WorldWideScience

Sample records for breeding sites

  1. Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection, Breeding Density and Breeding Success in the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Hiraldo, F.; Bustamante, Javier

    1993-01-01

    1. We examined the nest site selection, breeding density and breeding success in the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in relation to physiography, climate, land-use and degree of human disturbance. The study area was in the Pyrenean Cordillera, Spain, where the largest European population of this species occurs. Univariate analyses and Generalized Linear Models were employed. 2. Models correctly classified the 78% of the cliffs analysed (occupied by be...

  2. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  3. Intermittent breeding as a cost of site fidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent breeding (skipping a breeding season) can be the result of an adaptive decision by a focal individual, trading current reproductive success in favour of future reproductive success (residual reproductive value hypothesis). In contrast, an individual can also be forced by conspecifics to

  4. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae) from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    OpenAIRE

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam; Bharath Reddy; Venugopal Satla; Imran Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  5. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16 was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

  6. Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Filipe Vieira Santos; Morais, Maira Moreira; Ribeiro, Sérvio Pontes; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches. PMID:26154742

  7. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  8. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  9. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  10. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  11. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel; Gill

    2000-10-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subArctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11032650

  12. Roseate Tern breeding dispersal and fidelity: Responses to two newly restored colony sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, Jeffrey A.; Monticelli, David; Nichols, James; Hines, James; Nisbet, Ian; Cormons, Grace; Hays, Helen; Hatch, Jeremy; Mostello, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We used 22 yr of capture–mark–reencounter (CMR) data collected from 1988 to 2009 on about 12,500 birds at what went from three to five coastal colony sites in Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, United States, to examine spatial and temporal variation in breeding dispersal/fidelity rates of adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii). At the start of our study, Roseate Terns nested at only one site (Bird Island) in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, but two more sites in this bay (Ram and Penikese Islands) were subsequently recolonized and became incorporated into our CMR metapopulation study. We examined four major hypotheses about factors we thought might influence colony-site fidelity and movement rates in the restructured system. We found some evidence that colony-site fidelity remained higher at long-established sites compared with newer ones and that breeding dispersal was more likely to occur among nearby sites than distant ones. Sustained predation at Falkner Island, Connecticut, did not result in a sustained drop in fidelity rates of breeders. Patterns of breeding dispersal differed substantially at the two restored sites. The fidelity of Roseate Terns at Bird dropped quickly after nearby Ram was recolonized in 1994, and fidelity rates for Ram soon approached those for Bird. After an oil spill in Buzzards Bay in April 2003, hazing (deliberate disturbance) of the terns at Ram prior to the start of egg-laying resulted in lowering of fidelity at this site, a decrease in immigration from Bird, and recolonization of Penikese by Roseate Terns. Annual fidelity rates at Penikese increased somewhat several years after the initial recolonization, but they remained much lower there than at all the other sites throughout the study period. The sustained high annual rates of emigration from Penikese resulted in the eventual failure of the restoration effort there, and in 2013, no Roseate Terns nested at this site.

  13. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  14. Seasonal and Topographical Factors Affecting Breeding Sites of Culex Larvae in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Warabhorn PREECHAPORN; Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE; Jirawat SAETON

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the seasons affect the key breeding sites of Culex larvae in three topographical areas: mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. We examined how the number of Culex larvae varied in different types of water containers. Water containers were categorised into the following groups: indoor/outdoor containers, artificial/natural containers, earthen/plastic containers, containers with/without lids and dark/light coloured containers. Samples were collected from 300 hou...

  15. Breeding site traits of European newts (Triturus macedonicus, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Mesotriton alpestris: Salamandridae) in the Montenegrin karst region

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirović Ruža; Radović D.; Vukov Tanja D.

    2008-01-01

    We recorded the occurrence of three European newt species - the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), the eastern alpine crested newt (Triturus macedonicus), and the alpine newt (Mesotriton alpestris) - in the Montenegrin karst, as well as their breeding site characteristics. In terms of long-lasting breeding site numbers and occupation rate, the most common species is the smooth newt, followed by the alpine newt and the crested newt. The examined water bodies with­out newts showed no significa...

  16. Larval Breeding Sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Visceral Leishmaniasis Endemic Urban Areas in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Casanova; Maria T M Andrighetti; Sampaio, Susy M. P.; Maria L G Marcoris; Fernanda E Colla-Jacques; Angelo P Prado

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's populati...

  17. Breeding sites of Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality

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    Marco Antonio Cruz Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aedes albopictus is a vector mosquito of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and other arboviruses that has been increasing its spread in Jesús Menéndez municipality, Las Tunas, during the last years.Objectives: to identify the breeding sites of the Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality.Methods: the houses were entirely inspected between January and December, 2014, in work cycles of 44 days according to planning. During the inspections all the available probable tanks for Aedes albopictus were checked and treated by the personnel in charge of the integrated management of vectors. In each visit all the water containers were checked, looking for larvae of this species. Samples were taken from each kind of container where there were larvae.Results: presence of Aedes albopictus was identified in 11 of the Popular Councils mainly in the three urban areas during the whole year. It was observed that the breeding places are diverse; the artificial tanks were the ones that prevailed.Conclusions: the variety of breeding places used by the Aedes albopictus was demonstrated in Jesús Menéndez municipality during every month of the year.

  18. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  19. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  20. Some characteristics of the larval breeding sites of Anopheles culicifacies species B and E in Sri Lanka

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    S.N. Surendran & R. Ramasamy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Anopheles culicifacies Giles, the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, existsas a species complex comprising two sympatric sibling species— species B and E. Species E is reportedto be the major vector of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites in Sri Lanka, whilst speciesB is a poor or nonvector as in India. Knowledge of the breeding habits of the two sibling species canhelp in designing optimal vector control strategies. Hence, a survey was conducted in Sri Lanka tostudy the preferential breeding habitats of An. culicifacies species B and E.Methods: Immature forms of An. culicifacies were collected from identified breeding sites in malariousdistricts. Collected larvae were typed for their sibling species status based on mitotic Y-chromosomestructure. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 10.0.Results: An. culicifacies immature forms were found in 23 collection sites. Among these samples19 were found to have species E and four to have species B. All species B larvae were collected fromTonigala village in the Puttalam district. None of the 23 sites was found to have both species B and E.Species E, the major vector of malaria, appears to breed in variety of breeding sites which can be of anindication of its adaptive variation to exploit breeding sites with varying limnological characteristics.Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings have to be taken into account when formulatingmore effective larval control measures. They also show the need for a detailed study of possibledifferent preferences for larval breeding sites between species B and E.

  1. Detection of potential mosquito breeding sites based on community sourced geotagged images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna

    2014-06-01

    Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.

  2. Breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of black-spotted pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in Ningbo, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Zhengjun WU; Ping LU; Fang ZHANG; Yiming LI

    2008-01-01

    The black-spotted pond frog (Rana nigromacu-lata) is one of the most widely distributed species in China. However, there have been only a few qualitative descrip-tions of their breeding ecology and oviposition site selec-tion. From 2004 to 2006, we investigated the breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of K nigromaculata in Ningbo, China, quantitatively. Analyses of breeding ecology show that: (1) mean frog density in the breeding season was 0.0903 ± 0.0029 individuals per meter (n = 11) (mean ± SE); (2) R. nigromaculata was a sexually dimorphic species, with females significantly larger than males in both body weight and snout-vent length; (3) the clutch size averaged 4643.04± 235.96 eggs (range 1546-7897, n = 50); and (4) the egg size ranged from 1.50 to 1.74 mm in diameter, with an average egg size of 1.6050 ± 0.0046 mm (n = 226). Oviposition sites differed significantly from random sites in percentages of water, bare ground and vegetation cover, water depth (cm), water temperature (°C) and water turbidity. Rana nigro-maculata preferred microhabitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, while it avoided microha-bitats with deeper water. The results suggest that micro-habitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, but not deeper water, should be priorities for pro-tection and conservation of the breeding habitats of R. nigromaculata.

  3. Breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus Lutz in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia

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    María Cristina Carrasquilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus are described for the first time in western Boyacá Province, Colombia, where this species is a public health problem. In addition to being a nuisance due to its enormous density and its high biting rates, C. pachymerus cause dermatological problems in the human population. Analysis of microhabitats by the sugar flotation technique and the use of emergence traps allowed us to recover 155 larvae of Culicoides spp and 65 adults of C. pachymerus from peridomiciliary muddy substrates formed by springs of water and constant rainwater accumulation. These important findings could aid in the design of integrated control meas-ures against this pest.

  4. A delay differential equation model for dengue transmission with regular visits to a mosquito breeding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Y.; Yeak, S. H.; Lim, R. S.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    Dengue disease has been known as one of widely transmitted vector-borne diseases which potentially affects millions of people throughout the world especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. One of the main factors contributing in the complication of the transmission process is the mobility of people in which people may get infection in the places far from their home. Here we construct a delay differential equation model for dengue transmission in a closed population where regular visits of people to a mosquito breeding site out of their residency such as traditional market take place daily. Basic reproductive ratio of the system is obtained and depends on the ratio between the outgoing rates of susceptible human and infective human. It is shown that the increase of mobility with different variation of mobility rates may contribute to different level of basic reproductive ratio as well as different level of outbreaks.

  5. Description of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Turkey

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    Uslu U.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Konya province, Turkey. The samples taken from 11 different habitats in Konya province were examined for Culicoides species. The collected adult Culicoides specimens were reared in plastic buckets in our laboratory. Among 2,798 specimens reared, 18 species were identified. Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer, 1918 was the most abundant species reared in the samples taken from mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs; C. circumscriptus, C. nubeculosus (Meigen, 1830 and C. shaklawensis Khalaf, 1957 in moist soil with organic matter; C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, 1964 in moist soils, along watering channels and dripping waters; C. festivipennis Kieffer, 1914 and C. circumscriptus along sewage channel; C. festivipennis in reed sites and along garden watering channels; C. circumscriptus in rain pools; C. odiatus Austen, 1921 and C. circumscriptus in mud near the dams; C. gejgelensis and C. kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 from sites along the stream. No Culicoides was reared in the samples obtained from livestock dung and tree holes. It was observed that C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis and C. shaklawensis preferred mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is the main vector of bluetongue, was not detected in Konya province. The others vectors of bluetongue, C. obsoletus gr. (Meigen, 1818, C. schultzei gr. (Enderlein, 1908 and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus, 1758 were only obtained in little numbers.

  6. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H;

    2003-01-01

    Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...

  7. Breeding site traits of European newts (Triturus macedonicus, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Mesotriton alpestris: Salamandridae in the Montenegrin karst region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ruža

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the occurrence of three European newt species - the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris, the eastern alpine crested newt (Triturus macedonicus, and the alpine newt (Mesotriton alpestris - in the Montenegrin karst, as well as their breeding site characteristics. In terms of long-lasting breeding site numbers and occupation rate, the most common species is the smooth newt, followed by the alpine newt and the crested newt. The examined water bodies with­out newts showed no significant differences of aquatic habitat characteristics compared to water bodies with newts. The factors that explained most of the observed variation in newt breeding site traits were the habitat category and habitat origin. The alpine newt primarily inhabits natural lakes, while the crested newt inhabits artificial breeding sites such as lithotelma and ubao. The smooth newt is less choosy and occurs in different types of natural and artificial habitats. The aquatic requirements of Montenegrin newt species do not differ substantially in many respects from requirements of the core species range populations.

  8. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Casanova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scarcity of information on the immature stages of sand flies and their preferred breeding sites has resulted in the focus of vectorial control on the adult stage using residual insecticide house-spraying. This strategy, along with the treatment of human cases and the euthanasia of infected dogs, has proven inefficient and visceral leishmaniasis continues to expand in Brazil. Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, an intensive search for the breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of two municipalities, Promissão and Dracena, which are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil. During an exploratory period, a total of 962 soil emergence traps were used to investigate possible peridomiciliary breeding site microhabitats such as: leaf litter under tree, chicken sheds, other animal sheds and uncovered debris. A total of 160 sand flies were collected and 148 (92.5% were L. longipalpis. In Promissão the proportion of chicken sheds positive was significantly higher than in leaf litter under trees. Chicken shed microhabitats presented the highest density of L. longipalpis in both municipalities: 17.29 and 5.71 individuals per square meter sampled in Promissão and Dracena respectively. A contagious spatial distribution pattern of L. longipalpis was identified in the emergence traps located in the chicken sheds. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that chicken sheds are the preferential breeding site for L. longipalpis in the present study areas. Thus, control measures targeting the immature stages in chicken sheds could have a great effect on reducing the number of adult flies and consequently the transmission rate of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi.

  9. Assessing the relationship between environmental factors and malaria vector breeding sites in Swaziland using multi-scale remotely sensed data

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    Sabelo Nick Dlamini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many entomological studies have analyzed remotely sensed data to assess the relationship between malaria vector distribution and the associated environmental factors. However, the high cost of remotely sensed products with high spatial resolution has often resulted in analyses being conducted at coarse scales using open-source, archived remotely sensed data. In the present study, spatial prediction of potential breeding sites based on multi-scale remotely sensed information in conjunction with entomological data with special reference to presence or absence of larvae was realized. Selected water bodies were tested for mosquito larvae using the larva scooping method, and the results were compared with data on land cover, rainfall, land surface temperature (LST and altitude presented with high spatial resolution. To assess which environmental factors best predict larval presence or absence, Decision Tree methodology and logistic regression techniques were applied. Both approaches showed that some environmental predictors can reliably distinguish between the two alternatives (existence and non-existence of larvae. For example, the results suggest that larvae are mainly present in very small water pools related to human activities, such as subsistence farming that were also found to be the major determinant for vector breeding. Rainfall, LST and altitude, on the other hand, were less useful as a basis for mapping the distribution of breeding sites. In conclusion, we found that models linking presence of larvae with high-resolution land use have good predictive ability of identifying potential breeding sites.

  10. Sex-specific, inverted rhythms of breeding-site attendance in an Arctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffeldt, Nicholas Per; Merkel, Flemming R

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to daily rhythms that are common in the presence of the geophysical light-dark cycle, organisms at polar latitudes exhibit many diel activity patterns during natural periods of continuous solar light or darkness (polar day and night, respectively), from 24 h rhythms to arrhythmicity. In Arctic Greenland (73.7° N, 56.6° W) during polar day, we observed breeding-site attendance rhythms of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia; n = 21 pairs), a charadriiform seabird, which provide biparental care at the colony. We found that U. lomvia egg-incubation and chick-brooding attendance is rhythmic and synchronized to the geophysical day (mean period length [rhythm duration] ± 95% confidence interval = 24.13 ± 0.52 h). Individual pair members had temporally segregated, sex-specific colony-attendance rhythms that were opposite (inverted) to each other, and these sex-specific rhythms were prominent at the population level. Our results provide a basis for investigating circadian systems at polar latitudes and sex-specific parental-care strategies. PMID:27651530

  11. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

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    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  12. Breeding Bird Populations at Selected Sites on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes breeding bird surveys that were conducted on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge in June and July of 2002. Eleven study plots were established...

  13. Breeding Bird Populations at Selected Sites on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes breeding bird surveys that were conducted on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge in June of 2001. Eleven study plots were established and...

  14. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Nidia; Gramajo Rodrigo; Escobar Maria; Arana Byron; Kroeger Axel; Manrique-Saide Pablo; Petzold Max

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster ra...

  15. [Identification of anopheles breeding sites in the residual foci of low malaria transmission «hotspots» in Central and Western Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, O; Konaté, L; Ndiaye, A; Dia, I; Diallo, A; Taïrou, F; Bâ, E L; Gomis, J F; Ndiaye, J L; Cissé, B; Gaye, O; Faye, O

    2016-02-01

    Malaria incidence has markedly declined in the Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey districts (central and western Senegal) thanks to a scaling up of effective control measures namely LLINs (Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Net), ACTs (Artesunate Combination Therapy) and promoting care seeking. However malaria cases are now maintained by foci of transmission called hotspots. We evaluate the role of anopheles breeding sites in the identification of malaria hotspots in the health districts of Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey. Surveys of breeding sites were made in 6 hotspot villages and 4 non-hotspot villages. A sample was taken in each water point with mosquito larvae by dipping method and the collected specimens were identified to the genus level. Additional parameters as name of the village and breeding sites, type of collection, original water turbidity, presence of vegetation, proximity to dwellings, geographic coordinates, sizes were also collected. Sixty-two water collections were surveyed and monitored between 2013 and 2014. Temporary natural breeding sites were predominant regardless of the epidemiological status of the village. Among the 31 breeding sites located within 500 meters of dwellings in hotspots villages, 70% carried Anopheles larvae during the rainy season while 43% of the 21 breeding sites located at similar distances in non-hotspot villages carried Anopheles larvae during the same period (P = 0.042). At the end of the rainy season, the trend is the same with 27% of positive breeding sites in hotspots and 14% in non-hotspots villages. The breeding sites encountered in hotspots villages are mostly small to medium size and are more productive by Anopheles larvae than those found in non-hotspot area. This study showed that the high frequency of smallest and productive breeding sites around and inside the villages can create conditions of residual transmission. PMID:26830896

  16. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  17. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments.

  18. Reclamation of mosquito breeding sites using Landsat-8 remote sensing data: A case study of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusuk, Danboyi Joseph; Hashim, Mazlan; Beiranvand Pour, Amin

    2016-06-01

    It is believed by recent releases of World Health Organization (WHO) that more than half of the world's population (3.2 billion) live in areas that are at risk of malaria transmission. Although increased efforts are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in some places where the rate of new cases indicates a fall by 37% globally and 60% death rate. Unfortunately, the subSaharan Africa still shares 89% of malaria and 91% of malaria deaths. Essentially, attacking the causative vectors and reclamation of the vector breeding sites could be remarkable for the rolling back the malaria epidemic project. Consequently, it is essential to explore the possibility of using recent Landsat-8 data remote sensing data and applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) technique in contributing to the realization of this objective. This investigation used for identifying mosquito breeding habitat (Derelict Ponds) zones the application of supervised classification of the Landsat-8 image in conjunction with GIS layering which allowed identification of high risk prone regions for mosquito breeding habitat. The methodology delineated 10 spatial locations of the Derelict Ponds (DP) spread around the Birnin Kebbi urban environment. Moreover, the results combined with comparative analysis of the link between warm climatic (temperature and rainfall data) conditions and Malaria prevalence that is associated with urban poverty. This study indicates that the application of Landsat-8 data and GIS techniques can be a useful tool for planning and management of environmental health and mapping of hot spot environmental problem areas.

  19. Breeding site heterogeneity reduces variability in frog recruitment and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Eby, Lisa A.; Maxell, Bryce A.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stochasticity can have profound effects on the dynamics and viability of wild populations, and habitat heterogeneity provides one mechanism by which populations may be buffered against the negative effects of environmental fluctuations. Heterogeneity in breeding pond hydroperiod across the landscape may allow amphibian populations to persist despite variable interannual precipitation. We examined recruitment dynamics over 10 yr in a high-elevation Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) population that breeds in ponds with a variety of hydroperiods. We combined these data with matrix population models to quantify the consequences of heterogeneity in pond hydroperiod on net recruitment (i.e. number of metamorphs produced) and population growth rates. We compared our heterogeneous system to hypothetical homogeneous environments with only ephemeral ponds, only semi-permanent ponds, and only permanent ponds. We also examined the effects of breeding pond habitat loss on population growth rates. Most eggs were laid in permanent ponds each year, but survival to metamorphosis was highest in the semi-permanent ponds. Recruitment success varied by both year and pond type. Net recruitment and stochastic population growth rate were highest under a scenario with homogeneous semi-permanent ponds, but variability in recruitment was lowest in the scenario with the observed heterogeneity in hydroperiods. Loss of pond habitat decreased population growth rate, with greater decreases associated with loss of permanent and semi-permanent habitat. The presence of a diversity of pond hydroperiods on the landscape will influence population dynamics, including reducing variability in recruitment in an uncertain climatic future.

  20. Connectivity of wood thrush breeding, wintering, and migration sites based on range-wide tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Calandra Q; McKinnon, Emily A; Fraser, Kevin C; Macpherson, Maggie P; Casbourn, Garth; Friesen, Lyle; Marra, Peter P; Studds, Colin; Ryder, T Brandt; Diggs, Nora E; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-02-01

    Many migratory animals are experiencing rapid population declines, but migration data with the geographic scope and resolution to quantify the complex network of movements between breeding and nonbreeding regions are often lacking. Determining the most frequently used migration routes and nonbreeding regions for a species is critical for understanding population dynamics and making effective conservation decisions. We tracked the migration of individual Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) (n = 102) from across their range with light-level geolocators and, for the first time, quantified migration routes and wintering regions for distinct breeding populations. We identified regional and species-level migratory connectivity networks for this declining songbird by combining our tracking results with range-wide breeding abundance estimates and forest cover data. More than 50% of the species occupied the eastern wintering range (Honduras to Costa Rica), a region that includes only one-third of all wintering habitat and that is undergoing intensive deforestation. We estimated that half of all Wood Thrushes in North America migrate south through Florida in fall, whereas in spring approximately 73% funnel northward through a narrow span along the central U.S. Gulf Coast (88-93°W). Identifying migratory networks is a critical step for conservation of songbirds and we demonstrated with Wood Thrushes how it can highlight conservation hotspots for regional populations and species as a whole.

