of the tools and attempted to increase the difference between the costs incurred by the generated values. The purpose of this study was to determine the alternatives of tools design and to determine the performance of each alternative. The technique was developed using FAST method that consisted of five stages: information, creative, analytical, development and presentation stage. The results of the analysis concluded that the designed tools have higher value and better function description. There were four alternative draft improvements for operator working tools. The best alternative was determined based on the rank by using matrix evaluation. Best performance was obtained by the alternative II, amounting to 98.92 with a value of 0.77.

  6. Intercomparison on the measurements of radionuclides in the ceramic brick of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Qing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To inspect the veracity and reiteration of γ-spectrometry in radioactive measurements. Methods: To be performed by multilateral intercomparison on measurements of radionuclides in two kinds of Chinese ceramic brick samples with γ-spectrometry between laboratories of Japan and of China. Results: The maximum difference of which the values measured by our laboratory related to the total average is 4.21%, and with an equipotent probability of positive and negative difference occurred. These showed that the veracity and reiteration of our measurement system are fine without obviously system errors. Conclusion: It has proved that the quality guarantee system and quality control technology of our γ-spectrum system is perfected and effective up to now. (authors)

  7. Determination of capillary motion of water in bricks using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czachor, A.; Abd El-Ghany El-Abd; Milczarek, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of water in several porous materials has been directly observed and recorded with the recently installed neutron and gamma radiography facility at Maria reactor of Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk. The density profiles of water in samples were obtained from the optical density of digitalised images. A simple model (representing the porous material as a collection of capillary tubes of various radii) has been introduced to describe the liquid transport in porous materials in terms of capillary motion. The equation for viscous movement of water in porous material in presence of the gravitation is proposed. A good agreement of the calculated density profiles for vertical water migration with the data collected for siliceous bricks suggests that the thinnest capillary tubes determine the upper edge of the water density profile. (author)

  8. Preservation of murals with electrokinetic - with focus on desalination of single bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    followed. Besides the experiments on optimized laboratory setups the very first desalination of a wall section with murals was documented. In addition it was shown that the specific brick type and its pore system influences the electrochemical iontransport and coherence between the ion content in the pore...... water and possible electrochemical iontransport and coherence between the ion content in the pore water and possible electrochemical dewatering was found. Through examination of deterioration causes in praxis it was seen that sulphates seems to induce deterioration whereas presence of sodium chloride......Salt induced deterioration of murals is in several cases ongoing in Danish churches. The murals are one of the main objects of our Danish Cultural Heritage. Existing applied methods for desalination of salt contaminated church vaults are based on indirect affection of the dissolved salts (ions...

  9. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  10. An Investigation of Damage Factors in Industrial Scale of Light-Weight Bricks Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wulandari Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A damage case of light weight brick’s production approximately at 6-7% of total production was found daily in one industry in East Jawa, Indonesia. The physical damage of product always occured. This paper investigates some factors that affect the lost in laboratory analysis. The analysis includes the chemical analysis of raw materials, reactivity of pozzolanic materials, and observation of strength based upon the position of light-weight bricks during autoclaving process. In addition, fly ash is introduced as mineral additive as one of the alternatives to improve the product’s quality. It is also concluded that grinding the silica sands particles is the optimum way to improve the quality, but the adding class F of fly ash to five percent in mixture is the most effective solution. Furthermore, maintaining quality of raw materials, curing process, and maintaining the machine will either reduce the product damage that occurred during the fabrication process in industry.

  11. On Heat Transfer - Stress Analysis of Modified Brick (Reed Filler) Upon Its Production Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornam, Kurniati; Kimsan, Masykur; Teguh Prakasa, Cadas; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Santi

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to scrutinize how burning process in modified brick’s production impinge on crack as a result of stress differentiation between two consecutive layers of the brick’s element. Diffusion engages in burning process of bricks, hence it generates thermal stress on element for different temperature between layers. This research focused on burning process in traditional production ward. Analytical of nonlinear equation and numerical solution, finite difference, were involved to obtain temperature value in each layer, followed by stress calculation. Based on the results, it can be concluded that crack occurs particularly on boundary area, since difussion tends to yield relatively more different value on it. Therefore, certain strategies, that may decrease this differentiation, are required to minimize number of cracks during brick’s production.

  12. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in clay bricks-effect of washing and electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Klupsch, Ewa; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a hazardous waste due to presence and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). In 2000, approximately 25 Mt/year of fly ash was generated in USA, Japan and EU...... (Reijnders 2005). Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) is one technique for MSWI fly ash treatment (Ferreira et al. 2005), where an electric DC field is applied to an ash-water suspension to extract and separate heavy metal by migration towards anode or cathode through ion exchange membranes. Ferreira et al....... (2008) observed that in MSWI ash treated by water washing and EDR, metals were mainly in the strongly bonded and residual phases, indicating a reduction in the ash’s environmental risk. Belmonte et al. (2016) made Greenlandic bricks (∼2 g discs) containing 20% and 40% of EDR treated MSWI fly ash...

  13. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  14. TL, OSL and C-14 dating results of the sediments and bricks from mummified nuns' grave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudela, Diego R.G.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of TL and OSL dating of soil and fragments of bricks from a grave, which was occupied by two mummified nuns, found at 'Luz' Monastery, located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The TL and OSL ages were compared to C-14 dating ones obtained from bone collagens of the mummies. The majority of the ages is related to the eighteenth century. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate natural radioisotope concentrations in the samples, and by using these concentrations the annual dose rates, from 3.0 to 5.3 Gy/kyr, were obtained. Neutron activation analysis was performed and the radioisotope contents results are in agreement with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The contents of U, Th and Ce elements were higher than those found in usual sediments. (author)

  15. Detailed Dynamic Heat Transfer in Thick Brick Walls Typical of Lille Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of thermal transfer in old houses massive walls offers a big interest permitting the understanding of their specificities and the choice of a suitable material for their eventual insulation. We propose to study the thermal transfer in massive brick walls that characterize the Northern Europe old houses. To do so, we will begin by defining the thermal transfer mode: we proved that the transfer mode can be reduced to a unidirectional transfer. Then, an experimental wall is built and submitted to two different solicitation types (constant temperature in steady state mode and sinusoidal temperature through a wooden insulated box containing a radiator. The interest of these solicitations is to determine the thermal properties of the wall: the steady-state regime permits to determine the thermal resistances of the system when the harmonic regime permits to determine the thermal capacities of the system.

  16. Prevention and curing of efflorescences in the restoration of bricks construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. Ma.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available After description of basic principles of efflorescent effect in bricks in a former published paper, where the classification and examples of efflorescences were given, here are shown the methods for prevention and techniques for curing of this pathology. Some comments about Standards are included as well as very briefly the effect of gases in dryers and furnaces of efflorescences in clay products. The knowledgement of methods for prevention and curing of this pathology are very useful not only in the cleaning of modern fabrics made of bricks, but also in the Restoration of ancient buildings.