  1. Molecular DNA variation among Triturus vittatus vittatus (Urodela from different breeding sites at the southern limit of its distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Pearlson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular DNA variation among Triturus vittatus vittatus (striped newt from different breeding sites at the southern limit of the species distribution (where environmental conditions are most extreme was studied by the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD method that has been found to be appropriate for other Triturus species. Altitudes of the localities ranged between 15-740 m a.s.l. Of the 20 primers employed, OPA-16 was the only one suitable for T. vittatus, revealing a different band pattern for different populations. Genetic similarity was calculated by band sharing, which demonstrated a high similarity among the Israeli populations.

  2. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Klemens; Trathan, Phil N; Pedrana, Julieta; Collins, Martin A; Poncet, Sally; Lüthi, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18) from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia) migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  3. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Pütz

    Full Text Available Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18 from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF, a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  4. Pulsed resources at tundra breeding sites affect winter irruptions at temperate latitudes of a top predator, the snowy owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, A; Therrien, J F; Gauthier, G; Clark, K M; Bêty, J

    2016-06-01

    Irruptive migration is mostly observed in species specialized on pulsed resources and is thought to be a response to unpredictable changes in food supply. We assessed two alternative hypotheses to explain the periodic winter irruptions of snowy owls Bubo scandiacus every 3-5 years in temperate North America: (a) the lack-of-food hypothesis, which states that a crash in small mammal abundance on the Arctic breeding grounds forces owls to move out of the tundra massively to search for food in winter; (b) the breeding-success hypothesis, which states that high abundance of tundra small mammals during the summer allows for high production of young, thus increasing the pool of migrants moving south the following winter. We modeled winter irruptions of snowy owls in relation to summer food resources and geographic location. Winter abundance of owls was obtained from citizen-based surveys from 1994 to 2011 and summer abundance of small mammals was collected in summer at two distant sites in Canada: Bylot Island, NU (eastern High Arctic) and Daring Lake, NWT (central Low Arctic). Winter owl abundance was positively related to prey abundance during the previous summer at both sites and tended to decrease from western to eastern temperate North America. Irruptive migration of snowy owls was therefore best explained by the breeding success hypothesis and was apparently caused by large-scale summer variations in food. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest that the main determinants of irruptive migration may be species specific even in a guild of apparently similar species. PMID:26920901

  5. Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (Culicidae) in Wrocław area (Poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Jawień, Piotr; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Lonc, Elzbieta; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Both ornithophilic mosquito species, Culex pipiens s.l. (L.) and Culex torrentium (Martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate Europe. They are presumed to be primary vectors of West Nile and Sindbis viruses. Differentiation of these morphologically similar Culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. Cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as Cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, because only males of both species can be diagnosed reliably by morphology. Thus, knowledge about species abundance, geographical distribution, breeding site preferences and the zoonotic risk assessment is incomplete also in Poland. In Wrocław area (Silesian Lowland), besides typical urban breeding sites, huge sewage irrigation fields provide suitable breeding conditions for Culex species. They are also inhabited by 180 resident and migratory bird species serving as potential virus reservoirs. In this study, morphology of larvae and males as well as species diagnostic enzyme markers, namely adenylate kinase (AK) and 2-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), were used to discriminate Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx. torrentium. In a total of 650 Culex larvae from 24 natural and artificial breeding sites, Cx. pipiens s.l. had a proportion of 94.0% and Cx. torrentium only 6.0%. It could be shown that both species are well adapted to various breeding site types like ditches, catch basins, flower pots and buckets with diverse water quality. Cx. torrentium preferred more artificial water containers in urban surrounding (12% species proportion), whereas in semi-natural breeding sites, Cx. torrentium was rare (3%). In 12 of 24 breeding sites, larvae of both species have been found associated.

  6. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes cæruleus ultramarinus) in relation to lead pollution and nest failure rates in rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding parameters and the egg and nestling morphology of Cyanistes caeruleus populations from rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria and the relationships of those variables with lead contamination were studied during three consecutive years. Breeding success was explained only by predation and vandalism rates. Predation was higher in the rural area, whereas vandalism was higher in the urban site. The other measured breeding parameters and egg characteristics were relatively insensitive to study site. The morphology of urban nestlings exhibited a trend toward smaller body size and mass compared to individuals from intermediate and rural sites. Although lead concentrations were higher in the tissues of urban birds than in intermediate and rural individuals, we did not detect a clear influence of this variable on nestling morphology. We conclude that urbanization influenced blue tit breeding parameters through predation and vandalism and nestling morphology through mechanisms other than lead pollution. -- Highlights: ► Life history traits in relation to lead contamination were studied in blue tits from rural, industrial and urban sites. ► The study took place in Annaba, the fourth most populated city of Algeria, during 3 consecutive years. ► Breeding success depended on predation and vandalism, which were high in the rural and urban sites, respectively. ► Urban nestlings exhibited a trend toward smaller body size and mass, which was not explained by lead contamination. ► Urbanization influences breeding success and nestling morphology in blue tits through other mechanisms than lead pollution. -- Urbanization modifies the nestling morphology and breeding success of populations of the Algerian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus ultramarinus) through mechanisms other than lead pollution

  7. Breeding biology and nest-site selection of red-tailed hawks in an altered desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, R.J.; DeStefano, S.; Halvorson, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) have expanded their range as trees have invaded formerly-open grasslands. Desert grasslands of southern Arizona have been invaded by mesquite trees (Prosopis velutina) since Anglo-American settlement and now support a large population of Red-tailed Hawks. We studied a population of Red-tailed Hawks in an altered desert grassland in southern Arizona. Our objectives were to determine what environmental characteristics influence Red-tailed Hawk habitat selection in mesquite-invaded desert grasslands and to evaluate the habitat quality of these grasslands for Red-tailed Hawks based on nesting density, nest success, and productivity. Red-tailed Hawks had 86% (95% C.I. = 73-99) nest success and 1.82 young per breeding pair (95% C.I. = 1.41-2.23). Nesting density was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08-0.21) breeding pairs/km2 and the mean nearest-neighbor distance was 1.95 km (95% C.I. = 1.74-2.16). Red-tailed Hawks selected nest-sites with taller nest-trees and greater tree height and cover than were available at random. Mesquite trees in desert grasslands provide abundant potential nesting structures for Red-tailed Hawks. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Nidia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. Methods The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using “reduction of the vector population” as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.. The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. Results At baseline (during the dry season a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae. After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed in 970 study

  9. Breeding Sites of Aedes aegypti: Potential Dengue Vectors in Dire Dawa, East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Getachew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Entomological survey was carried out from May-June to September-October 2014 to investigate the presence of dengue vectors in discarded tires and artificial water containers in houses and peridomestic areas. Methods. A cross-sectional immature stage survey was done indoors and outdoors in 301 houses. Mosquito larval sampling was conducted using pipette or dipper depending on container types. Larvae were identified morphologically and larval indices were also calculated. Results. A total of 750 containers were inspected, and of these 405 were positive for mosquito larvae. A total of 1,873 larvae were collected and morphologically identified as Aedes aegypti (n=1580: 84.4% and Culex (n=293: 15.6%. The larval indices, house index, container index, and breteau index, varied from 33.3 to 86.2, from 23.2 to 73.9, and from 56.5 to 188.9, respectively. Conclusion. Aedes aegypti is breeding in a wide range of artificial containers. To control these mosquitoes, the integration of different methods should be taken into consideration.

  10. Population trend and breeding biology of Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus in a natural vegetation site in northeast Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Limiñana, Rubén; Surroca Royo, Martín; Miralles, Stephan; Urios, Vicente; Jiménez, Juan (O.F.M.), trad

    2004-01-01

    Capsule: Reproductive output in a natural habitat was higher than in birds breeding in cereal crops, highlighting the importance of natural habitats for the species. Aims: To evaluate breeding in a natural habitat in inland Castellon province, Spain, and compare breeding parameters with other European populations. Methods: Breeding population size in inland Castellon was recorded between 1981 and 2003. A logistic growth model was used to describe population increase. We also calculated clu...

  11. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  12. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:27063734

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in La Reunion Island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempérière Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An often confounding facet of the dynamics of malaria vectors is the aquatic larval habitat availability and suitable conditions under which they can thrive. Here, we investigated the impact of environmental factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in different locations on La Reunion Island. Methods A retrospective examination was made from archival data which provided the complete enumeration of An. arabiensis breeding habitats in three distinct geographic zones - extending North-east, West and South of the island over 14 years, from January 1996 to December 2009. Data on the occurrence and the number of active larval habitats at each of a total of 4376 adjacent ellipsoid grid cells (216,506 square meters each were used (1 to provide the geographic extent of breeding site availability from year to year and (2 to analyze associations with prevailing environmental factors, habitat types, and locations. Results Anopheles arabiensis utilized a spectrum of man-made and natural aquatic habitats, most of which were concentrated primarily in the rock pools located in ravines and river fringes, and also in the large littoral marshes and within the irrigated agricultural zones. The numbers of breeding site per sampling grid differed significantly in different parts of the island. In contrast to an originally more widespread distribution across the island in the 1950s, detailed geographic analyses of the data obtained in the period extending from 1996-2009 showed an intriguing clustered distribution of active breeding sites in three discontinuous geographic zones, in which aquatic habitats availability fluctuates with the season and year. Seasonality in the prevalence of anopheles breeding sites suggests significant responsiveness to climatic factors. Conclusions The observed retreat of An. arabiensis distribution range to lower altitudinal zones (

  14. Breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and efficiency of extraction techniques for immature stages in terra-firme forest in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; de Queiroz, Raul Guerra; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Information on natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies is scanty, due to the difficulties of isolation of immatures from the soil where they occur. The present study investigated breeding sites in several microhabitats in a "terra-firme" forest in Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil. Results on the efficacy of different extraction techniques used for isolating sand flies, and the temperature and the pH of the samples collected, are presented. Samples of soil and organic matter from different microhabitats, processed by floatation-sieving, direct examination, Berlese-Tullgren, and emergence cages, revealed, for the first time in Amazonas, breeding sites in five microhabitats (tree bases, unsheltered forest floor, soil from under fallen logs, soil from under roots, and palm-tree bases). Overall, 138 immatures and 29 newly emerged adults were recovered from these microhabitats. The abundance of immatures in samples close to tree bases was significantly higher than in more open sites not adjacent to tree bases. Floatation-sieving and direct examination were the most effective techniques for immature extraction and survival, respectively. Eleven species of the genus Lutzomyia s.l. were identified, with Lutzomyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia georgii Freitas & Barrett being the most abundant. Differences in the specific composition and relative abundance of the immature and adult sand flies on tree bases suggest that breeding sites may be distant from resting or aggregation sites of adults. The pH, which revealed a slightly acidic soil, as well as the temperature, did not show any significant correlation with the number of immature sand flies collected.

  15. Molecular DNA variation among Triturus vittatus vittatus (Urodela) from different breeding sites at the southern limit of its distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Oren Pearlson; Gad Degani

    2007-01-01

    Molecular DNA variation among Triturus vittatus vittatus (striped newt) from different breeding sites at the southern limit of the species distribution (where environmental conditions are most extreme) was studied by the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method that has been found to be appropriate for other Triturus species. Altitudes of the localities ranged between 15-740 m a.s.l. Of the 20 primers employed, OPA-16 was the only one suitable for T. vittatus, revealing a differe...

  16. Influence of sheep breed and application site on the efficacy of a flumethrin pour-on formulation against ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of application site and sheep breed on the efficacy of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution for the control of 'bont'-legged (Hyalomma spp. and red-legged ticks (Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. This study was conducted from November 1996 to February 1997 on 3 farms in the southwestern Free State Province. Two trials were conducted on Dorper sheep and 2 on Merino sheep. For each specific application 30 sheep were selected and allocated to 3 groups of 10 animals each using randomisation through minimisation, with pre-treatment total tick count as only criterion. Groups consisted of an untreated control group, a group treated with 3 m of a flumethrin (1 % m/v solution applied only to the anogenital region, and a group treated at a dose rate of 1 m flumethrin (1% m/v/5 kg host body mass. The total dose volume for animals in the last group was divided into 3 equal parts and applied to the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions respectively. Animals grazed under extensive farming conditions and were infested by ticks that occurred naturally in the environment. Ticks were counted and removed weekly over a 6-week period. In all 4 trials, Rhipicephalus e. evertsi was the dominant tick species, followed, in 3 of the trials, by Hyalomma spp. Efficacy (% of control against ticks for Dorper sheep, treated only on the anogenital region, was variable, ranging between 29.5 and 97 %. In Merino sheep the efficacy values ranged between 23.1 and 90 %. The site-spcific (anogenital region efficacy of control against ticks infesting Merino sheep was in general 100 % or almost 100 %. In Dorper sheep the efficacy values were >80 % for 3-5 weeks. The efficacy (% of control against ticks for sheep treated on the brisket/axillae, groin and anogenital regions was always higher compared to sheep treated only on the anogenital region. In Dorper sheep, efficacy of control was >80 % for up to 4 weeks and in Merino

  17. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  18. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J; Graves, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method we

  19. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to footpat

  20. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits. PMID:25903390

  1. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits.

  2. Signs of new breeding sites for Peruvian tern, Sternula lorata (Charadriiformes, Laridae at La Libertad, Peru, and its implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorós, Samuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Between March and April 2011, 10 study areas in the desert and coastal plains of La Libertad region were evaluated to locate breeding sites of the Peruvian Tern, Sternula lorata. Aproximately 117 km were (systematically walked and in the Pampas of Rio Seco (or Rio Chamán, Pacasmayo and Urricape signs of reproduction of this species were found. These signs included: low flying of Peruvian Terns over the observer, terns flying around the observer, birds flying with fish in their beaks to feed their chicks and the presence of one nest with two inactive eggs in Pampa Urricape. The latter is a fact of particular importance because of this species' fidelity to the nest and/or place of nesting. Also, Pampa Urricape was the site with the largest number of individuals, with a total of 22 located. The problem of habitat loss is affecting Peruvian Tern conservation. In this regard, we observed the practice of different economic activities in the desert which are leading to its modification. Among these activities we observed sugar cane crops, chicken barns, lots for homes, and a wind farm proposal. Finally, we propose recommendations for the conservation of the Peruvian Tern such as the revaluation of the desert ecosystem, the increase of its representation within the National System of Natural Protected Areas by the State, and the development of appropriate policies that include the Integrated Management of the Marine Coastal Zone to enable the sustainable development of these areas.

  3. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  4. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  5. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J.; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Methods Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. Results LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. Conclusions These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. PMID:25604761

  6. Breeding hop

    OpenAIRE

    Langrová, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    Summary The subject of the provided extended essay is Hop Breeding. The work is aimed at the hops biology. Concretely it describes the biology and morfology of hop plant, underground and above-ground part of the plant, infructescence and inflorescence, the morphology and chemical composition of the head. Subsequently it defines qualitative characteristics of hops head, surcharges and substractions of damaged or destroyed hops. It describes a new system of hop certification and imp...

  7. Timing, Nest Site Selection and Multiple Breeding in House Martins: Age-Related Variation and the Preference for Self-Built Mud Nests

    OpenAIRE

    Piersma, T

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest attempts in 2004-2011); the stages of breeding were inferred from 'remote' observations of parental and chick behaviour. Small chicks were noticed from 30 May onwards, with a first peak of nestling ...

  8. Timing, nest site selection and multiple breeding in House Martins : age-related variation and the preference for self-built mud nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest a

  9. Timing, Nest Site Selection and Multiple Breeding in House Martins: Age-Related Variation and the Preference for Self-Built Mud Nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all accounts of the reproductive biology of House Martins Delichon urbicum are based on studies of birds breeding in artificial nests that are monitored every few days. Here, I provide a study on House Martins using self-built mud nests at a single colony in Gaast, The Netherlands (225 nest a

  10. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1995 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 37 sites along the coast of California. This 7% decrease in breeding population size from 1994 brings to an end the trend since...

  11. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  12. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  13. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important a...

  14. The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding dispersal of pied flycatchers along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Ahola, Markus; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2008-08-01

    We modelled breeding dispersal of an insectivorous bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) around a point source of heavy metals (a copper smelter). We tested for the effects of sex, age, breeding success and environmental pollution on breeding dispersal distances of F. hypoleuca females and males. Unlike many earlier studies on breeding dispersal, we took into account distance-dependent sampling bias by including in our model the recapture probabilities at different distances from the site of origin. Our results show that F. hypoleuca females disperse much farther (on average 7.9 km) from their breeding sites than what was previously thought. In contrast, males only disperse short distances (on average 190 m). Breeding success affected female breeding dispersal distances depending on female age: young females moved on average 8 km from their previous breeding place irrespective of their breeding success, while old females only seemed to move this far when their fledgling production was good. Females successful in their breeding dispersed as far as less successful females, or, among old birds, even farther. Females which dispersed long distances produced more fledglings after the movement than those staying near their previous breeding site. Degree of environmental pollution had no effect on female or male breeding dispersal distances. A polluted and unproductive environment does not seem to stimulate F. hypoleuca parents to move to more profitable territories. PMID:18543001

  15. APPROACH TO BREEDING SITE SELECTION OF KELP GULL (LARUS DOMINICANUS LICHTENSTEIN 1823) IN AN URBAN AREA FROM COQUIMBO REGION (CHILE) AND A NEW NESTING SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, C.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to the nest site selection of Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) in an urban area and a new nesting substrate is recorded. Data were collected between November 2012 and December 2013 in an urban area of the Coquimbo Region (Chile). The selection of sites was modeled with a logistic regression using two variables (distance to the nearest nest and distance closest to the sea) and selecting random points within the study area. 13 nests built mainly of thatch were recorded. ...

  16. Sitios de Cría del Aedes aegypti en la Provincia de Limón, Costa Rica Breeding sites of Aedes aegypti in the province of Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marín Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica el dengue constituye la principal enfermedad de transmisión vectorial. Su control requiere un conocimiento integral de su vector Aedes aegypti, el cual utiliza gran variedad de recipientes artificiales para su cría. Objetivos: Identificar y describir los principales sitios de cría del A. aegypti en la provincia de Limón. Materiales y Métodos: El muestreo se realizó por el personal del programa de control de vectores durante el año 2011; de forma simultánea en los seis cantones que conforman la provincia de Limón. Resultados: Se identifico la presencia de A. aegypti en los seis cantones de la provincia de Limón. Los sitios de cría mas frecuentes fueron las llantas, los tarros o depósitos inservibles, los baldes y los tanques. Conclusiones: La proliferación del A. aegypti está directamente relacionado con el hombre, sus malos hábitos, y por la calidad de los servicios de salud de protección y mejoramiento del ambiente humano. Estos resultados demuestran que el abordaje del control del A. aegypti debe ser integral.Dengue is the main disease due to vectorial transmission in Costa Rica. Its control requires comprehensive knowledge of its vector which uses a wide variety of artificial containers for breeding. Objectives: To identify and describe Aedes aegypti breeding sites present in the Limon province of Costa Rica. Materials and methods: this survey was carried out during the year 2011 by personnel of the Vector Control Program working simultaneously in six municipalities of the studied region. Results: We identified the presence of Aedes aegypti in six municipalities in the province of Limon. The most frequent breeding sites were tires, cans or unusable deposits, buckets and tanks. Conclusions: Proliferation of Aedes aegypti is directly related to man, his bad habits, and to the quality of health care models regarding protection and improvement of the human environment. These results show that the approach to

  17. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  18. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  19. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...... these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  20. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  1. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  2. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  3. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  4. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  5. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  6. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  7. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  8. 气候变化对我国丹顶鹤繁殖地分布的影响%Impact of Climate Change on Distribution of Breeding Sites of Red-Crowned Crane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟伟; 顾莎莎; 吴军; 曹铭昌; 雷军成; 徐海根

    2012-01-01

    Trend of the impact of climate change on scope and spatial pattern of the distribution of breeding sites of red-crowned crane ( Grus japonensis) in Northeast China was simulated and hence predicted using the maximum entropy model in combination with the general circulation model and the two climate scenarios ( A2 and B2) recently published by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Results show that in either scenario, the climate change will lead to steadily shrinkage of the suitable nesting area for the birds and shift of the birds' core distribution area towards west and north. The change is very obvious in the three provinces of Northeast China. The east part of Inner Mongolia will become a major place of habitat for the red-crowned cranes. It is, therefore, suggested that a complete reliable set of systems be established as soon as possible for monitoring distribution of the red-crowned cranes in China, and that greater efforts be done to restore the wetlands in that region by replenishing them with water to conserve the breeding grounds of the birds.%利用最大熵模型,结合大气环流模型和IPCC(政府间气候变化专门委员会)最新发布的A2和B2气候情景,模拟和预测气候变化对我国东北地区丹顶鹤(Grus japonensis)繁殖地分布范围及空间格局的影响趋势.结果表明,在A2和B2气候情景下,气候变化将导致丹顶鹤的繁殖适生区域不断缩减,核心分布区域向西和向北移动,其中东北3省的栖息地变化明显,内蒙古东部地区未来将成为丹顶鹤的主要栖息地.认为我国急需建立一套完整可靠的丹顶鹤分布监测系统,进一步加强湿地的人工补水和湿地恢复等工作,以利于丹顶鹤繁殖地的保护.

  9. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  10. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  11. Breeding for disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intensification and specialization of poultry production, next to welfare regulation on animal breeding, animal health issues are of increasing importance to the breeding sector because of the huge related production losses. But animal health and welfare issues are also of importance to the consumers because of potential effects on their own health and their lifestyle choices. Most effective disease control strategies should be developed in an integrated animal health manage...

  12. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  13. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  14. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  15. Breeding System of Ruellia succulenta Small (Acanthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the breeding system of Ruellia succulenta (Acanthaceae), an herbaceous perennial found in the pine rockland habitat of southern Florida. Hand pollination treatments were performed on 75 plants, 25 from each of three sites. Treatments applied to test plants included: 1) control ...

  16. Seabird metapopulations: searching for alternative breeding habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Jochem, R.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Slim, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Today, many seabird species nest in port areas, which are also necessary for human economic activity. In this paper, we evaluate, using a metapopulation model, the possibilities for creating alternative breeding sites for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the Rhine¿Meuse¿Scheldt estuary. We explor

  17. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  18. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  19. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  20. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  1. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  2. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  3. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper.

  4. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper. PMID:26374208

  5. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  6. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  7. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  8. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  9. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  10. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  11. Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine

    2013-10-01

    Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  13. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  14. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  15. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  16. Mutation Breeding in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present position of sugar industry particularly cane sugar production in the world has been discussed. The role of African Countries which can contribute more than the present 11% to world cane sugar production is presented. The breeding methods employed in cane growing court-tries indicate the biparental crossing and selection in F1 has been the major method used to develop varieties. Due to cytogenetical peculiarities, thousands of seedlings are grown to select the desirable genotype. Mutations or sports has been a source of variation for selection in nature. Induced mutations have only enhanced the mutation rate and has enabled the plant breeders to get better variation for selection. Though many mutagens have been used gamma rays have been most effective. Induced mutations for nonflowering, spineless leaf-sheath, higher sugar content, yield md resistance to diseases like smut and downy mildew have been reported. The methods of making mutated tissues express itself have been indicated. Mutation breeding holds out promise in sugarcane in that the basic variety or genotype can be kept intact and a few characters changed as desired by the plant breeder provided proper selection methods are employed. (author)

  17. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  18. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  20. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population.

  1. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population. PMID:26456024

  2. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  3. Organic Plant Breeding: Achievements, Opportunities, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Horneburg, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to highlight some successful approaches to organic plant breeding and to encourage the organic movement to engage in an increasing number of organic breeding and organic breeding research projects.

  4. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year seems to be very promising for the Plant Breeding and Genetic sub-Programme. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database (MVD) was transferred to the web site and is now available through Internet under the following URL: http://www-mvd.iaea.org. The idea to collect and transfer information on crop varieties developed with the use of mutation techniques to plant breeders ws conceived at almost the same time as the establishment of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section (PBG), Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first classified list of induced mutant varieties was presented by Sigurbjoernsson at the Pullman Symposium, and published in 1969. Since the first issue of the MBNL (May, 1972) information on newly released mutant varieties was published at the end of each issue under the title 'List of Mutant Varieties'. The full list of 2252 mutant varieties has been published in the Mutation Breeding Review No. 12 (December 2000) to close this period of collecting data on mutant varieties. Such condensed but full information on mutant varieties should help geneticists, molecular biologists and plant breeders to asses the value of mutation techniques in germplasm enhancement, and stimulate the use of induced variation

  5. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  6. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  7. Safflower: genetics and breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of genetic studies related to the breeding of improved cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) indicated that it was possible to modify the following over a wide range: duration of the rosette stage, stem length, branching habit, degree of spininess, head number, head size, flower morphology, mating system, seed size, hull thickness and thereby oil and protein contents, and fatty acid composition of the oil. Safflower breeders have concentrated most of their efforts on identifying and evaluating the great range of variability in cultivated safflower and its closely related wild species, and not on exploring means to increase variability. Limited experiments with gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate indicated that additional variability could be induced. Mutagenic agents should be used to obtain the following: resistance to foliar diseases where resistant germplasm is not available, increased levels of resistance to Phytophthora root rot, resistance to dodder and orobanche, resistance to insect pests, earlier maturity, and additional modifications in the fatty acid composition of the oil. (author)

  8. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  9. Sexual selection promotes colonial breeding in shell-brooding cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Dolores; Ocana, Sabine Wirtz; Maan, martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Colonial species breed in densely aggregated territories containing no resources other than nest sites. This behaviour is usually explained by natural selection, for instance through benefits resulting from reduced predation risk. An alternative hypothesis suggests that, as in lek breeding systems,

  10. Distribution and numbers of breeding ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea in Severnaja Zemlja, Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, AE; de Korte, J.

    1996-01-01

    The ivory gull Pagophila eburnea has a semi-circumpolar distribution with breeding sites in the High Arctic. Data about ivory gulls in the Severnaja Zemlja Archipelago (Siberia) were collected from 1991 to 1995. The numbers of breeding ivory gulls and their egg-laying period are correlated with the

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  6. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  7. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P W

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  8. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  9. National Protocol Framework for the Inventory and Monitoring of Breeding Landbirds Using Point Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides a tool for deleoping site-specific guidance on how to inventory or monitor breeding landbirds in North America by use of point...

  10. Reasons for the decline in bird numbers breeding near the Ravenglass Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-headed Gulls breeding at Ravenglass (and at other coastal sites in Cumbria) fed exclusively inland during the breeding season and so could not have acquired any radionuclide contaminants present in the estuarine muds and invertebrates. They, and two other ground-nesting bird species have suffered severe disturbance and predation by foxes at Ravenglass in recent years. In contrast, the Shelduck, which nests in holes (and so does not suffer fox predation) but feeds at Ravenglass on estuarine invertebrates, has bred successfully. Levels of heavy metal contaminants in gull tissues and eggs were too low to have caused the observed breeding failures at Ravenglass. Gulls feeding on the estuary before the breeding season, but which then moved to other (inland) breeding sites, nested successfully. (author)

  11. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  12. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  13. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  14. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  15. Switching hemispheres: a new migration strategy for the disjunct Argentinean breeding population of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Garcia-Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica breed almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere. However, since the early 1980's, a small disjunct breeding population has become established in eastern Argentina, presumably by birds previously derived from those breeding in North America. Currently, it is unknown where these individuals go following breeding and how they have adjusted to a reversal in phenology. Their austral wintering period corresponds to the breeding period of the northern ancestral population and so they can potentially return to these more traditional breeding sites or they may occupy other South American wintering regions left vacant by conspecifics returning to the Northern Hemisphere. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a three-isotope (δ(13C, δ(15N, δ(2H approach to investigate potential wintering areas in Central and South America of individuals breeding in Argentina. Feather isotope values differed from those expected and measured at local breeding sites in Argentina indicating molt after the austral breeding period and away from the breeding grounds. Potential molting origins were identified applying likelihood-based assignment methods to a δ(2H isoscape for South America and dichotomous prior information on the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation types based on modeled vegetation-δ(13C values. Barn Swallows now breeding in Argentina have changed their migratory behavior but presumably use the same cues as those used by the ancestral population, molting their feathers during the austral winter, likely in north-eastern South America.

  16. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  17. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo;

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  18. Association of Polymorphism in MC1R Gene at Site 248 with Chestnut Coat Color in Three Chinese Horse Breeds%黑色素皮质激素受体1基因248位点多态性与中国马品种毛色的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党珍; 王嘉福; 赵星艳; 黄勇; 田松军; 王荣明; 冉雪琴

    2012-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at site 248 of melanocortin receptor 1 gene (MC1R) is known from European horse breeds, in which the homozygous genotype (ee) is related with the chestnut coat color of European horse individuals. To confirm the polymorphism of site 248 of MCliR gene in Chinese horse, three horse breeds of Guizhou pony, Southwest horse and I1ii horse were chosen as samples with coat color of three monochromatic (chestnut, black, bay) and three kinds of complex coat color. Two pairs specific primers were designed. Two fragments, 124 and 481 bp, were amplificated by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) method. The polymorphism of site 248 in MClR gene was further approved by cloning and sequencing of the DNA fragments. The results showed that genotypes of all samples with coat color of chestnut were heterozygous genotype (Ee). However, the genotypes of other samples were Ee either, in which the coat colors included bay, black, grey, spotted but not chestnut. It suggested that the SNP at site 248 of MC1R gene might be unrelated with the chestnut coat color in native Chinese horse breeds.%在欧洲马品种中,黑色素皮质激素受体1(melanocortin receptor1,MC1R)基因第248位碱基有C/T多态性,纯合的T248位点决定欧洲马的栗毛色.针对MC1R基因的248位点设计了2对特异性引物,采用等位基因特异性PCR技术,研究3个中国马品种MC1R基因型与栗色毛之间的关系.经扩增获得两种DNA片段,克隆测序后证明,扩增片段确为MC1R基因,两种DNA片段序列在基因的248位点的确星现C/T多态性,但检测126份贵州矮马、西南马和新疆伊犁马血液样本,全部为杂合基因型(Ee),其中包括栗毛、黑毛、骝毛3种单毛色及3种复毛色.这些研究结果提示,MC1R基因中248位点的多态性与国内3个马品种的栗色毛之间没有直接的相关性.

  19. Phylogeny, genetic relationships and population structure of five Italian local chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ceccobelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Number and population size of local chicken breeds in Italy is considered to be critical. Molecular data can be used to provide reliable insight into the diversity of chicken breeds. The first aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genetic origin of five Italian local chicken breeds (Ancona, Livorno, Modenese, Romagnola and Valdarnese bianca based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA information. Secondly, the extent of the genetic diversity, population structure and the genetic relationships among these chicken populations, by using 27 microsatellite markers, were assessed. To achieve these targets, a 506 bp fragment of the D-loop region was sequenced in 50 chickens of the five breeds. Eighteen variable sites were observed which defined 12 haplotypes. They were assigned to three clades and two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 90% of the haplotypes are related to clade E, which has been described to originate from the Indian subcontinent. For the microsatellite analysis, 137 individual blood samples from the five Italian breeds were included. A total of 147 alleles were detected at 27 microsatellite loci. The five Italian breeds showed a slightly higher degree of inbreeding (FIS=0.08 than the commercial populations that served as reference. Structure analysis showed a separation of the Italian breeds from the reference populations. A further sub-clustering allowed discriminating among the five different Italian breeds. This research provides insight into population structure, relatedness and variability of the five studied breeds.

  20. Genotype by environment interaction in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Milosav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because proximity measures occur in pairs where both, similarity and dissimilarity measures exploit the same type of information, companion classification and ordination techniques can be applied. They complement each other in analysis of genotype by environment interaction (GxE data. Choice of method, companion diagnostics and graphical presentation are required within each of methodologies. By clustering of 12 genotypes into 5 groups, 96.26% of variability for genotypes contained in original data is kept. By applying same analysis for environments, 96.45% of variability contained in original data matrix is kept with grouping of 31 environments into 11 groups. Caused by genotypes and environments grouping 78.10% of GxE variability contained in original data matrix remained in analysis of such two-way reduced data. Based on shown results, it is not possible to define smaller growing regions. Clustering of environment can be useful not only for defining mega environments but also for smaller growing regions defining only in combination with some of additional analysis (AMMI, discrimination analysis, correspondent analysis etc.. In such kind of analysis experience of investigator would be of great importance. Choice of test sites for breeding programme can be made based on obtained grouping to a limited extent (rather for restructuring existing test sites network in order to obtain 'better' information with same number of test sites then for its rationalization with number of test sites decreasing.

  1. TEMPERAMENT OF DIFFERENT GOAT BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABINA NÉMETH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors completed temper research among Alpine (n=62, Sanental (n=54 and Selected Hungarian breeds originated from a Győr-Moson-Sopron County’s goat stock-farm. The most important aim of the sample survey was the determination of the relation between the temper and age of the three examined goat breeds.The temper estimation was fulfilled by scales-test assistance (the estimation of the animal’s behavior in a 1-5 point range standing on a scales during 30 seconds. The average age of the examined goats (n=181 was 3,17±1,79 years (Sanental: 3,74±1,94; Alpine: 2,66±1,61; Selected Hungarian : 3,21±1,69 year. The average temper of the examined species was 2,77±0,97. The smallest difference compared to the average was found in case of the Alpine breed (2,72±0,86, while the received temper result was 2,28±0,90 by the Sanental and 3,24±0,94 by the Selected Hungarian breeds.Statistically proved negative relation was found during the age and temper classes compared research (P<0,01; r=-0,379, which means, that as the age goes further so decreases the animal’s temper.

  2. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  3. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  4. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  5. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  6. Study on pig growth hormone gene polymorphisms in western meat-type breeds and Chinese local breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成义; 高波; 经荣斌; 陶勇; 毛九德

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Meishan and Jiangquhai pigs are two of the most prolific pigs in the world, but their growth rate is lower than that of Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain pigs. It is suggested that growth rate is regulated by growth hormone. The objective of the current study was to analyze the porcine growth hormone (p GH) gene polymorphisms based on the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) for three western meat-type breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain) and two local Chinese pigs (Meishan and Jiangquhai) . Five polymorphic restriction sites were detected with the ApaI, MspI, BspI and HhaI restriction enzymes in two amplified fragments (605 bp, - 119 to + 486; 506 bp, + 206 to + 711).Breed difference was found only in the 506 bp fragment. There was no difference in allelic frequencies of BspIand HhaI restriction sites among the five breeds ( P > 0.05) . Landrace and Meishan pigs lacked allele G3 of Msp I site. The allele G3 frequency of restriction Msp I site of the 506 bp fragment in Pietrain pigs was higher than that in Duroc and Jianquhai pigs (P 0.05) . This new and rapid PCR-RFLP typing method is an attractive tool for analysis of porcine growth hormone gene restriction sites. The differences in MspI and ApaI restriction sites may explain the growth difference between the foreign meat-type breeds above mentioned and local Chinese pigs.

  7. Study on pig growth hormone gene polymorphisms in western meat-type breeds and Chinese local breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成义; 高波; 经荣斌; 陶勇; 毛九德

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Meishan and Jiangquhai pigs are two of the most prolific pigs in the world, but their growth rate is lower than that of Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain pigs. It is suggested that growth rate is regulated by growth hormone. The objective of the current study was to analyze the porcine growth hormone (pGH) gene polymorphisms based on the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) for three western meat-type breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain) and two local Chinese pigs (Meishan and Jiangquhai). Five polymorphic restriction sites were detected with the ApaI, MspI, BspI and HhaI restriction enzymes in two amplified fragments (605 bp, -119 to +486; 506 bp, +206 to +711). Breed difference was found only in the 506 bp fragment. There was no difference in allelic frequencies of BspI and HhaI restriction sites among the five breeds (P>0.05). Landrace and Meishan pigs lacked allele G3 of MspI site. The allele G3 frequency of restriction MspI site of the 506 bp fragment in Pietrain pigs was higher than that in Duroc and Jianquhai pigs (P0.05). This new and rapid PCR-RFLP typing method is an attractive tool for analysis of porcine growth hormone gene restriction sites. The differences in MspI and ApaI restriction sites may explain the growth difference between the foreign meat-type breeds above mentioned and local Chinese pigs.

  8. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  9. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  10. Ecological problems in horse-breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Zachinyaew; A. A. Anischenko

    2005-01-01

    In the article is represented general information devoted to environmental problems in the horse- breeding. The concept of development of ecological explorations in the horse-breeding is considered as well.

  11. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  12. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  13. Selective Breeding in Organic Dairy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding programmes. This thesis focuses on the possibilities for breeding in organic dairy farming. This thesis starts with describing the basic backgrounds of organic dairy farming and the results of a study ...

  14. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  15. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  16. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  17. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  18. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

  19. 利用天然树洞繁殖的五种鸟的巢位特征及繁殖成功率%Nest-site characteristics and reproductive success of five species of birds breeding in natural cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 高玮; 万冬梅; 刘多; 邓文洪

    2003-01-01

    对吉林省左家自然保护区次生阔叶林中的大山雀(Parus major)、沼泽山雀(Parus palustris)、普通(币鸟)(Sitta europacea)、白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)和灰椋鸟(Sturnus cineraceus) 5种利用天然树洞繁殖的次级洞巢鸟进行了巢位选择和繁殖成功率研究.本研究中共发现141巢.五种鸟对树洞类型的选择存在种间差异,普通(币鸟)不利用裂洞,沼泽山雀不利用啄洞,其它3种鸟对3种洞均有利用,但有一定的倾向性.对5种鸟9个巢位变量的比较中,只有洞口方向差异不显著(p>0.05),其它8个变量均差异显著(p0.05). But all the remaining eight variables are significant (p<0.05). The results indicate that the 5 species of SCNBs select nest-sites with their own nesting requirements. The horizontal diameter and vertical diameter of nest entrance, diameter of tree at cavity height, inner breadth of the cavity and the nest height above ground are important variables in nest-site selection and are predictive of species occupancy. Most of the nests that failed occur before the laying and hatching stage, as 35 out of 44 failed nests loss during these two stages. The nest success of Great Tit is the lowest and Ashy Starling is the highest. Hatching success among the five species of SCNBs' are at high level, all exceeding 90%. Depredation (included by man and animals) is the main cause for nest failure, accounting for 61.4% of total failure nests. SCNBs' reproductive success is influenced by important variables in nest-site selection. Reproductive success of Nutchatch is influenced by HDE and NH, Marsh Tit by VDE, DBH and BC, Great Tit by HDE, NH and BC, Ashy Staring by BC and DC, and Tricolor Flycatcher by VDE, NH and CA. The horizontal and vertical diameter of nest entrance of failed nests are bigger than those of successful nests, and the depth of the cavity and breadth of the cavity of failure nests are smaller than those of successful nests. Distances from ground level

  20. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  1. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Population-Wide Failure to Breed in the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available In highly variable environments, conditions can be so stressful in some years that entire populations forgo reproduction in favor of higher likelihood of surviving to breed in future years. In two out of five years, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem exhibited population-wide failure to breed. Clark's nutcrackers at the study site experienced substantial interannual differences in food availability and weather conditions, and the two nonbreeding years corresponded with low whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis cone crops the previous autumn (≤ an average of 8 ± 2 cones per tree versus ≥ an average of 20 ± 2 cones per tree during breeding years and high snowpack in early spring (≥ 61.2 ± 5.5 cm versus ≤ 51.9 ± 4.4 cm during breeding years. The average adult body condition index during the breeding season was significantly lower in 2011 (-1.5 ± 1.1, a nonbreeding year, as compared to 2012 (6.2 ± 2.0, a breeding year. The environmental cues available to the birds prior to breeding, specifically availability of cached whitebark pine seeds, may have allowed them to predict that breeding conditions would be poor, leading to the decision to skip breeding. Alternatively, the Clark's nutcrackers may have had such low body energy stores that they chose not to or were unable to breed. Breeding plasticity would allow Clark's nutcrackers to exploit an unpredictable environment. However, if large-scale mortality of whitebark pines is leading to an increase in the number of nonbreeding years, there could be serious population-level and ecosystem-wide consequences.

  5. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  6. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  7. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  8. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  9. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A El-Kassaby

    Full Text Available Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS and incomplete (half-sib: HS analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors, growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP or complete (FS pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  10. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Adebote; Sonnie J. Oniye; Yunus A. Muhammed

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeri...

  11. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; William E Peterman; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Brittany H Ousterhout

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a...

  12. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J.; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Bra...

  13. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  14. Development Of Space Breeding In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luxiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Space breeding provides a new technical platform for Chinese agricaltural scientists to explore the mechanism of crop mutation induced during spaceflight and breeds new varieties of crops. It is important for China to develop the space breeding industry,maintain China's lead position in this field,serve agricultural production better,promote China's sustainable and healthy agricultural development,and ensure national food safety.

  15. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  16. Possibilities for Breeding in Organic Dairy Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Wytze

    2010-01-01

    In the organic sector there is an ongoing debate about the development of organic breeding methods. The debate revolves around two issues: 1) how the principle of naturalness in organic agriculture (that is, using natural processes wherever possible) can be reconciled with the increasing use of modern reproduction techniques in conventional breeding; and 2) whether animals produced by conventional breeding programs are actually suitable for organic agriculture or whether the organic sector it...

  17. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  18. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...