    Después de exponer en un artículo anterior los principios básicos de la formación del efecto eflorescente en ladrillos de construcción y definir su clasificación apoyada en algunos ejemplos, se señalan ahora los métodos para su prevención y las técnicas para su eliminación una vez aparecida esta patología. Se incluyen además algunos comentarios sobre las Normas para determinación de eflorescencias y también, de una manera muy concisa, el efecto que los gases de secaderos y hornos pueden tener en la formación de este defecto. Los métodos y técnicas de prevención y curado de eflorescencias tienen gran interés no sólo en el caso de fábricas de ladrillo modernas, sino en la restauración de fachadas de antiguos edificios.

  17. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  18. Reclamation of the Domtar/Canada brick quarry using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, P J

    1991-03-20

    Two power plants in the Toronto area required disposal sites for coal fly ash in the late 1970s. A local brick quarry was recognized as a potential disposal site, since a 10-hectare area of the quarry was no longer in production and was required to be filled for reclamation. Ontario Hydro and the brick company joined together to obtain approval for the landfilling project. The preliminary site investigations included an examination of the impact of the project on local residents and the environment in terms of traffic volumes, noise levels, road dirt, airborne dust, and contamination of surface water and groundwater. Ontario Environmental Assessment Board hearings were held, with evidence presented from concerned parties. The findings from the hearings indicated that the project would have little effect on nearby residents and would improve the local environment by reclaiming usable land. Filling of the quarry began in December 1981 and continued for 5 years, after which a total of over 680,000 tonnes of fly ash was deposited. After completion, the ash was covered with a seal layer consisting of at least 1 m of clay or till compacted to structural fill standards with a 1 m thick protective cover layer to protect the seal layer from desiccation cracking and frost heave. Material is currently being stockpiled at the site to increase the thickness of the protective layer in order to make the site self-managing. Monitoring of surface water and groundwater is still ongoing and will continue for many years. 17 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Design of a tracked ultrasound calibration phantom made of LEGO bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Soehl, Marie; Rankin, Adam; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-03-01

    PURPOSE: Spatial calibration of tracked ultrasound systems is commonly performed using precisely fabricated phantoms. Machining or 3D printing has relatively high cost and not easily available. Moreover, the possibilities for modifying the phantoms are very limited. Our goal was to find a method to construct a calibration phantom from affordable, widely available components, which can be built in short time, can be easily modified, and provides comparable accuracy to the existing solutions. METHODS: We designed an N-wire calibration phantom made of LEGO® bricks. To affirm the phantom's reproducibility and build time, ten builds were done by first-time users. The phantoms were used for a tracked ultrasound calibration by an experienced user. The success of each user's build was determined by the lowest root mean square (RMS) wire reprojection error of three calibrations. The accuracy and variance of calibrations were evaluated for the calibrations produced for various tracked ultrasound probes. The proposed model was compared to two of the currently available phantom models for both electromagnetic and optical tracking. RESULTS: The phantom was successfully built by all ten first-time users in an average time of 18.8 minutes. It cost approximately $10 CAD for the required LEGO® bricks and averaged a 0.69mm of error in the calibration reproducibility for ultrasound calibrations. It is one third the cost of similar 3D printed phantoms and takes much less time to build. The proposed phantom's image reprojections were 0.13mm more erroneous than those of the highest performing current phantom model The average standard deviation of multiple 3D image reprojections differed by 0.05mm between the phantoms CONCLUSION: It was found that the phantom could be built in less time, was one third the cost, compared to similar 3D printed models. The proposed phantom was found to be capable of producing equivalent calibrations to 3D printed phantoms.

  20. Program for the evaluation of TL-brick dating: 'ADAM-1-EVA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, V.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.

    2000-01-01

    Although the evaluation of the TL-mean date has presented very little diversity since first published, the error evaluation has prompted a lot of discussion. Particularly the physical, chemical, statistical and mathematical differences as reflected in the specifics of the evaluation of the individual random and systematic errors in ceramic and brick dating are undervalued in literature. The construction of an automated TL-Reader (ADAM-1) at the Czech Technical University in Prague was taken as an opportunity to create a whole new software package for the evaluation ('EVA') of TL-dates. ADAM-1 is designed primarily for brick dating, using the fine-grain technique. The philosophy of data processing is similar to that applied by the Berlin group in their research of Venetian Villas. The program was developed using Delphi, as it is user-friendlier than pure Pascal, offers a strong graphic platform and allows flexibility in data management. This was important, as the program was conceived to either interact directly with ADAM-1, or to be operated independently for data evaluation and management. The software package consists of two discrete yet combinable components: one for the calculation of the TL mean date, using all raw data obtained from ADAM-1 and peripheral measurements; the other for the evaluation of systematic, random and context errors of individual samples and sample groups. All steps in the calculations are also graphically available, e.g. glow curves, plateau test, TL vs. dose dependence and charts summarising the results of all calculations for an individual sample and a given context. (author)

  1. A comparative study on different burning method of sewage sludge ash in mortar brick with eggshell powder as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Doh Shu; Azed, Muhammad Aizat; Chin, Siew Choo

    2017-11-01

    Population growth that increase every year has led to the increasing amount of waste generated annually. The content of heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) represent the biggest concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge waste which can be the source of pollution. Furthermore, the excessive disposal of eggshells waste to landfills may attract rats and worms due to the organic protein matrix that may pose health problem to the public. In the last decade, the demand on cement mortar brick has increased has resulted in higher cement production. However, cement plant is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission. Hence, this research focuses on the production of environmental friendly cement with sewage sludge since there is occurrence of pozolonic material in Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA). From the initial finding, the major components of SSA are Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Calcium oxide (CaO), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2O3), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Iron (II) Oxide (FeO). Sewage sludge needed to be incinerated to remove the heavy metal before it can be used as cement replacement in mortar brick production. The sewage sludge were treated using two methods namely incineration and microwave. Both types of sewage sludge were then added with eggshell powder as additive. Eggshell powder act as additive in this research due to its high content of calcium carbonate and has nearly same composition of limestone used in the production of cement. Different percentages of Eggshell Powder (ESP) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) and 10% fixed of Microwaved Sewage Sludge Ash (MSSA) and Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) as optimum dosage partially replacing the cement used to test the brick mortar properties in term of compressive strength, flexural strength and also water absorption. Result showed that ISSA with 5% of ESP is the most optimum brick with highest compressive strength and flexural strength

  2. Use of overburden rocks from open-pit coal mines and waste coals of Western Siberia for ceramic brick production with a defect-free structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Storozhenko, G. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Akst, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The rational technology for the production of ceramic bricks with a defect-free structure from coal mining and processing wastes was developed. The results of comparison of physical and mechanical properties and the structure of ceramic bricks manufactured from overburden rocks and waste coal with traditional for semi-dry pressing mass preparation and according to the developed method are given. It was established that a homogeneous, defect-free brick texture obtained from overburden rocks of open-pit mines and waste coal improves the quality of ceramic wall materials produced by the method of compression molding by more than 1.5 times compared to the brick with a traditional mass preparation.