  19. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  20. Use of animal breeds and breeding to overcome the incidence of grass tetany: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L W; Baker, J F; Hardt, P F

    1989-12-01

    British breeds of cattle are not so effective as Zebu in extracting nutrients from low-quality roughages, and these breeds differ in their nutrient metabolism and animal physiology. Breeds of cattle may differ in their requirements for Mg. Brahman cows are less susceptible to death from disease and metabolic disorders than are British breeds of cattle, whereas cows with 50% or greater dairy breeding (Holstein and Jersey) are more susceptible than British or Brahman breeds when maintained in beef production herds. Brahman or Brahman crossbred cows are less susceptible than other breeds to metabolic disorders such as grass tetany. Magnesium absorption has been shown to be greater in Brahman than in Jersey, Holstein and Hereford cows. These differences in the efficiency of Mg absorption between different breeds of cows may be due to genetic variation in the absorptive mechanisms of Mg, in feeding behavior, in gastrointestinal tract motility, in gastrointestinal tract fill or to some combination. PMID:2693421

  1. Breeding for adaptation to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (Δ). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for Δ? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in Δ but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in Δ but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for Δ values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for Δ values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, Δ is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield

  2. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  3. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  4. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be...

  5. A STUDY ON TROUT BREEDING IN DUZCE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    In this study, trout breeding facilities of Duzce Province, a suitable place for trout breeding, were evaluated. As a result of this evaluation, current status, capacities, and problems of trout breeding facilities were determined. Some suggestions were provided to solve these problems and increase the capacity of trout breeding facilities. Keywords: Duzce, Trout Breeding.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of positively selected genes in seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Meng

    Full Text Available Some mammals breed throughout the year, while others breed only at certain times of year. These differences in reproductive behavior can be explained by evolution. We identified positively-selected genes in two sets of species with different degrees of relatedness including seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species, using branch-site models. After stringent filtering by sum of pairs scoring, we revealed that more genes underwent positive selection in seasonal compared with non-seasonal breeding species. Positively-selected genes were verified by cDNA mapping of the positive sites with the corresponding cDNA sequences. The design of the evolutionary analysis can effectively lower the false-positive rate and thus identify valid positive genes. Validated, positively-selected genes, including CGA, DNAH1, INVS, and CD151, were related to reproductive behaviors such as spermatogenesis and cell proliferation in non-seasonal breeding species. Genes in seasonal breeding species, including THRAP3, TH1L, and CMTM6, may be related to the evolution of sperm and the circadian rhythm system. Identification of these positively-selected genes might help to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and non-seasonal reproductive behaviors.

  7. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  9. Mutation Breeding in Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeded by a few general considerations about problems and results of mutation breeding in vegetatively propagated plants a review is given of the results of mutation breeding programs up to new in the different (tropical) root and tuber crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam, potato and others). (author)

  10. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  11. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  12. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  13. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  14. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  15. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Mark L; Braune, Birgit M; Robertson, Gregory J; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Forbes, Mark R; Wells, Regina

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N-75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ~300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear.

  16. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  17. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  18. RESEARCH REGARDING NATIVE DOMESTICATED ENDANGERED ANIMAL BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATIUłI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research done in this paper was made in Transylvania and Banat. The autochthon domestic endangered animal breeds were inventoried, zonal maps on where to encounter these breeds being drawn. The list of these species contains: the gray cattle, the Mocanitza (the mountain breed sheep, the Transylvanian Pinzgau, the black Pinzgau, the Transylvanian bull, the Nonius horse, the Western mountain hores breed, the Mangalitza breed, the Bazna breed, the black of Strei, the Transylvanian Merino, the curly haired sheep of Banat, the white goat of Banat, the hound of Ardeal region. In the last 20 years, in these species there was a significant drop in numbers and, in some cases, even in quality. If urgent measures to preserve these species will not be taken, there is a possibility that in the next 10 years, some of them will disappear. The protection plans for these breeds are, in the majority of the cases, just simple projects that no one is applying. Since 2007, in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine there is a Data Base to monitor the native domestic animals from the western area of Romania. The data from this data base are used by farmers, pickers and specialists from the food industry.

  19. Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

  20. Cassava Mutation Breeding: Current Status and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important energy source in the diets of millions of people in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially the poor. Also its industrial uses are steadily growing for starch, animal feed and bio-ethanol. Although it has high economic and social relevance, few major scientific efforts have been made to improve the crop until the 1970s. With the goals and objectives of cassava improvement through breeding, different strategies have been developed during the last several decades, such as evaluation and selection of the local landraces, introduced germplasm (as clones or segregating F1 population), hybridization (including inbreeding by both recurrent back-cross schemes and double haploids (DH)), interspecific hybridization, polyploidy breeding, genetic transformation, use of molecular markers and mutation breeding. Induced mutation breeding on cassava has been explored in the last several decades with few published papers. Yet, the production of novel genotypes, such as high amylose and small granule mutants and mutants with tolerance to post harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), has been reported. These results suggest that mutagenesis could be an effective alternative for cassava breeding. However, many drawbacks still exist in cassava mutation breeding, such as the occurrence of chimeras. Validated and developing protocols for different biotechnologies, such as TILLING protocol, cassava genome sequencing and cassava somatic embryogenesis, will significantly ameliorate the drawbacks to traditional mutation breeding, and consequently aid the routine application of induced mutation in both cassava improvement and in gene discovery and elucidation. (author)

  1. INFLUENCE OF BREED ON CARCASS CUTS COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass from 260 Simmental and 159 Brown bulls were dissected first to different cuts (chuck, shoulder, front shank, rib roast, back, loin, tenderloin, brisket, rib, flank, leg and hind shank and then to lean, fat, tendon and bone. The comparison between two breeds was made at 12.5 % carcass fat. Simmental breed had statistically significantly higher share of leg and brisket with rib and lower share of chuck, front and hind shank, rib roast, tenderloin and flank, with higher lean and lower bone percentage, but the differences were relatively small compared to Brown breed.

  2. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  3. Guinea-pig breeding for meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera Hidalgo, Grey Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Guinea-pig breeding for meat production is one of the unknown economical activities in the Czech Republic and in many other contries in the world. It is an industry that is developing fast in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Colombia, because of fact that it is easy, fast and it does not need a lot of investment and where its consumption averages 20 to 65 milion guinea-pigs per year. The main objective of guinea-pig breeding just like breeding of other livestock, is to produce big amounts of meat w...

  4. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  5. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p

  6. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  7. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  8. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  9. Breeding origin and migration pattern of dunlin (Calidris alpina) revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerberg, L

    2001-05-01

    The large-scale migration of birds has been studied extensively by recoveries of ringed birds. However, there is very little ringing data from the arctic breeding grounds of waders. Here, the migration pattern of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, is studied with population genetic markers, using haplotype frequencies to estimate the breeding origin of migrating and wintering populations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction analysis of DNA from the mitochondrial control region was used to study the breeding origins of morphologically similar winter populations in the western Palaearctic, and to describe the population structure of the dunlin during winter. Also migrating dunlin from various stopover sites in Europe, Africa and Asia, were analysed with respect to their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes. The genetic markers clearly show that the dunlin has a parallel migration system, with populations breeding in the western Palaearctic wintering mainly in the western part of the wintering range, and dunlin populations breeding further east wintering further east. The results also show that the distance between breeding and wintering area increases eastwards in this region. PMID:11380870

  10. Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

  11. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  12. Breeding for mechanised sesame production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of sesame germplasm from Myanmar and Mexico was not satisfactory for successful development of the Australian sesame industry. Therefore, a national breeding programme was undertaken by CSIRO and the Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries (NTDPIF). The main traits considered for selection were latitudinal adaptation, temperature response, growth habit, determinacy, palatability, capsules per leaf axil, seed shattering and seed dormancy. The CSIRO breeding efforts started in 1989 with a hybridization programme using germplasm from Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, Rep. of Korea and Venezuela. This programme resulted in selection in the F6 generation of branched types released under the names 'Beech's choice' and 'Aussie Gold'. The NTDPIF sesame breeding programme started in 1993 with hybridization of introductions. The Mexican cultivar 'Yori 77' was selected for release, and after several years of intraline selection the uniculm cultivar 'Edith' was released in 1996. Further breeding continues to improve seed retention and resistance to charcoal rot. (author)

  13. Breeding peregrine falcon survey, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrines) survey was conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge from May 2-9, 1981 in conjunction...

  14. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  15. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159196.html For Refugee Children, Support Breeds Success Study sees 'potential to ... June 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With adequate support, refugee children do as well in school as other ...

  19. Manual on mutation breeding. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual is a compilation of work done on the use of induced mutations in plant breeding, and presents general methods and techniques in this field. The use of chemical mutagens and ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, α- and β-particles, protons, neutrons) are described as well as the effects of these mutagens. The different types of mutations achieved can be divided into genome mutations, chromosome mutations and extra nuclear mutations. Separate chapters deal with mutation techniques in breeding seed-propagated species and asexually propagated plants (examples of development of cultivars given). Plant characters which can be improved by mutation breeding include yield, ripening time, growth habit, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors (temperature, salinity etc.). The use of mutagens for some specific plant breeding problems is discussed and attention is also paid to somatic cell genetics in connection with induced mutations. The manual contains a comprehensive bibliography (60 p. references) and a subject index

  20. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  1. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maischberger E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares.

  2. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important crop traits and maximizes access and utility by crop breeders and allied scientists. Development of new infrastructure in the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) was designed and implemented to enable secure and efficient storage, management and analysis of large datasets from the Washington State University apple breeding program and subsequently expanded to fit datasets from other Rosaceae breeders. The infrastructure was built using the software Chado and Drupal, making use of the Natural Diversity module to accommodate large-scale phenotypic and genotypic data. Breeders can search accessions within the GDR to identify individuals with specific trait combinations. Results from Search by Parentage lists individuals with parents in common and results from Individual Variety pages link to all data available on each chosen individual including pedigree, phenotypic and genotypic information. Genotypic data are searchable by markers and alleles; results are linked to other pages in the GDR to enable the user to access tools such as GBrowse and CMap. This breeding database provides users with the opportunity to search datasets in a fully targeted manner and retrieve and compare performance data from multiple selections, years and sites, and to output the data needed for variety release publications and patent applications. The breeding database facilitates efficient program management. Storing publicly available breeding data in a database together with genomic and genetic data will

  3. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important crop traits and maximizes access and utility by crop breeders and allied scientists. Development of new infrastructure in the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) was designed and implemented to enable secure and efficient storage, management and analysis of large datasets from the Washington State University apple breeding program and subsequently expanded to fit datasets from other Rosaceae breeders. The infrastructure was built using the software Chado and Drupal, making use of the Natural Diversity module to accommodate large-scale phenotypic and genotypic data. Breeders can search accessions within the GDR to identify individuals with specific trait combinations. Results from Search by Parentage lists individuals with parents in common and results from Individual Variety pages link to all data available on each chosen individual including pedigree, phenotypic and genotypic information. Genotypic data are searchable by markers and alleles; results are linked to other pages in the GDR to enable the user to access tools such as GBrowse and CMap. This breeding database provides users with the opportunity to search datasets in a fully targeted manner and retrieve and compare performance data from multiple selections, years and sites, and to output the data needed for variety release publications and patent applications. The breeding database facilitates efficient program management. Storing publicly available breeding data in a database together with genomic and genetic data will

  4. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional br...

  5. Breeding for genetic resistance to disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    Animal health issues are of increasing importance to all animal breeding sectors, including poultry, by raising health and welfare issues and causing major production costs, but also to citizens, by affecting possibly their own health and lifestyle choices. So far, traditional selective breeding approaches have been applied successfully by poultry breeders to enhance production and reproduction traits; but the inclusion of animal health related traits are scarcely considered because of a clea...

  6. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  7. Hybrid reactors: nuclear breeding or energy production?

    OpenAIRE

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente Mazuecos, Antonio; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion–fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-...

  8. Briefing note on animal breeding and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Historically, adoption of breeding technologies by sheep and beef farmers has been slow and variable. This research aimed to understand why, and if the context of reducing methane emissions was likely to change adoption rates. Sheep and beef farmers around the UK were interviewed to find out if they would adopt a range of technologies to reduce methane emissions.* The farmers interviewed were less than convinced that breeding could be effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  10. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  11. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  12. Skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles in two Italian beef breeds, Chianina and Maremmana, reveal breed specific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Chillemi, G; Bueno, S; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Ferrè, F; Valentini, A

    2016-04-01

    Chianina and Maremmana breeds play an important role in the Italian cattle meat market. The Chianina breed is an ancient breed principally raised for draught. Now this breed is the worldwide recognized producer of top quality beef, tasteful and tender, specifically the famous "Florentine steak". The Maremmana characterized by a massive skeletal structure, is a rustic cattle breed selected for adaptability to the marshy land of the Maremma region. We used a high throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds, Maremmana (MM) and Chianina (CN) with different selection history. We aim to examine the specific genetic contribution of each breed to meat production and quality, comparing the skeletal muscle tissue from Maremmana and Chianina. Most of the differentially expressed genes were grouped in the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis pathways. The rate and the extent of post-mortem energy metabolism have a critical effect on the conversion of muscle to meat. Furthermore, we aim at discovering the differences in nucleotide variation between the two breeds which might be attributable to the different history of selection/divergence. In this work we could emphasize the involvement of pathways of post-mortem energy metabolism. Moreover, we detected a collection of coding SNPs which could offer new genomic resources to improve phenotypic selection in livestock breeding program. PMID:26896938

  13. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  14. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  15. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  16. Climate change and timing of avian breeding and migration throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Christiaan; te Marvelde, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Bird breeding and spring migration phenology have advanced in response to climate change, but the effects differ between sites. Here, we examine the geographical variation in laying-date trends in a short-distance migrant, the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, and a long-distance migrant, the pied

  17. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  18. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Michael J.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Julia Mackenzie; Shelley A Hinsley

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England – mi...

  19. Comparative morphology among northern populations of breeding Cooper's Hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. From 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types.

  20. Bird-window collisions in the summer breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hager

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds that reside in urban settings face numerous human-related threats to survival, including mortality from bird-window collisions (BWCs. Our current understanding of this issue has largely been driven by data collected during spring and fall migration, and patterns of collision mortality during the summer breeding season remain relatively unexplored. We assessed BWCs during four breeding seasons (2009–2012 at a site in northwestern Illinois, USA, by comparing the abundance, richness, migratory class, and age of the species living around buildings to species mortally wounded by window collisions. We also systematically assessed the daily timing of BWCs throughout the breeding season. We documented BWCs in 4 of 25 (16% species and 7 of 21 (33% species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The relationship between BWCs and abundance depended on age. For adults, BWCs were highest in the least abundant species, e.g., Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus, and lowest in species with high abundance values, e.g., Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina. For juveniles, mortality was greatest for the most abundant species, and the American Robin (Turdus migratorius accounted for 62% of all juvenile carcasses. Early in the breeding season, collision mortality was restricted to adults of Long-distance Migrants, whereas juveniles of all three migratory guilds (Long-distance and Short-distance Migrants and Permanent Residents died at windows from late June through early August. Daily mortality for all species was highest between sunrise–1600 h and lowest from 1600 h–sunrise the next day. Generally, the species observed as carcasses matched birds considered a ‘high risk’ for BWCs, e.g., Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris, and those considered ‘low risk’ were not observed as carcasses, e.g., Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea. Our results suggest that the number of BWCs during the breeding season does not necessarily increase with

  1. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  2. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance...... to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from...... the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish...

  3. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  4. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  5. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  6. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  7. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  8. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  9. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  10. PEDIGREE ANALYSIS OF CINTA SENESE AND MORA ROMAGNOLA BREEDS

    OpenAIRE

    CROVETTI A.; F. Sirtori; C. Pugliese; O. Franci; Bozzi, R.

    2013-01-01

    During the last century, all the Italian pig breeds suffered a narrow bottleneck. Nowadays, only six Italian local breeds are still reared in Italy and only Cinta Senese and Mora Romagnola breeds can account on rather complete and reliable pedigree. The aim of the work was to assess both genetic variability and genetic contribution of founders and herds to the present populations for these breeds in order to explore the possibility to set up a selection of breeding animals. The re...

  11. Estimating the size of Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) breeding populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ricard; Figuerola, Jordi

    1997-01-01

    [eng] The esti­ mation of Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis breeding numbers has been found to be quite difficult, given the shy behavior of breeding birds, Different methods have been used, although their accuracy has never been tested. The breeding population was estimated in 1994 at 27 different water bodies in the Liobregat Delta (NE Spain). Breeding numbers were estimated by two methods: a) call census plus territory mapping, and b) direct nest searches. Breeding call surveys gave a 19...

  12. The sub-annual breeding cycle of a tropical seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S James; Martin, Graham R; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P; Hughes, B John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17,000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts.

  13. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  14. Motives and values in farming local cattle breeds in Europe: a survey on 15 breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far

  15. Genetic analysis on 3'-terminal flanking region of uncoupling protein 3 in different pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 3′-terminal flanking region of porcine uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was cloned, the sequence data revealed 15 nucleotide substitutions among Landrace and three Chinese native pig breeds named Neijiang, Minpig and Erhualian. The continuous 9 polymorphic sites were checked by PCR-RFLP, the results indicatedthat Erhualian had extraordinary gene frequency, presented most significant difference by χ2 test compared with Landrace, Largewhite, Neijiang and Minpig respectively, significant level compared with Meishan; and Meishan also had significant difference compared with Landrace and Minpig respectively. These results canbe concluded that Taihu pigs have special genetic characteristics among pig breeds.

  16. EFFECT OF BREED, SEX AND SOURCE WITHIN BREED ON THE HEAMATOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE NIGERIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of breed, sex and source within breed, together with their interactions on the haematological parameters of Nigerian goats were studied using 81 goats (comprising 9 males and 18 females per breed, objective being to characterize and outline the differences and similarities between the breeds in blood parameters. The goats were derived from different geo-ecological zones in the country based on the areas of preponderance of each breed. The breeds studied were: the Sahel goat (SG, Red Sokoto goat (RSG, and West African Dwarf goat (WADG and hematological values obtained per breed were: 22.52±1.48, 23.04±3.56, and 29.22±4.76 (%PCV; 7.52±0.50, 7.82±1.25 and 9.48±1.60 (g/dl Hb; 2.71±0.23, 3.09±0.64, and 4.10±0.42 (x1012/l RBC; 11.94±1.10, 11.32±2.03 and 9.23±0.63 (x109cells/l WBC, and 83.22±1.67, 76.72±2.30 and 73.34±3.40 (x106/mm3 MCV, respectively. Significant differences (P0.05 for all the breeds. The WADGs were superior to the RSGs and SGs in PCV, Hb, and RBC counts, but lower in WBC counts and MCV. The SGs were similar in most of the haematological profiles examined, irrespective of geo-ecological distance, indicating homogeneity of the breed. The sahelian goat breed also outscored other breeds in MCV, showing that the breed has greater propensity to transport oxygen and in situation occasioning oxygen starvation, the breed survives better. This explains the reason for the survival of the breed in arid and semi-arid zone. Gender has no effect on the MCV and the values of 83.22±1.67x106/mm3, 76.72±2.30x106/mm3 and 73.34±3.40x106/mm3 were observed for the SG, RSG, and WADG, respectively.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of goat breeds in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are eight goat breeds in Vietnam with more than 1.5 thousand heads and about 95% of them are indigenous breeds. As one of the important livestock species, goat also plays an important role in income earning and poverty alleviation in the rural areas and is potential resource for supplying high quality meat. The Vietnamese indigenous goat breeds were created many years ago by indiscriminate crossbreeding under natural selection or crossbreeding with imported breeds. Therefore, This study is being carried out to phenotypic characterize the goat populations of the country as part of Characterization of Small Ruminant Genetic Resources in Asia supported by Vietnamese basis research project in life sciences and IAEA. Methods: Survey and distribute the questionnaires for interviewing, collect data, morphology description of the breeds and their productivity performance, where available. The research was carried out in five provinces in different geographic areas as follows: Northern Vietnam: Ha Giang province; Red river delta: HaTay province; Western Vietnam: Son la province, center Vietnam: Thanh Hoa and Ninh Thuan Provinces. The results showed that the goat population in the North is 72,5%, the south is 27,5%, in which 12,3% is in Tay Nguyen, 8,9% is in Central Coast, 2,5 % and 3,8% are in East and West Southern part consequently. The Goat population distributes mainly in the Northern Mountains, about 48% of all over country and 67% of the North (MARD). Co native goats, the most common goat breed of the country, are reared under semi-intensive or extensive system by rural peoples. The Co goat population distributes all over the country, but concentrates mainly in the North Mountains and midland provinces; they are raised for meat. There are several kinds of Co goat breeds separate by colours and figures. The Bach Thao goat population is raised mainly in central coastal provinces for both meat and milk. Six breeds were introduced to Vietnam for milk and meat

  18. Breeding sites of Neotropical Drosophilidae (Diptera: IV. living and fallen flowers of Sessea brasiliensis and Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae Sítios de desenvolvimento larval de Drosofilídeos (Diptera neotropicais: IV. flores de Sessea brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae coletadas nas plantas e no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Oliveira dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The flowering phenologies of Sessea brasiliensis and three species of Cestrum (C. amictum, C. schlechtendalii and C. sendtnerianum, all belonging to the Solanaceae, were monitored in a fragment of the montane Atlantic rain forest within São Paulo city from July 1993 through June 1995. A total of 11,021 flies belonging to five species of the flavopilosa group of Drosophila (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta and D. mariaehelenae, plus 1,244 flies belonging to four species of Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila and Z. aff. vittipunctata emerged from 33,955 sampled flowers. Cestrum amictum, C. sendtnerianum and Sessea brasiliensis are recorded for the first time as host plants for the species of the Neotropical flavopilosa group ofDrosophila. Additionally, at least ten less abundant taxa belonging also to the Drosophilidae, plus 1,073 microhymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae, Eucoilidae, and Pteromalidae, emerged from the sampled flowers of S. brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. The present study raised from nine to eleven the number of species of Cestrum previously recorded as breeding sites for these flies. A comprehensive list of species of Solanaceae known to host six species of Drosophila and four species of Zygothrica in southeastern and southern Brazil is included.As fenologias de floração de quatro espécies de Solanaceae (Sessea brasiliensis, Cestrum amictum, C. schlechtendalii e C. sendtnerianum presentes em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica de planalto, encravado na cidade de São Paulo, foram determinadas por observações realizadas entre julho de 1993 e junho de 1995. Durante esses dois anos foram coletadas 33.955 flores das quais emergiram 11.021 moscas pertencentes a cinco espécies de Drosophila do grupo flavopilosa (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta e D. mariaehelenae e 1.244 moscas pertencentes a quatro espécies Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila e Z. aff

  19. Dairy buffalo breeding in countryside of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese buffalo is of swamp type, mainly distributed in countryside of 18 provinces in southern China. China has the third population of buffalo in the world. There are 22.75 million buffaloes in China in 2005, representing 17.37% of all cattle in the whole country. Historically Chinese buffalo is mainly used for drought since their milk production is very low with an annual milk yield of 500-700 kg. Therefore, it is important to improve them to change into dairy buffalo through crossbreeding with exotic river type dairy buffalo breeds. Murrah and Nili-Ravi, the most famous river type dairy buffalo breeds in the world, were introduced from India and Pakistan in 1957 and 1974, respectively and used to crossbreed with indigenous Chinese buffalo for genetic improvement. The effect is very prominent that the performance of crossbred has been improved significantly after several decades and the milk yield reaches 1200-2000 kg. Recent years in countryside of China, buffalo rearing has been changed from extensive and dispersive model in the past into specialized small or medium dairy herd model for the present along with the rapid development of dairy buffalo breeding and the model of dairy buffalo breeding sub-district has been formed. This article introduces briefly that the system of dairy buffalo breeding as well as producing, processing and selling of buffalo milk under the current condition and the prospects of dairy buffalo development in countryside of China.

  20. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  1. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  2. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.;

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...... and between years, underlines the need to try to select for specific adaptation in target environments. The difficulty of doing so can be helped by decentralised breeding with farmer participation and the use of crops buffered by variety mixtures or populations. Varieties for OA need efficient nutrient uptake...

  3. Mosquito species and outdoor breeding places in residential areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Azirun, M Sofian

    2013-11-01

    We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal. PMID:24450233

  4. Under-forest Breeding Pattern and the Practice Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the development in recent years, China’s under-forest breeding pattern can be divided into four kinds of practice form of under-forest breeding pattern (the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises; the pattern of breeding driven by intermediary economic organizations; the pattern of breeding driven by the professional wholesale market; the pattern of breeding driven by the modern animal husbandry demonstration areas), according to difference in the main body participating in signing the operation contract in breeding pattern. In the production practice of under-forest breeding pattern, the most widely used and successful pattern is the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises and its derivative forms.

  5. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25010563

  6. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  7. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  8. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  9. INFLUENCE OF BREED ON CARCASS CUTS COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2000-01-01

    Carcass from 260 Simmental and 159 Brown bulls were dissected first to different cuts (chuck, shoulder, front shank, rib roast, back, loin, tenderloin, brisket, rib, flank, leg and hind shank) and then to lean, fat, tendon and bone. The comparison between two breeds was made at 12.5 % carcass fat. Simmental breed had statistically significantly higher share of leg and brisket with rib and lower share of chuck, front and hind shank, rib roast, tenderloin and flank, with higher lean and lower b...

  10. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    markers for common bunt resistance may potentially help to speed up resistance breeding by shortening the long time required for phenotypic disease screening. Here, we report the results of 1. an association mapping study for common bunt resistance, 2. a QTL mapping study for the localization of common...... model identified two novel QTL for common bunt resistance located on wheat chromosomes 2B and 7 A. The identification of new resistance loci may help to broaden our understanding of common bunt resistance in wheat, and QTL may potentially be exploited by marker assisted selection in plant breeding. QTL...

  11. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  12. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  13. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  14. Breeding habitat selection by houbara bustard (Chlamydotis[undulata] macqueenii) in Mori, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Weikang(杨维康); QIAO Jianfang(乔建芳); Olivier Combreau; YAO Jun(姚军); GAO Xingyi(高行宜); ZHONG Wenqin(钟文勤)

    2002-01-01

    The breeding habitat selection by houbara bustards in Mori, Xinjiang, China duringthe breeding seasons from April to June 1998-2000 was studied. Most of habitats chosen forbreeding were short sub-shrubby and open areas close to high bushy patches. The nesting re-males clearly prefer Iow covered areas and avoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. Thenumber of herb species was significantly smaller at nest sites than at randomly selected sites.Only the distance to the closest fox den contributed the most to discrimination between successfuland predated nests. The average distance to the closest fox den was significantly longer at suc-cessful nests than at depredated nests. Vegetative density, plant species richness, topography anddistance to the closest fox den are possibly the most important factors that determined the nestsites selection of houbara bustard. The displaying males clearly prefer Iow covered areas andavoid densely covered and high vegetation sites. The vegetation density and number of plant spe-cies at display sites was significantly lower than that at randomly selected sites. The average dis-tance to the closest bushy patch was significantly shorter at display sites than at random sites.Plant species richness, vegetative density, vegetative cover and distance to the bushy patches arepossibly the most important factors for the display sites selection of houbara bustard.

  15. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  16. Breeding waterbirds (Pelecaniformes at Maracujá island, Babitonga bay estuary, north coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Venson Grose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterbirds usually breed in an aggregate way, forming large breeding colonies with different species. This study describes biological aspects of waterbirds from a colony at Maracujá island, in the Babitonga bay estuary, north coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We collected data on species richness, abundance, breeding chronology, predation, and nest distribution in the island. Within the period from September 2010 to February 2011, 15 waterbird species were identified using the feeding and resting site, and, out of them, 5 species bred in the island (Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Egretta caerulea, Phimosus infuscatus, and Aramides cajanea. We registered 154 active nests, 79 nests of N. Nycticorax, 14 nests of N. violacea, 6 nests of P. infuscatus, 5 nests of E. caerulea, and only 1 nest of A. cajanea. The estimated local population was 308 breeding individuals, and N. nycticorax was the most abundant species, accounting for 51% of nests. The months with higher concentration of nests were September, October, and November. In addition to waterbirds, 4 birds of prey and scavenger species were registered, which were responsible for egg and/or chick losses, along with Larus dominicanus. Maracujá island has been used for breeding by at least 5 species and its protection deserves attention, in order to ensure the maintenance and possibility to expand this breeding site.

  17. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  18. Validating selective breeding approaches for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout at the USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia is designed to accomplish four goals: 1) define commercially important traits such as disease resistance, growth rate, stress response, and feed efficiency; 2) d...

  19. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  20. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  1. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  2. MODELING REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF BREEDING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svinarev I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia. Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm, multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP, 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP, excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds

  3. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  4. San Diego Zoo:Success in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Giant pandas have become very popular in U.S.zoos. One in particular, the San Diego Zoo, has been extremely successful at making the pandas feel at home and getting them to breed. In 1999, it became home tothe first surviving panda cub born in the United States.

  5. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  6. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  7. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue reports on the creation of the Agency's Subprogramme of Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Systems (E1) through the merger of the Soils and Plant Breeding and Genetics Subprogrammes together with part of the Entomology Subprogramme activities. Implementation of a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Effects of Mutagenic Agents on the DNA Sequence in Plants, and the successful submission of a new CRP proposal on Pyramiding of Mutated Genes Contributing to Crop Quality and Resistance to Stress Affecting Quality were among the major activities of our Subprogramme during the last six months. We actively participated in the International Year of Rice (IYR 2004) events such as the Meeting of the Informal International Working Group on the International Year of Rice (IIWG) and the FAO Rice Conference on Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems (Rome, Italy), both in February this year. A lot of work has been concentrated this last semester on the preparation of Programme and Budget for the biennium 2006-2007 and the appraisal of TC proposals for the biennium 2005-2006. The Mutation Breeding Newsletter and the Mutation Breeding Review will merge to become the Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews (MBN and R). Starting at the end of July, the MBN and R will appear on a regular basis

  8. Impact of mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More cultivars have been developed in rice through the use of mutation breeding than in any other crop. Direct releases of mutants as cultivars began some 30 years ago, and now total 198 cultivars. During the last 20 years, increasing use has been made of induced mutants in cross-breeding programs, leading to 80 additional cultivars. Principal improvements through mutation breeding have been earlier maturity, short stature, and grain character modifications. Rice has been a popular subject of mutagenesis because it is the world's leading food crop, has diploid inheritance, and is highly self-pollinated. In recent years induced mutation has been exploited to develop breeding tool mutants, which are defined as mutants that in themselves may not have direct agronomic application but may be useful genetic tools for crop improvement. Examples include the eui gene, hull colour mutants, normal genetic male steriles, and environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles. The environmentally sensitive genetic male steriles, especially those in which male sterility can be turned on or off by different photoperiod lengths, show promise for simplifying hybrid rice seed production both in China and the USA. Future applications of mutation in rice include induction of unusual endosperm starch types, plant types with fewer but more productive tillers, dominant dwarfs, dominant genetic male steriles, extremely early maturing mutants, nutritional mutants, and in vitro-derived mutants for tolerance to herbicides or other growth stresses. Refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivanković; Miljenko Konjačić; Nikolina Kelava

    2010-01-01

    Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

  10. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired fea

  11. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is intended to bridge traditional research with modern molecular investigations on sunflower. It begins with basic information about the sunflower plant and germplasm diversity (Chapter 1), followed by classical genetics and traditional breeding (Chapter 2), history and achievement of gen...

  12. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  13. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  14. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits

  15. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  16. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  17. Studies on breeding habitats and density of postembryonic immature filarial vector in a filarial endemic area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manas Paramanik; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain a complete and systematic data about the breeding habitats and density of vector immatures (larvae & pupae) in a filarial endemic area. Methods: All the possible permanent and temporary water bodies were surveyed systematically. Four hundred samples were taken in each season from each type of habitats. Sampling was done with a 250 mL dipper and immature mosquitoes were identified following standard keys. Results: In summer, rainy and winter seasons, overall 49.64%, 44.64%, and 28.57% of the habitats were positive for immature filarial vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) respectively; 36.93%, 35.11%, and 21.18%of the samples were positive for immatures respectively and overall per dip densities (PDD) of them were 10.29, 10.18, and 4.40 respectively. In the study year overall PDD were much higher in open cesspits (19.53) and drains (17.24) than in other habitats. Peak PDD of vector immatures in Dobas (ditches), open cesspits and drains were in March whereas in paddy fields and temporary water bodies peak PPD were in September. Conclusion: Dobas, paddy fields, open cesspits, drains, and temporary water bodies were found to be the main breeding sites of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus in different months. Open cesspits and drains were suitable almost throughout the year with peak in summer. Dobas also act as a steady breeding site throughout the year, whereas temporary water bodies immerge as strong breeding site during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Information about the breeding habitats will be helpful to formulate a filarial vector control strategy and in turn to control the filarial diseases in the study area.

  18. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...... shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...... relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic...

  19. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  20. BREED PREFERENCES AND EFFECTIVENESS OF BEEKEEPING IN THE SOUTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashenkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of beekeeping is defined by breed of bees and melliferous herbs. In the conditions of sharply continental climate of South Ural, duration of success of beekeeping is provided with breed of bees.

  1. Four Square Mile Survey breeding population report for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production report of Four Square Mile Survey breeding population estimates for 13 species of ducks. Data includes summaries of breeding population estimates...

  2. Economic Aspects of Using Induced Mutations in Plant Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects of mutation plant breeding are considered in relation to basic principles of mutation induction and selection, when to use mutations in plant breeding programmes and mutation breeding strategies. The following basic principles of mutation plant breeding are outlined: - A imitation is induced in a single cell and expressed in the progeny from that cell. - Expression of a mutation is influenced by its genetic nature and the breeding system of the organism. - The mutation frequency determines the number of cell progenies that have to be examined to detect a particular mutant. - Random mutations in quantitatively inherited characters generally result in an increase in variance and a shift in the mean. Mutation rates for various types of mutations have been estimated and population sizes for mutation plant breeding experiments calculated. Based upon these principles the potential for using induced mutations in plant breeding and some breeding strategies are outlined. (author)

  3. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ; Călin, Ion; Emilia (RĂDUCUŢĂ) ION; Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE; Monica Paula MARIN; Horia Ion PRISECEANU

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive). To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, prote...

  4. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belete Asefa

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, eff...

  5. Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Cattivelli; Natale Di Fonzo; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Loredana Matteu; Pasquale De Vita

    2007-01-01

    Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, wh...

  6. Taking ethics into account in farm animal breeding: what can the breeding companies achieve?

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, I Anna S; Gamborg, Christian; Sandøe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Animal welfare and the ethical issues it raises have been discussed intensively for a couple of decades. The emphasis has been on the direct effects of housing and husbandry, but more attention is now being given to problems originating in selective breeding. European attempts to adjust animal welfare legislation to deal with these problems have been largely unsuccessful, but the fact that selective breeding can introduce welfare problems continues to place an ethical responsibility on the an...

  7. Comparative study of fattening and slaughter traits of male Simmental breed and crosses with Charolais breed

    OpenAIRE

    Petričević M.; Aleksić S.; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Stanišić N.; Nikšić D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the slaughter traits, conformation score and fat covering of carcass and composition of carcasses of young cattle of two genotype groups: domestic Simmental breed (A) and its crosses with Charolais breed (B). The sample included a total of 30 animals, 15 in each group. Both groups were slaughtered at final weight of about 660 kg. After the slaughtering, warm carcass sides with and without kidney fat were weighed ...

  8. Breeding for inducible resistance against insects – applied plant breeding aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Åhman, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Many of the pre-requisites necessary for breeding plants with inducible resistance to pests are no different from breeding for constitutive resistance. In both cases it is necessary to have resistance genes giving high enough yield gains from pest protection, efficient selection methods and means of introducing resistance genes into agronomically acceptable plant material. In addition, resistance traits need to be neutral or positive to non-target organisms. In inducible resistance, there is ...

  9. Studies on breeding schemes in a closed pig population.

    OpenAIRE

    Roo, de, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Size of a population in genetic terms is a function of number of male and female individuals used for breeding over a generation. A breed can be small because of a small total number of individuals but also because of a small number of individuals of one sex. According to this definition, many breeds of livestock, pets and zoo animals are small populations.Breeding scheme designed for finite populations sometimes primarily aim at conservation of animal genetic resources. In most cases, howeve...

  10. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of sustainable breed conservation measures, including sustainable breeding strategies. The objectives of this thesis were to develop improved approaches to characterization of sheep resources, and sustainab...

  11. Economic Impact Analysis of Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Alpuerto, Vida; Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of developing and releasing salinity-tolerant and phosphorous-deficiency-tolerant rice in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and the Philippines were estimated for marker-assisted breeding as compared to conventional breeding using economic surplus analysis. Marker-assisted breeding is estimated to save at least 2 to 3 years in the breeding cycle and result in incremental benefits over 25 years in the range of $300 to $800 million depending on the country, stress, and time lags. Salini...

  12. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. PMID:26991480

  13. Sex in the City: Breeding Behavior of Urban Peregrine Falcons in the Midwestern US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Caballero

    Full Text Available Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were extirpated from most of the continental United States by widespread use of the pesticide DDT in the 1960s. Populations have rebounded with banning of the pesticide and successful implementation of captive breeding and hacking programs. An essentially new population of Midwestern peregrines now exists that is comprised almost entirely of urban-nesting birds. The new population is considered to be of mixed ancestry, occurs at relatively high densities, and has nest sites in close proximity, factors that could influence breeding behaviors including mate fidelity, nest-site fidelity, extra-pair paternity, and natal dispersal. We investigated these behaviors using a combination of field observations and DNA microsatellite genotyping. Data for eleven microsatellite DNA markers, including eight newly developed for the species, were analyzed from a total of 350 birds from nine Midwestern cities, representing 149 broods collected at 20 nest sites. To document breeding behavior, parentage was inferred by likelihood techniques when both parents were sampled and by parental genotype reconstruction when only one parent was sampled. In cases where neither parent was sampled, a sibship reconstruction approach was used. We found high mate fidelity and nest-site fidelity in urban peregrines; in 122 nesting attempts made by long-term breeders, only 12 (9.8% mate changes and six (4.9% nest-site changes occurred. Only one brood (of 35 tested revealed extra-pair paternity and involved a male tending two offspring of a recently acquired mate. Natal dispersal patterns indicated that female peregrines dispersed on average 226 km, almost twice the distance of males (average 124 km. Despite the novel environment of cities, our results suggest that monogamous breeding, nest fidelity, and female natal dispersal are high in urban peregrines, not unlike other raptors living in non-urban habitats.

  14. Sex in the City: Breeding Behavior of Urban Peregrine Falcons in the Midwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, John M.; Hennen, Mary; Ashley, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were extirpated from most of the continental United States by widespread use of the pesticide DDT in the 1960s. Populations have rebounded with banning of the pesticide and successful implementation of captive breeding and hacking programs. An essentially new population of Midwestern peregrines now exists that is comprised almost entirely of urban-nesting birds. The new population is considered to be of mixed ancestry, occurs at relatively high densities, and has nest sites in close proximity, factors that could influence breeding behaviors including mate fidelity, nest-site fidelity, extra-pair paternity, and natal dispersal. We investigated these behaviors using a combination of field observations and DNA microsatellite genotyping. Data for eleven microsatellite DNA markers, including eight newly developed for the species, were analyzed from a total of 350 birds from nine Midwestern cities, representing 149 broods collected at 20 nest sites. To document breeding behavior, parentage was inferred by likelihood techniques when both parents were sampled and by parental genotype reconstruction when only one parent was sampled. In cases where neither parent was sampled, a sibship reconstruction approach was used. We found high mate fidelity and nest-site fidelity in urban peregrines; in 122 nesting attempts made by long-term breeders, only 12 (9.8%) mate changes and six (4.9%) nest-site changes occurred. Only one brood (of 35 tested) revealed extra-pair paternity and involved a male tending two offspring of a recently acquired mate. Natal dispersal patterns indicated that female peregrines dispersed on average 226 km, almost twice the distance of males (average 124 km). Despite the novel environment of cities, our results suggest that monogamous breeding, nest fidelity, and female natal dispersal are high in urban peregrines, not unlike other raptors living in non-urban habitats. PMID:27420915

  15. Sex in the City: Breeding Behavior of Urban Peregrine Falcons in the Midwestern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Isabel C; Bates, John M; Hennen, Mary; Ashley, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were extirpated from most of the continental United States by widespread use of the pesticide DDT in the 1960s. Populations have rebounded with banning of the pesticide and successful implementation of captive breeding and hacking programs. An essentially new population of Midwestern peregrines now exists that is comprised almost entirely of urban-nesting birds. The new population is considered to be of mixed ancestry, occurs at relatively high densities, and has nest sites in close proximity, factors that could influence breeding behaviors including mate fidelity, nest-site fidelity, extra-pair paternity, and natal dispersal. We investigated these behaviors using a combination of field observations and DNA microsatellite genotyping. Data for eleven microsatellite DNA markers, including eight newly developed for the species, were analyzed from a total of 350 birds from nine Midwestern cities, representing 149 broods collected at 20 nest sites. To document breeding behavior, parentage was inferred by likelihood techniques when both parents were sampled and by parental genotype reconstruction when only one parent was sampled. In cases where neither parent was sampled, a sibship reconstruction approach was used. We found high mate fidelity and nest-site fidelity in urban peregrines; in 122 nesting attempts made by long-term breeders, only 12 (9.8%) mate changes and six (4.9%) nest-site changes occurred. Only one brood (of 35 tested) revealed extra-pair paternity and involved a male tending two offspring of a recently acquired mate. Natal dispersal patterns indicated that female peregrines dispersed on average 226 km, almost twice the distance of males (average 124 km). Despite the novel environment of cities, our results suggest that monogamous breeding, nest fidelity, and female natal dispersal are high in urban peregrines, not unlike other raptors living in non-urban habitats. PMID:27420915

  16. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  17. Paratuberculosis in breeding stock of red Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes paratuberculosis in an isolated breeding herd of 25 high-yield dairy cows of the Red Holstein breed. The animals were examined clinically and then given the test for ldelayed type hypersensitivity and their blood serum was examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. The clinical examination revealed that two cows exhibited symptoms of the disease that indicated an advanced stage of paratuberculosis. The following parameters were examined in the blood of the cows that showed clinical signs of the disease: leukocytes and erythrocytes count, concentrations of total proteins, albumin, iron, sodium, potassium, and activity of creatine kinase. The analysis of the red blood cell count revealed certain digressions that indicated the existence of hypochromic microcytic anaemia. The number of leukocytes was within the physiological values, but the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was disrupted and stood at almost 1:1. The results of the biochemical analyses of the blood serum of diseased cows indicated hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypoferremia, hyposodiumaemia, hypokalemia, and increased activities of creatine kinase enzymes. A suspect reaction on the site of application of avian tuberculin was determined in two animals. Animals with clinical signs of the disease reacted negative to the test of delayed type hypersensitivity. The presence of specific antibodies against the cause of paratuberculosis was proven in four animals (16%, including two animals with clinical signs of the disease and one that had a suspect reaction on the site of application of avian tuberculin. Furthermore, one animal that died exhibited macroscopic and microscopic changes regarding the intensity and distribution of lesions, the type of cellular infiltrate, and the number of present acidresistent bacteria, and the changes were characterized as diffuse changes of multibacillary type. The cause of

  18. Breeding densities and migration periods of common snipe in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.R.; Ryder, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Breeding densities and migration periods of Common Snipe in Colorado were investigated in 1974-75. Sites studied were near Fort Collins and in North Park, both in north central Colorado; in the Yampa Valley in northwestern Colorado; and in the San Luis Valley in south central Colorado....Estimated densities of breeding snipe based on censuses conducted during May 1974 and 1975 were, by region: 1.3-1.7 snipe/ha near Fort Collins; 0.6 snipe/ha in North Park; 0.5-0.7 snipe/ha in the Yampa Valley; and 0.5 snipe/ha in the San Luis Valley. Overall mean densities were 06 and 0.7 snipe/ha in 1974 and 1975 respectively. On individual study sites, densities of snipe ranged from 0.2 to 2.1 snipe/ha. Areas with shallow, stable, discontinuous water levels, sparse, short vegetation, and soft organic soils had the highest densities.....Twenty-eight nests were located having a mean clutch size of 3.9 eggs. Estimated onset of incubation ranged from 2 May through 4 July. Most nests were initiated in May.....Spring migration extended from late March through early May. Highest densities of snipe were recorded in all regions during l&23 April. Fall migration was underway by early September and was completed by mid-October with highest densities occurring about the third week in September. High numbers of snipe noted in early August may have been early migrants or locally produced juveniles concentrating on favorable feeding areas.