  3. Engaging the Shopping Experience:Experience design as a way to increase customers' emotional engagement on brick-and-mortar stores

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Sanne Dollerup

    2017-01-01

    The revenues in brick-and-mortar stores have declined in the last decade, not least due to competition from online shopping. This thesis investigates how traditional stores might use principles from experience design to reverse this tendency. Brick-and-mortar stores are very important in contributing to urban environments as they increase social interaction, economic growth, the ability to attract tourists and civic diversity. They are multi-sensual phenomena’s with enormous potential that of...

  4. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar Ahmad; Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar; Sohail Aziz Khan; Tabassum Nasir; Sajjad Ahmad; Muhammad Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of rado...

  5. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del; Garcia Nieto, P.J.; Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed

  6. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Coz Diaz, J.J.; Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I. [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Garcia Nieto, P.J. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed. (author)

  7. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: juanjo@constru.uniovi.es; Garcia Nieto, P.J. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I. [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed.

  8. Life prolongation of hot metal ladle by improved shape and material of the bricks; Renga keijo to zaishitsu kaizen ni yoru yosenka jumyo no encho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Toru.; Mori, Hajime.; Fukushima, Hironori.; Iiyama, Makoto. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Keihin Works, NKK, intended to extend life of a hot metal ladle and reduction of refractory cost by improving shapes and materials of bricks. The refractory composition of the ladle is a 4-layer structure constituted of a permanent lining comprising 3 layers of agalmatolite bricks and a 180 mm thick work lining. High alumina bricks are used for a free board part and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C bricks for the slag line part to the ground part. Elevation of the pore rate was observed from the working face to the back face in a brick after use. The former is considered caused by densification of structure and the latter by embrittlement by oxidation. Cracks parallel to the working face are considered caused by structural spalling by the difference of the physical properties. Since cracks vertical to the working face are observed, the finite element method (FEM) thermal stress analysis is applied to inspect the possibility of cracks by thermal stress. A brick whose degree of sintering was suppressed was tri allyl manufactured. It brought wide extension of life and reduction of refractory cost. (NEDO)

  9. Characterization of AMC commercial bricks with different alumina qualities; Caracterizacion de ladrillos comerciales AMC con diferentes calidades de alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, V.; Camerucci, Maria A.; Martinez, A.G. Tomba [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA), CONICET - Fac. de Ingenieria (UNMdP), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    The study of commercial bricks Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO-C (AMC) has some advantages over the analysis of materials prepared in the laboratory, but requires a complete characterization. This paper presents the results of the characterization of commercial bricks AMC with different types of alumina aggregates used in ladles floor. The same is done by several complementary techniques: XRD, DTA / TGA, EPR, volume density and apparent porosity, dilatometric analysis, microstructural analysis by low magnification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with analysis Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and determination of mechanical properties at room temperature (Young's modulus, stress and strain at fracture). The main characteristics and differences in the composition and microstructure, essential data for further analysis of the mechanical behavior and resistance to slag attack of these refractories, are determined. (author)

  10. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of water treatment plant waste for use in soil-cement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessin, L.R.; Destefani, A.Z.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2011-01-01

    The water treatment plants (WTP) for human consumption generate huge amounts of waste in the form of sludge (sludge) that have been over the years mostly inadequately prepared in water resources and the environment. Moreover, traditional methods of disposal of waste water treatment plants commonly used are generally costly activities. An alternative method for disposal of this waste abundant is its incorporation in ceramic products. This work is focused on the physical-chemical and mineralogical composition of a sample of waste water treatment plants from the region of Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ to their use in the manufacture of soil-cement brick. Several characterization techniques were used including X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, picnometry, particle size analysis and plasticity. The experimental results indicate that the waste water treatment plants have the potential to be used in the manufacture of ecologic soil-cement bricks. (author)

  11. Analysis of aluminum base-reaction effect in density, porosity, and thermal insulation of porous fire bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismogroho, Agus Sukarto; Firmansyah, Trisna Bagus; Meidianto, Alwi; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Amal, Muhamad Ikhlasul

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of aluminium corrosion reaction on the density, porosity, and thermal insulation capability of porous fire bricks. The reaction between aluminium and alkaline solution produces hydrogen and other sediment products. The test specimens of fire bricks were made from the mixture of castable cement, aluminium powder of 325 mesh in size (0, 0.1, 1, and 2 wt% with respect to castable cement), and 0.185 M KOH solution. The structural examination of the specimens shows the increase of porosity to 22.7 - 30.6% and the decrease of density in the range of 1.135-1.503 g/mL. In addition, the samples possess average pore size of 0.001-0.003 cm3 with the thermal insulation in the range of 47-78%.

  12. Labour productivity, energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises: A study of brick enterprises cluster in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Subrahmanya, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper probes the role of labour efficiency in promoting energy efficiency and economic performance with reference to small scale brick enterprises' cluster in Malur, Karnataka State, India. In the bricks industry, the technology in use being similar, labour efficiency has a negative influence on energy cost. Therefore, those enterprises that exhibited higher labour productivities had lower average energy intensity and higher returns to scale as compared to those that had lower labour productivities. Considering this, improvement of labour efficiency can be an alternative approach for energy efficiency improvement in energy intensive small scale industries in developing countries like India, which face the obstacle of financial constraints in up-grading technology as a means of energy efficiency improvement

  13. Small Hydropower Plants in Pomerania: The Example of Evolution of Modern Industrial Brick Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    Modernism is usually recognized and associated with the aesthetics of the International Style, represented by white-plastered, horizontally articulated architecture with skimpy decoration, where function was the main imperative of the architects’ ambitions. In Northern Europe though, Modernism also revealed its brick face, representing different manners, styles, and appearances. The brick face of Modernism reflected, in fact, the complexity of the modern change, breaking ties with the historic styles of the 19th century and being still present in the beginning of the 20th century. Regardless of the cosmopolitan character of the International Style and its unified aesthetics, architects tried to find and keep shades of individuality. This was especially visible in the references to either regional or even local traditions. This diversity of modernistic architecture is intensified by its different functions. The language of industrial architecture derives its forms directly from its nature of pure functional idiom, devoted to economic and functional optimization. The industrial form usually seems subordinate to the technical nature of objects. But regardless of that, in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century we can observe an interesting evolution of styles and tendencies in industrial architecture, even in such a narrow and specific field like the architecture of small hydropower plants. The purpose of the research was to recognize the evolution of the architectural form of hydropower plants as a developing branch of industry in the first half of the 20th century. In Pomerania, during this period, a dynamic growth of investments took place, which concerned the use of the Pomeranian rivers’ potential to produce electric energy. At the end of the 19th century, electricity had a strong meaning as a symbol of a radical civilizational change, which influenced also the aesthetic aspects of architecture. This could suggest that the architecture of

  14. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...... insulation on north-orientated walls, since the drying potential is reduced. Additionally, caution should be exercised also with west-orientated walls....