  19. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software...... available. The results of this analysis accord with other studies on the Prezwalski horse, indicating robustness in the parameter sensitivity for horses....

  20. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  1. Studies on breeding schemes in a closed pig population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, de G.

    1988-01-01

    Size of a population in genetic terms is a function of number of male and female individuals used for breeding over a generation. A breed can be small because of a small total number of individuals but also because of a small number of individuals of one sex. According to this definition, many breed

  2. The use of clones in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and the selecti

  3. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  4. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  5. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: East Asia contains more than 50% of the world's pig population and Europe about 30% (according to FAO inventory. Both indigenous resources were domesticated from different sub-species and are assumed to be the basis of the world-wide genetic diversity in pig. Indigenous resources of Asia, however, are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. Taking advantage of DNA diagnostics, animals within as well as between breeds from Vietnam and Europe were analysed for numerous well defined markers in order to gain more knowledge about pig genetic biodiversity. The main objective was to investigate indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds from different local geographic regions. A set of pig breeds was chosen for this study of genetic diversity: five indigenous breeds from Vietnam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Vietnam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar. Samples and data from 317 animals (17 to 32 unrelated animals per breed) were collected. A panel of 27 polymorphic microsatellite loci was chosen according to FAO recommendations for diversity analyses and genetic distance studies. The loci were distributed evenly over the porcine genome with additional loci linked to immunological relevant genes (MHC, IFNG). Moreover, a few Type I loci (RYR1, FSH) were genotyped. DNA was isolated and PCR fragment lengths analysis were carried out on an ALF DNA sequencer (Pharmacia, Freiburg, Germany). Some of the RFLPs were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Selected microsatellite alleles of equal lengths were sequenced for animals of different breeds. Within-breed diversity estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by taking into account sample sizes, tests per locus and breed as well as breed-locus combinations. Calculations were performed using the BIOSYS-1 software package. Breed differentiation was evaluated by the

  6. From income to capital breeding: when diversified strategies sustain species coexistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Pélisson

    Full Text Available There is empirical evidence of many diversified ways for energy to be acquired and allocated to reproduction, notably with strategies ranging from strict income breeding (females fueling their gametes with energy gained concomitantly during reproduction to strict capital breeding (females storing nutrients prior reproduction. Until now, the question of whether diversification of these strategies might impact the way communities are organized has not been considered. Here, we suggest that diversified resource allocation strategies among competing species may contribute to their coexistence. We examined this hypothesis by focusing on communities composed of four phytophagous insect species that coexist and compete for egg-laying sites. From wild-caught females, we determined precisely the breeding period of each species and we described their resource acquisition and allocation to reproduction dynamics. We quantified in each species the total amount of larval energy stored by newly-emerging females and then monitored the total energy budget of females caught in the field before and throughout their breeding period. We found that the four sibling weevil species are markedly segregated along the income-capital-breeding continuum, which is correlated with clear time partitioning in their laying activity. Our results suggest that diversified resource allocation strategies might contribute to time partitioning of plant resources exploitation and thus indirectly to their coexistence. This work should further encourage studies examining the extent to which competitive coexistence might be affected by diversification of income-capital breeding strategies together with the intensity of interspecific competition, and considering the divergent evolution of these strategies.

  7. Geolocators reveal migration and pre-breeding behaviour of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Guilford

    Full Text Available Using combined miniature archival light and salt-water immersion loggers, we characterise the year-round individual at-sea movements of Europe's only critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, for the first time. Focusing on the non-breeding period, we show that all of the 26 breeding birds tracked from their breeding site on Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea successfully made a 2-4 month migration into the Atlantic Ocean, where they utilised well-defined core areas off Portuguese and French coasts. As well as identifying high-risk areas in the Atlantic, our results confirm that breeding birds spend most of the year concentrated around productive waters of the Iberian shelf in the western Mediterranean. Migration phenology appeared largely unrelated to the subsequent (distinctly synchronous breeding attempt, suggesting that any carry-over effects were compensated for during a long pre-laying period spent over winter in the Mediterranean. Using the light and salt-water immersion data alone we were also able to characterise the pattern of pre-laying visits to the colony in considerable detail, demonstrating that breeding pairs appear to coordinate their over-day visits using a high frequency of night-time visits throughout the winter. Our study shows that geolocation technology is a valuable tool for assessing the spatial distribution of risks to this critically endangered species, and also provides a low-impact method for remotely observing the detailed behaviour of seabird species that may be sensitive to disturbance from traditional study methods.

  8. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2008 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 16 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight and among 8 of the 16 breeds for carcass marbling, ribeye area, and f...

  9. Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Herrel, Nathaly; Amerasinghe, Felix P;

    2003-01-01

    Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vector......-borne human disease risks associated with mosquito species utilizing wastewater for breeding. Mosquito larvae were collected on a fortnightly basis from components of the wastewater disposal system and irrigated sites. In total, 133 samples were collected, about equally divided between agricultural sites...... and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis...

  10. IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

    2013-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders.

  11. Soybean mutation breeding programme in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of breeding soybean in Malaysia is discussed with special reference to the use of induced mutation. Soybean is envisaged for planting as an intercrop in the rubber and oil palm plantations as well as a rotational crop with rice and/or other food annuals. An outline of the UKM breeding programme is described. EMS and gamma rays are used for induction of mutations. Three varieties, Acadian, Jupiter and Palmetto are selected for experimentation. Using two different dose levels 80,000 seeds per variety per season are treated with EMS and gamma rays respectively. Doses are chosen for obtaining 70% and 90% killing. The results of pilot experiments conducted in the greenhouse are presented. (author)

  12. Genetics and breeding of brewers yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson-Tillgren, T.; Gjermansen, C.; Petersen, J.G.L.; Holmberg, S.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Yeasts, used for beer production, can be divided into two groups, top fermenters and bottom fermenters and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has been chosen as the name for the bottom fermenting yeasts which are used in lager beer production. The key for the analysis of the chromosomes of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was provided by the discovery that single chromosomes of meiotic segregants of these strains can be transferred to genetically marked Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and subsequently analyzed by tetrad analysis and molecular hybridization. It is proposed that Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is composed of two rather divergent genotypes. Breeding can be accomplished by cross breeding and mutagenesis and possibly by introducing in vitro modified cloned genes into meiotic segregants of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.

  13. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  14. Breed differences in the frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Brown, S C; Dimmock, C K; Dufty, J H; Hetzel, D J; Mackie, J T; Nicholas, F W; Tierney, T J; Wetherall, J D

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 1,564 cattle of 18 breeds and cross-bred groups in Australia were tested for major histocompatibility system class 1 antigens. Gene frequencies were calculated for the Angus, Belmont Red, Brahman, Hereford and Holstein-Friesian breeds. There were substantial differences among these breeds in antigen and gene frequency. There were striking differences among all 18 breeds in the presence or absence of certain antigens. Two antigens, CA13 and CA36, were strongly associated in Hereford cattle but occurred independently of each other in the other breeds. PMID:3273412

  15. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a MIS on the personal computer named CHESS ( C omputerized H erd E valuati...

  16. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  17. Lessons from the breeding program of rohu

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, K.D.; Jana, R.K.; Saha, J.N.; Gjerde, G.; Sarangi, N.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time in India, selective breeding work has been initiated at the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar, India in collaboration with the Institute of Aquaculture Research (AKVAFORSK), Norway. Rohu has been chosen as the model species because it enjoys the highest consumer preference among Indian major carps (IMC) although its performance was observed to be slower than other IMC. As this was the first ever selection work on any Indian major carp, many procedures...

  18. Novel methods for improved tree breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hallander, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The development and implementation of statistical tools to improve inference in sustainable forest tree breeding are presented here. By combining classical quantitative genetic theory and novel statistical methods, a number of parameters are optimized. The results obtained are compared to those achieved by traditional methods for visualizing improvements to genetic parameters. The methods are tested on both simulated data and on a real Scots pine pedigree. Modeling non-additive gene action us...

  19. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  20. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional (Afra) training course on 'molecular characterization of genetic biodiversity in traditional and neglected crops selected for improvement through mutation techniques' and seminar on 'mutation techniques and biotechnology for tropical and subtropical plant improvement in Asia and Pacific regions'. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  1. Mutation breeding in medicinal yam Dioscorea floribunda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation and two chemical mutagens, NMU and DES on the medicinal Yam Dioscorea floribunda was studied. Chemical mutagens were more effective in altering the mean values. DES was more effective than NMU. NMU was found to stimulate germination and seedling vigour. Although mean values were not affected by irradiation, genetic variances were considerably increased. The possibility of altering the genetic architecture of this crop through mutation breeding is suggested. (author)

  2. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  3. Oviposition Site Selection in the Malayan Giant Frog (Limnonectes blythii) in Singapore:Conservation Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishnu Vardhan SRIDHAR; David BICKFORD

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians require speciifc habitats for breeding and loss or degradation of such habitats can negatively affect reproductive success. Oviposition site selection within a habitat is also important as site quality is linked to larval survivorship and metamorphic success. We investigated oviposition site preferences of the stream-breeding frog Limnonectes blythii in Singapore through surveys and habitat measurements of breeding and non-breeding sites (N =30 and 32, respectively). The study species L. blythii is classiifed as Near Threatened (NT) in the IUCN red list and is associated with medium sized forest streams. L. blythii appeared to prefer streams with higher water pH and shallower water depths for oviposition. Our ifndings have implications in conservation management as it provides the baseline for habitat restoration for creation of new and for preserving existing breeding habitat of L. blythii.

  4. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

    OpenAIRE

    Keith A. Hobson; Kevin J. Kardynal; Steven L Van Wilgenburg; Gretchen Albrecht; Antonio Salvadori; Cadman, Michael D.; Felix Liechti; Fox, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory ...

  5. Sociality, exotic ectoparasites, and fitness in the plural breeding rodent Octodon degus

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joseph R.; Chesh, Adrian S.; Muñoz, Pamela; Fredes, Fernando; Luis A. Ebensperger; Hayes, Loren D.

    2012-01-01

    Social animals are susceptible to high infection levels by contact-transmitted parasites due to increased conspecific interaction. Exotic parasites are known to have adverse consequences on native hosts. We examined the relationship between social group size and exotic ectoparasite loads, and adult infection levels with per capita fitness and offspring survival in the plural breeding rodent Octodon degus in central Chile. Degus at our site were almost entirely infected by two exotic ectoparas...

  6. Impact of egg harvesting on breeding success of black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Philippa J.; Hudson, Malcolm D.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Gull colonies world-wide have been harvested for their eggs for centuries with minimal knowledge of the impacts on breeding. Although most Laridae can replace lost eggs, they have comparatively high energetic demands for egg production. In this paper we assess the impacts of a licensed egg harvest on the breeding success of black-headed gulls Larus ridibundus, which nest colonially in an EU Special Protection Area in Hampshire, southern England. We compared egg volume, hatching and chick survival from harvested and un-harvested nests in central and fringe positions within colonies of various sizes, including colonies with no harvesting activity. Eggs from various laying stages were collected from harvested and un-harvested colonies of similar pre-harvest intrinsic quality, for comparison of their volumes, yolk-to-albumen ratios and eggshell thickness. Egg volume and the yolk-to-albumen ratio depended on laying time and location, with the largest eggs laid during the peak period by birds breeding in central positions on large colonies. Eggs produced by these peak layers also had the largest yolk-to-albumen ratios. Harvested sites were characterised by reductions in egg volume, yolk-to-albumen ratio and eggshell thickness, which translated to poorer hatching success and chick survival. Harvested sites also had a higher proportion of abnormal eggs, particularly taking the forms of small yolkless eggs and unpigmented eggs. The reduced breeding success on harvested colonies is likely to be linked to depletion of the female's endogenous reserves which can also reduce future survival and breeding propensity.

  7. Better late than never? Interannual and seasonal variability in breeding chronology of gentoo penguins at Stranger Point, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate change recorded in the western Antarctic Peninsula confronts species with less predictable conditions in the marine and terrestrial environments. We analysed the breeding chronology and nesting site selection of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua at King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, Antarctica, during four seasons in which differences in snow presence and persistence on the ground were observed. We recorded an overall delay as well as seasonal asynchrony at the beginning of reproduction for those years with higher snow deposition. A redistribution of breeding groups was also observed. Nevertheless, the population breeding success and chicks’ weight at fledging remained relatively constant, despite the delay in breeding chronology, the increased duration of foraging trips during the guard stage and the decreased weight of stomach contents during the crèche stage. We suggest that the plasticity of their trophic biology, along with the flexibility of their breeding phenology and relocation of breeding groups, may be complementary reasons why gentoo penguin populations in the region have remained stable in spite of the changing conditions currently registered.

  8. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  9. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  10. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better.

  11. The effects of dog breed development on genetic diversity and the relative influences of performance and conformation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N; Liu, H; Theilen, G; Sacks, B

    2013-06-01

    Genetic diversity was compared among eight dog breeds selected primarily for conformation (Standard Poodle, Italian Greyhound and show English Setter), conformation and performance (Brittany), predominantly performance (German Shorthaired and Wirehaired Pointers) or solely performance (field English Setter and Red Setter). Modern village dogs, which better reflect ancestral genetic diversity, were used as the standard. Four to seven maternal and one to two Y haplotypes were found per breed, with one usually dominant. Diversity of maternal haplotypes was greatest in village dogs, intermediate in performance breeds and lowest in conformation breeds. Maternal haplotype sharing occurred across all breeds, while Y haplotypes were more breed specific. Almost all paternal haplotypes were identified among village dogs, with the exception of the dominant Y haplotype in Brittanys, which has not been identified heretofore. The highest heterozygosity based on 24 autosomal microsatellites was found in village dogs and the lowest in conformation (show) breeds. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that conformation-type breeds were distinct from breeds heavily used for performance, the latter clustering more closely with village dogs. The Brittany, a well-established dual show and field breed, was also genetically intermediate between the conformation and performance breeds. The number of DLA-DRB1 alleles varied from 3 to 10 per breed with extensive sharing. SNPs across the wider DLA region were more frequently homozygous in all pure breeds than in village dogs. Compared with their village dog relatives, all modern breed dogs exhibit reduced genetic diversity. Genetic diversity was even more reduced among breeds under selection for show/conformation. PMID:23679949

  12. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  13. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species.

  14. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  15. Overview of mutation breeding in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding has effectively started about twenty years ago with the implementation of the first technical cooperation (TC) project of the IAEA in Sudan. This presentation highlights achievements and prospect of this collaboration. The first TC project (SUD 5/023) was confined to cotton and sugarcane while in the following projects (SUD 5/028 and SUD 5/030) other crops such as sesame, banana, tomato, groundnuts and cereals were included. The mutation program also benefited from the regional projects (RAF5/50 and RAF5/56). Plant breeders involved in mutation breeding increased from less than five in the first project to over 15 in the current one. A banana mutant cultivar (ALBEELY) was released in the year 2003. Albeely excelled the yield of the existing cultivars by 40% and has better crop stand and fruit quality. Albeely is becoming popular and widely preferred by farmers. A drought tolerant ground nut mutant (Barberton-B-30-3) and a number of promising mutants resistant for tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are being evaluated in multi-location trails in preparation for their commercial release. Cotton germplasm has been enrich with a number of useful mutants carrying resistance for bacterial blight and fusarium wilt disease in addition to mutants for weak fiber attachments and high ginning out turn and lint percentage. These mutants are being used in the breeding program and promising lines are under field evaluation for release. The mutation breeding program is strengthened by installing irradiator and establishing tissue culture and molecular laboratories. It is evident that the TC program of the IAEA has contributed significantly to the establishment and sustainability of mutation breeding and related biotechnologies in Sudan. The program is progressively expanding and a number of outstanding cultivars were released or in the pipeline. Intensive work is under way to generated production package for these mutants and set a demonstration plot program

  16. Breeding dispersal of Eastern Bluebirds depends on nesting success but not on removal of old nests: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowaty, P.A.; Plissner, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain both within-and between-season breeding dispersal is that individuals move in response to degradation in the suitability and/or quality of their nesting sites. This hypothesis was experimentally examined by manipulating the suitability and/or quality of nesting boxes used by Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) on one study site in upstate South Carolina. From 12 randomly assigned boxes, old nests, parasites, dead nestlings, old food or feces were not removed, as they were from 12 other randomly assigned boxes. There were 24 nesting attempts in cleaned boxes; 26 in not-cleaned boxes. Third brood nesting attempts occurred in only one of the cleaned boxes but in five of the not-cleaned boxes. Only 59% of individuals stayed to breed again within the season in not-cleaned boxes, whereas 72% stayed in cleaned boxes. Equal numbers of both males and females returned to breed in cleaned and not-cleaned boxes during the next breeding season, however. Both within-and between-season breeding dispersal is significantly more likely after unsuccessful nesting attempts than successful nesting attempts. There was no significant effect of cleaning or not cleaning nesting boxes on the chance of nesting attempts or the numbers of nestlings fledged from nesting boxes.

  17. Identification of SNPs in the promoter of β-lactoglobulin gene in three Sicilian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Portolano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the full-length promoter region of the caprine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg gene in three Sicilian goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria, in order to identify polymorphisms, to search for transcription factors (TFs sites, and to check if polymorphisms found lay within TFs binding sites. The promoter region of β-lg gene in Sicilian goat breeds showed high level of polymorphism due to the presence of 31 SNPs. Binding sites for several TFs were found within the goat β-lg promoter and within regions conserved between ovine and caprine species. Two SNPs were detected within TFs binding sites, such as MPBF and NF-I. Further studies are in progress to confirm polymorphic sites, to evaluate the possible effect of these mutations on binding affinity of TFs, their relationship with β-lg gene expression, and the functional role of SNPs within the TFs sites of the promoter region on milk traits.

  18. Movement patterns and the conservation of amphibians breeding in small, temporary wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Cade, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Many amphibians breed in water but live most of their lives in terrestrial habitats. Little is known, however, about the spatial distribution of these habitats or of the distances and directions amphibians move to reach breeding sites. The amphibian community at a small, temporary pond in northcentral Florida was monitored for 5 years. Based on captures and recaptures of more than 2500 striped newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) and 5700 eastern narrow-mouthed toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis), we tabulated the angles of orientation that these amphibians entered and exited the pond basin. Our results showed that movements of these species between the pond and terrestrial habitats were nonrandom in orientation, but that narrow corridors did not appear to be used. Differences between the species likely reflect differences in habitat preferences, whereas intraspecific differences among years and between the sexes likely reflect variation among individuals. For terrestrial buffer zones to be effective at conserving pond-breeding amphibian communities, they need both a distance and a directional component. The determination of a directional component may be obscured if studies are carried out over a short time span. Conservation efforts for wetland-breeding amphibians that concentrate solely on the wetland likely will fail without consideration of the adjacent terrestrial habitat.

  19. Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:26954229

  20. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  1. [Monitoring chromosome mutations in large-scale breeding operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubes, J; Raszyk, J; Horínová, Z; Gajdůsková, V; Masek, J; Docekalová, H; Bartos, J; Neumannová, M

    1988-03-01

    The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and exchanges of sister chromatids (SCEs) in peripheral lymphocytes was studied in 65 pigs from five large breeding herds. Four groups comprised fattened pigs and the fifth group consisted of sows from a large multiplier breeding herd. During the investigation, the dust from the sites was analyzed for the presence of zinc, lead, cadmium, mercury, aflatoxin B1, PCB, DDT, and lindane. The average frequency of aberrant cells (AB.B) in the pigs of group I was 3.85 +/- 1.60%, in group II 2.10 +/- 1.52%, in group III 5.01 +/- 2.1%, in group IV 3.50 +/- 1.58%, and in group V 6.20 +/- 3.21%. The cytogenetic finding corresponded to the differences in the amount of foreign substances found in the dust on the premises where the animals of all groups were kept. The average frequency of the SCEs was 7.00 +/- 1.10 (I), 6.51 +/- 0.89 (II), 6.92 +/- 0.72 (III), 7.10 +/- 0.85 (IV) and 7.06 +/- 1.47 (V) per one cell. Statistically significant differences in the numbers of AB.B. were recorded between groups II and I, II and IV, I and III, IV and V (p less than 0.05) and between groups II and III, II and V (p less than 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of SCEs. The determination of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations can be used for the hygienic control of the degree of exposure of pigs to mutagens. PMID:3129856

  2. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  3. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  4. Simulation Modeling in Plant Breeding: Principles and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer

    2007-01-01

    Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.

  5. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  6. Application of myostatin in sheep breeding programs: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Miar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, has been known as the factor causing double muscling phenotypes in which a series of mutations make the myostatin protein inactive, hence disabling it to regulate the deposition of muscle fibre. This phenotype happens with high frequency in a breed of sheep known as the Texel. Quantitative trait loci (QTL studies show that a portion of the OAR2 that encompasses GDF8 has a major effect on muscular growth of Belgian Texel, on the muscling and fat depth in New Zealand Texel sires, and UK Texel and Charollais sheep. The functional polymorphism resides inside the GDF8 non-coding region. To date, there have been studies showing biallelic SNPs with significantly different allelic frequencies between hyper-muscled Texel and control animals including one in the 3'UTR (g.+6223G>A and one in 2.5 kb upstream from the GDF8 transcription start site (g.-2449G>C. The GDF8 allele of the Texel sheep is characterized by one G to A transition in the 3'UTR, creating a target site for mir1 and mir206 which are highly expressed in skeletal muscles. This prevents myostatin gene translation, thus contributing to the double muscling of Texel sheep. Therefore, the GDF8 g. +6223A allele seems to be a causative variable increasing muscularity in the Texel rams and could be identified as a quantitative trait nucleotide.

  7. Demography and Behavior of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) Breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James Matthew

    2006-01-01

    I conducted demographic and behavioral studies of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska (1998-2005). In chapter one, I estimated apparent annual survival (product of true survival and site fidelity) while correcting for the probability of encounter for 237 males and 296 females. Overall return rates (individual returned to the site in a subsequent season) were lower for females (40%) than males (65%), as was apparent annual survival (± ...

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter and reviews. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first issue of Mutation Breeding Newsletter (MBNL) was born in May 1972, and her sister Mutation Breeding Review (MBR) ten years later, there were 46 issues of MBNL and 13 MBR published, both MBNL and MBR, being the only specialised publications on mutation breeding worldwide. Our contributors and readers have enthusiastically supported them. During the past half century, mutation induction has matured from a focal research area to sophisticated technologies in modern plant improvement. Doubtlessly, these two publications played unique and important roles in fostering the development and application of mutation techniques in plant research, germplasm innovation, and new variety development. We are indebted to our predecessors at Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, and especially to Dr Alexander Micke, to have born and raised these publications and fostered their spread. In 1998, a new newsletter, Plant Breeding and Genetic Newsletter (PBGN), became a regular bulletin, covering all activities in our Section. Therefore, a major function of the MBNL was largely replaced by PBGN. On the other hand, the FAO/IAEA Mutant Variety Database (http://www-mvd.iaea.org/MVD/default.htm) has also taken over some functions of these two publications. Because of this and other reasons, we are facing a dwindling number of suitable submissions from outside for these two periodicals, and MBNL and MBR have become irregular publications since 2001. Even though, we, as well as many of you, contributors and readers, still believe that these two publications have reason to exist, but to keep them alive, significant evolution is inevitable. During the recent decade, mutation techniques are no longer used only as a tool for crop improvement of traditional traits, e.g. yield, resistance to disease and pests, but more frequently for diversified uses of crop end-products, enhancing quality and nutritional values and tolerances to abiotic stresses. Thanks to the massive progress in

  9. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior; Fernanda Trentini Lopes Ribeiro; Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP). PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V), 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R) and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R) are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to incre...

  10. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  11. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These last six months, the Plant Breeding and Genetics (PBG) Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division (NAFA/AGE) implemented five Research Coordination Meetings (RCMs) and one Consultants Meeting for a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Molecular tools for quality improvement in vegetatively propagated crops including banana and cassava' (8-11 November 2004, Vienna). Other salient points were the training courses we implemented this semester in the framework of different Technical Cooperation (TC) projects.Details about these activities inside this Newsletter

  12. Breeding of Root and Tuber Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root and tuber crops cassava, yams and sweet potato are important in Nigeria and Africa. Breeding methods most appropriate to these crops are discussed in terms of mating systems, creation of source populations, selections. Intervarietal hybridization, interspecific hybridization, and population improvement through cyclic selection and recombination procedures are methods of creating source populations. Factors affecting the effectiveness of selection, and efficient methods of selection to make maximum genetic progress are discussed. Use of selections is briefly stated. Synthetics, composites, or single and double crosses of yam produced from true seed may be used at the farmer level. (author)

  13. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  14. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-06-03

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology.

  15. Reproductive success and contaminants in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding at a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Patti L; Birmingham, Erinn M; Williams, Tony D; Ikonomou, Michael G; Bennie, Donald T; Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    The uptake and effects of contaminants were measured in the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) at a wastewater treatment site. The study examined reproductive, immunological, and growth endpoints in tree swallows exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and to 4-nonylphenol in wastewater lagoons at the Iona Wastewater Treatment Plant, Vancouver (BC, Canada). Clutch size was significantly lower in tree swallows breeding at Iona Island in 2000 and 2001 compared to the reference site. In 2000, fledging success was significantly lower and mean mass of nestling livers was significantly higher in the tree swallows breeding at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. Additional factors that may influence reproductive success, such as parental provisioning and diet composition, did not differ significantly between sites. Levels of 4-nonylphenol detected in sediment and insects were elevated at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (2000: lagoon sediment 82,000 ng/g dry wt, insects 310 ng/g wet wt; 2001: lagoon sediment 383,900 ng/g dry wt, insects 156 ng/g wet wt) compared to the reference site (2000: pond sediment 1,100 ng/g dry wt, insects not sampled; 2001: pond sediment 642 ng/g dry wt, insects 98 ng/g wet wt). These results indicate that tree swallows might be a useful indicator species for exposure to 4-nonylphenol at wastewater treatment sites: however, further work is necessary to determine the extent of uptake and effects of 4-nonylphenol in riparian insectivorous birds. PMID:16445092

  16. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to declin

  17. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive. To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, protein, lactose and minerals. The biological material studied in this paper was represented by the adult goats from Carpathian breed belonging of two private farms from the south region of country. The size of the control group during the whole lactation was 25 heads for each farm. The research took into account two farms of goats differentiated by breeding system practiced, respectively extensive and semi-intensive. The obtained results showed that regarding the quantitative milk production the best performance was achieved by animals from semi-intensive farm (253.21 liters versus 208.50 liters and in terms of milk quality by the animals from extensive farm.

  18. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Rischkowsky, B.; Valle-Zárate, A.; Haile, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Mwai, O.; Dessie, T.

    2014-01-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei s

  19. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. PMID:26510674

  20. Breeding objectives and breeding strategies for small ruminants in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Small ruminants (i.e., sheep and goats) are widespread in the tropics and are important to the subsistence, economic and social livelihoods of a large human population in these areas. The aim of this thesis was to identify the breeding objectives for tropical small ruminants, and to develop appropri

  1. Development of a model webserver for breed identification using microsatellite DNA marker

    OpenAIRE

    Iquebal, Mir Asif; Sarika,; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Arora, Vasu; Dixit, Sat Pal; Raghava, Gajendra PS; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of true to breed type animal for conservation purpose is imperative. Breed dilution is one of the major problems in sustainability except cases of commercial crossbreeding under controlled condition. Breed descriptor has been developed to identify breed but such descriptors cover only “pure breed” or true to the breed type animals excluding undefined or admixture population. Moreover, in case of semen, ova, embryo and breed product, the breed cannot be identified due...

  2. Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahn Robert A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK. Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs.

  3. Applying SNP-Derived Molecular Coancestry Estimates to Captive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jamie A; Putnam, Andrea S; Navarro, Asako Y; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A

    2016-09-01

    Captive breeding programs for wildlife species typically rely on pedigrees to inform genetic management. Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs. We generated SNP data for a zoo-based population of addax (Addax nasomasculatus) using both the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and double digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing. Our results demonstrated that estimates of allele sharing (AS) between pairs of individuals exhibited low variances. Average AS variances were highest when using 50 loci (SNPchipall = 0.00159; ddRADall = 0.0249), but fell below 0.0003 for the SNP chip dataset when sampling ≥250 loci and below 0.0025 for the ddRAD dataset when sampling ≥500 loci. Furthermore, the correlation between the SNPchipall and ddRADall AS datasets was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.84-0.91) when subsampling 500 loci. Collectively, our results indicated that both SNP genotyping methods produced sufficient data for accurately estimating relationships, even within an extremely bottlenecked population. Our results also suggested that analytic assumptions historically integrated into the addax pedigree are not adversely impacting long-term pedigree-based management; kinships calculated from the analytic pedigree were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with AS estimates. Overall, our conclusions are intended to serve as both a proof of concept and a model for applying molecular data to the genetic management of captive breeding programs. PMID:27208150

  4. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of Common Eiders (Somateria Mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Documentation of spatial genetic discordance among breeding populations of Arctic-nesting avian species is important, because anthropogenic change is altering environmental linkages at micro- and macrogeographic scales. We estimated levels of population subdivision within Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding on 12 barrier islands in the western Beaufort Sea, Alaska, using molecular markers and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data. Common Eider populations were genetically structured on a microgeographic scale. Regional comparisons between populations breeding on island groups separated by 90 km (Mikkelsen Bay and Simpson Lagoon) revealed structuring at 14 microsatellite loci (FST = 0.004, P < 0.01), a nuclear intron (FST = 0.022, P = 0.02), and mitochondrial DNA (??ST = 0.082, P < 0.05). The CMR data (n = 34) did not indicate female dispersal between island groups. Concordance between genetic and CMR data indicates that females breeding in the western Beaufort Sea are strongly philopatric to island groups rather than to a particular island. Despite the apparent high site fidelity of females, coalescence-based models of gene flow suggest that asymmetrical western dispersal occurs between island groups and is likely mediated by Mikkelsen Bay females stopping early on spring migration at Simpson Lagoon to breed. Alternatively, late-arriving females may be predisposed to nest in Simpson Lagoon because of the greater availability and wider distribution of nesting habitat. Our results indicate that genetic discontinuities, mediated by female philopatry, can exist at microgeographic scales along established migratory corridors. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  5. Characterization of the genetic profile of five Danish dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Kristensen, T. N.; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n = 8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n = 18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n = 22), 4) Old Danish P...... strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool of these dog breeds. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved....

  6. The application of AFLP fingerprinting in breeding of Brassica napus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuřínová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    AFLP markers are widely used in breeding in some other crops, but their utilization in breeding of Brassica crops is not so frequent. AFLP markers are used for molecular characterization of particular varieties or genotypes and for evaluation of genetic diversity. The aim of this thesis was the application of this method in breeding of rapeseed and in comparative study of genetic variability of different oil seed rape cultivars of Czech, Czechoslovak and German origin. AFLP is based on select...

  7. The development of a new breed of sheep in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, H M; Ospina, O; Williams, H L

    1990-01-01

    A new breed of sheep has been developed in Colombia by crossing Scottish Blackface rams with the indigenous Criolla ewes and then interbreeding the progeny, with selection based on performance. It has been given the name Manchada Paramuna. The breed has been developed to provide the small producer (campesino) with a breeding ewe which has a high level of fertility, a good fleece, and which produces lambs with high survival rate and good growth rate. PMID:2331588

  8. Breed and sex effect on pork meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, sandra; Lourenço, Maria do Céu; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work had as objective to evaluate the physical-chemical and sensory quality oftwo categories af park meat from, a cornrncrcial meat pork aod a selected meat from the Portuguese black pork (Preto Alentejano breed). The Preto Alentejano is a local non improved swine breed which survived during the las! years owing to a demand increasing ofIberian products and the protection of nrigin designation products. Commercial pig breeds have great prolificacy and precocity, raised purely...

  9. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Rapid increase of the grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus) breeding stock at Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, K.; Engler, J.

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 25 years, the grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus) population in the North Sea increased on average at 5% per year, while founding a number of new colonies. Based on published data, this note compares recent trends in pup production at nine breeding sites, with focus on the German island of Helgoland. Since 1997, numbers born at Helgoland increased at 35% per year (95% CI: 29-42), reaching an all-time high of 53 in 2007. Yet, this was less than 1% of all grey seal offspring in the North Sea area. Some other small stocks had similarly high growth rates of 20-50%, which must be explained by immigration from the larger colonies, as sustained autochthonous increase cannot exceed 13% per year in the species. Further, the Helgoland breeding stock increased significantly faster than the neighbouring colonies at Amrum (13%) and in the Dutch Wadden Sea (20%), indicating higher offspring survival and/or higher relative influx of migrants. This is attributed to the fact that at Helgoland newborn seals are safe from floodwater. In the other two sites, in contrast, pups are born on sandbanks and are thus often hit by winterly storm tides, which poses a risk to their survival. Because of the favourable breeding conditions at Helgoland, this new colony is expected to soon become an important stronghold of the grey seal in the Dutch-German North Sea area.

  11. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  12. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  13. Low technology high tritium breeding blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main function of this low technology blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for INTOR operation with minimum first wall coverage. The INTOR first wall, blanket, and shield are constrained by the dimensions of the reference design and the protection criteria required for different reactor components and dose equivalent after shutdown in the reactor hall. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions and the proper temperature for power generation can be sacrificed to achieve the highest possible tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and developments and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. A set of blanket evaluation criteria has been used to compare possible blanket concepts. Six areas: performance, operating requirements, impact on reactor design and operation, safety and environmental impact, technology assessment, and cost have been defined for the evaluation process. A water-cooled blanket was developed to operate with a low temperature and pressure. The developed blanket contains a 24 cm of beryllium and 6 cm of solid breeder both with a 0.8 density factor. This blanket provides a local tritium breeding ratio of ∼2.0. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which eliminates the tritium buildup in the water by permeation and reduces the changes for water-breeder interaction. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  14. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  15. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  16. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  17. Evaluation of Egyptian sheep production systems: II. Breeding objectives for purebred and composite breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H

    2000-02-01

    Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds. PMID:10709919

  18. Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hei; Raghavan, Chitra; Zhou, Bo; Oliva, Ricardo; Choi, Il Ryong; Lacorte, Vanica; Jubay, Mona Liza; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ulat, Victor Jun; Borja, Frances Nikki; Mauleon, Ramil; Alexandrov, Nickolai N; McNally, Kenneth L; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources. PMID:26606925

  19. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding in particular countries and crop-specific mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the final two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding with particular objectives and the methodology of mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SLOVAK NATIONAL HEN’S BREED ORAVKA

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, J. (Joachim); C. HRNČÁR

    2013-01-01

    Our work describes the results of egg production and egg weight of hen’s breed Oravka in years 2004 - 2008. Observation of production parameters of hen’s breed Oravka realised in special poultry house for controlled breeds of poultry at University Experimental Farm in Kolíňany. In analyzed period 2004 to 2008 we observed flock of breed Oravka with ten females and one male. This poultry flock was selecting from young birds per year. The egg production we evaluated as average number of eggs for...

  2. Breeding sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. for drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rauf

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of sunflower is strongly regulated by the availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering. Therefore, it is critical to manage the deleterious effect of drought stress at this stage. Evolving crop genotypes which have enhanced drought tolerance are the most successful and cheapest strategy to cope with drought. However, progress in drought tolerance breeding is slow due to inappropriate selection criteria and faulty breeding strategies. Therefore, utility of potential physiological and morphological traits in drought stress breeding are discussed and progress in sunflower drought tolerance breeding at the molecular level is reviewed.

  3. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been a number of important events related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months. The joint FAO/IAEA RCMs on 'Molecular characterization of mutated genes controlling important traits for seed crop improvement' and 'Mutational analysis of root characters in annual food plants related to plant performance' were held in June, in Krakow, Poland. It was the third RCM of the CRP on crop plant genomics and the second in the CRP on root systems. More than 40 scientists from twenty countries participated in the meeting. Significant progress was achieved in presented projects of diverse areas of both CRPs. Although genomics and root genetics are methodologically among the most rapidly developing disciplines, the participants successfully tried to follow the latest developments. The Consultants Meeting on 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' was also held in June, in Vienna. Physical mapping technologies provide new tools for the rapid advancement of breeding programs and are highly applicable to neglected crops in developing countries. Furthermore, they open new opportunities for developing modern approaches to plant improvement research. Consultants recommended the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Project dealing with application of these new technologies to breeding programmes with the use of induced mutations for crop improvement. It is expected that the new CRP will be initiated this year. In close collaboration with EU COST 851 'Gametic cells and molecular breeding for crop improvement' project we started with preparation and editing of a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A manual'. More than 40 manuscripts were collected, reviewed by a team of EU COST 851 experts and are now in the final editing phase. Similarly, we finished editorial work on publishing the training material from the FAO/IAEA Training

  4. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E; Gallant, Alisa L; Klaver, Robert W; Wright, Chris K; Patla, Debra A; Peterson, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    The ability to predict amphibian breeding across landscapes is important for informing land management decisions and helping biologists better understand and remediate factors contributing to declines in amphibian populations. We built geospatial models of likely breeding habitats for each of four amphibian species that breed in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used field data collected in 2000-2002 from 497 sites among 16 basins and predictor variables from geospatial models produced from remotely sensed data (e.g., digital elevation model, complex topographic index, landform data, wetland probability, and vegetative cover). Except for 31 sites in one basin that were surveyed in both 2000 and 2002, all sites were surveyed once. We used polytomous regression to build statistical models for each species of amphibian from (1) field survey site data only, (2) field data combined with data from geospatial models, and (3) data from geospatial models only. Based on measures of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores, models of the second type best explained likely breeding habitat because they contained the most information (ROC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.88). However, models of the third type could be applied to the entire YNP landscape and produced maps that could be verified with reserve field data. Accuracy rates for models built for single years were highly variable, ranging from 0.30 to 0.78. Accuracy rates for models built with data combined from multiple years were higher and less variable, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Combining results from the geospatial multiyear models yielded maps of "core" breeding areas (areas with high probability values for all three years) surrounded by areas that scored high for only one or two years, providing an estimate of variability among years. Such information can highlight landscape options for amphibian conservation. For example, our models identify alternative areas that could be protected for each species

  5. Effects of point-source PCB contamination on breeding performance and post-fledging survival in the dipper Cinclus cinclus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S J; Tyler, S J; Jüttner, I

    2000-12-01

    Despite widespread information on the incidence and biochemical effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in birds, field studies of effects on population processes are still scarce. This is particularly so in passerines. We therefore assessed breeding performance and post-fledging survival in dippers, Cinclus cinclus, breeding along the Afon Mule, a Welsh river where previous work indicated locally elevated PCB concentrations. We hypothesised that marked toxicological effects, including endocrine disruption, would be detectable as altered clutch-size, hatching success, nest success, brood-size, post-fledging survival or recruitment to the breeding population. Congener-specific analysis of PCBs in failed and deserted dipper eggs during 1990-93 revealed that geometric mean concentrations were four to 20 times higher along the Mule than elsewhere in Wales, UK. PCB signatures also varied highly significantly from other locations, with congeners 138, 153 and 180 dominant at the contaminated site, but 118 or 170 more frequent in eggs elsewhere. Subsequent analysis of surface runoff confirmed a small breaker's yard as a point source. Neither laying dates, clutch-sizes, brood-sizes, nest failure nor hatching failure along the contaminated Mule (n=46 breeding attempts and 218 eggs) differed significantly from dippers along adjacent reference rivers (n=82 breeding attempts and 315 eggs) or Welsh rivers as a whole (n=332 breeding attempts and 1534 eggs). Subsequent recaptures of breeding dippers ringed initially as nestlings were nearly identical between the Mule (7.7% of 182 nestlings), the reference set (7.5% of 323 nestlings) and all other Welsh rivers (7.3% of 2821 nestlings). These data illustrate the value of congener-specific analysis of bird's eggs in indicating local PCB sources. The data show also that PCBs can occur in dipper eggs at total concentrations of 0.49 (geometric mean)-1.29 (upper quartile) microg g(-1) wet mass without effects on breeding performance

  6. Metals, Parasites, and Environmental Conditions Affecting Breeding Populations of Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in Northern Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMali, Heather M; Trauth, Stanley E; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is indigenous to northern Arkansas, and several breeding sites are known to exist in the region. Spotted salamanders (n = 17) were collected and examined for parasites and only three females harbored nematodes (Physaloptera spp.). Chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted using water collected from eight breeding ponds during different hydroperiod events. No lethal or sublethal effects were measured in Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, decreased growth and survival were seen in Pimephales promelas. Aqueous, sediment, and salamander hepatic samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Metal analysis revealed possible increased metal exposure following precipitation, with greatest metal concentrations measured in sediment samples. Hepatic metal concentrations were similar in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals, and greatest Pb concentrations were measured following normal precipitation events. Determining environmental stressors of amphibians, especially during their breeding and subsequent larval life stage, is imperative to improve species conservation. PMID:26886425

  7. Effects of food provisioning and habitat management on spatial behaviour of Little Owls during the breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Chrenkova, Monika; Sunde, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    the nests. In addition to increasing the reproductive output, feeding and habitat management may cause parents to work less hard improving their future reproductive value. We studied working efforts of five radio-tagged Little Owl pairs in years of absence and presence of food provisioning, and/or access...... proximate effects on the foraging effort of males and females, whereas provisioning of short sward habitats had an indirect effect on male but not female MFD, because of decreased commuting distances between nest and foraging sites. The results indicate that food provisioning not only leads to increased......The population of Little Owls in Denmark is close to extinction. The main cause is food limitation during the breeding season. Efforts to improve breeding success include providing breeding pairs with supplementary food and attempts to improve foraging habitats by creating short grass areas near...