  15. The influence of the pore structure on the moisture transport in lime plaster-brick systems as studied by NMR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Pel, L.; Kunecký, Jiří; Slížková, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 142, July (2017), s. 395-409 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : drying * moisture transport * NMR * pore water distribution * plaster * brick * lime * metakaolin * water-repellent * linseed oil Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817304543

  16. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero

    2015-01-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra eq ), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra eq in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material. (author)

  17. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  18. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure Predictions for Graphite Reflector Bricks in the Very High Temperature Reactor with the Prismatic Core Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Gyanender, E-mail: sing0550@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111, Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Fok, Alex [Minnesota Dental Research in Biomaterials and Biomechanics, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 515, Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111, Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Mantell, Susan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111, Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Failure probability of VHTR reflector bricks predicted though crack modeling. • Criterion chosen for defining failure strongly affects the predictions. • Breaching of the CRC could be significantly delayed through crack arrest. • Capability to predict crack initiation and propagation demonstrated. - Abstract: Graphite is used in nuclear reactor cores as a neutron moderator, reflector and structural material. The dimensions and physical properties of graphite change when it is exposed to neutron irradiation. The non-uniform changes in the dimensions and physical properties lead to the build-up of stresses over the course of time in the core components. When the stresses reach the critical limit, i.e. the strength of the material, cracking occurs and ultimately the components fail. In this paper, an explicit crack modeling approach to predict the probability of failure of a VHTR prismatic reactor core reflector brick is presented. Firstly, a constitutive model for graphite is constructed and used to predict the stress distribution in the reflector brick under in-reactor conditions of high temperature and irradiation. Fracture simulations are performed as part of a Monte Carlo analysis to predict the probability of failure. Failure probability is determined based on two different criteria for defining failure time: A) crack initiation and B) crack extension to near control rod channel. A significant difference is found between the failure probabilities based on the two criteria. It is predicted that the reflector bricks will start cracking during the time range of 5–9 years, while breaching of the control rod channels will occur during the period of 11–16 years. The results show that, due to crack arrest, there is a significantly delay between crack initiation and breaching of the control rod channel.

  20. In-plane cyclic behaviour of unfired clay and earth brick walls in both unstrengthened and strengthened conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hračov, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Garofano, A.; Urushadze, Shota

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 8 (2016), s. 3293-3308 ISSN 1359-5997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-41574P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244123 - NIKER Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : seismic strengthening * retrofitting * earth brick walls * experimental tests * energy dissipation * earthquake engineering Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1617/s11527-015-0720-5

  1. The Effect of Water Cement Ratio on Cement Brick Containing High Density Polyethylene (HDPE as Sand Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noorwirdawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal can contribute to the problem of environmental pollution. Most of the waste material is plastic based, because the nature of difficult of plastic degradable by itself. In order to overcome the problem, many study has been conducted on the reuse of plastic material into various field such as civil engineering and construction. In this study, municipal solid waste (MSW in the form of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic was used to replace sand in cement sand brick production. The HDPE used in this study was obtained from a recycle factory at Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. 3% of HDPE replacement was applied in this study, with the cement-sand mix design of 1:6 and water-cement ratio 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 respectively. All specimens were tested for compressive strength and water absorption at 7 and 28 days. The density of the bricks was also recorded. The finding show that brick with 3% HDPE content and 0.45 of water-cement ratio at 28 days of age curing show the highest compressive strength, which is 19.5N/mm2 compared to the control specimen of 14.4 N/mm2.

  2. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  3. Recycling by the brick making industry of ashes from sewage sludge incineration; Verwertung von Aschen der Klaerschlammverbrennung in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, B.; Seyfried, C.F. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). ISAH Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    The present project focuses on the recycling of sewage sludge ashes by the brick making industry. The following aspects are dealt with in detail: Overview of the state of the art of sewage sludge combustion in Germany; influence of wastewater and sludge treatment on ash quality (determination of the seasonal course of chemical sewage sludge composition); use of sewage sludge ashes in as loading material in fluidised-bed furnaces or as clay substitute in brick manufacture; semi-technical trials in ceramic laboratories; assessment of the environmental impact of bricks containing sewage sludge ash; performance of leaching experiments; and examination of the mineralogical binding of heavy metals into the ceramic matrix. [Deutsch] Das Projekt konzentriert sich dabei auf eine Verwertung von Klaerschlammaschen in der Ziegelindustrie, wobei die im folgenden genannten Aspekte im Einzelnen bearbeitet werden: - Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei der Klaerschlammverbrennung in Deutschland - Einfluss der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung auf die Aschequalitaet (Ermittlung von Jahresganglinien der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Klaerschlammaschen) - Einsatz von Klaerschlammaschen aus Wirbelschichtoefen als Zuschlagstoff bzw. Tonersatz bei der Ziegelproduktion - halbtechnische Versuche im keramischen Labor - Abschaetzung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Ziegeln mit Klaerschlammaschezusatz: Durchfuehrung von Auslangversuchen, Untersuchung einer mineralogischen Einbindung von Schwermetallen in die keramische Matrix. (orig./SR)

  4. Prevalence of chest symptoms amongst brick kiln migrant workers and care seeking behaviour: a study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena E; Charles, Niruparani; Watson, Basilea; Chandrasekaran, V; Senthil Kumar, R; Dhanalakshmi, A; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been key principles of TB control. However, this can be a challenge with 'hard to reach' populations such as migrants. Brick kiln workers are one such group of migrants who are exposed to smoke, heat and dust from brick kilns which are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, South India, from August 2011 to June 2012. A total of 4002 individuals from 55 brick kiln chambers were interviewed to determine the prevalence of chest symptoms and care seeking behaviour patterns. Three hundred and seventy-seven (9.4%) chest symptomatics were identified. The most significant variables associated with chest symptoms were illiteracy, alcohol abuse and heavy smoking. Of the chest symptomatics identified, 50.4% took action to get relief from their symptoms. The duration of over 6-month stay in the chamber was significantly associated with taking action (OR, 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3). The TB control programme needs to further explore how to extend its services to such 'hard to reach' groups. Active case finding to ensure early diagnosis and treatment initiation amongst such groups needs consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks, was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH, broken bricks (BB and spent bleaching earth (SBE. Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash, was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, it showed a continued decrease in Ca(OH2 in the hydrating cement as a function of curing time and replacement levels of the cement. Up to 45 % replacement of the OPC by CSBR produced a Portland pozzolana cement (PPC material that passed the relevant Kenyan Standard. Incorporation of the CSBR in OPC reduces the resultant calcium hydroxide from hydrating Portland cement. The use of the waste materials in production of cementitious material would rid the environment of wastes and lead to production of low cost cementitious material.

  6. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete with demolished waste concrete aggregate and clay brick aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocan; Lou, Cong; Du, Geng; Li, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhiwu; Li, Liqin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of the replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) with either recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) or recycled clay brick aggregate (RBA) on the compressive strengths of the hardened concrete. Two grades (C25 and C50) of concrete were investigated, which were achieved by using different water-to-cement ratios. In each grade concrete five different replacement rates, 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were considered. In order to improve the performance of the recycled aggregates in the concrete mixes, the RCA and RBA were carefully sieved by using the optimal degradation. In this way the largest reduction in the 28-day compressive strength was found to be only 7.2% and 9.6% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RCA, and 11% and 13% for C25 and C50 recycled concrete when the NCA was replaced 100% by RBA. In general, the concrete with RCA has better performance than the concrete with RBA. The comparison of the present experimental results with those reported in literature for hardened concrete with either RCA or RBA demonstrates the effectiveness in improving the compressive strength by using the optimal gradation of recycled aggregates.

  7. Fiber Reinfoced Polymer Used for Flooding Protection of Engineering Structures Made of RC and Brick Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oprişan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural floods are becoming nowadays a frequent problem to be dealt with, by both the population and the authorities. Floods and flood related natural disasters act against the civil, industrial and agricultural structures by the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures of water. A set of protective solutions based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP composite materials, for structural elements of buildings subjected to flood loadings, is proposed and analysed. These solutions are achieved by using the hand lay-up forming technique utilizing glass, carbon or aramid fibers fabrics pre-impregnated with thermosetting epoxy, polyester or vynilester resins. The application of these FRP composites is carried out on reinforced concrete columns and beams as well as on brick masonry works aiming to increase in the overall load bearing capacity, especially against horizontal loads. An improved protection against excessive humidity is also envisaged. The Finite Elements Method based LUSAS software was used to simulate a partially flooded structure. The numerical modeling was carried out in both the un-strengthened and strengthened conditions of the structure in order to assess the increasing in load and deformation capacities of the structural elements. Volumetric finite elements were used for modeling the concrete and masonry members.

  8. Plane Geometry: From the Floor Plan of a House to the Quantity of Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Scott Puhl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the application of a potentially meaningful teaching strategy for plane geometry which was applied in high school as an activity of identifying and reconstructing students’ previous knowledge on spatial geometry. The proposal aims to promote the meaningful learning, encourage students as active and more autonomous subjects and show the importance of studying this content. The study began with reading a story about the fire of Kiss Nightclub, where overcrowding was cited as one of the causes. To understand the mathematical sense of overcrowding, the students built the 1 m² and simulated the situation of the club on the night of the tragedy. Further, taking advantage of the interest and involvement of students, they were challenged to build the floor plan of a house. For this, chosen and measured bricks and ceramic would use in building the house. Finally, in joint work, all critically analyzed the work of the groups, plans and models, making a comparison between the various projects. The evaluation of this experience was very positive, because the students were motivated, learning together, and realizing the significance and meaning of the study of areas of plane figures.

  9. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  10. Direct measurement of the wetting front capillary pressure in a clay brick ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou, Ioannis [Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hall, Christopher [Centre for Materials Science and Engineering and School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Wilson, Moira A [Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hoff, William D [Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Carter, Margaret A [Manchester Centre for Civil and Construction Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-21

    The absorption of a liquid into a rectangular bar of an initially dry porous material that is sealed on all surfaces except the inflow face is analysed in terms of Sharp Front theory. Sharp Front models are developed for both complete and incomplete displacement of air ahead of the advancing wetting front. Experiments are described from which a characteristic capillary potential of the material is obtained by measuring the equilibrium pressure of the air displaced and compressed ahead of the advancing wetting front. Results for the absorption of water and n-heptane by a fired clay brick ceramic suggest that this wetting front capillary pressure (or capillary potential) scales approximately with the surface tension and also that the permeability scales inversely with the liquid viscosity. The pressure of the air trapped in the wetted region is found to be the same as the pressure of the displaced air. For this material the wetting front capillary pressure for water at 20 C is 0.113 MPa, equivalent to a hydraulic tension head of 11.5 m and to a Young-Laplace pore diameter of 2.6 {mu}m. The capillary pressure so measured is apparently a fundamental percolation property of the material that can be interpreted as the air pressure at which liquid phase continuity and unsaturated conductivity both vanish. The method described can be applied generally to porous materials.

  11. Prospects of Coir Fibre as Reinforcement in Termite Mound Clay Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Banjo A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is to develop an appropriate environmental friendly building material that would be sourced, obtained locally and used for construction of structures at a low cost by using termite mound soil, reinforced with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%. and 4% coir fibres. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted on the different composition samples after curing. The particle size distribution showed that clay had the largest percentage with a moisture content of 3.53%, specific gravity of 2.0, liquid limit of 30.5% and plastic limit value of 25.4. The compressive strength test showed a decrease with increase in fibre content from 1% upward, modulus of rupture test showed that increase in fibre content leads to a corresponding increase in rupture while the modulus of elasticity test showed that from 3% to 4% fibre content, a decrease in the elasticity occurred. It can be concluded that low fibre inclusion into compressed termite mound brick is feasible if fibre content do not exceed 2% and thus can be used for both load and non-loading bearing structures.

  12. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied. PMID:28788170

  13. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: analeonor.ventura.2016@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  14. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  15. Thermal conductivity of cement stabilized earth bricks reinforced with date palm fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrehail, Tahar; Zemmouri, Noureddine; Agoudjil, Boudjemaa

    2018-05-01

    Recently, some cheap materials are available and adaptable to climate seem to meet current requirements. This paper investigates the thermal and mechanical properties of cement stabilized earth bricks(CSEB) reinforced with date palm fibers (DPF). The main goal is to develop and expand the field of use of these materials in the construction sector, and investigate the possibility of new bio composite as renewable, insulating building material with low cost, made of earth and reinforced with palm wood waste. In this study, a particular interest is brought to the thermal and mechanical characteristics, which constitute a decisive character for the choice of a building material. A series of earthen samples stabilized at 5% and reinforced with DPF of various fiber weight fractions, (5%, 10%), were manufactured and compacted applying two levels compacting, (5MPa and 10MPa). Compressive strength and thermal conductivity were experimentally studied; heating capacity and diffusivity were indirectly calculated. It was found that the fibrous reinforcement proved thermal conductivity and compressive strength. it also enhanced thermal performances. Thus, the results found allow us to investigate hygrothermal behaviour and its impact on occupants comfort.

  16. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  17. Achieving graduate outcomes in undergraduate nursing education: following the Yellow Brick Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Adele; Bentley, Karyn; Langtree, Tanya; Mills, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nursing practice is a dynamic and constantly changing field within healthcare, with well-documented challenges to maintaining a suitably skilled workforce to meet the needs of the community it serves. Undergraduate nursing education provides the mandatory minimum requirements for professional registration. Each nursing program has clearly stated graduate attributes, qualities that their graduates will possess on graduation. The aim of this paper is to stimulate discussion about graduate attributes for nurses, a transferrable set of specific attributes that make nursing graduates work ready. This paper focuses on identifying specific attributes, the embedding of those attributes in nursing education, particularly through role modelling, with the aim of producing a future workforce that is knowledgeable, compassionate and confident. The graduate attributes are likened to the qualities sought by the characters in 'The Wizard of Oz'; brains, heart and courage and the learning process as the 'Yellow Brick Road'. There is a relative lack of discussion about role modelling by nurse educators for nursing students, a potentially undervalued learning experience that we believe must be brought to the forefront of discussions pertaining to undergraduate nursing education and achieving graduate outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-08-19

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  19. Coupled Effect of Elevated Temperature and Cooling Conditions on the Properties of Ground Clay Brick Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Abd El Aziz, Magdy; Abdelaleem, Salh; Heikal, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    When a concrete structure is exposed to fire and cooling, some deterioration in its chemical resistivity and mechanical properties takes place. This deterioration can reach a level at which the structure may have to be thoroughly renovated or completely replaced. In this investigation, four types of cement mortars, ground clay bricks (GCB)/sand namely 0/3, 1/2, 2/1 and 3/0, were used. Three different cement contents were used: 350, 400 and 450 kg/m3. All the mortars were prepared and cured in tap water for 3 months and then kept in laboratory atmospheric conditions up to 6 months. The specimens were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 700°C for 3h and then cooled by three different conditions: water, furnace, and air cooling. The results show that all the mortars subjected to fire, irrespective of cooling mode, suffered a significant reduction in compressive strength. However, the mortars cooled in air exhibited a relativity higher reduction in compressive strength rather than those water or furnace cooled. The mortars containing GCB/sand (3/0) and GCB/sand (1/2) exhibited a relatively higher thermal stability than the others.

  20. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT MORTARS REPLACED BY GROUND WASTE BRICK IN DIFFERENT AGGRESSIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILHAMI DEMIR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the sulphate resistance of cement mortars when subjected to different exposure conditions. Cement mortars were prepared using ground waste brick (GWB as a pozzolanic partial replacement for cement at replacement levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5, 10%, 12.5 and 15%. Mortar specimens were stored under three different conditions: continuous curing in lime-saturated tab water (TW, continuous exposure to 5% sodium sulphate solution (SS, and continuous exposure to 5% ammonium nitrate solution (AN, at a temperature of 20 ± 3 ºC, for 7, 28, 90, and 180 days. Prisms with dimensions of 25×25×285 mm, to determine the expansions of the mortar samples; and another set of prisms with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm, were prepared to calculate the compressive strength of the samples. It was determined that the GWB replacement ratios between 2.5% and 10% decreased the 180 days expansion values. The highest compressive strength values were found for the samples with 10% replacement ratio in the TW, SS, and AN conditions for 180 days. The microstructure of the mortars were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX.

  2. Electrochemical upgrading of different ashes for use in production of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan

    and power plants. The bioashes had Cd concentrations of 9.0-9.7 mg/kg TS, which exceeds the limiting value of 5 mg/kg TS for the ash for agriculture purposes. The use of the ashes directly in brick production results in a loss of plant nutrients, mainly potassium. Potassium is generally present in the water...... concentration varying between 20 and 67 mg/kg TS. The enrichment of other heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn, was also observed due to the high ash dissolution ranging from 75% to 88% of the initial mass. Considering the enrichment effect of water washing on heavy metals, recycling of the washed...... possible, after being treated first by water washing to extract plant nutrients, and then by EDR to extract easily mobilized Cd and the mobile fraction of other heavy metals to lower the leaching to acceptable low levels. The recycling of MSWI fly ash faces challenges from technical, legislative...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using Recycled Cement-Sand Brick as Coarse Aggregates Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohari, Ilya; Farhani Ishak, Nor; Amin, Norliyati Mohd

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the result of replacing natural course aggregate with recycled cement-sand brick (CSB) towards the mechanical properties of concrete. Natural aggregates were used in this study as a control sample to compare with recycled coarse aggregates. This study was also carried to determine the optimum proportion of coarse aggregates replacement to produce lightweight concrete. Besides, this study was conducted to observe the crack and its behaviour development during the mechanical testing. Through this study, four types of concrete mixed were prepared, which were the control sample, 25%, 50% and 75% replacement of CSB. The test conducted to determine the effectiveness of recycled CSB as coarse aggregates replacement in this study were slump test, density measurement, compression test, and flexural test and. The strength of concrete was tested at 7 days and 28 days of curing. From the results obtained, the optimum proportion which produced the highest strength is 25% replacement of recycled CSB. The compressive and flexural strength has decreased by 10%-12% and 4%-34% respectively compared to the control sample. The presence of recycled coarse aggregates in sample has decreased the density of concrete by 0.8%-3% compared to the control sample.

  4. Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0.07 W/mK in the unbound samples, and around double that value for the mineralized samples, which present a much higher volumetric specific heat (1.6 MJ/m3K and transmission loss capability. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples.

  5. Migration of itx (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jamnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, itx, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of itx in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. itx can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of itx was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of itx or other substances from its packages.itx is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (who categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of itx following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (efsa concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  6. Migration of ITX (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jamnicki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, ITX, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of ITX in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. ITX can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of ITX was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of ITX or other substances from its packages.ITX is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (WHO categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of ITX following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  7. User-friendly freehand ultrasound calibration using Lego bricks and automatic registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yiming; Yan, Charles Xiao Bo; Drouin, Simon; De Nigris, Dante; Kochanowska, Anna; Collins, D Louis

    2016-09-01

    As an inexpensive, noninvasive, and portable clinical imaging modality, ultrasound (US) has been widely employed in many interventional procedures for monitoring potential tissue deformation, surgical tool placement, and locating surgical targets. The application requires the spatial mapping between 2D US images and 3D coordinates of the patient. Although positions of the devices (i.e., ultrasound transducer) and the patient can be easily recorded by a motion tracking system, the spatial relationship between the US image and the tracker attached to the US transducer needs to be estimated through an US calibration procedure. Previously, various calibration techniques have been proposed, where a spatial transformation is computed to match the coordinates of corresponding features in a physical phantom and those seen in the US scans. However, most of these methods are difficult to use for novel users. We proposed an ultrasound calibration method by constructing a phantom from simple Lego bricks and applying an automated multi-slice 2D-3D registration scheme without volumetric reconstruction. The method was validated for its calibration accuracy and reproducibility. Our method yields a calibration accuracy of [Formula: see text] mm and a calibration reproducibility of 1.29 mm. We have proposed a robust, inexpensive, and easy-to-use ultrasound calibration method.

  8. Thermoluminescence dating analysis at the site of an ancient brick structure at Pengkalan Bujang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Mahat, Rosli Hj; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Price, David M; Bradley, D.A.; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Bujang Valley is a well-known historical complex found in the north-west of peninsular Malaysia; more than 50 ancient monuments and hundreds of artefacts have been discovered throughout the area. The discovery of these suggests Bujang Valley to have been an important South East Asian trading centre over the period from the 10th to 14th centuries. Present work concerns thermoluminescence (TL) dating analysis of shards collected from a historic monument located at Pengkalan Bujang in Bujang Valley. All the shards were prepared using the fine grain technique and the additive dose method was applied in determining the paleodose of each shard. The annual dose rate was obtained by measuring the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th and K) in the samples and their surroundings. The TL ages of the shards were found to range between 330±21 years and 920±69 years, indicative of the last firing of the bricks and tiles from which the shards originated, some dating back to the period during which the historical complex remained active. - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence analysis of shards sample from Pengkalan Bujang. • Fine grain technique and additive dose method were applied to determine paleodose. • Measuring concentration of U, Th and K in the samples and their surroundings. • TL ages obtained indicative of the last firing of the shards.

  9. Direct measurement of the wetting front capillary pressure in a clay brick ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Hall, Christopher; Wilson, Moira A; Hoff, William D; Carter, Margaret A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of a liquid into a rectangular bar of an initially dry porous material that is sealed on all surfaces except the inflow face is analysed in terms of Sharp Front theory. Sharp Front models are developed for both complete and incomplete displacement of air ahead of the advancing wetting front. Experiments are described from which a characteristic capillary potential of the material is obtained by measuring the equilibrium pressure of the air displaced and compressed ahead of the advancing wetting front. Results for the absorption of water and n-heptane by a fired clay brick ceramic suggest that this wetting front capillary pressure (or capillary potential) scales approximately with the surface tension and also that the permeability scales inversely with the liquid viscosity. The pressure of the air trapped in the wetted region is found to be the same as the pressure of the displaced air. For this material the wetting front capillary pressure for water at 20 C is 0.113 MPa, equivalent to a hydraulic tension head of 11.5 m and to a Young-Laplace pore diameter of 2.6 μm. The capillary pressure so measured is apparently a fundamental percolation property of the material that can be interpreted as the air pressure at which liquid phase continuity and unsaturated conductivity both vanish. The method described can be applied generally to porous materials

  10. Reversible unfolding of infectious prion assemblies reveals the existence of an oligomeric elementary brick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Igel-Egalon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian prions, the pathogens that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, propagate by self-perpetuating the structural information stored in the abnormally folded, aggregated conformer (PrPSc of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC. To date, no structural model related to prion assembly organization satisfactorily describes how strain-specified structural information is encoded and by which mechanism this information is transferred to PrPC. To achieve progress on this issue, we correlated the PrPSc quaternary structural transition from three distinct prion strains during unfolding and refolding with their templating activity. We reveal the existence of a mesoscopic organization in PrPSc through the packing of a highly stable oligomeric elementary subunit (suPrP, in which the strain structural determinant (SSD is encoded. Once kinetically trapped, this elementary subunit reversibly loses all replicative information. We demonstrate that acquisition of the templating interface and infectivity requires structural rearrangement of suPrP, in concert with its condensation. The existence of such an elementary brick scales down the SSD support to a small oligomer and provide a basis of reflexion for prion templating process and propagation.

  11. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of the addition of ground olive stones on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezki, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effect of ground olive stones (GOS on the performance of fired clay bricks. Seven different clay-GOS mixes with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 wt % of GOS respectively were used for making fired brick samples. All samples were fired at 900 °C. The technological properties of the resultant material were then determined, including shrinkage, apparent density, pore size distribution, thermal conductivity, water absorption, and compressive and flexural strength. The addition of GOS to the mixture reduced the compressive strength of fired clay bricks. All clay brick pieces exhibited low firing shrinkage. It was apparent that as the percentage of GOS increased in the body, there was a noticeable increase in porosity. The water absorption coefficient decreased with increasing additions. The results indicated that thermal conductivity decreases with decrease in density and increase in porosity in fired clay bricks.En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la incorporación de huesos de aceituna triturados en las prestaciones de ladrillos de arcilla cocida. Se utilizaron siete proporciones de huesos de aceituna 0 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 %, 4 %, 5 % y 10 % en peso. Todas las muestras se calcinaron a 900 °C y posteriormente se determinaron las propiedades resultantes, incluyendo la densidad aparente, retracción, distribución de tamaños de poro, conductividad térmica, absorción de agua y resistencias mecánicas. La adición de huesos de aceituna molidos a la mezcla redujo la resistencia a la compresión de los ladrillos de arcilla cocida. Además se observó que todas las piezas de ladrillo mostraron baja retracción tras exposición a altas temperaturas. Como era de esperar a medida que el porcentaje de huesos de aceituna molidos aumentó, la porosidad se incrementó de manera evidente. El coeficiente de absorción de agua disminuyó con el aumento del porcentaje de sustitución. Los resultados indicaron que la conductividad t

  13. Brick durability and conservation treatment (Santa María de Jesús chapel portal, Seville, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas, R.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Durability differences of 2 types of brick from Santa María de Jesús Chapel (Sevilla and 2 treatments for its restoration have been studied. They have been characterizad using XRD and SEM, as well as their physical, hydric and mechanical properties. Samples prepared with bricks from the chapel have been submitted to salt crystallization test, to identify decay causes and mechanisms.The red brick present the lowest firing temperature, lower porosity and a great proportion of micropores. Physical and mechanical properties don’t change significantly with the treatments, only hygric properties vary with the water repellent. The accelerated aging test revealed significant improvement in the behaviour of yellow brick, but no change in the decay mechanism of red brick (Typical of microporous materials or its durability is observed.Se ha estudiado la alteración diferencial de los 2 tipos de ladrillo de la iglesia de Santa María de Jesús (Sevilla y 2 tratamientos para su restauración. Se han caracterizado por DRX y SEM, así como sus propiedades físicas, hídricas y mecánicas. Probetas preparadas de ladrillos de la iglesia se han sometido a ensayo de cristalización de sales para determinar las causas y los mecanismos de alteración.El ladrillo rojo es el que presenta menor temperatura de cocción, menor porosidad y mayor proporción de microporos. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de ambos ladrillos no varían significativamente con los tratamientos, sólo las propiedades hídricas cambian con el hidrófugo. En el ensayo de alteración mejora mucho el comportamiento del ladrillo amarillo, mientras que en el rojo no varía la morfología de alteración (características de materiales con microporos ni la durabilidad.

  14. Archaeometric study of bricks from the ancient defence walls around the town of Pavia in northern Italy

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    Veniale, F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on bricks sampled from the defense walls around the historic town of Pavia (northern Italy erected during Roman (uncertain and “Spanish”(sixteenth-seventeenth centuries times. An analysis of colour, macro- and micro-chemical composition,mineralogical clusters and structural-textural features showed that similar raw materials were used in the manufacture of these bricks, although certain variations were identified: particle size is finer in Roman bricks, while the “Spanish” version contains ground carbonate and “chamotte” additives. The “Spanish” bricks,fired at lower temperatures, are more porous. The wide range of firing temperatures used to make “Spanish” bricks was very likely related to the intended use. The sporadic presence of maghemite is discussed in the context of the atmosphere prevailing in the kilns. The “Spanish” bricks are lighter in colour as a result of their carbonate content and lower firing temperature. These characteristics, which affect the weather resistance of the different types of brick, should be taken into account in restoration work.Se investigan ladrillos recogidos en las murallas defensivas de la histórica ciudad de Pavía (norte de Italia, que fueron construidas en tiempos romanos (no establecidosy “españoles” (siglos XVI y XVII.En base al color, composición química tanto total como puntual, asociaciones mineralógicas y características texturales,se concluye que se utilizó una materia prima similar en ambas épocas, con algunas particularidades: granulometría más fina en los romanos, adición de carbonato molido y chamota en los “españoles”. Por su parte, la porosidad es mayor en los ladrillos “españoles”. El amplio rango de temperaturas de cocción observado para estos últimos debe estar relacionado con los distintos usos para los cuales fueron destinados. La presencia esporádica de

  15. Behavior of Low Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Made with Fresh and Recycled Brick Aggregates

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    Md. Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been widely accepted in construction sectors as the replacement of coarse aggregate in order to minimize the excessive use of natural resources. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to observe the influence of low grade steel fiber reinforcements on the stress-strain behavior of concrete made with recycled and fresh brick aggregates. In addition, compressive strength by destructive and nondestructive tests, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus are determined. Hooked end steel wires with 50 mm of length and an aspect ratio of 55.6 are used as fiber reinforcements in a volume fraction of 0% (control case, 0.50%, and 1.00% in concrete mixes. The same gradation of aggregates and water-cement ratio (w/c=0.44 were used to assess the effect of steel fiber in all these concrete mixes. All tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 28 days to perceive the effect of age on different mechanical properties. The experimental results show that around 10%~15% and 40%~60% increase in 28 days compressive strength and tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete, respectively, compared to those of the control case. It is observed that the effect of addition of 1% fiber on the concrete compressive strength is little compared to that of 0.5% steel fiber addition. On the other hand, strain of concrete at failure of steel fiber reinforced concrete has increased almost twice compared to the control case. A simple analytical model is also proposed to generate the ascending portions of the stress-strain curve of concrete. There exists a good correlation between the experimental results and the analytical model. A relatively ductile failure is observed for the concrete made with low grade steel fibers.

  16. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  17. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr -1 ) was converted into harvested biomass (m 3 ) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m -3 . For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 10 3 m 3 of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 10 3 m 3 round wood and 240.8 x 10 3 m 3 branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO 2 , 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH 4 , 442 t NO X , 288 t NO and 12 t N 2 O per annum. The combined CO 2 -equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO X and NO) is 455 666 t yr -1 . While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management

  18. Architecture, matter, and historiography: interfaces between technological investigation and historical research based on ceramic bricks in the city of Santa Leopoldina (ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential of building materials as a tool for historiography, this article analyzes ceramic bricks in the constructive system of the buildings at the Santa Leopoldina Historical Site in the State of Espírito Santo - protected at the state level in 1983. Beyond the need for documentation of traditional Brazilian construction systems and the indispensability of technical support for intervention in the constructed heritage, we address the importance of technological research in understanding the building process. The adopted criteria are based on a physical and mineralogical analysis of a sample group as well as an interpretation of this analysis, considering the historicity of architecture as a knowledge tool for society. As a theoretical foundation, there is a need to understand the raw materials used in the bricks, as well as the typical methods employed in the 19th century for their production. Methodologically, the analysis involves laboratory tests for the physical and mineralogical characterization of the bricks. The results were correlated with the historical research on the production of ceramic bricks in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo, between the 19th and early 20th centuries, and include considerations regarding the manufacture of ceramic bricks in Santa Leopoldina, helping to understand the constructive methods used by non-Lusitanian European immigrants who colonized the interior of the state from the second half of the 19th century onwards

  19. Investigating the effectiveness of using agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane baggasse (SB) to produce low thermal conductivity clay bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohamad Hazmi; Deraman, Rafikullah; Saman, Nor Sarwani Mat

    2017-12-01

    In Malaysia, 45% of the average household electricity was consumed by air conditioners to create an acceptable indoor environment. This high energy consumption was mostly related to poor thermal performance of the building envelope. Therefore, selecting a low thermal conductivity of brick wall was of considerable importance in creating energy efficient buildings. Previously, numerous researchers reported the potential used of agricultural waste as an additive in building materials to enhance their thermal properties. The aim of this study is to examine how agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) can act as additive agents in a fired clay brick manufacturing process to produce a low thermal conductivity clay brick. In this study, these agricultural wastes were individually mixed with clay soil in different proportions ranging from 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight. Physical and mechanical properties including soil physical properties, as well as thermal conductivity were performed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990, BS 3921: 1985 and ASTM C518. The results reveal that incorporating 5% of EFB as an additive component into the brick making process significantly enhances the production of a low thermal conductivity clay brick as compared to other waste alternatives tested. This finding suggests that EFB waste was a potential additive material to be used for the thermal property enhancement of the building envelope.

  20. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of a Brick Delivery System Based on Multi-Trip Vehicle Loader Routing Problem for Small Construction Sites

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    Heungjo An

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While large construction sites have on-site loaders to handle heavy and large packages of bricks, small brick manufacturers employ a truck-mounted loader or sometimes deploy a loader truck to accompany normal brick delivery trucks to small construction sites lacking on-site loaders. It may be very challenging for small contractors to manage a sustainable delivery system that is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. To address this issue, this paper proposes to solve a multi-trip vehicle loader routing problem by uniquely planning routes and schedules of several types of vehicles considering their synchronized operations at customer sites and multi trips. This paper also evaluates the sustainability of the developed model from both economic and environmental perspectives. Case studies based on small construction sites in the Middle East demonstrate applications of the proposed model to make the most economical plans for delivering bricks. Compared to the single-trip vehicle loader routing problem, the proposed model reduces, on average, 18.7% of the total delivery cost while increasing CO2 emission negligibly. The economic benefit is mainly achieved by reducing the required number of vehicles. Brick plant managers can use the proposed mathematical model to plan the most cost-effective delivery schedules sustainably while minimizing negative environmental effects.