  8. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  9. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  10. Genetic structure of goat breeds from Brazil and the United States: Implications for conservation and breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G M C; Paiva, S R; Araújo, A M; Mariante, A; Blackburn, H D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 5 Brazilian (155 animals) and 5 U.S. goat (120 animals) breeds using 23 microsatellite markers. Samples from the United States represented a broad geographic distribution whereas Brazilian samples were from the northeast region. Samples from Boer were common to each country's breed count. Expected and observed heterozygosity among breeds ranged from 0.55 to 0.72, suggesting ample genetic diversity in the breeds evaluated. United States Angora, U.S. Spanish, and Brazilian Nambi ranked highest for allelic richness, averaging 6.1, 7.1, and 6.5 alleles per locus, respectively. Angora and Spanish also ranked highest in private alleles (7 and 9, respectively). Using STRUCTURE, the U.S. Spanish were also found to share a common cluster assignment with Brazilian Nambi, suggesting that progenitor breeds may have been the same and passed through the Canary Islands or Cape Verde in route to the New World. When non-Boer breeds were pooled by country, the effect of the subpopulation compared with total population () = 0.05, suggesting minor genetic differences exist between countries. The lack of genetic structure among goat breeds when compared with other species (e.g., vs. ) suggests goat breeds may exhibit a plasticity that facilitates productivity across a wide range of countries and environments. Taken a step further, the concept of breed for meat goats may not be as relevant for goat production. PMID:26523555

  11. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  12. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  13. Post–breeding movements and migration patterns of western populations of common quail (Coturnix coturnix: from knowledge to hunting management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez–Teijeiro, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the patterns of post–breeding movements of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in the Iberian peninsula with the aim of describing its migratory phenology and some physiological features of individuals. This information is needed to adjust hunting seasons in an optimal way. We worked with two data–sets: a captures made in a non–breeding site (Garraf from August to October in 2009 and 2010; b post–breeding recoveries of individuals ringed in Europe and recaptured in Spain between 1933 and 2005. The results showed that post–breeding movements in Garraf occur in two waves: a first wave that occurs around 10 VIII and is mainly composed of non–sexually active yearlings that do not correspond physiologically to migrants, and a second much more intense wave, which occurs around 17 IX and is mainly composed of non–sexually active migrant yearlings. The hunting season in Spain takes place mainly during the first wave, preserving the passage of migrant individuals from Spain and other European countries. Information on the post–breeding movements in other Spanish regions and other European countries where the common quail is a popular game species would improve timing between the hunting season and migration by providing more precise recommendations for hunting management.

  14. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of a new CRP on Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality, organization of mutant germplasm database and repository, implementation of new TC projects and activation of work on molecular characterization of Musa putative germplasm as well as sequencing of BAC clones were the major activities of our sub-Programme on Plant Breeding and Genetics during the last six months. A lot of work has been concentrated on organizing a mutant germplasm repository. The first collections of rice and linseed mutants have already arrived and their descriptions have been introduced into the mutated germplasm database. We found this activity especially important to stimulate exchange of crop germplasm among plant breeders. Similarly there is an urgent need to collect mutants of various crops as necessary material for functional genomics and germplasm enhancement. Nevertheless, many crop research institutes are initiating large-scale mutation programmes with the use of their own plant material. To help them in selecting the mutagen, doses and mutation treatment procedure, we published the third issue of Mutation Breeding Newsletter Index of No. 21-44. The Index is also available through our website http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d2/index.html. The numerous requests for issues of the Mutation Breeding Newsletter already received from various countries indicate the value of this 80-page index for plant breeders and research institutes. We were invited to present the activities, achievements and trends of our sub-Programme at two very important, international meetings: The International Conference on the Status of Plant and Animal Genome Research, known as the Plant and Animal Genome (PAG XI), and The International Congress on 'In the Wake of the Double Helix - From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution'. At this last meeting, an initiative was taken to organize the Crop Root Research

  15. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional

  16. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  17. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  18. Spatial patterns of breeding success of grizzly bears derived from hierarchical multistate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Wheatley, Matthew; Mackenzie, Darryl

    2014-10-01

    Conservation programs often manage populations indirectly through the landscapes in which they live. Empirically, linking reproductive success with landscape structure and anthropogenic change is a first step in understanding and managing the spatial mechanisms that affect reproduction, but this link is not sufficiently informed by data. Hierarchical multistate occupancy models can forge these links by estimating spatial patterns of reproductive success across landscapes. To illustrate, we surveyed the occurrence of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Canadian Rocky Mountains Alberta, Canada. We deployed camera traps for 6 weeks at 54 surveys sites in different types of land cover. We used hierarchical multistate occupancy models to estimate probability of detection, grizzly bear occupancy, and probability of reproductive success at each site. Grizzly bear occupancy varied among cover types and was greater in herbaceous alpine ecotones than in low-elevation wetlands or mid-elevation conifer forests. The conditional probability of reproductive success given grizzly bear occupancy was 30% (SE = 0.14). Grizzly bears with cubs had a higher probability of detection than grizzly bears without cubs, but sites were correctly classified as being occupied by breeding females 49% of the time based on raw data and thus would have been underestimated by half. Repeated surveys and multistate modeling reduced the probability of misclassifying sites occupied by breeders as unoccupied to grizzly bear occupancy varied across the landscape. Those patches with highest probabilities of breeding occupancy-herbaceous alpine ecotones-were small and highly dispersed and are projected to shrink as treelines advance due to climate warming. Understanding spatial correlates in breeding distribution is a key requirement for species conservation in the face of climate change and can help identify priorities for landscape management and protection.

  19. Breeding biology of Henslow's Sparrows on reclaimed coal mine grasslands in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, M.S.; Ritchison, G. [Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-04-01

    Populations of Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii) arc declining, and loss of habitat is a likely factor. Coal mine reclamation has created grassland habitat in Kentucky and elsewhere, and information is needed concerning the use of these areas by Henslow's Sparrows. We compared the behavior and ecology of populations on reclaimed sites and non-mined sites in west-central Kentucky during the 2000 and 2001 breeding seasons. Territories were smaller on the reclaimed sites than unmined sites, perhaps due to differences in habitat quality. Insect sweeps revealed more prey biomass on reclaimed sites than unmined sites. Twenty-eight of 48 nests (58%) fledged at least one young, and nesting success was similar on reclaimed and unmined sites. Mean clutch size was 3.75, with no difference between reclaimed and unmined sites. Similarly, the mean number of fledglings per nest was similar on reclaimed and unmined sites. Multivariate analysis revealed differences in the characteristics of vegetation on reclaimed areas and unmined areas. Reclaimed areas had more grass cover and greater vegetation density, probably due to differences in management history (i.e., mowing or burning) and species composition. Our results indicate that the nesting success of Henslow's Sparrows on reclaimed surface mines in Kentucky is comparable to that on unmined areas. As such, the thousand of hectares of reclaimed surface mines in Kentucky and elsewhere could play an important role in stabilizing populations of Henslow's Sparrows.

  20. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  1. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author)

  2. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  3. Applying Selective Breeding And Vaccination To Improve Fish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious disease causes substantial economic loss in aquaculture. In an effort to reduce loss, selective breeding of animals with superior disease resistance is being increasingly utilized as a component within fish health management plans. Selective breeding is especially applicable to salmonid ...

  4. Selective breeding of food sized rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  5. Selective breeding of food size rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  6. A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella

  7. Modern biotechnology and the future of plant breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic improvement of crop plants has been traditionally achieved through conventional plant breeding. The art of plant breeding was developed long before the laws of genetics (the science of heredity) became known. The discovery of the principles of genetics at the turn of the last century boosted...

  8. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified ped

  9. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  10. Advances in rice breeding for the functional components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current paper, the major functional components in grain of rice were briefly introduced and research progresses in rice breeding for high Iron, Zinc content, amino acids, LCG, and novel endosperms were briefly reviewed. The need and strategies for rice breeding with the functional components in China were discussed. (authors)

  11. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six Euro

  12. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  13. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  14. Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ A new breeding program" Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques", cooperated by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS)", started in Hangzhou, China in 1999.The study led by Dr Kunihiro Y. (Japan) and Dr QIAN Qian (China) now advances smoothly.

  15. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  16. Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization as tools in ornamental plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Kim, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy are recognized as the most impor-tant sources of evolution and domestication of flowering plants. In ornamental plant breeding these phenomena go hand in hand and can be observed in the breeding his-tory of many ornamental crops (Rosa, Chrysanthemum, Gladio

  17. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  18. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of sustai

  19. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; de Iongh, H. H.; Monadjem, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipenn

  20. Litter size variation in Polish selected small dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Goleman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In breeders’ general opinion small breed females produce less numerous litters. The aim of the study was to analyse the litter size and the frequency of the gender ratio in selected small dog breeds in view of their popularity in Poland. The data set comprised information on 639 litters (in total 2578 puppies of eight breeds, which were born between January 2003 and end December 2014. The results were statistically analysed using statistical program SPSS 20.0. Medium-size litters were observed in the analysed small dog breeds (4.034±0.1. Comparison of the selected breeds of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI Groups showed that the mean litter size in Group IX was higher (4.36±0.08 than that in Group III (3.87±0.14 and the differences were statistically significant. The study has confirmed the hypothesis that larger females produce more numerous litters, but there are large intra-individual variations in the number of pups born in individual breeds. Additionally, the gender ratio in the puppies born in the analysed breeds was equal, despite the fluctuations in the individual breeds.

  1. Cubiertas de auto abandonadas como sitios de cría de Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae en el Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola, Provincia de Buenos Aires Discarded car tires as breeding sites of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pereyra Iraola Provincial Park, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rubio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre la fauna de mosquitos que se cría en cubiertas de auto es realmente escaso en Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar una población de inmaduros de Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia en una acumulación de cubiertas abandonadas en un bosque suburbano de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Entre noviembre 2009 y mayo 2010, se recolectaron mensualmente larvas de mosquitos en 27 cubiertas de auto abandonadas en un sector boscoso del Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. Se recolectaron en total 1.009 larvas del tercer y cuarto estadio de Cx. eduardoi, y el índice de contenedores (IC global fue 66,3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi estuvo presente durante todos los meses, aunque el IC difirió significativamente (x²(6 = 15,11; p The knowledge about tire-breeding mosquitoes is truly scarce in Argentina. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of immatures of Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, from a pile of abandoned tires located in a suburban forest of Buenos Aires Province. Between November 2009 and May 2010, mosquito larvae were monthly collected in 27 abandoned tires within a woody area of the Parque Provincial Pereyra Iraola. A total of 1009 third and fourth instar larvae of Cx. eduardoi were collected, and the overall container index (CI was 66.3% (106/160. Culex eduardoi was collected every month but the CI differed significantly (x²(6 = 15.11; p < 0.05, reaching maximum values in November and December (76 and 92.5% respectively. In spring, the relative abundance of larvae was also the highest, and the mean number of larvae collected per habitat was 9.5 (min. 3.5 in March; max.15.1 in November. Other mosquito species such as Cx. pipiens Linneo and Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab were also found in the studied containers. The present findings contribute with novel knowledge on culicids of tires in Argentina.

  2. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  3. Plasma hormone levels and semen quality in male cats during non-breeding and breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, T; Onodera, F; Oba, H; Mizutani, T; Hori, T

    2009-07-01

    Female cats are known to be seasonal breeders and male cats annual breeders. Despite this, there are limited data on the influence of breeding season (BS) on hormone concentration and semen quality in the male cat. This study compared plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone (T), and semen quality during the non-breeding season (NBS) and BS in five male cats subject to natural hours of daylight but a constant environmental temperature. Plasma LH and T concentrations were higher during the BS in 2/35 and 3/5 cats, respectively, although when comparing both hormones combined, values were higher during the BS than the NBS in all cats (p hormone secretion and semen quality, during the NBS all cats were likely to have been fertile.

  4. Natal and breeding dispersal of northern spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, E.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Loschl, P.J.; Sovern, S.G.; Taylor, M.; Biswell, B.L.; Ellingson, A.; Meslow, E.C.; Miller, G.S.; Swindle, K.A.; Thrailkill, J.A.; Wagner, F.F.; Seaman, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    banded females, and 22.9 km for radio-marked females. On average, banded males and females settled within 4.2 and 7.0 territory widths of their natal sites, respectively. Maximum and final dispersal distances were largely independent of the number of days that juveniles were tracked. Although statistical tests of dispersal direction based on all owls indicated that direction of natal dispersal was non-random, the mean angular deviations and 95% CI's associated with the samples were large, and r-values (vector length) were small. This lead us to conclude that significant test results were the result of large sample size and were not biologically meaningful. Our samples were not large enough to test whether dispersal direction from individual territories was random. In the sample of radio-marked owls, 22% of males and 44% of females were paired at 1 year of age, but only 1.5% of males and 1.6% of females were actually breeding at 1 year of age. At 2 years of age, 68% of males and 77% of females were paired, but only 5.4% of males and 2.6% of females were breeding. In contrast to the radio-marked owls, most juveniles that were banded and relocated at 1 or 2 years of age were paired, although few were breeding. Although recruitment into the territorial population typically occurred when owls were 1-5 years old, 9% of banded juveniles were not recaptured until they were > 5 years old. We suspect that our estimates of age at recruitment of banded owls are biased high because of the likelihood that some individuals were not recaptured in the first year that they entered the territorial population. A minimum of 6% of the banded, non-juvenile owls on our demographic study areas changed territories each year (breeding dispersal). The likelihood of breeding dispersal was higher for females, young owls, owls that did not have a mate in the previous year, and owls that lost their mate from the previous year through death or divorce. Mean and median distances dispersed by adults were

  5. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  6. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime. PMID:20503762

  7. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  8. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  9. ORNAMENTAL FISH BREEDING AND CULTURE - AN IMPACT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of training was studied on 40 trainees participated in 3 days training programme on "Ornamental Fish Breeding & Culture" organized at Dakshin Dinajpur Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal, India. Knowledge and attitude of fish farmers self-help group were studied before and after training towards ornamental fish breeding and culture. The results indicated that there is a significant gain in knowledge and increase in favorable attitude were noticed among the participants after training. All trainees had favorable and innovative attitude towards ornamental fish breeding and culture. The overall gain in knowledge was high in respect to breeding and larval rearing of live bearing ornamental fishes, commercial farming of live bearers and its management practice, feeding for breeding and maintenance of ornamental fishes, water quality in ornamental farming, disease management in ornamental fish farming.

  10. Assessing SNPs in coat colour genes for cattle breed traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to identify a panel of SNPs in coat colour genes useful for breed traceability in Rendena, an autochthonous cattle breed raised in the province of Trento, and other 4 Italian cattle breeds. First, we sequenced some regions of several coat colour genes in 10 animals belonging to 5 breeds characterised by different coat colour phenotypes (Rendena, Italian Brown, Grey Alpine, Italian Friesian, and Italian Red Pied, and we detected 21 SNPs in 13 genes. These markers and 6 additional SNPs were used to genotype 180 animals of the same 5 breeds obtaining useful genotyping data for a total of 22 SNPs in 13 genes. Five out of the 22 SNP markers in the MC1R, KIT, MLPH, and SILV genes had the highest discriminating power. The panel of 22 SNPs is useful to trace Rendena particularly from Red Italian Pied and Italian Friesian.

  11. Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

  12. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population. PMID:10084198

  13. Anopheles culicifacies breeding in brackish waters in Sri Lanka and implications for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector of both falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, while Anopheles subpictus and certain other species function as secondary vectors. In Sri Lanka, An. culicifacies is present as a species complex consisting of species B and E, while An. subpictus exists as a complex of species A-D. The freshwater breeding habit of An. culicifacies is well established. In order to further characterize the breeding sites of the major malaria vectors in Sri Lanka, a limited larval survey was carried out at a site in the Eastern province that was affected by the 2004 Asian tsunami. Methods Anopheline larvae were collected fortnightly for six months from a brackish water body near Batticaloa town using dippers. Collected larvae were reared in the laboratory and the emerged adults were identified using standard keys. Sibling species status was established based on Y-chromosome morphology for An. culicifacies larvae and morphometric characteristics for An. subpictus larvae and adults. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were determined at the larval collection site. Results During a six month study covering dry and wet seasons, a total of 935 anopheline larvae were collected from this site that had salinity levels up to 4 parts per thousand at different times. Among the emerged adult mosquitoes, 661 were identified as An. culicifacies s.l. and 58 as An. subpictus s.l. Metaphase karyotyping of male larvae showed the presence of species E of the Culicifacies complex, and adult morphometric analysis the presence of species B of the Subpictus complex. Both species were able to breed in water with salinity levels up to 4 ppt. Conclusions The study demonstrates the ability of An. culicifacies species E, the major vector of falciparum and vivax malaria in Sri Lanka, to oviposit and breed in brackish water. The sibling species B in the An. subpictus complex, a well-known salt water breeder and a secondary malaria

  14. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. PMID:26403830

  15. Molecular Marke rs in Conservation of the Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Berkman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.

  16. A quarter of a world away: female humpback whale moves 10,000 km between breeding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, Peter T; Neves, Mariana C; Johansen, Freddy; Engel, Marcia H; Allen, Judith; Marcondes, Milton C C; Carlson, Carole

    2011-04-23

    Fidelity of individual animals to breeding sites is a primary determinant of population structure. The degree and scale of philopatry in a population reflect the fitness effects of social facilitation, ecological adaptation and optimal inbreeding. Patterns of breeding-site movement and fidelity are functions of social structure and are frequently sex biased. We report on a female humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) first identified by natural markings off Brazil that subsequently was photographed off Madagascar. The minimum travel distance between these locations is greater than 9800 km, approximately 4000 km longer than any previously reported movement between breeding grounds, more than twice the species' typical seasonal migratory distance and the longest documented movement by a mammal. It is unexpected to find this exceptional long-distance movement between breeding groups by a female, as models of philopatry suggest that male mammals move more frequently or over longer distances in search of mating opportunities. While such movement may be advantageous, especially in changeable or unpredictable circumstances, it is not possible to unambiguously ascribe causality to this rare observation. This finding illustrates the behavioural flexibility in movement patterns that may be demonstrated within a typically philopatric species.

  17. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  18. Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Dons, J.J.M.; Overwalle, van G.; Raven, H.; Arundel, A.; Eaton, D.; Nelis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is un

  19. Call for Papers--Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266, online, http://mpb.sophiapublisher.com/) is an open access and peer reviewed journal, which publishes original research papers involving the transgenic breeding and marker assisted breeding in plants.

  20. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ≤1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec