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Sample records for breeding evolving study

  1. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, R E; Sloane, R A

    1997-02-01

    The Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) design has been used by the National Toxicology Program for approximately 15 years. This article details the evolutions in the thinking behind the design and the end points used in the identification of hazards to reproduction. Means of nominating chemicals are provided, and both early and current designs are described as well as some proposed changes for the future. This introduction is followed by a text and tabular summary of each study performed to date. We hope that this will not only be an explicit presentation of the findings of this testing program to date, but will help stimulate thinking about new ways to detect and measure reproductive toxicity in rodents, and help identify new relationships among the end points that are measured in such studies.

  2. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, R.E.; Sloane, R A

    1997-01-01

    The Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) design has been used by the National Toxicology Program for approximately 15 years. This article details the evolutions in the thinking behind the design and the end points used in the identification of hazards to reproduction. Means of nominating chemicals are provided, and both early and current designs are described as well as some proposed changes for the future. This introduction is followed by a text and tabular summary of each s...

  3. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  4. Cassini Radar at Titan : Evolving Studies of an Evolving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini RADAR investigation continues to explore Titan : here I summarize some recent and ongoing developments. Geological interpretation of SAR imaging engages a wide community, in particular addressing Titan's dunes, lakes, seas and fluvial systems, impact craters and possible cryovolcanic features. Mapping of these features continues to suggest a dynamic world, with geologically-recent surface change due to tectonic, hydrological and aeolian processes. Mapping of fluvial channels and shoreline features suggests some tectonic controls and spatially-variable land/sea level changes. A despeckle filter applied to the images has proven popular for image interpretation, for example in resolving what may be star- and barchanoid dune morphologies which contrast with the dominant linear type. New observations in 2012 (T83, T84 and T86) place bounds on liquid accumulation in the northern polar regions - not expected to be substantial for another couple of years - and have highlighted a possibly cryomagma-inflated 'hot cross bun' feature and anomalous midlatitude ridges that may be paleodunes from a different climate epoch. The accumulating body of topographic data from altimetry and SARtopo has permitted the assembly of a global topographic map (albeit substantially interpolated) and an estimate of the spherical harmonic shape out to degree ~12. These datasets will be of substantial value in interpreting Titan's structure and geology, and as a boundary condition on global circulation models and fluvial studies. The growing number of overlap regions also permits stereo topography on smaller scales (e.g. of impact structures Ksa and Soi) which helps to understand the processes obliterating craters on Titan.

  5. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of natural organisms is their significant evolvability, i.e.,their increased potential for further evolution. However, reproducing such evolvability in artificial evolution remains a challenge, which both reduces the performance of evolutionary algorithms and inhibits the study...... of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so, we estimate an individual's future potential for diversity by calculating the behavioral diversity of its...... immediate offspring, and select organisms with increased offspring variation. While the technique is computationally expensive, we hypothesized that direct selection would better encourage evolvability than indirect methods. Experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains confirm this hypothesis: in both...

  6. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. STUDIES ON HAEMATOLOGICAL TRAITS IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on dog during the period of June-September, 2009 at the Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences , Belgachia, Kolkata , West Bengal, India. This study comprised of a total of 58 dogs belonging to the 7 different breeds namely Spitz : 21, German shepherd : 6, Labrador : 9, Mongrel : 8, Golden Retriever : 5, Dalmatian : 4, Cockerspaniel : 5. The overall mean value of haemoglobin concentration( g/dl , erythrocyte diameter( µ and SARBC (µ2 were estimated as 14.586 ± 0.103, 7.086 ± 0.256 and 39.453 ± 0.296. The mean HbC in g/dl was observed to be the highest in the Dalmatian breed (15.40 ± 0.14. The lowest value for haemoglobin concentration was found to be in German Shepherd breed (13.70 ± 0.12. The mean erythrocyte diameter was observed to be highest in the Golden Retriever breed (7.19 ± 0.03 and the lowest was in German Shepherd breed ( 6.99 ± 0.03. The mean erythrocytic area (SARBC in µ2 was found to be highest in Golden Retriever breed of dog whereas the lowest mean erythrocytic area was in cockerspaniel breed of dog. The respective estimates were accounted for 40.645 ± 0.336 and 38.129 ± 0.336 µ2. The present study indicated highly significant (P<0.01 differences between breeds for three haematological traits. It was observed that Haemoglobin concentration has highly significant association with erythrocyte diameter and Erythrocyte surface area. The estimated values were 0.344 and 0.347, respectively. It was also observed that erythrocyte diameter and SARBC had cent percent association.

  8. Study on evolving phases of accelerating generalized polygon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntian; Dong, Fengliang; Qian, Kemao; Zhang, Qingchuan; Chu, Weiguo; Ma, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-07

    Recently, accelerating beam is becoming a hotspot in optics research. In this paper, we studied the evolving phases of accelerating generalized polygon beams (AGPBs) and proposed a novel method to generate this beam family. An important discovery has been made about reconstructing AGPBs only by evolving low-frequency phases in high power region, which confirms the dominant role of phase terms in the AGPBs' evolution. We also succeeded controlling the size and quantity of AGPB's intensity peaks in an easy and direct manner by manipulating the evolving phases in low frequency. This result not only explains the self-healing property of AGPBs but also confirms that AGPBs can be a great candidate to function as an optical tweezer to trap and free microparticles and microcreatures for certain purpose.

  9. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  10. RESEARCH STUDY ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE BASCOV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted an ornithological study in the Bascov Reservoir area (a square of 2x2 km and observed 102 breeding species; 83 (81% of them are certain breeding species and 19 (19% are probable breeding species. The results of the research were cumulated with those found in the Atlas of the breeding species of Romania. By relating them with the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were again recorded during our study. Nineteen new breeding species were identified. Among the species dependent on wetlands, mention should be made of Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, etc., with relatively large numbers of individuals. The analysis showed a relatively larger number (66 of euconstant and constant species, which confirmed the wealth of food resources in the area during the nesting period. The specific richness on the Bascov Lake is represented by 119 species, a number that is consistent with the availability of the food resources and nesting places, as well as the somewhat fluctuating presence of predators (stray dogs, and the anthropocentric disturbance (sound and chemical pollution, etc.. The yearly increase in the number of reed clusters, the expansion of the surface of the islets, the emergence of bushes and trees, the ageing of the existing trees have led to a certain yearly increase in the number of breeding individuals in 45 species. But the anthropogenic influence in the area has eventually contributed to a decrease in the number of birds, both as a number of species and as a number of individuals. The study has also shown that in the farmland bird species the number of individuals is in decline. Most of the breeding species - 75 (representing 74% in the area under research are migratory. Eighteen breeding species (17.64% are listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive. The presence of the key breeding species in the area under research must be

  11. Kegiatan Bisnis Layanan Pemeliharaan Ternak : Studi Kasus di Unit Breeding Services Elders Limited Australia (Animal Breeding Services Business Activity : Study Case in Breeding Services Unit at Elders Limited Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maharani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the business activity of animal breeding services in livestock services company at Elders Limited Australia. Primary and secondary data in this paper were collected from Elders Limited Australia database and Elders staff interviewed. Data were analyzed in full descriptively. The study indicated that the business of breeding services can help the farmer especially breeder to improve the genetic performance of their cattle farm and help them to make the decision of breeding program. The product of Elders Breeding Services are semen sales, breed exact and next exact program (breeding program, Taylor Made Seedstock (embryo transfer program. The breeding services also help farmers to promote their product by using Elders Limited website. In Australia, the using breeding services are more effective and efficient than the farmers conducting their farm by their own program. (Key words: Business activity, Breeding services, Elders Limited

  12. Litter size at birth in purebred dogs--a retrospective study of 224 breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Kaja Sverdrup; Tønnessen, Ragnhild; Nødtvedt, Ane; Indrebø, Astrid

    2011-03-15

    Despite the long history of purebred dogs and the large number of existing breeds, few studies of canine litter size based upon a large number of breeds exist. Previous studies are either old or include only one or a few selected breeds. The aim of this large-scale retrospective study was to estimate the mean litter size in a large population of purebred dogs and to describe some factors that might influence the litter size. A total of 10,810 litters of 224 breeds registered in the Norwegian Kennel Club from 2006 to 2007 were included in the study. The overall mean litter size at birth was 5.4 (± 0.025). A generalized linear mixed model with a random intercept for breed revealed that the litter size was significantly influenced by the size of the breed, the method of mating and the age of the bitch. A significant interaction between breed size and age was detected, in that the expected number of puppies born decreased more for older bitches of large breeds. Mean litter size increased with breed size, from 3.5 (± 0.04) puppies in miniature breeds to 7.1 (± 0.13) puppies in giant breeds. No effect on litter size was found for the season of birth or the parity of the bitch. The large number of breeds and the detail of the registered information on the litters in this study are unique. In conclusion, the size of the breed, the age of the bitch and the method of mating were found to influence litter size in purebred dogs when controlling for breed, with the size of the breed as the strongest determinant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Translocation as a novel approach to study effects of a new breeding habitat on reproductive output in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Claudia; Both, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions under which species reproduce have major consequences on breeding success and subsequent fitness. Therefore breeding habitat choice is ultimately important. Studies rarely address the potential fitness pay-offs of alternative natural breeding habitats by experimental

  14. Genetic study of Andalusia's ovine and caprine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, E; Haba, M R; Rodero, A

    1997-01-12

    Two different breeds of Andalusian sheep, 'Grazalema Merino' and 'Lebrijan Churro', and two different breeds of Andalusian goats, 'Andalusian White' and 'Andalusian Black', chosen by previous studies (Rodero et al. 1992a) as priority breeds for conservation, were studied. The systems used corresponded to ethnozootechnic characteristics, as well as the different biochemical-polymorphism variables. Farms were differentiated within breeds, or between themselves, and different tests were used of genetic and genotypic frequencies: Wright's indices, medium heterozygosities, Whalund's variances, G test of probability of reason, etc. Also Cavalli-Sforza's genetic distance was obtained. In the Andalusian Black and Grazalema Merino breeds, the Whalund's variances obtained were a result of selection, that has divided the breeds into distinct populations differentiated spatially. Medium heterozygosities of each breed do not differ much within themselves, but when each system is considered alone, discrepancies between ethnic groups are relevant. Wright's F indices demonstrated in the Andalusian White and Grazalema Merino breeds, genetic heterozygosities between populations or studied herds can be deduced, but this is not possible in the Andalusian Black. The F(IS) values indicated, despite the small size of the populations, that inbreeding has been avoided, probably because of the entry of foreign sires. In none of the breeds is there a significant excess of heterozygosis. The genetic distances between flocks within breeds do not differ from those found between breeds. RÉSUMÉ: On a travallé avec, differents troupeau des races de montons de l'Andalusie, Grazalema Merino et Lebrija Churro, et avec les races caprines Andalusian White et Andalusian Black, choisie entre les races Andaluciennes comme prioritaires pour la conservation, dans un etudie avant (Rodero et col. 1992a). Les sistémes utilicés dans cette travaille correspondent á charactérés etnozootechniques et

  15. Studies on breeding schemes in a closed pig population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, de G.

    1988-01-01

    Size of a population in genetic terms is a function of number of male and female individuals used for breeding over a generation. A breed can be small because of a small total number of individuals but also because of a small number of individuals of one sex. According to this definition,

  16. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  17. Rapid genetic diversification within dog breeds as evidenced by a case study on Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitberger, K; Schweizer, M; Kropatsch, R; Dekomien, G; Distl, O; Fischer, M S; Epplen, J T; Hertwig, S T

    2012-10-01

    As a result of strong artificial selection, the domesticated dog has arguably become one of the most morphologically diverse vertebrate species, which is mirrored in the classification of around 400 different breeds. To test the influence of breeding history on the genetic structure and variability of today's dog breeds, we investigated 12 dog breeds using a set of 19 microsatellite markers from a total of 597 individuals with about 50 individuals analysed per breed. High genetic diversity was noted over all breeds, with the ancient Asian breeds (Akita, Chow Chow, Shar Pei) exhibiting the highest variability, as was indicated chiefly by an extraordinarily high number of rare and private alleles. Using a Bayesian clustering method, we detected significant genetic stratification within the closely related Schnauzer breeds. The individuals of these three recently differentiated breeds (Miniature, Standard and Giant Schnauzer) could not be assigned to a single cluster each. This hidden genetic structure was probably caused by assortative mating owing to breeders' preferences regarding coat colour types and the underlying practice of breeding in separate lineages. Such processes of strong artificial disruptive selection for different morphological traits in isolated and relatively small lineages can result in the rapid creation of new dog types and potentially new breeds and represent a unique opportunity to study the evolution of genetic and morphological differences in recently diverged populations. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Comparative study on the milk production at goats autochthonous breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Chetroiu, Rodica; Călin, Ion

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the research results on milk production, conducted in the goat farm of S.C. AGROFAM HOLDING Feteşti, at the two autochthonous breeds: Alba de Banat and Carpatina, for a period of 3 years, between 2012 - 2014. Thus, the productive levels of the two breeds show very significant statistic differences, Alba de Banat breed being upper than Carpatina with 40.94 to 46.05%. Also, there are productive differences between lactations, the highest milk production being obtained in lact...

  19. Comparative study on the milk production at goats autochthonous breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Chetroiu, Rodica; Călin, Ion

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the research results on milk production, conducted in the goat farm of S.C. AGROFAM HOLDING Feteðsti, at the two autochthonous breeds: Alba de Banat and Carpatina, for a period of 3 years, between 2012 - 2014. Thus, the productive levels of the two breeds show very significant statistic differences, Alba de Banat breed being upper than Carpatina with 40.94 to 46.05%. Also, there are productive differences between lactations, the highest milk production being obtained in lac...

  20. Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds: a genome-wide intercontinental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Elena; Lasagna, Emiliano; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Alloggio, Ingrid; Marroni, Fabio; Ceccobelli, Simone; Delgado Bermejo, Juan V; Sarti, Francesca M; Kijas, James; Lenstra, Johannes A; Pilla, Fabio

    2015-08-14

    Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent an economically and historically important genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In order to examine the genetic influence of Merino in the context of a global collection of domestic sheep breeds, we analyzed genotype data that were obtained with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina) for 671 individuals from 37 populations, including a subset of breeds from the Sheep HapMap dataset. Based on a multi-dimensional scaling analysis, we highlighted four main clusters in this dataset, which corresponded to wild sheep, mouflon, primitive North European breeds and modern sheep (including Merino), respectively. The neighbor-network analysis further differentiated North-European and Mediterranean domestic breeds, with subclusters of Merino and Merino-derived breeds, other Spanish breeds and other Italian breeds. Model-based clustering, migration analysis and haplotype sharing indicated that genetic exchange occurred between archaic populations and also that a more recent Merino-mediated gene flow to several Merino-derived populations around the world took place. The close relationship between Spanish Merino and other Spanish breeds was consistent with an Iberian origin for the Merino breed, with possible earlier contributions from other Mediterranean stocks. The Merino populations from Australia, New Zealand and China were clearly separated from their European ancestors. We observed a genetic substructuring in the Spanish Merino population, which reflects recent herd management practices. Our data suggest that intensive gene flow, founder effects and geographic isolation are the main factors that determined the genetic makeup of current Merino and Merino-derived breeds. To explain how the current Merino and Merino-derived breeds were obtained, we propose a scenario that includes

  1. [Visual agnosia evolving to optic aphasia--a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Nakamura, K; Fujimoto, N; Nabatame, H; Kido, N

    1992-11-01

    The underlying mechanism of visual agnosia and optic aphasia has not been fully elucidated, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. Besides, the difference between these two conditions has been a matter of debate. We report here the result of neuropsychological evaluation in a case of associative visual agnosia evolving to optic aphasia. A 64-year-old right-handed patient was found to be disoriented and confused after undergoing the operation of gastrectomy. CT scan revealed a large infarction in the territory of left posterior cerebral artery. Since 3 weeks after onset, neuropsychological investigations were carried out during 5 months. He was alert and co-operative. Right homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing was noted, but his visual acuity was normal. There was neither a global deterioration of intellectual capacities nor aphasia. Most striking finding was his difficulty in identifying common objects and colours along with a profound alexia. Prosopagnosia was absent. Visual naming both for objects and line drawings was severely impaired. He was unable to describe or demonstrate the use of the objects which could not be named. Pointing to objects named by the examiner was also severely impaired. Although tactile naming was also impaired, both of auditory naming for environmental sounds and naming objects in response to verbal descriptions were preserved. While he was not able to copy the objects skillfully, matching of identical objects and matching objects to line drawings were normal. Clumsiness of coping was thought to be due to his constructional apraxia and visuomotor ataxia. Therefore, his deficit in visual domain was considered to be associative visual agnosia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Assessing patterns of genetic admixture between sheep breeds: Case study in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Sahraoui; Laoun, Abbes; Belabdi, Ibrahim; Benali, Rédha; Outayeb, Djouhar; Payet-Duprat, Nathalie; Blanquet, Véronique; Lafri, Mohamed; Da Silva, Anne

    2017-08-01

    In developing countries, cross-breeding between local breeds and indigene or exotic breeds represents one of the main threats to the livestock diversity, leading to genetic dilution and loss of unique allelic combination underlying essential local adaptive traits. In this study, two Algerian sheep breeds, known to be highly admixed, were considered as a case study, to demonstrate how combination of different methodologies coupled with the use of specific softwares can be efficient to assess the spatial structuration of a hybrid zone, even in a case of extreme admixture. A fine sampling covering distribution areas of both breeds was implemented in order to study the admixture area and adjacent zones from a phenotypic (i.e., 19 quantitative traits were considered) and a genetic point of view (i.e., 21 microsatellites markers were used). Both approaches gave concordant patterns, highlighting areas with sheep most differentiated (or less admixed) for each breed. In detail, the region of Biskra appeared as the most preserved for the Ouled-Djellal breed and the northwest of Laghouat was identified as the most preserved area for the Rembi breed. The approach proposed in the study offers a low-cost solution to identify the most representative flocks of a breed, allowing the implementation of efficient conservation plans.

  3. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Thoroughbred, Arab, Welsh Cob, Icelandic, American. Quarter, Standardbred, Hanoverian, Saddlebred, Arab,. Polish warm blood, Morgan and Appaloosa horse breeds. (Meyer et al. 1997; Swinburne et al. 1997, 2000). How- ever, the monomorphic nature of these three loci is in agreement with earlier observations on Spiti ...

  4. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The conventional approach has been a centralized, top-down approach that pays little regard to the actual conditions that farmers face. What if you decentralize the breeding program, involve farmers right from the start, have breeders and farmers work side by side to learn from each other, and pay close attention to what the ...

  5. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... Ceccarelli adds that the contrast between the farmers' reality and conventional plant-breeding philosophies is particularly striking in developing countries, but not surprising. ... Most notably, in Syria in phase 2 of the work, the number of lines assessed increased in some villages from around 200 to 400.

  6. Evolving Approaches to the Study of Childhood Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily; Liu, Ran; Alvarado-Urbina, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have conceptualised poverty in multiple ways, with measurement approaches that seek to identify absolute, relative, subjective, and multi-dimensional poverty. The concept of poverty is central in the comparative education field, but has been empirically elusive in many large, international educational surveys: these studies have…

  7. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Shahab; Shawaf, Turke; Al-Hasani, Afaf

    2017-04-01

    In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam) were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 ×103/µL), and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46%) were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 ×106/µL), hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl), hematocrit (38.29±4.06%), and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl) were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl), blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl), and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl) were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further studies to determine reference values for the studied

  8. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further

  9. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  10. Study of the semi-theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump evolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in ...

  11. CLASSICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC STUDIES FOR BREEDING AND SELECTION OF TULIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their extreme popularity as fresh cut flowers and garden plants, and being used extensively for landscaping, tulips undergone a continuous process of selective breeding. For almost nine decades, classical cytogenetic studies, mainly the chromosome counts, have been an important part in the breeding programme for polyploid tulips. The efficiency of breeding is greatly aided by a thorough knowledge of the occurrence of polyploidy in the plant material. While the traditional cytogenetic approaches are still highly useful in selecting polyploids and aneuploids arising from crosses involving (most often parents of different ploidy or from the material subjected to ploidy manipulation, the new strategies for inducing polyploidy in tulips, either in vivo or in vitro, and advances in molecular cytogenetics are expected to allow a significant increase in breeding efficiency. Together with the shortening of breeding cycle, major genetic improvements could be made for specific traits. In this we review the development of cytogenetic studies in tulips, and the most relevant achievements so far, providing an overview of what we consider to be valuable tools for the processes of selective breeding .

  12. Mathematical Creativity, Cohen Forcing, and Evolving Systems: Elements for a Case Study on Paul Cohen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Evolving Systems approach to case studies due initially to Piaget-contemporary Howard Gruber, and complemented by subsequent work on sociocultural factors developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and others, provides an inroad for examining creative achievements in a variety of domains. This paper provides a proof of concept for how one might…

  13. Breeding territory size affects fitness : an experimental study on competition at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Visser, ME

    2000-01-01

    1. Descriptive studies have shown that the annual mean fecundity and survival in bird populations decline as density increases. Experimental studies in which breeding density has been manipulated show that density causally affects reproduction in some but not other species. 2. In a 3-year study on

  14. Comparative study of leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in different swine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dinescu, S; Costache, M

    2014-02-14

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved. The aim of our study is to comparatively assess the gene expression levels of leptin (lep) and leptin receptor (lepr) in different swine breeds specialized either in meat production (Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Large White, Synthetic Lines LS-345, and LSP-2000) or fat production (Mangalitsa) in order to correlate them with morphological and productivity characteristics. Additionally, lepr pattern of expression was evaluated comparatively between different tissue types in the Mangalitsa breed. Our results revealed high expression of the lep gene in Mangalitsa compared to those of all the other breeds, while for the lepr gene, average/medium levels were registered in Mangalitsa and increased pattern of expression was found in the synthetic lines LS-345 and LSP-2000. Regarding the comparative analysis of lepr gene expression in various tissues in the Mangalitsa breed, elevated levels were found in the liver and kidney, while the lowest expression was identified in the brain and muscles. Our results suggest that the Mangalitsa population exhibits leptin resistance, which might be correlated with atypical morpho-productive characteristics for this breed, such as below-average prolificacy and a strong tendency to accumulate fat.

  15. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Linda G.; Berezowski, John; Rishniw, Mark; Nibblett, Belle M.; Kelly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS), an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616) and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years). First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%), horizontal (50%), and rotational (15%) movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds. PMID:26064776

  16. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Shell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS, an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616 and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years. First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%, horizontal (50%, and rotational (15% movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds.

  17. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  18. Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did

  19. Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydip Mukherjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate the variation in electrocardiogram (ECG parameters among different trained breeds of dogs (viz. Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever used for security reasons. Materials and Methods: The ECG was recorded by single channel ECG at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and calibration of 10 mm=1 mV. The recordings were taken from all the standard bipolar limb leads (Lead-I, II, and III and unipolar augmented limb leads (Lead-aVR, aVL, and aVF. Results: Heart rate was found to be highest in Labrador and lowest in German Shepherd. P-wave duration was maximum in Golden Retriever breed and lowest in Labrador. Maximum amplitude of P-wave was found in Labrador followed by German Shepherd and Golden Retriever. There was significantly (p<0.05 higher values of PR interval in German Shepherd compared to other breeds. The variation in QRS duration, ST segment duration, T-wave duration, and T-wave amplitude was found to be non-significant among breeds. Inverted T-waves were most common in Golden Retriever and German Shepherd, whereas positive T-waves were found in Labrador. There was significant (p<0.05 variation in mean electrical axis of QRS complex among different breeds and it ranges from +60° to +80°. Conclusion: The present study provides the reference values for different ECG parameters to monitor the cardiac health status among Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever breeds.

  20. The effect of radiological hip dysplasia and breed on survival in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds followed over a 10 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontveit, Randi I; Trangerud, Cathrine; Nødtvedt, Ane; Dohoo, Ian; Moe, Lars; Sævik, Bente K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status and breed on overall survival in a cohort of four large dog breeds in Norway. Privately owned dogs of the Newfoundland (NF), Labrador Retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish Wolfhound (IW) breeds were followed prospectively from birth to 10 years of age. The age of death/euthanasia was registered. A total of 501 dogs from 103 litters were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to describe breed differences in survival times. The effects of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status as well as breed were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The variables 'sex' and 'living region' were explored as potential confounders. Among LRs, 60.2% of the dogs were still alive at 10 years of age, and the corresponding figures for NFs, LEOs, and IWs were 28.8%, 16.11%, and 6.4%, respectively. Radiological hip dysplasia status and breed were found to influence overall survival. Two different time-varying effects were observed in that with the IW the hazard of death increased linearly through time, while the effect of severe radiological hip dysplasia decreased logarithmically with time. Location influenced the death hazard and dogs living in suburban areas or cities had longer mean time to death and a lower hazard compared to dogs living in the countryside. Radiological elbow dysplasia status was not found to have an effect on overall survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of QTL Effects Distribution on Accuracy of Genomic Breeding values Estimated Using Bayesian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nazanin mahmoudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic evaluation and estimation of breeding value are one of the most fundamental elements of breeding programmes for genetic improvement. Recently, genomic selection has become an efficient method to approach this aim. The accuracy of estimated Genomic breeding value is the most important factor in genomic selection. Different studies have been performed addressing the factors affecting the accuracy of estimated Genomic breeding value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of beta and gamma distributions on the accuracy of genetic evaluation. Materials and Methods A genome consisted of 10 chromosomes with 200 cm length was simulated. Markers were spaced on 0.2 cm intervals and different numbers of QTL with random distribution were simulated. Only additive gene effects were considered. The base population was simulated with an effective size of 100 animals and this structure continued up to generation 50 to creating linkage disequilibrium between the markers and QTL. The population size was increased to 1000 animals in generation 51 (reference generation. Marker effects were calculated from the genomic and phenotypic information. Genomic breeding value was computed in generations 52 to 57 (training generation. Effects of gamma 1 distribution (shape=0.4, scale=1.66, gamma 2 distribution (shape=0.4, scale=1 and beta distribution (shape1=3.11, shape2=1.16 were studied in the reference and training groups. The heritability values were 0.2 and 0.05. Results and Discussion The results showed that accuracy of genomic breeding value reduced with passing generation (from 51 to 57 for two gamma distributions and beta distribution; this decrease may be due to two factors: recombination has negative impact on accuracy of genomic breeding value and selection reduces genetic variance as the number of generations increases. Accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value increased as the heritability increased so that the high

  2. A study on testicular characteristics of ram lambs of Arsi breed fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on testicular characteristics of ram lambs of Arsi breed fed on two maize varieties (QPM and BH540) ... The results suggest that the plane of nutrition influences testicular size. Whole plant silage feeding provided improved testicular size. Therefore, maize whole plant silage feeding might be helpful to improve the ...

  3. Zootechnical study of breeding modes of Somba cattle in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Somba cattle (Bos Taurus brachyceros sp), located in Benin and Togo, has a severe reduction of its livestock in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of this phenomenon, in order to propose new approaches of conservation. The study consisted of surveys with targeted farmers and cattle.

  4. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Kooyman, F N J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331317788; De Vries, E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074757695; Gonçalves, J R S; Lima, L G; Pires, A V; Amarante, A F T

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. One hundred weaned male cattle, 11-12 months of age, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated from October 2003 to February 2004. Faecal and blood samples were

  5. Fertility of Shetland pony stallions used in different breeding systems: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buiten, A; Remmen, J L; Colenbrander, B

    1998-07-01

    In horses reproductive performance is usually expressed as the foaling rate. This rate ranges from 40% to 80%. Three major factors contribute to this variation namely, the stallion, the mare and management. In this study, the performance of Shetland ponies kept in three different breeding systems was investigated retrospectively. In one breeding system, the stud farmer travelled with his stallion (n = 9) to the mare (system 1) while in another system, the stallion (n = 3) stayed at the stud farm and the mares came to the stallion (system 2). The last system was pasture breeding (system 3; n = 9). Each stallion participated in only one system. The average number of cycles per mare used for breeding did not differ significantly between systems 1 and 2. However, the number of matings per cycle was higher in system 2 than in system 1. The average number of mares serviced per stallion was 91, 50, and 17 for systems 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Mares mated in pasture had a 2.8-fold higher chance (p Management aspects play an important role in the relatively low foaling percentages of systems 1 and 2.

  6. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eli Buzanskas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais-37.5% Zebu and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais-34.4% Zebu cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH, Nelore (NE, and Indubrasil (IB breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA, 763 (NE, 338 (CH, and 37 (IB. The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle.

  7. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  8. There is room for selection in a small local pig breed when using optimum contribution selction: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Rydhmer, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    of genetic diversity. However, in local breeds, optimum contribution selection can be applied to control the rate of inbreeding and to avoid reduced performance in traits with high market value. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which a breeding program aiming for improved product quality...

  9. Genetic Breeding and Diversity of the Genus Passiflora: Progress and Perspectives in Molecular and Genetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernard M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp., molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit.

  10. Retinal dysplasia in American pit bull terriers--phenotypic characterization and breeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodarte-Almeida, Ana Carolina Veiga; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Occelli, Laurence; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Shiokawa, Naoye; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inheritance and phenotype of retinal dysplasia (RD) in the American pit bull terrier. A breeding colony established from a single female pure-bred American pit bull terrier dog with RD. A female pure-bred American pit bull terrier with RD was donated to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. A breeding colony was established and the phenotype and inheritance of the condition investigated. Regular ophthalmic examinations and fundus photography were performed on three generations of offspring from the founder animal. Some animals were additionally studied by optical coherence tomography. Ocular histopathology was performed on some animals from the colony. Fifty-seven offspring were produced in two generations from the affected founder female. Thirty-two were diagnosed with RD and showed a spectrum of severity of lesions including multifocal, and or geographic lesions and some developed retinal detachment. Histologic examination demonstrated retinal folds, rosettes, and areas of retinal detachment. The affected dogs were shorter in stature than the unaffected littermates. Breeding studies suggested the trait has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. DNA testing showed that the affected dogs were negative for the known gene mutations for canine dwarfism with RD. This is a report of a novel inherited form of RD that affects American pit bull terriers. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Drosophila simulans: A Species with Improved Resolution in Evolve and Resequence Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Barghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of experimental evolution with high-throughput sequencing of pooled individuals—i.e., evolve and resequence (E&R—is a powerful approach to study adaptation from standing genetic variation under controlled, replicated conditions. Nevertheless, E&R studies in Drosophila melanogaster have frequently resulted in inordinate numbers of candidate SNPs, particularly for complex traits. Here, we contrast the genomic signature of adaptation following ∼60 generations in a novel hot environment for D. melanogaster and D. simulans. For D. simulans, the regions carrying putatively selected loci were far more distinct, and thus harbored fewer false positives, than those in D. melanogaster. We propose that species without segregating inversions and higher recombination rates, such as D. simulans, are better suited for E&R studies that aim to characterize the genetic variants underlying the adaptive response.

  12. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  13. Development of pre-breeding technology for root system study and selection of Kihara Afghan wheat landraces (KAWLR) to enhance wheat breeding in the rain-fed region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Emdadul; Osmani, Aziz Ahmad; Ahmadi, Sayed Hasibullah; Ban, Tomohiro

    2016-12-01

    To enhance a root trait-based selection program for rain-fed wheat breeding in Afghanistan, we simulated an efficient pre-breeding drought system. Plants were grown in 1 m pipes as control or 2 m pipes to simulate drought conditions soaking ground water up by capillary action supplemented by two different life supporting irrigations from top of the pipes (T1 and T2 droughts). T1 was used for studying genetic diversity in 360 Kihara Afghan wheat landraces (KAWLR). Both drought treatments were used to evaluate root traits in 30 selected genotypes. KAWLR showed large root length variations under T1, categorized as long root (>200 cm; LR), medium root (100-150 cm; MR) and short root (20-100 cm; SR) systems. LR genotypes were more drought resistant in terms of greater plant survivability under T1 and T2 compared with other groups and were capable of adjusting their root biomass partitioning at deepest part of the soil profile. Majority of the LR genotypes originated from predominantly rain-fed provinces, and most of their agronomic traits were strongly correlated with root biomass deep in the soil in response to drought. Three LR genotypes, including the longest root genotype LR-871 (KU7604), are recommended for rain-fed wheat breeding in Afghanistan.

  14. Study of the effects of breed on some innate immunity parameters in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Krasimira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on 26 rams from the breeds Karakachan and Copper-Red Shoumen. The non-specific immune parameters, phagocytic activity of leukocytes, bactericidal activity of phagocytes systems (oxygen-dependent and oxygen independent and total plasma protein level were evaluated. Phagocytic response was evaluated against S. aureus 209-P with a certain percentage of active phagocytes (phagocytic index and the number of absorbed particles per one phagocytic cells (phagocyte number. Phagocytosis completion index was defined as the percentage of the microbial cells that have been destroyed by phagocytes after incubation. State of the oxygen-dependent bactericidal systems of phagocytes was assessed in vitro using the NBT test, which reflects the ability of superoxide restore NBT in diphormazane. NBT test was evaluated by the degree of reduction in spontaneous and stimulated reactions, taking into account the intracellular deposits diphormazane. Our studies and results shows that the rams from the two local Bulgarian breeds have a high activity of innate immune parameters and that’s may be useful and important in the breeding programs as an indicator of resistance and highly tolerance to oxidative stress.

  15. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Canine population structure: assessment and impact of intra-breed stratification on SNP-based association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Quignon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In canine genetics, the impact of population structure on whole genome association studies is typically addressed by sampling approximately equal numbers of cases and controls from dogs of a single breed, usually from the same country or geographic area. However one way to increase the power of genetic studies is to sample individuals of the same breed but from different geographic areas, with the expectation that independent meiotic events will have shortened the presumed ancestral haplotype around the mutation differently. Little is known, however, about genetic variation among dogs of the same breed collected from different geographic regions.In this report, we address the magnitude and impact of genetic diversity among common breeds sampled in the U.S. and Europe. The breeds selected, including the Rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, flat-coated retriever, and golden retriever, share susceptibility to a class of soft tissue cancers typified by malignant histiocytosis in the Bernese mountain dog. We genotyped 722 SNPs at four unlinked loci (between 95 and 271 per locus on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1. We showed that each population is characterized by distinct genetic diversity that can be correlated with breed history. When the breed studied has a reduced intra-breed diversity, the combination of dogs from international locations does not increase the rate of false positives and potentially increases the power of association studies. However, over-sampling cases from one geographic location is more likely to lead to false positive results in breeds with significant genetic diversity.These data provide new guidelines for association studies using purebred dogs that take into account population structure.

  17. Benefits of Mars ISRU Regolith Water Processing: A Case Study for the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paz, Aaron; Mueller, Robert

    2016-01-01

    ISRU of Mars resources was baselined in 2009 Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, but only for Oxygen production using atmospheric CO2. The Methane (LCH4) needed for ascent propulsion of the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) would need to be brought from Earth. However: Extracting water from the Martian Regolith enables the production of both Oxygen and Methane from Mars resources: Water resources could also be used for other applications including: Life support, radiation shielding, plant growth, etc. Water extraction was not baselined in DRA5.0 due to perceived difficulties and complexity in processing regolith. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) requested studies to look at the quantitative benefits and trades of using Mars water ISRUPhase 1: Examined architecture scenarios for regolith water retrieval. Completed October 2015. Phase 2: Deep dive of one architecture concept to look at end-to-end system size, mass, power of a LCH4/LO2 ISRU production system

  18. Evaluating interactive technology for an evolving case study on learning and satisfaction of graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Marjorie A; Schaffner, Barbara H

    2016-07-01

    Nursing education is challenged to prepare students for complex healthcare needs through the integration of teamwork and informatics. Technology has become an important teaching tool in the blended classroom to enhance group based learning experiences. Faculty evaluation of classroom technologies is imperative prior to adoption. Few studies have directly compared various technologies and their impact on student satisfaction and learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate technology enhanced teaching methods on the learning and satisfaction of graduate students in an advanced pharmacology class using an unfolding case study. After IRB approval, students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: blogging group, wiki group or webinar group. Students completed the evolving case study using the assigned interactive technology. Student names were removed from the case studies. Faculty evaluated the case study using a rubric, while blinded to the assigned technology method used. No significant difference was found on case study grades, the range of grades on the assignment demonstrated little differences between the methods used. Students indicated an overall positive impact related to networking and collaboration on a satisfaction survey. Impact of technology methods needs to be explored in other areas of graduate nursing education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breeding for wheat quality to assure food security of a staple crop: the case study of Tajikistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Husenov, Bahromiddin; Makhkamov, Marufkul; Gustavsson, Larisa; Muminjanov, Hafiz; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated options and obstacles to strengthening food security through breeding a staple crop in a developing country, using the case of quality of bread wheat in Tajikistan as an example. Methods...

  20. The evolving role of the radiologist: the Vancouver workload utilization evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Deljit; Dhesi, Tajinder S; Burton, Kirsteen R; Nicolaou, Savvas; Liang, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The role of the present-day on-site hospital radiologist surpasses image interpretation-related duties. This study characterizes these workload activities, as well as quantifies the type of value-based interactions radiologists experience on a daily basis with allied health personnel. A prospective, observational, randomized study was performed across 3 hospitals in the fall of 2012. One month of observation of 14 staff radiologists was performed by a trained observer. The observer followed the subject radiologists throughout the workday, recording activities using a time and motion methodology. Radiologists spent 36.4% of their time on image interpretation. The proportion of noninterpretative tasks was 43.8%, which includes activities such as protocolling requisitions, supervising and monitoring studies, performing image-guided procedures, consulting with physicians, and directly caring for patients. Total clinical productivity was 87.7%, and radiologists experienced, on average, 6 interactions per hour with other health personnel, of which over 81.2% directly influenced patient care in real time. This study demonstrates a new framework of characterizing the type of work radiologists perform on a daily basis, which helps further define the evolving role of the present-day radiologist to other physicians, administrators, and policy makers. Furthermore, the on-site added value that radiologists deliver suggests that radiologists are central figures in the medical imaging department who are difficult to replace by off-site or nonradiologist image interpreters. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The evolving experience of illness for Chinese women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Fielding, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The study of illness meaning in cancer in western communities has usually focused on causal attributions. We report a phenomenological study of 17 Hong Kong Chinese women with breast cancer, interviewed on completion of initial treatment, and describe how the illness experience and hence, meaning evolves for women in the Hong Kong Chinese culture. Themes arising from the identification and treatment of the disease include the difficulty of living in uncertainty and of maintaining and regaining normalcy in a superstitious society. The initial uncertainty of disease detection and the diagnostic process are characterized by shock and disbelief mingled with fear of death. Treatment choice presents women with difficulties arising from more uncertainty over the pressure to make quick decisions and the dilemma of death or mutilation. Following treatment, re-evaluation, re-prioritizing and positive life-re-evaluation occur. Changes in appearance proved problematic for those women who tried to hide their disease to protect themselves against stigmatization and social exclusion. In many ways, these findings parallel studies on western populations, suggesting that a common disease-medical care process is a predominant influence in shaping breast cancer experience. Implications for care are drawn from these data. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Royo, Azucena; Maza Rubio, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack ...

  3. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells size on the determinism of the breed in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes.

  4. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim’Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19 and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10, whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21. This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes.

  5. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. PMID:24660089

  6. Study of impacts on tritium breeding ratio of a fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Shanliang, E-mail: shanliang.zheng@ccfe.ac.uk; Todd, Thomas N.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A updated DEMO model configuration to investigate the variations. • A more integrated study on TBR as function of first wall, ports and divertor with links between these factors. • Preliminary study of the impact on TBR by different ports size with consistent blanket coverage loss. - Abstract: The existing tritium resource available for future fusion power plant D-T operation is severely limited. It is essential to breed tritium to maintain the continuous consumption in the D-T plasma so as to sustain the required fusion power. A minimum criterion of calculated tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.1 is adopted to ensure tritium self-sufficiency, allowing a 10% safety margin to cover calculation uncertainties. In a DEMO reactor, there are various factors impacting the availability and effectiveness of fusion generated neutrons for production of tritium. In this paper, the study focused on the impact of first wall design including materials and first wall thickness, and blanket coverage aspects such as divertor geometry and the provision of equatorial heating and diagnostic ports.

  7. Study on the reproductive capacity of bulls of the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Malinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sperm production of bulls from the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed was studied. The breed is among the smallest in Europe, the average weight of the cows ranging from 200 to 250 kg, and of the bulls from 330 to 370 kg. It was found that during the first 6 months from the start of exploitation, at the age of the bulls from 18 to 24 months, AI bulls had high reproductive capacity. The ejaculate volume was 1,74±0,09 ml in average (LS, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 74,3±3,48% and the concentration 1268±13,1 x 106/ml. It was established that the bull had a significant impact on the reproductive performance, but the individual differences in the main characteristics were not high – motility 71,8-77,0%, concentration – 1222-1324 х 106/ml. The season also had a significant effect on the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Within the period from January to June, the highest reproductive capacity of the bulls was observed from February to May and the lowest in June.

  8. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  9. A Socio-pragmatic Study of Characters’ Names in Wole Soyinka’s The Strong Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Odebode

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts an onomastic analysis of Wole Soyinka’s The Strong Breed from a socio-pragmatic perspective. Six names of the major characters in the text are selected for the study. They are given an in-depth analysis based on Halliday’s (1978 socio-semiotic variables model among others. The study indicates that naming (by Soyinka transcends the illocutionary act of labeling to bring into play the social indices of occupation, age, geography, ethnicity and religion. Out of five variables examined, religion has the highest frequency. This, therefore, proves the religious/scapegoat theme stressed in the work.  The study also indicates that names are meaning potentials and a good understanding of the author’s use of names is a great key that unlocks his perceived difficult text(s.

  10. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly

    2009-05-14

    ) model. Study findings suggest the relevance of principles and foci from the field of process evaluation related to intervention implementation, further illuminating KT as a structuration process facilitated by evolving transformative leadership in an active and integrated context. The model provides guidance for proactively constructing a 'fit' between content, context, and facilitation in the translation of evidence informing professional craft knowledge.

  11. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sævik Bente K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. Methods A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages. Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. Results The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period. More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42. The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43 and vice versa (OR = 5.50. In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88 of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Conclusion Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life

  12. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sævik, Bente K; Skancke, Ellen M; Trangerud, Cathrine

    2012-02-02

    Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages.Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period). More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42). The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s) of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43) and vice versa (OR = 5.50). In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88) of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life. The incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting was significantly

  13. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  14. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  15. KASPTM genotyping technology and its use in gene­tic-breeding programs (a study of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review publications relating to the key point of the genotyping technology that is competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (which is called now Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR, KASPTM and its use in various genetic-breeding researching (a study of maize. Results. The essence of KASP-genotyping, its advantages are highlighted. The requirements for matrix DNA are presented, since the success of the KASP-analysis depends on its qua­lity and quantity. Examples of global projects of plant breeding for increasing crop yields using the KASP genoty­ping technology are given. The results of KASP genotyping and their introduction into breeding and seed production, in particular, for determining genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, marker-assisted selection, etc. are presented using maize as an example. It is demonstrated how geno­mic selection according to KASP genotyping technology can lead to rapid genetic enhancement of drought resistance in maize. Comparison of the effectiveness of creating lines with certain traits (for example, combination of high grain yield and drought resistance using traditional breeding approaches (phenotype selection and molecular genetic methods (selection by markers was proved that it takes four seasons (two years in case of greenhouses in order to unlock the potential of the plant genotype using traditional self-pollination, test-crossing and definitions, while using markers, the population was enriched with target alleles during one season. At the same time, there was no need for a stress factor. Conclusions. KASP genotyping technology is a high-precision and effective tool for modern genetics and breeding, which is successfully used to study genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, gene­tic identity, genetic purity, origin check, quantitative locus mapping, allele mapping, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted breeding. It is expedient and timely to

  16. Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds: a genome-wide intercontinental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciani, Elena; Lasagna, Emiliano; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Alloggio, Ingrid; Marroni, Fabio; Ceccobelli, Simone; Delgado Bermejo, Juan V; Sarti, Francesca M; Kijas, James; Lenstra, Johannes A; Pilla, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent an economically and historically important genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In

  17. Why breeding values estimated using familial data should not be used for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekine, Chinyere C; Rowe, Suzanne J; Bishop, Stephen C; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2014-02-19

    In animal breeding, the genetic potential of an animal is summarized as its estimated breeding value, which is derived from its own performance as well as the performance of related individuals. Here, we illustrate why estimated breeding values are not suitable as a phenotype for genome-wide association studies. We simulated human-type and pig-type pedigrees with a range of quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects (0.5-3% of phenotypic variance) and heritabilities (0.3-0.8). We analyzed 1000 replicates of each scenario with four models: (a) a full mixed model including a polygenic effect, (b) a regression analysis using the residual of a mixed model as a trait score (so called GRAMMAR approach), (c) a regression analysis using the estimated breeding value as a trait score, and (d) a regression analysis that uses the raw phenotype as a trait score. We show that using breeding values as a trait score gives very high false-positive rates (up 14% in human pedigrees and >60% in pig pedigrees). Simulations based on a real pedigree show that additional generations of pedigree increase the type I error. Including the family relationship as a random effect provides the greatest power to detect QTL while controlling for type I error at the desired level and providing the most accurate estimates of the QTL effect. Both the use of residuals and the use of breeding values result in deflated estimates of the QTL effect. We derive the contributions of QTL effects to the breeding value and residual and show how this affects the estimates.

  18. Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

    2011-12-15

    This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

  19. Studying the potential of the initial potato material with the aim of breeding for drought resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Олійник

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and select hybrids, varieties of the parental nursery of the breeding process, biotechnological lines and wild species of potato for physiological parameters of drought resistance. Methods. Physiological and biochemical, selection ones, statistical data processing. Results. The data is given concerning the evaluation of the water retaining and water regeneration capacity of potato leaves of promising hybrids of competitive and ecological test, varieties of the parental nursery, biotechnological lines and wild species and their integral indicator of drought resistance. The studied samples were grown in the nurseries of field selection crop rotation. Accordingly, the initial material with the highest drought resistance value has been defined. Among the evaluated material, eight hybrids of the competitive and ecological test have been selected (drought resistance coefficient was ranging from 59.4% to 84.8% and five biotechnological lines of ‘Hlazurna’ and ‘Dorohin’ varieties (drought resistance coefficient was in the range of 55.5% to 67.5%. As for wild species, almost half of the samples (47.8% were characterized by a high coefficient of drought resistance (from 55 to 78%. Selected samples with high values of drought resistance were recommended to use as a source and drought resistance donors when creating new potato varieties. Conclusions. The initial potato material (hybrids, varieties, biotechnological lines and wild species with high values of drought resistance (55.0–84.8% has been selected. These samples are recommended to use in the breeding process when creating new drought resistance potato varieties.

  20. Wallpaper May Breed Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166850.html Wallpaper May Breed Toxins: Study Fungus on the walls might ... 2017 FRIDAY, June 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wallpaper may contribute to "sick building syndrome," a new study ...

  1. Study of genetic diversity of dog cão de gado transmontano breed by pedigree analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, José Luís Nunes; Malovrh, Špela; Kovac, Milena; Cadavez, Vasco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Portuguese local dog breed Cao de Gado Transmontano by pedigree analysis. Pedigree data of dog breed Cao de Gado Transmontano was taken from the database of the Associação Criadores de Cao de Gado Transmontano concerning the period from 2003 to 2009. The pedigree file completeness was evaluated. The number and the proportion of animals with both parents known, sire known, and dam known were computed using the SQL...

  2. XANES, EXAFS and Kbeta spectroscopic studies of the oxygen-evolving complex in Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robblee, John Henry [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    A key question for the understanding of photosynthetic water oxidation is whether the four oxidizing equivalents necessary to oxidize water to dioxygen are accumulated on the four Mn ions of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), or whether some ligand-centered oxidations take place before the formation and release of dioxygen during the S3 → [S4] → S0 transition. Progress in instrumentation and flash sample preparation allowed us to apply Mn Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (Kb XES) to this problem for the first time. The Kβ XES results, in combination with Mn X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained from the same set of samples, show that the S2 → S3 transition, in contrast to the S0 → S1 and S1 → S2 transitions, does not involve a Mn-centered oxidation. This is rationalized by manganese μ-oxo bridge radical formation during the S2 → S3 transition. Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, the local environment of the Mn atoms in the S0 state has been structurally characterized. These results show that the Mn-Mn distance in one of the di-μ-oxo-bridged Mn-Mn moieties increases from 2.7 Å in the S1} state to 2.85 Å in the S0 state. Furthermore, evidence is presented that shows three di-μ-oxo binuclear Mn2 clusters may be present in the OEC, which is contrary to the widely held theory that two such clusters are present in the OEC. The EPR properties of the S0 state have been investigated and a characteristic ''multiline'' signal in the S0 state has been discovered in the presence of methanol. This provides the first direct confirmation that the native S0 state is paramagnetic. In addition, this signal was simulated using parameters derived from three

  3. Genome-wide association study of conformation and milk yield in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Sebastian; Mrode, Raphael; Coffey, Mike; Kizilaslan, Mehmet; Desire, Suzanne; Conington, Joanne

    2017-12-28

    Identification of genetic markers that affect economically important traits is of high value from a biological point of view, enabling the targeting of candidate genes and providing practical benefits for the industry such as wide-scale genomic selection. This study is one of the first to investigate the genetic background of economically important traits in dairy goats using the caprine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. The aim of the project was to perform a genome-wide association study for milk yield and conformation of udder, teat, and feet and legs. A total of 137,235 milk yield records on 4,563 goats each scored for 10 conformation traits were available. Out of these, 2,381 goats were genotyped with the Illumina Caprine 50K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). A range of pseudo-phenotypes were used including deregressed breeding values and pseudo-estimated breeding values. Genome-wide association studies were performed using the multi-locus mixed model (MLMM) algorithm implemented in SNP & Variation Suite v7.7.8 (Golden Helix Inc., Bozeman, MT). A genome-wise significant [-log10(P-value) > 5.95] SNP for milk yield was identified on chromosome 19, with additional chromosome-wise significant (-log10(P-value) > 4.46] SNP on chromosomes 4, 8, 14, and 29. Three genome-wise significant SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were identified on chromosome 19, and chromosome-wise SNP were found on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, and 27. The proportion of variance explained by the significant SNP was between 0.4 and 7.0% for milk yield and between 0.1 and 13.8% for conformation traits. This study is the first attempt to identify SNP associated with milk yield and conformation in dairy goats. Two genome-wise significant SNP for milk yield and 3 SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were found. Our results suggest that conformation traits have a polygenic

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Genome wide association studies and systems genetics investigations of daily feed intake and feeding behaviour traits in three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas

    Feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits are economically important traits in pig production. The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants and mechanisms affecting daily feed intake (DFI) and feeding behavior traits in Duroc (DD), Landrace (LL) and Yorkshire (YY) pig breeds, vi...

  6. Genome wide association study of seedling and adult plant leaf rust resistance in elite spring wheat breeding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust is an important disease, threatening wheat production annually. Identification of resistance genes or QTLs for effective field resistance could greatly enhance our ability to breed durably resistant varieties. We applied a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify resista...

  7. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  8. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  9. Breed related odds ratio and anatomic distribution of canine mast cell tumours in Austria. Retrospective study of cases in the years 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, E F; Freeman, K; Kirtz, G; Hooijberg, E H; Sick, K

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of mast cell tumours (MCT) in certain breeds has been described repeatedly in the literature. The incidence of MCTs for registered breeds in Austria, an estimate of the risk by means of the odds ratios based on breed as well as the anatomic localisation of MCTs were examined. In the first part of the study, the ranking of breeds in Austria based on 147,802 dogs with known breed (including mixed breed) was determined, based on those dogs included in the laboratory data base from 2000 to 2010. In the second part of the study, 476 dogs were identified with MCTs and analysed by age, sex, Patnaik grade of MCT and breed distribution. The odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated for all breeds with skin tumours. The age distribution showed a peak in the age group from 6.1 to 8.0 years; 70% of MCTs were localised to the head and trunk. No significant difference was found based on gender. The evaluation of the odds ratios showed that only four of the 20 of the most popular in Austria breeds (Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, Golden Retriever, Spaniel) had an increased risk; on the other hand, some breeds which have not been previously identified in the literature were indicated to have a significantly increased risk for MCT (e.g., Dogo Argentino, Tibetan Spaniel, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Beauceron, and Austrian Smooth-haired Hound). Because disease risk may influence the popularity of some currently rare breeds, consultation with breeders and owners regarding the identification of the breeds newly identified in this study as an increased risk for development of mast cell tumours is indicated.

  10. Chloroplast DNA Variations in Wild Brassicas and Their Implication in Breeding and Population Genetics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sarin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of cytoplasm and also for population genetics/phylogeographic analyses. The former is useful for breeding programs involving wide hybridization and synthesis of alloplasmic lines, while the latter is important for formulating conservation strategies. Therefore, PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique was applied to study cpDNA diversity in 14 wild brassicas (including 31 accessions which revealed a total of 219 polymorphic fragments. The combination of polymorphisms obtained by using only two primer pair-restriction enzyme combinations was sufficient to distinguish all 14 wild brassicas. Moreover, 11 primer pairs-restriction enzyme combinations revealed intraspecific polymorphisms in eight wild brassicas (including endemic and endangered species, B. cretica and B. insularis, resp.. Thus, even within a small number of accessions that were screened, intraspecific polymorphisms were observed, which is important for population genetics analyses in wild brassicas and consequently for conservation studies.

  11. Genetic variability of Appaloosa horses: a study of a closed breeding population from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Malena CORBI-BOTTO,Sebastian Andres SADABA,Elina Ines FRANCISCO,Paula Belen KALEMKERIAN,Juan Pedro LIRON,Egle Etel VILLEGAS-CASTAGNASSO,Guillermo GIOVAMBATTISTA,Pilar PERAL-GARCIA,Silvina DIAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and structure of 72 Appaloosa horses belonging to a closed breeding population from an ecological reserve in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was investigated using eight microsatellite markers from the International Society for Animal Genetics panel. Our data showed that this Appaloosa horse population had an elevated degree of genetic diversity (He= 0.746 and did not present a significant increase of homozygous individuals (FIS~0. However, the short tandem repeats, AHT5, ASB2, HTG10 and VHL20, were not in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P-value<0.05. Genetic relationships between this population and other well known horse breeds showed that Appaloosa horses from Argentina could have had their origin in the horses of the Nez Perce's people in Idaho while other Appaloosa horses may have had influences from Andalusian and Lusitano breeds. This closed breeding population conserves an important degree of Appaloosa genetic diversity and notwithstanding its particular breeding characteristics, represents a valuable genetic resource for conservation.

  12. Study Regarding Goat Milk Composition and the Growth Rate in Kids of Carpatina Goat Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fat and protein content from goat colostrum and milk at weaning the kids. Also, the growth rate of kids was determined during the 50 days of milk feeding period. The experiment was carried out on 8 Carpatina breed goats with their twin male/female couple kids (n=16. Fat and protein content is significant higher (p<0,001 by 8.12 and 13.2 percentage points, respectively compared to normal goat milk. Body weight at birth was on average 2.72 kg for females and 2.89 kg for males. At the end of experimental period, body weight of males was 2.15 kg higher compared to females. Average daily gain during the milk feeding period was 41.97 g/day significantly higher (p<0.001 in males (168.85 g/day than in females (126.88 g/day.

  13. Thermochemical study of vaporization of ceramic breeding materials by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yasumoto, Masaru

    1991-03-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of Li 2SnO 3 as a tritium breeding blanket material of a fusion reactor, a thermodynamic study of the vaporization of solid Li 2SnO 3 was performed by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Partial vapor pressures of Li(g), O 2(g), LiO(g), Li 2O(g) and SnO(g) were determined over Li 2SnO 3. The measured partial pressure of Li(g) over Li 2SnO 3 is relatively high and ranks between those of Li 2SiO 3 and Li 2TiO 3. The Gibbs energy of formation of Li 2SnO 3 was obtained in the temperature range of 1455 to 1590 K. Computer calculations by use of the SOLGASMIX code proved that Li 2SnO 3 can show excellent performance as a breeder material with regard to tritium recovery and compatibility with stainless steel.

  14. Study on surface roughness evolvement of Nd-doped phosphate glass after IBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furen; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin; Tie, Guipeng; Hu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Nd doped phosphate glass is widely used as gain media in high power laser system. It is traditionally polished with the annular polishing technology. The edge effect is inevitable in annular polishing process and it results in the low manufacturing efficiency. Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) is a highly deterministic, non-contact method for the ultra-precision optics fabrication. So the edge effect is avoided. Nanometer and sub-nanometer precision is realizable in IBF. In this paper, Nd doped phosphate glass was polished with IBF, and the evolvement of surface roughness was emphasized. The roughness of surface polished with ion beam at normal and oblique incidence was researched. The oblique incident angle was 45°. The surface roughness was measured with the white light interferometer. No evident change was observed. This means that the pre-finish roughness can be preserved in IBF. The results denote that IBF is a feasible method to correct the contour errors of Nd doped phosphate glass, and the roughness will not be coarsened.

  15. Use of modern tomato breeding germplasm for deciphering the genetic control of agronomical traits by Genome Wide Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.

  16. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  17. Study of interactions between members of flocks of Large Grey Babbler (Turdoides malcolmi) during foraging, breeding, allopreening, and territorial behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Baindur, Kshitija

    2017-01-01

    The objective of my research is to study the behaviour and interactions between the members of flocks of Large Grey Babbler (Turdoides malcolmi) during foraging, breeding, allopreening, and territorial behaviour. The study area consists of three different places in Purandar Taluka (viz. Jejuri, Takrarwadi, and Saswad) and one place in Haveli Taluka (viz. Sinhagad Road) in Pune District, Maharashtra, India. The duration of the study was from March 2013 to March 2014. Equipment ...

  18. Does genetic structure reflect differences in non-breeding movements? A case study in small, highly mobile seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Moodley, Yoshan; Weimerskirch, Henri; Cherel, Yves; Delord, Karine; Phillips, Richard A; Navarro, Joan; Calderón, Luciano; Masello, Juan F

    2017-07-05

    In seabirds, the extent of population genetic and phylogeographic structure varies extensively among species. Genetic structure is lacking in some species, but present in others despite the absence of obvious physical barriers (landmarks), suggesting that other mechanisms restrict gene flow. It has been proposed that the extent of genetic structure in seabirds is best explained by relative overlap in non-breeding distributions of birds from different populations. We used results from the analysis of microsatellite DNA variation and geolocation (tracking) data to test this hypothesis. We studied three small (130-200 g), very abundant, zooplanktivorous petrels (Procellariiformes, Aves), each sampled at two breeding populations that were widely separated (Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean) but differed in the degree of overlap in non-breeding distributions; the wintering areas of the two Antarctic prion (Pachyptila desolata) populations are separated by over 5000 km, whereas those of the blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) and thin-billed prions (P. belcheri) show considerable overlap. Therefore, we expected the breeding populations of blue petrels and thin-billed prions to show high connectivity despite their geographical distance, and those of Antarctic prions to be genetically differentiated. Microsatellite (at 18 loci) and cytochrome b sequence data suggested a lack of genetic structure in all three species. We thus found no relationship between genetic and spatial structure (relative overlap in non-breeding distributions) in these pelagic seabirds. In line with other Southern Ocean taxa, geographic distance did not lead to genetic differences between widely spaced populations of Southern Ocean petrel species.

  19. Study on the temperature control mechanism of the tritium breeding blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changle; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Lei; Yao, Damao; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR) will demonstrate tritium self- sufficiency using a tritium breeding blanket for the tritium fuel cycle. The temperature control mechanism (TCM) involves the tritium production of the breeding blanket and has an impact on tritium self-sufficiency. In this letter, the CFETR tritium target is addressed according to its missions. TCM research on the neutronics and thermal hydraulics issues for the CFETR blanket is presented. The key concerns regarding the blanket design for tritium production under temperature field control are depicted. A systematic theory on the TCM is established based on a multiplier blanket model. In particular, a closed-loop method is developed for the mechanism with universal function solutions, which is employed in the CFETR blanket design activity for tritium production. A tritium accumulation phenomenon is found close to the coolant in the blanket interior, which has a very important impact on current blanket concepts using water coolant inside the blanket. In addition, an optimal tritium breeding ratio (TBR) method based on the TCM is proposed, combined with thermal hydraulics and finite element technology. Meanwhile, the energy gain factor is adopted to estimate neutron heat deposition, which is a key parameter relating to the blanket TBR calculations, considering the structural factors. This work will benefit breeding blanket engineering for the CFETR reactor in the future.

  20. A review of studies on breed evaluation and genetic improvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The programmes involved the use of Zebu × Taurine (e.g. White Fulani × West African Shorthorn) crossbreds, exotic × local (e. g. Friesian × Sanga), or purebred exotics (e. g. Friesian). The exotics and their crossses had better growth rates and milk yields than the local or indigenous breeds. The former genetic groups also ...

  1. A study of some hormones concentrations in horses: Influences of reproductive status and breed differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen M. Daoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of the normal and abnormal metabolic and sex hormones concentrations will help us to understand the role of these hormones in reproductive physiological and additionally, potential diagnostic and prognostic uses in both human and veterinary medicine, and will provide information for further research on this equine breeds as well as in human diseases.

  2. Morphometric study of the testes of the Nigerian local breed of chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 10 adult male Nigerian local breed of chicken were used to investigate the morphometry of the testis. The mean live weight of the birds as well as testes weights were obtained, and testes samples subjected to histological preparations for light microscopy. The mean live weight of the birds and testes weights were ...

  3. The development of FISH tools for genetic, phylogenetic and breeding studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis various fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies are described to support genome projects, plant breeding and phylogenetic analysis on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n=24). Its genome is 980 Mb and only 30 % are single copy sequences, which are mostly found in the

  4. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  5. Structural oxidation state studies of the manganese cluster in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Wenchuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed on Photosystem II (PSII)-enriched membranes prepared from spinach to explore: (1) the correlation between structure and magnetic spin state of the Mn cluster in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in the S2 state; and (2) the oxidation state changes of the Mn cluster in the flash-induced S-states. The structure of the Mn cluster in the S2 state with the g~4 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal (S2-g4 state) was compared with that in the S2 state with multiline signal (S2-MLS state) and the S1 state. The S2-g4 state has a higher XAS inflection point energy than that of the S1 state, indicating the oxidation of Mn in the advance from the S1 to the S2-g4 state. Differences in the edge shape and in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) show that the structure of the Mn cluster in the S2-g4 state is different from that in the S2-MLS or the S1 state. In the S2-g4 state, the second shell of backscatterers from the Mn absorber contains two Mn-Mn distances of 2.73 Å and 2.85 Å. Very little distance disorder exists in the second shell of the S1 or S2-MLS states. The third shell of the S2-g4 state at about 3.3 Å also contains increased heterogeneity relative to that of the S2-MLS or the S1 state. Various S-states were prepared at room-temperature by saturating, single-turnover flashes. The flash-dependent oscillation in the amplitude of the MLS was used to characterize the S-state composition and to construct "pure" S-state Mn K-edge spectra. The edge position shifts to higher energy by 1.8 eV upon the S1 → S2 transition.

  6. The phenology of a rare salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata in a population breeding under unpredictable ambient conditions: a 25 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Warburg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a long-term study (1974-1999 on the phenology of the rare, xeric- inhabiting salamander Salamandra infraimmaculata in a small isolated population during the breeding season near the breeding ponds on Mt. Carmel. This is a fringe area of the genus’ south-easternmost Palaearctic distribution. Salamanders were captured during the 25 year long study. The first years up to the 1980s the total number of salamanders increased but during the last years there seems to have been a decline. Although this could be a phase in normal population cyclic oscillations nevertheless when compared with long-term data on a European Salamandra it does not seem so. The interpretation of the species’ status is dependent on numbers of salamanders captured as well as on the duration of the study. These subjects are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  7. GENEALOGICAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE: A CASE STUDY ON CROATIAN AUTOCHTHONOUS CATTLE BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reljanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size (Ne is one of the most important tools used to assess genetic diversity for conservation purposes. Using pedigree data of three Croatian autochthonous cattle breeds (Buša, Istrian and Slavonian Syrmian Podolian the effective maternal (NeF, paternal (NeM and combined maternal-paternal (NeFM population size was estimated. Additionally, we estimated the effective population size based on the census population sex ratio (Nes, the effective population size from the individual increase in inbreeding (NeFi and the effective population size from individual increase in coancestry (NeCi. We compared these sizes with the values obtained for 20 additional cattle populations, as well as with the newly calculated NeFM. The effective population sizes calculated for three autochthonous breeds were consistently the lowest in amongst all the considered cattle breeds. Utilisation of extremely small numbers of breeding males is the main reason for the observed reduction in the effective population size. The decomposition of effective population size into maternal and paternal components is shown to be an informative parameter in detecting the reduction of the effective population size as a consequence of unequal sex contribution. Still, the impact of the pedigree depth and completeness on the NeF, NeM and NeFM estimation remain to be analysed. A large deviation between Nes and all other methods of Ne estimation was observed and it is our recommendation that breeders and stakeholders should consider using alternative methods of Ne estimation when planning breeding programmes as well as in the determination of the endangered status of animal populations.

  8. Evolving friendships and shifting ethical dilemmas: fieldworkers' experiences in a short term community based study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. EVOLVING FRIENDSHIPS AND SHIFTING ETHICAL DILEMMAS: FIELDWORKERS' EXPERIENCES IN A SHORT TERM COMMUNITY BASED STUDY IN KENYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-01-01

    Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. PMID:23433316

  10. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... understanding of evolutionary processes in diverse organisms, from viruses to vertebrates....

  11. Genome wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sevillano Del Aguila, C.A.; Soares Lopes, M.; Harlizius, B; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Knol, E F; Bastiaansen, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 L...

  12. Genome-wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sevillano, Claudia A.; Marcos S. Lopes; Harlizius, Barbara; Hanenberg, Egiel HAT; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John WM

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 L...

  13. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  14. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  15. Evolving Curricular Models in Culinary Arts: An Instrumental Case Study of a Technical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine how chefs and other individuals in the food industry understood the field of culinary arts. This study used an instrumental case study with purposeful sampling of multiple cases. Through a series of open-ended interviews using snowball-sampling strategy that concluded with 45 participants sharing…

  16. Dog Movie Stars and Dog Breed Popularity: A Case Study in Media Influence on Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend—a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  17. Preliminary study on MC1R polymorphism in some cattle breeds raised in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........

  18. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  19. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ghirlanda

    Full Text Available Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  20. Evolving Concept of Educational Profession>The Problem of Understanding the Evolving Concept of Educational Profession : Focusing on the studies from '80s

    OpenAIRE

    福嶋, 尚子

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the present condition of studies on the concept of educational profession and to present the significance and potential of this feature article. The studies from the “concept approach” have been stagnant, and some characteristics constituting the concept of educational profession, such as the professional autonomy of teachers concerning working and educational conditions and the code of ethics, have not been raised. The “actual condition approach” and the ...

  1. Evolving epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a two-year observational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piroth, Lionel; Pechinot, Andr?; Di Martino, Vincent; Hansmann, Yves; Putot, Alain; Patry, Isabelle; Hadou, Tahar; Jaulhac, Benoit; Chirouze, Catherine; Rabaud, Christian; Lozniewski, Alain; Neuwirth, Catherine; Chavanet, Pascal; Minello, Anne

    2014-01-01

    .... An observational study that exhaustively collected the clinical and biological data associated with positive ascitic fluid cultures was conducted in four French university hospitals in 2010?2011...

  2. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reclamation of mosquito breeding sites using Landsat-8 remote sensing data: A case study of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusuk, Danboyi Joseph; Hashim, Mazlan; Beiranvand Pour, Amin

    2016-06-01

    It is believed by recent releases of World Health Organization (WHO) that more than half of the world's population (3.2 billion) live in areas that are at risk of malaria transmission. Although increased efforts are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in some places where the rate of new cases indicates a fall by 37% globally and 60% death rate. Unfortunately, the subSaharan Africa still shares 89% of malaria and 91% of malaria deaths. Essentially, attacking the causative vectors and reclamation of the vector breeding sites could be remarkable for the rolling back the malaria epidemic project. Consequently, it is essential to explore the possibility of using recent Landsat-8 data remote sensing data and applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) technique in contributing to the realization of this objective. This investigation used for identifying mosquito breeding habitat (Derelict Ponds) zones the application of supervised classification of the Landsat-8 image in conjunction with GIS layering which allowed identification of high risk prone regions for mosquito breeding habitat. The methodology delineated 10 spatial locations of the Derelict Ponds (DP) spread around the Birnin Kebbi urban environment. Moreover, the results combined with comparative analysis of the link between warm climatic (temperature and rainfall data) conditions and Malaria prevalence that is associated with urban poverty. This study indicates that the application of Landsat-8 data and GIS techniques can be a useful tool for planning and management of environmental health and mapping of hot spot environmental problem areas.

  4. How does obstructive sleep apnoea evolve in syndromic craniosynostosis? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Caroline; Joosten, Koen F M; Bannink, Natalja; Bredero-Boelhouwer, Hansje H; Hoeve, Hans L J; Wolvius, Eppo B; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Mathijssen, Irene M J

    2013-07-01

    To describe the course of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in children with syndromic craniosynostosis. Prospective cohort study. Dutch Craniofacial Centre from January 2007 to January 2012. A total of 97 children with syndromic craniosynostosis underwent level III sleep study. Patients generally undergo cranial vault remodelling during their first year of life, but OSAS treatment only on indication. Obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index, the central apnoea index and haemoglobin oxygenation-desaturation index derived from consecutive sleep studies. The overall prevalence of OSAS in syndromic craniosynostosis was 68% as defined by level III sleep study. Twenty-three patients were treated for OSAS. Longitudinal profiles were computed for 80 untreated patients using 241 sleep studies. A mixed effects model showed higher values for the patients with midface hypoplasia as compared to those without midface hypoplasia (Omnibus likelihood ratio test=7.9). In paired measurements, the obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (Z=-3.4) significantly decreased over time, especially in the first years of life (Z=-3.3), but not in patients with midface hypoplasia (Z=-1.5). No patient developed severe OSAS during follow-up if it was not yet diagnosed during the first sleep study. OSAS is highly prevalent in syndromic craniosynostosis. There is some natural improvement, mainly during the first 3 years of life and least in children with Apert or Crouzon/Pfeiffer syndrome. In the absence of other co-morbid risk factors, it is highly unlikely that if severe OSAS is not present early in life it will develop during childhood. Ongoing clinical surveillance is of great importance and continuous monitoring for the development of other co-morbid risk factors for OSAS should be warranted.

  5. A model study of mixing and entrainment in the horizontally evolving atmospheric convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)

  6. Experimental study of hydraulic jump evolving in an u-shaped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to examine and analyze the experimental approach of controlled hydraulic jump threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottom rough, linking the different characteristics of projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom. Keywords: hydraulic jump, channel profile 'U', rough bottom canal, ...

  7. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of metamorphic fluid flow in an evolving tectonic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, D.; Cole, D.R.; Drummond, M.S.; Stakes, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian borehole represents a unique opportunity to couple O-H-C-S isotope and fluid inclusion studies with textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions in order to assess the role of fluids in metamorphism, deformation, element migration, and heat transfer throughout the evolution of a complex orogen. Studies which focus on hydrothermal veins, felsic/mafic intrusives and juxtaposed but chemically and isotopically distinct lithologies such as volcanics/-clastics and silicates/carbonates will be particularly informative. That large-scale metamorphic fluid flow has occurred in the Southern Appalachians is evidenced by devolatilization of enormous masses of rock during prograde metamorphism and extensive revolatilization, along major shear zones exhibiting retrograde assemblages. The authors own textural, chemical and oxygen isotope studies of granitoids and their host rocks in Northern Alabama document substantial isotopic, major and trace element (e.g. U, Th, Pb, Rb, and Sr) redistribution over thousands of cubic kilometers via exchange with infiltrating metamorphic fluids. Even chemically and mineralogically unaltered granites in the area have been isotopically enriched, perhaps reflecting differing chemical and isotopic exchange capacities of the fluid/rock system. These observations suggest that the chemical and isotopic effects of metamorphic fluid flow must be quantified in order to determine the origins of sedimentary and igneous rocks based on their geochemical signatures and age dates and to evaluate the role of fluids in the tectonic evolution of the proposed study area.

  8. Influences Which Affect Reproductive Characters of Sows in Studied Reproductive Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sládek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate influences which affect reproductive characters of sows in chosen reproductive breeding. These reproductive traits of sows were studied: number of all, live born and weaned piglets, losses from live born piglets till weaning. These influences which affect reproductive characters were studied: order of litter, number of piglets in litter, birth weight of piglets and influence of sex on birth weight of piglets. An average number of all born piglets per litter it was 11.74 animals. From that 11.33 live born piglets per sow and litter. 10.15 piglets were weaned from each litter in average. It represents 11.68 % of losses in live born piglets till weaning. An influence of litter order on number of live born piglets in litter was studied in an experiment. The first litters show 11.36 of live born piglets in average, the second litters 10.38 piglets, the third litters 10.43 piglets and the fourth litters 10.75 piglets. Maximum was reached on fifth litter with 13.33 of live born piglets. From the sixth litter number of live born piglets was decreasing. On the sixth litter it was 12.33 piglets, on the seventh only 9.40 of live born piglets. Between fifth litter (13.33 piglets and seventh litter (9.40 piglets statistical conclusive difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found. The sixth litters showed the highest number of weaned piglets – 11.00. On the contrary the lowest number of weaned piglets it was on the seventh litter – 8.40 piglets. Statistical conclusive difference among the numbers of weaned piglets according to litter order it was not proved. Higher average birth weight (1.50 kg was found in boars in comparison to gilts (1.46 kg. Next birth weight of gilts and boars was studied in dep endence on litter order. The lowest birth weight in both sexes was found on the first litters – gilts (1.27 kg and boars (1.36 kg. Gilts reached the highest birth weights on the seconds and the sixths litters (1.62 kg. Statistical

  9. Aedes aegypti breeding ecology in Guerrero: cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the Camino Verde trial in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Morales-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the breeding patterns of Aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. The baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. This paper describes findings from the Mexican arm of the baseline survey. Methods In 2010 field teams conducted household surveys and entomological inspections in 11,995 households from 90 representative communities in the three coastal regions of Guerrero State, Mexico. We characterized Ae. aegypti breeding sites and examined the effect of two preventive measures: temephos application in water containers, and keeping the containers covered. We examined associations with household infestation, using bivariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for clustering effects. Results We conducted entomological inspections in 11,995 households. Among 45,353 water containers examined, 6.5% (2958/45,353 were positive for larvae and/or pupae. Concrete tanks (pilas and barrels (tambos together accounted for 74% of pupal productivity. Both covering water containers and inserting temephos were independently associated with a lower risk of presence of larvae or pupae, with the effect of covering (OR 0.22; 95% CIca 0.15–0.27 stronger than that of temephos (OR 0.66; 95% CIca 0.53–0.84. Having more than four water containers was associated with household infestation in both rural areas (OR 1.42; 95% CIca 1.17–1.72 and urban areas (1.81; 1.47–2.25, as was low education of the household head (rural: 1.27; 1.11–1.46, and urban: 1.39; 1.17–1.66. Additional factors in rural areas were: household head without paid work (1.31; 1.08–1.59; being in the Acapulco region (1

  10. Aedes aegypti breeding ecology in Guerrero: cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the Camino Verde trial in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Balanzar-Martínez, Alejandro; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio Juan; Gasga-Salinas, David; Rodríguez-Ramos, Irma Esther; Meneses-Rentería, Alba; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Armendariz-Valle, Felipe Gil; Ledogar, Robert J; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    Understanding the breeding patterns of Aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. The baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. This paper describes findings from the Mexican arm of the baseline survey. In 2010 field teams conducted household surveys and entomological inspections in 11,995 households from 90 representative communities in the three coastal regions of Guerrero State, Mexico. We characterized Ae. aegypti breeding sites and examined the effect of two preventive measures: temephos application in water containers, and keeping the containers covered. We examined associations with household infestation, using bivariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for clustering effects. We conducted entomological inspections in 11,995 households. Among 45,353 water containers examined, 6.5% (2958/45,353) were positive for larvae and/or pupae. Concrete tanks (pilas) and barrels (tambos) together accounted for 74% of pupal productivity. Both covering water containers and inserting temephos were independently associated with a lower risk of presence of larvae or pupae, with the effect of covering (OR 0.22; 95% CIca 0.15-0.27) stronger than that of temephos (OR 0.66; 95% CIca 0.53-0.84). Having more than four water containers was associated with household infestation in both rural areas (OR 1.42; 95% CIca 1.17-1.72) and urban areas (1.81; 1.47-2.25), as was low education of the household head (rural: 1.27; 1.11-1.46, and urban: 1.39; 1.17-1.66). Additional factors in rural areas were: household head without paid work (1.31; 1.08-1.59); being in the Acapulco region (1.91; 1.06-3.44); and using anti-mosquito products (1.27; 1

  11. Studies on the Structure Evolvement of Organic Agricultural Industry in Taiwan and its Influential Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; XU; Zheng; ZHANG; Li; KONG

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the development of organic agriculture in Taiwan in recent years,and based on relevant agriculture,economic and social statistics,the general scale of organic agriculture and industrial structure were treated with statistic analysis. Results suggest that the general scale of organic agriculture in Taiwan grew rapidly from 2004 to 2011. The certified organic farmers grew by 140. 59%,and the area with organic plantation grew by 302. 40%. The industrial structure has changed significantly as vegetables have become the No. 1 organic crop instead of rice. Besides of the four major crops,organic plantation has played an increasingly important role. Essential factors influencing the great-leap-forward development include the general trend of agricultural industrial structure adjustment,proliferation of management system and strategic opportunities brought by economic cycles.

  12. Expression studies of six human obesity-related genes in seven tissues from divergent pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Jensen, M. S.; Elbrønd, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    receptor (MC4R), fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR)1 and adiponectin (ADIPOQ), in seven obesity-relevant tissues (liver; muscle; pancreas; hypothalamus; and retroperitoneal, subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues) in two pig breeds (production pigs and Göttingen...... shows significant differential expression in all tissues analyzed, and NEGR1 shows significant differential expression in muscle, pancreas, hypothalamus and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The MC4R transcript can be detected only in hypothalamus. In general, the expression profiles of the investigated...

  13. Studies on induced breeding of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in hapa pens

    OpenAIRE

    Orji, R.C.A.; Inyang, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Induced breeding of Clarias gariepinus was conducted monthly in hapa pens, set up in Otamiri river for nineteen months (June 1993 - December 1994). Results of natural fertilization were unsatisfactory as few eggs were fertilized. Mean relative fecundity, percentage fertilization, percentage hatching and percentage fry survival were: 15.86 ± 1.95 x 10', 18.92 ± 5.28%, 13.50 ± 3.8% and 6.42 ± 0.72%. Results from artificial fertilization were as follows: Mean relative fecundity, 13.80 ± 2.85 ...

  14. Study on evaluation of environmental carrying capacity of pig breeding in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Liu, Wei; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Qi-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    China’s central six provinces are located in the hinterland of the mainland of China and play an increasingly important role in the process of China’s economic and social development. This paper uses the 2016 statistical yearbook data to synthesize the environmental carrying capacity of six provinces in central China Evaluation. The results show that Shanxi Province has the highest environmental pollution carrying index, followed by Jiangxi Province, Anhui Province, Hunan Province and Hubei Province. Henan Province is with the lowest index, which shows that the carrying capacity of pig breeding in Shanxi outpaces the other provinces. And Henan Province owns the weakest carrying capacity.

  15. Effect of mortality rate, breed type and breed on total herd efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite breed types normally performed well, indicating that use of such breeds in a variety of environments is a good choice. This study also indicated that bio-diversity does exist between breeds and further research is needed on breed characterization, since no framework currently exists for the charucterrzation of ...

  16. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  17. Report of the breeding bird study and vegetation analysis on the Gardner Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Annada District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An ornithological study of the breeding birds of the islands that make up the Gardner Division and the Bear Creek Unit of Mark Twain NWR was initiated in 1992. A...

  18. Characteristics of evolving models of care for arthritis: A key informant study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinot Paula

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of arthritis is increasing in the face of diminishing health human resources to deliver care. In response, innovative models of care delivery are developing to facilitate access to quality care. Most models have developed in response to local needs with limited evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to a examine the range of models of care that deliver specialist services using a medical/surgical specialist and at least one other health care provider and b document the strengths and challenges of the identified models. A secondary objective is to identify key elements of best practice models of care for arthritis. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of key informants with expertise in arthritis from jurisdictions with primarily publicly-funded health care systems. Qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify common types of models of care, strengths and challenges of models, and key components of arthritis care. Results Seventy-four key informants were interviewed from six countries. Five main types of models of care emerged. 1 Specialized arthritis programs deliver comprehensive, multidisciplinary team care for arthritis. Two models were identified using health care providers (e.g. nurses or physiotherapists in expanded clinical roles: 2 triage of patients with musculoskeletal conditions to the appropriate services including specialists; and 3 ongoing management in collaboration with a specialist. Two models promoting rural access were 4 rural consultation support and 5 telemedicine. Key informants described important components of models of care including knowledgeable health professionals and patients. Conclusion A range of models of care for arthritis have been developed. This classification can be used as a framework for discussing care delivery. Areas for development include integration of care across the continuum, including primary

  19. Cooperative breeding in South American hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim; Hurtado, A Magdalena

    2009-11-07

    Evolutionary researchers have recently suggested that pre-modern human societies habitually practised cooperative breeding and that this feature helps explain human prosocial tendencies. Despite circumstantial evidence that post-reproductive females and extra-pair males both provide resources required for successful reproduction by mated pairs, no study has yet provided details about the flow of food resources by different age and sex categories to breeders and offspring, nor documented the ratio of helpers to breeders. Here, we show in two hunter-gatherer societies of South America that each breeding pair with dependent offspring on average obtained help from approximately 1.3 non-reproductive adults. Young married males and unmarried males of all ages were the main food providers, accounting for 93-100% of all excess food production available to breeding pairs and their offspring. Thus, each breeding pair with dependants was provisioned on average by 0.8 adult male helpers. The data provide no support for the hypothesis that post-reproductive females are the main provisioners of younger reproductive-aged kin in hunter-gatherer societies. Demographic and food acquisition data show that most breeding pairs can expect food deficits owing to foraging luck, health disabilities and accumulating dependency ratio of offspring in middle age, and that extra-pair provisioning may be essential to the evolved human life history.

  20. The Shepherds' Tale: A Genome-Wide Study across 9 Dog Breeds Implicates Two Loci in the Regulation of Fructosamine Serum Concentration in Belgian Shepherds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K G Forsberg

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem in both dogs and humans. Certain dog breeds show high prevalence of the disease, whereas other breeds are at low risk. Fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c are two major biomarkers of glycaemia, where serum concentrations reflect glucose turnover over the past few weeks to months. In this study, we searched for genetic factors influencing variation in serum fructosamine concentration in healthy dogs using data from nine dog breeds. Considering all breeds together, we did not find any genome-wide significant associations to fructosamine serum concentration. However, by performing breed-specific analyses we revealed an association on chromosome 3 (pcorrected ≈ 1:68 × 10-6 in Belgian shepherd dogs of the Malinois subtype. The associated region and its close neighbourhood harbours interesting candidate genes such as LETM1 and GAPDH that are important in glucose metabolism and have previously been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. To further explore the genetics of this breed specificity, we screened the genome for reduced heterozygosity stretches private to the Belgian shepherd breed. This revealed a region with reduced heterozygosity that shows a statistically significant interaction (p = 0.025 with the association region on chromosome 3. This region also harbours some interesting candidate genes and regulatory regions but the exact mechanisms underlying the interaction are still unknown. Nevertheless, this finding provides a plausible explanation for breed-specific genetic effects for complex traits in dogs. Shepherd breeds are at low risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The findings in Belgian shepherds could be connected to a protective mechanism against the disease. Further insight into the regulation of glucose metabolism could improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods for diabetes mellitus.

  1. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  2. Dog bites in The Netherlands: a study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jessica M R; Hopster, Hans

    2010-12-01

    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification for using breed specific measurements to deal with dog bites are considered. For aggressors, attack records for breed groups and popular breeds were established by calculating breed risk indices using a reference population. Several breeds and breed groups were over- and under-represented in the biting population and there was a mismatch between risk indices and the then-current legislation. Mitigation strategies should not be based on attack records (since this would lead to the rejection of a significant proportion of the canine population) but on the circumstances of the incidents. Preventative measures must focus on a better understanding of how to handle dogs. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

  4. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  5. Dietary Preference of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus during a Laboratory Breeding Programme for Ecotoxicological Studies

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    M. C. Bloor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa. Standardised, 24 hour ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with both species to determine their food preference. The results showed that A. aquaticus ate more leaf material compared to G. pulex (Z 23.909, P 0.001 when exposed to all three test variables. Also, both G. pulex and A. aquaticus demonstrated a preference for naturally conditioned leaves compared to the other two variables, with unconditioned leaves proving the least popular food option for both macroinvertebrates (Z 18.803, <0.001. However, both species ate varying amounts of all the leaf treatments (Z 136.399, <0.001. Subsequently, the author outlined a feeding methodology for natural alder leaf conditioning that could be used during a laboratory breeding programme.

  6. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: study designs that may help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, M. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of bird exhibit varying degrees of site–fidelity to the previous year’s territory or breeding area, a phenomenon we refer to as incomplete breeding site–fidelity. If the territory they occupy is located beyond the bounds of the study area or search area (i.e., they have emigrated from the study area, the bird will go undetected and is therefore indistinguishable from dead individuals in capture–mark–recapture studies. Differential emigration rates confound inferences regarding differences in survival between sexes and among species if apparent survival rates are used as estimates of true survival. Moreover, the bias introduced by using apparent survival rates for true survival rates can have profound effects on the predictions of population persistence through time, source/sink dynamics, and other aspects of life–history theory. We investigated four study design and analysis approaches that result in apparent survival estimates that are closer to true survival estimates. Our motivation for this research stemmed from a multi–year capture–recapture study of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea on multiple study plots within a larger landscape of suitable breeding habitat where substantial inter–annual movements of marked individuals among neighboring study plots was documented. We wished to quantify the effects of this type of movement on annual survival estimation. The first two study designs we investigated involved marking birds in a core area and resighting them in the core as well as an area surrounding the core. For the first of these two designs, we demonstrated that as the resighting area surrounding the core gets progressively larger, and more “emigrants” are resighted, apparent survival estimates begin to approximate true survival rates (bias < 0.01. However, given observed inter–annual movements of birds, it is likely to be logistically impractical to resight birds on sufficiently large

  7. Risk factors for hip-related clinical signs in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontveit, Randi I; Trangerud, Cathrine; Sævik, Bente K; Skogmo, Hege K; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study including privately owned dogs from the breeds Newfondland (NF), Labrador Retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish Wolfhound (IW) followed from birth until age 9 yrs. We wanted to investigate whether radiological hip dysplasia status given at approximately age 12-18 mos and other factors during growth influenced development of clinical signs due to hip-joint disease necessitating veterinary consultation. Whether or not such signs occurred due to hip dysplasia or due to secondary or primary DJD could not be distinguished, and we therefore used the term "owner-reported veterinary-diagnosed hip-related clinical signs" ("the event"). The included dogs were followed from birth to the event or until a maximum of 9 yrs of age. Our objectives were to describe breed differences in time to incidence and to evaluate potential risk factors for the time to event. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to describe time to incidence, and potential risk factors were assessed by use of a Cox proportional-hazards model. We enrolled 494 dogs from 103 litters, and 46 dogs were reported as having had the event during the observation period. We observed a significant time-varying effect (TVE): LR and LEO developed clinical signs later in life than NF. If the radiological hip status was either mild, moderate, or severe the hazard of experiencing the event was significantly increased. Access to off-leash exercise at age 12 mos decreased the hazard of the event, and the hazard varied by litter. The findings supported the hypothesis that radiological hip status at screening and exercise conditions during growth influenced the time to incidence of the event and that there were breed differences in time to the event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EVOLVED GAS ANALYSIS (COUPLED TG-DSC-FT-IR APPLIED IN THE STUDY OF FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM CHICORY

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    Roberta de Souza Leone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available EGA (Evolved Gas Analysis is a group of coupled techniques (in this case TG-DSC and FT-IR that was used to provide information about the thermal and calorimetric behavior of standard fructooligosaccharides (FOS from chicory. These FOS are found in several foods (tuber, roots, fruits, leaves, cereals, etc. and have been the subject of several studies. In the present study thermogravimetry (TG allowed the characterization of FOS a standard (Sigma-Aldrich, in which the weight loss can be observed in three stages (m 7.56, 55.53 and 36.53%, respectively. The simultaneous use of DSC showed endo and exothermic events in temperature characteristics and in agreement with TG curves. The enthalpies of the main stages of decomposition were calculated: ΔHdehydr 260 J g-1 and ΔHdec 410 J g-1. From the FT-IR spectrum of the volatiles was possible to characterize the main bands, which confirmed CO and CO2 as a result of thermal decomposition.

  9. Narrative pedagogy with evolving case study--A transformative approach to gerontic nursing practice for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Shaorn; Croxon, Lyn

    2015-09-01

    Engaging nursing students in the complexities of care across community, acute, rehabilitation and residential aged care settings is challenging. Equally challenging is conceptualising and promoting diverse and comprehensive health assessments across care settings that reflect clinical reality, inform clinical decision making, traverse theory and practice, and transform clinical practice knowledge. This article describes the use of narrative and evolving case study as a teaching-learning tool utilised by the authors in a third year undergraduate gerontic nursing subject in a pre-service nursing degree at a rural university. Principles of transformative learning and strengths based nursing were drawn upon in the development of the case study. The aim of the approach was to draw on embedded knowledge and the experiences of students and academics from assorted practice settings to facilitate understanding of the lived experiences of an older community dwelling couple. Using social learning strategies students were encouraged to analyse and think critically and creatively about the situations they were presented with. They identified possible solutions that would be acceptable to the couple. Building on the older couple's strengths, achievements and personal social capital, the aim was to develop a positive paradigm for health and the way older people are viewed by nursing students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben J; Bowman, Phil J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Savin, Keith; van Tassell, Curt P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Goddard, Mike E

    2009-08-18

    Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  11. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    Full Text Available Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  12. Breeding ground: evolving the 'smart' industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-05-01

    This article celebrates the successes of the Canadian independent oil contractors and the oilfield service and supply sector that keep Canada in the forefront of the world's 'smart' nations in energy stewardship, efficiency, development, diversification and utilization. It explains how small independent contractors and service and supply enterprises play a central role on all these fronts, with supply and service companies being responsible for about 80 per cent of oil companies' capital budget and 70 per cent of their operational expenditures in fields ranging from construction, and camp catering, to ambulance services, safety systems, trucking, tool making, drilling services, production testing, valve manufacturing, chemical blending and environmental protection. Special attention is paid to importance on independent contractors represented by the Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada (SEPAC), their ability to develop or adopt new technology and to accommodate the demands of constantly changing price levels and increasingly higher expectations in terms of social responsibility, productivity and competitiveness, as well as environmental performance. As an example, the article describes the career of Robert Tessari, founder and president of Tesco Corporation, a drilling company operating in some 40 countries, who aims to automate drilling to the point where rig crews are pared to teams of two or three experts directing machinery from computer consoles. That he is well on the way of achieving his objectives is illustrated by his contributions to the development of a new generation of bits, tools and procedures known as the 'case drilling' process which simultaneously uses the same steel tubing to make the holes into oil and gas-bearing formations and line them for production, and in so doing cut 25 to 30 per cent off the time required to drill a well and bring it to production. His company's contribution to the development of 'underbalanced' or controlled-pressure drilling is also noted. 6 photos.

  13. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  14. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  15. Insights into substrate binding to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II from ammonia inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, David J; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-01-20

    Water oxidation in Photosystem II occurs at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which cycles through distinct intermediates, S0-S4. The inhibitor ammonia selectively binds to the S2 state at an unresolved site that is not competitive with substrate water. By monitoring the yields of flash-induced oxygen production, we show that ammonia decreases the net efficiency of OEC turnover and slows the decay kinetics of S2 to S1. The temperature dependence of biphasic S2 decay kinetics provides activation energies that do not vary in control and ammonia conditions. We interpret our data in the broader context of previous studies by introducing a kinetic model for both the formation and decay of ammonia-bound S2. The model predicts ammonia binds to S2 rapidly (t1/2 = 1 ms) with a large equilibrium constant. This finding implies that ammonia decreases the reduction potential of S2 by at least 2.7 kcal mol(-1) (>120 mV), which is not consistent with ammonia substitution of a terminal water ligand of Mn(IV). Instead, these data support the proposal that ammonia binds as a bridging ligand between two Mn atoms. Implications for the mechanism of O-O bond formation are discussed.

  16. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  17. Study of polymorphisms in the promoter region of ovine β-lactoglobulin gene and phylogenetic analysis among the Valle del Belice breed and other sheep breeds considered as ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, S; Sardina, M T; Riggio, V; Portolano, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to sequence the promoter region of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene in four sheep breeds, in order to identify polymorphisms, infer and analyze haplotypes, and phylogenetic relationship among the Valle del Belice breed and the other three breeds considered as ancestors. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences showed the presence of 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one deletion. A total of 22 haplotypes found in "best" reconstruction were inferred considering the 37 polymorphic sites identified. Haplotypes were used for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree using the Neighbor-Joining algorithm. The number of polymorphisms identified showed high variability within breeds. Analysis of genetic diversity indexes showed that the Sarda breed presented the lowest nucleotide diversity, whereas the Comisana breed presented the highest one. Comparing the nucleotide diversity among breeds, the highest value was obtained between Valle del Belice and Pinzirita breeds, whereas the lowest one was between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds. Considering that polymorphisms in the promoter region of BLG gene could have a functional role associated with milk composition, the lowest value of nucleotide diversity between Valle del Belice and Sarda breeds may be related to a higher similarity of milk composition of these two breeds compared to the others. Further analyses will be conducted in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the genetic diversity indexes and the BLG content in milk of our breeds.

  18. Cuttable plate fixation for small breed dogs with radius and ulna fractures: Retrospective study of 31 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Gwyneth K; Moens, Noel M M

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study evaluated complication rates for radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs in which 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm cuttable bone plates were used for internal fixation. The medical records of all cases from 2004 to 2011 that were presented to our clinic were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: dogs with body weight dogs met the inclusion criteria. Of 25 dogs that were available for follow-up, all achieved union, minor complications occurred in 9, and major complications occurred in 8. External coaptation was responsible for complications in 8 cases and the need for coaptation needs to be investigated. Excluding minor complications, 32% of patients required at least 1 additional surgery or additional hospitalization. All but 2 of the dogs returned to full function. The 1.5 mm straight plate was successfully used in all dogs with a body weight of 0.9 to 2.6 kg.

  19. Wood Storks of the Savannah River Plant: Foraging and breeding ecology: Comprehensive cooling water study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, M.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the results of studies from 1983 through 1985 that deal with the use of the Savannah River Swamp System (SRSS) by Wood Storks. We examine the locations on the SRSS where storks have been observed foraging on the SRSS, and the time of year when birds were seen in the swamp. We compare measurements of habitat characteristics, water quality, vegetation and prey density at foraging sites on the SRSS with similar measurements at other foraging sites in east-central Georgia. Finally, we examine food demand of storks breeding at the Birdsville colony as an indication of the time of year when the birds would be most in need of food.

  20. Genome-wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Claudia A; Lopes, Marcos S; Harlizius, Barbara; Hanenberg, Egiel H A T; Knol, Egbert F; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2015-03-21

    Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The aim of this genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with these congenital defects. Genotypes were available for 2570 Large White (LW) and 2272 Landrace (LR) pigs. Breeding values were estimated based on 1 359 765 purebred and crossbred male offspring, using a binary trait animal model. Estimated breeding values were deregressed (DEBV) and taken as the response variable in the GWAS. Heritability estimates were equal to 0.26 ± 0.02 for cryptorchidism and to 0.31 ± 0.01 for scrotal/inguinal hernia. Seven and 31 distinct QTL regions were associated with cryptorchidism in the LW and LR datasets, respectively. The top SNP per region explained between 0.96% and 1.10% and between 0.48% and 2.77% of the total variance of cryptorchidism incidence in the LW and LR populations, respectively. Five distinct QTL regions associated with scrotal/inguinal hernia were detected in both LW and LR datasets. The top SNP per region explained between 1.22% and 1.60% and between 1.15% and 1.46% of the total variance of scrotal/inguinal hernia incidence in the LW and LR populations, respectively. For each trait, we identified one overlapping region between the LW and LR datasets, i.e. a region on SSC8 (Sus scrofa chromosome) between 65 and 73 Mb for cryptorchidism and a region on SSC13 between 34 and 37 Mb for scrotal/inguinal hernia. The use of DEBV in combination with a binary trait model was a powerful approach to detect regions associated with difficult traits such as cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia that have a low incidence and for which affected animals are generally not available for genotyping. Several novel

  1. Simulation study on the effects of excluding offspring information for genetic evaluation versus using genomic markers for selection in dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2010-02-01

    Different modes of selection in dogs were studied with a special focus on the availability of disease information. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in the German shepherd dog was used as an example. The study was performed using a simulation model, comparing cases when selection was based on phenotype, true or predicted breeding value, or genomic breeding value. The parameters in the simulation model were drawn from the real population data. The data on all parents and 40% of their progeny were assumed to be available for the genetic evaluation carried out by Gibbs sampling. With respect to the use of disease records on progeny, three scenarios were considered: random exclusion of disease data (no restrictions, N), general exclusion of disease data (G) and exclusion of disease data for popular sires (P). One round of selection was considered, and the response was expressed as change of mean CHD score, proportion of dogs scored as normal, proportion of dogs scored as clearly affected and true mean breeding value in progeny of popular sires in comparison with all sires. When no restrictions on data were applied, selection on breeding value was three times more efficient than when some systematic exclusion was practised. Higher selection response than in the exclusion cases was achieved by selecting on the basis of genomic breeding value and CHD score. Genomic selection would therefore be the method of choice in the future.

  2. An innovative procedure of genome-wide association analysis fits studies on germplasm population and plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianbo; Meng, Shan; Zhao, Tuanjie; Xing, Guangnan; Yang, Shouping; Li, Yan; Guan, Rongzhan; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Yufeng; Xia, Qiuju; Yang, Bing; Gai, Junyi

    2017-11-01

    The innovative RTM-GWAS procedure provides a relatively thorough detection of QTL and their multiple alleles for germplasm population characterization, gene network identification, and genomic selection strategy innovation in plant breeding. The previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been concentrated on finding a handful of major quantitative trait loci (QTL), but plant breeders are interested in revealing the whole-genome QTL-allele constitution in breeding materials/germplasm (in which tremendous historical allelic variation has been accumulated) for genome-wide improvement. To match this requirement, two innovations were suggested for GWAS: first grouping tightly linked sequential SNPs into linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs) to form markers with multi-allelic haplotypes, and second utilizing two-stage association analysis for QTL identification, where the markers were preselected by single-locus model followed by multi-locus multi-allele model stepwise regression. Our proposed GWAS procedure is characterized as a novel restricted two-stage multi-locus multi-allele GWAS (RTM-GWAS, https://github.com/njau-sri/rtm-gwas ). The Chinese soybean germplasm population (CSGP) composed of 1024 accessions with 36,952 SNPLDBs (generated from 145,558 SNPs, with reduced linkage disequilibrium decay distance) was used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of RTM-GWAS. Using the CSGP marker information, simulation studies demonstrated that RTM-GWAS achieved the highest QTL detection power and efficiency compared with the previous procedures, especially under large sample size and high trait heritability conditions. A relatively thorough detection of QTL with their multiple alleles was achieved by RTM-GWAS compared with the linear mixed model method on 100-seed weight in CSGP. A QTL-allele matrix (402 alleles of 139 QTL × 1024 accessions) was established as a compact form of the population genetic constitution. The 100-seed weight QTL-allele matrix was

  3. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  4. Decalcified allograft in repair of lytic lesions of bone: A study to evolve bone bank in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quest for ideal bone graft substitutes still haunts orthopedic researchers. The impetus for this search of newer bone substitutes is provided by mismatch between the demand and supply of autogenous bone grafts. Bone banking facilities such as deep frozen and freeze-dried allografts are not so widely available in most of the developing countries. To overcome the problem, we have used partially decalcified, ethanol preserved, and domestic refrigerator stored allografts which are economical and needs simple technology for procurement, preparation, and preservation. The aim of the study was to assess the radiological and functional outcome of the partially decalcified allograft (by weak hydrochloric acid in patients of benign lytic lesions of bone. Through this study, we have also tried to evolve, establish, and disseminate the concept of the bone bank. Materials and Methods: 42 cases of lytic lesions of bone who were treated by decalcified (by weak hydrochloric acid, ethanol preserved, allografts were included in this prospective study. The allograft was obtained from freshly amputated limbs or excised femoral heads during hip arthroplasties under strict aseptic conditions. The causes of lytic lesions were unicameral bone cyst ( n = 3, aneurysmal bone cyst ( n = 3, giant cell tumor ( n = 9, fibrous dysplasia ( n = 12, chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroma, nonossifying fibroma ( n = 1 each, tubercular osteomyelitis ( n = 7, and chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis ( n = 5. The cavity of the lesion was thoroughly curetted and compactly filled with matchstick sized allografts. Results: Quantitative assessment based on the criteria of Sethi et al. (1993 was done. There was complete assimilation in 27 cases, partial healing in 12 cases, and failure in 3 cases. Functional assessment was also done according to which there were 29 excellent results, 6 good, and 7 cases of failure (infection, recurrence, and nonunion of pathological fracture. We

  5. Decalcified allograft in repair of lytic lesions of bone: A study to evolve bone bank in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil Kumar; Keshav, Kumar; Kumar, Praganesh

    2016-01-01

    The quest for ideal bone graft substitutes still haunts orthopedic researchers. The impetus for this search of newer bone substitutes is provided by mismatch between the demand and supply of autogenous bone grafts. Bone banking facilities such as deep frozen and freeze-dried allografts are not so widely available in most of the developing countries. To overcome the problem, we have used partially decalcified, ethanol preserved, and domestic refrigerator stored allografts which are economical and needs simple technology for procurement, preparation, and preservation. The aim of the study was to assess the radiological and functional outcome of the partially decalcified allograft (by weak hydrochloric acid) in patients of benign lytic lesions of bone. Through this study, we have also tried to evolve, establish, and disseminate the concept of the bone bank. 42 cases of lytic lesions of bone who were treated by decalcified (by weak hydrochloric acid), ethanol preserved, allografts were included in this prospective study. The allograft was obtained from freshly amputated limbs or excised femoral heads during hip arthroplasties under strict aseptic conditions. The causes of lytic lesions were unicameral bone cyst (n = 3), aneurysmal bone cyst (n = 3), giant cell tumor (n = 9), fibrous dysplasia (n = 12), chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroma, nonossifying fibroma (n = 1 each), tubercular osteomyelitis (n = 7), and chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis (n = 5). The cavity of the lesion was thoroughly curetted and compactly filled with matchstick sized allografts. Quantitative assessment based on the criteria of Sethi et al. (1993) was done. There was complete assimilation in 27 cases, partial healing in 12 cases, and failure in 3 cases. Functional assessment was also done according to which there were 29 excellent results, 6 good, and 7 cases of failure (infection, recurrence, and nonunion of pathological fracture). We observed that after biological incorporation, the graft

  6. The search for the mdr1-1Δ mutation of the MDR1 gene in four canine breeds in Uruguay (preliminary study)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Gagliardi B.; Diana Martínez A.; Beatriz Tellechea H.; Pedro Sitjar Q.; Silvia Llambí D.; María Arruga L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to analyze the frequency of mdr1-1Δ mutation in German Shepherd, Doberman, Border Collie and Greyhound dog breeds in Uruguay. Materials and methods. A total of 95 animals from the four breeds mentioned above were studied. DNA was isolated from blood using potassium acetate with a subsequent degradation from RNA with RNAsaH. The concentration and quality of the DNA obtained was evaluated with a Nanodrop, ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To determine the pres...

  7. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035 than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284. Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at

  8. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdóttir, Birna K; Berg, Peer; Espelien, Ingvild S; Järvi, Kirsi; Jensen, Henrik; Kristensen, Torsten N; Melis, Claudia; Manenti, Tommaso; Lohi, Hannes; Pertoldi, Cino

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035) than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284). Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase) for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at risk, by

  9. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  10. [Study on the skin-core evolvement of carbon fibers as a function of heat treatment temperature by Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-jie; Fan, Li-dong; Wang, Hao-jing; Zhu, Zhen-ping

    2008-08-01

    The skin-core evolvement of the carbon fibers was studied as a function of heat-treatment temperature though the analysis of Raman spectroscopy of the carbon fibers surface and core. It was found that the change of the Raman spectra of the carbon fibers core was similar to that on the surface with the increase in heat-treatment temperature. At 1600 degrees C, the Rs and Rc values were almost equal, indicating that the degrees of the graphitization of the carbon fibers surface and core were almost uniform. The Rs and Rc values decreased dramatically with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, and Rs decreased more. At 2800 degrees C, the Rs value came to 0.429, lowered 77.2%, while the Rc value then came to 1.101, lowered 38.7% only. It implied that the graphitization degree of the carbon fibers was enhanced with increasing the heat treatment temperature, and that of carbon fibers surface was enhanced more. The graphite characters of the carbon of the carbon fibers surface were different from that of the carbon fibers core. The former is close to soft carbon, which is easy to graphitize, while the latter is close to hard carbon, which is difficult to graphitize, and it may be resin carbon Skin-core structure gene Rsc (= Rs/Rc) which denoted the skin-core degree of the carbon fibers was first brought forward and adopted. The Rsc value is between 0 and 1. When the Rsc value is equal to 1, the carbon fibers are homogenous. When the Rsc value is close to zero, there are serious skin-core structures in the carbon fibers. The Rsc value reduced linearly with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, indicating that the homogeneous degrees of the carbon fibers decreased and the skin-core degrees of the carbon fibers increased. The crystallite size of the carbon fibers surface and core increased gradually with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, but the surface's increased more quickly, indicating that the carbon of the carbon fibers surface was easier to

  11. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, G; Iannuccelli, N; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M A; Giuffra, E; Andersson, L; Nissen, P H; Jørgensen, C B; Beeckmann, P; Geldermann, H; Foulley, J L; Chevalet, C; Ollivier, L

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall F(ST)= 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  12. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  13. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Genetics similarity among four breeds of goat in Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeny analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was performed for studying genetic variation in four Saudi Arabia goat breeds, namely: Harri, Ardi, Habsi and Masri. Six goats from Harri breed, four each from both Ardi and Habsi breeds and five from Masri breed were used for the experiment.

  15. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as

  16. Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeheon Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA. The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2 and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork.

  17. Study of the Relationships among Agronomic Traits and Yield Components in Some Breeding Lines of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikfekr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relationships among agronomic traits and yield components in some breeding lines of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L, this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2009, at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology located in Falavarjan, Isfahan, Iran. Twenty genotypes of safflower were planted in this experiment and days to emergence, days to the commencing of flowering, 50% flowering and maturity, plant height, branches/plant, percentage of infected capitulum to safflower fly, seed yield, capitula/plant, seeds/capitulum, 1000 seed weight, capitulum diameter, seed weight/capitulum and seed oil content were evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the genotypes for all of the studied traits, except for days to emergence. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that capitula/plant, seeds/capitulum and capitulum diameter were the most important seed yield components and they had the highest positive correlations with seed yield. However, seed weight showed negative genetic and phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Based on the regression analysis, capitula/plant along with capitulum diameter accounted for 66% and 74% of the seed yield variation, respectively. Path analysis showed that capitula/plant had the most positive direct effect on seed yield with no significant indirect effect through the other traits. Also, seeds/capitulum had a high direct and positive effect and considerable indirect effect via number of capitula/plant on seed yield.

  18. Pre-clinical and clinical walking kinematics in female breeding pigs with lameness: A nested case-control cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, S; Guy, J H; Syranidis, I; Johnson, G R; Edwards, S A

    2015-07-01

    Gait profiles were investigated in a cohort of female pigs experiencing a lameness period prevalence of 29% over 17 months. Gait alterations before and during visually diagnosed lameness were evaluated to identify the best quantitative clinical lameness indicators and early predictors for lameness. Pre-breeding gilts (n= 84) were recruited to the study over a period of 6 months, underwent motion capture every 5 weeks and, depending on their age at entry to the study, were followed for up to three successive gestations. Animals were subject to motion capture in each parity at 8 weeks of gestation and on the day of weaning (28 days postpartum). During kinematic motion capture, the pigs walked on the same concrete walkway and an array of infra-red cameras was used to collect three dimensional coordinate data of reflective skin markers attached to the head, trunk and limb anatomical landmarks. Of 24 pigs diagnosed with lameness, 19 had preclinical gait records, whilst 18 had a motion capture while lame. Depending on availability, data from one or two preclinical motion capture 1-11 months prior to lameness and on the day of lameness were analysed. Lameness was best detected and evaluated using relative spatiotemporal gait parameters, especially vertical head displacement and asymmetric stride phase timing. Irregularity in the step-to-stride length ratio was elevated (deviation  ≥ 0.03) in young pigs which presented lameness in later life (odds ratio 7.2-10.8). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Population-level Consequences of Breeding Phenology in Response to Climate Variability in Seabirds and Landbirds: Two Long-term Studies From California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, P.; Nur, N.; Bradley, R.; Sydeman, W. J.; Abraham, C.; Chase, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    Long-term studies conducted on breeding populations on the Farallon Islands (1971 to 2007) and in the Point Reyes National Seashore (1980 to 2007), provide the means to characterize breeding phenology of seabird and landbird species and determine how that has changed over multiple temporal scales (variation among years, among decades, shifts in ocean regimes, etc.). However, to interpret phenological patterns and shifts requires information on the demography and ecological context of these species. Here we describe studies on three seabird species (Common Murre Uria aalge, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Brandt's Cormorant, Phalacrocorax penicillatus) where we have tied changes in breeding phenology, within a year, and among years, to demographic consequences (reproductive success, proportion of the population that breeds, adult survival, etc.). In addition, for these species we have information on diet choice of parents feeding chicks and how that has varied within and among years, as well as oceanographic correlates (sea surface temperature, upwelling indices, etc). Results reveal marked variation among the species in their response to oceanographic and climate variability, reflecting their different ecologies. We describe how these results can be used to forecast response to future climate change, as well as to interpret year by response to climate variability. We also summarize results from a long-term study of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), where we have investigated onset and termination of breeding and the climate factors that may influence it, while identifying the population-level responses associated with phenological shifts. We close by making recommendations for large-scale monitoring of phenology based on these more localized studies.

  20. "Unnatural Deeds Do Breed Unnatural Troubles": A Study of Lady Macbeth's Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Safiur; Tajuddin, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study of evil is one of the recurrent themes in the plays of Shakespeare. In "Macbeth," the playwright presents different dimensions of evil. The aim of this paper is to locate and examine the origin of evil in Lady Macbeth--whether evil is in her nature or not. Macbeth addresses her as "dearest partner of greatness",…

  1. Studies on small ruminant breeds with inherent differences in fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ewe productivity, as affected by varying wool production potential in different environ- ments was studied in three woolled sheep flocks. Production and reproduction data col- lected in the Carnarvon Afrino flock (AC) between 1979 and 1992, as well as data of the. Carnarvon Merino flock (MC) collected between 1962 and ...

  2. Breeding Experience, Alternative Reproductive Strategies and Reproductive Success in a Captive Colony of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a remarkable diversity of different reproductive strategies both between and within species. Species such as the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) may evolve the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, as well as benefit from prior breeding experience, which allows them to adaptively respond to unpredictable environments. In birds, the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, such as extra-pair mating, has been reported to be associated with fast reproduction, high mortality and environmental variability. However, little is known about the role of previous breeding experience in the adaptive use of alternative reproductive strategies. Here we performed an in-depth study of reproductive outcomes in a population of domesticated zebra finches, testing the impact of prior breeding experience on the use of alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success. We provide evidence that older females with prior breeding experience are quicker to initiate a clutch with a new partner and have increased success in chick rearing, even in a captive colony of zebra finches with minimal foraging demands. We also find evidence that the breeding experience of other females in the same social group influences reproductive investment by female zebra finches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of alternative reproductive strategies in female zebra finches is associated with previous failed breeding attempts with the same pair partner. The results provide evidence that age and breeding experience play important roles in the flexible use of both facultative and adaptive reproductive strategies in female zebra finches. PMID:24587051

  3. Charge breeding investigation in EBIS/T and collision study of ions with cold atoms for HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Alexey

    2010-01-29

    Highly charged ions (HCI) at low velocities or at rest are interesting systems for various atomic physics experiments. For investigations on HCI of heavy stable or radioactive nuclides the HITRAP (Highly charged Ion TRAP) decelerator facility has been set up at GSI to deliver cooled beams of HCI at an energy of 5 keV/q. The HCI are produced in a stripper foil at relativistic energies and are decelerated in several steps at ESR storage ring and HITRAP before they are delivered to experimental setups. One of the experiments is the investigation of multi-electron charge exchange in collisions of heavy HCI with cold atoms using novel MOTRIMS technique. Collision experiments on light ions from an ECR ion source colliding with cold atoms in a MOT have been performed and the results are described. An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been tested and optimized for commissioning of the HITRAP physics experiments. The process of charge breeding in the EBIT has been successfully studied with gaseous elements and with an alkaline element injected from an external ion source. (orig.)

  4. Ambient acoustic environments and cetacean signals: baseline studies from humpback whale and gray whale breeding grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Kerri Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The past two centuries have seen an increased exploitation of marine habitats byhumans, so a growing appreciation of the role ambient noise plays in cetacean studies hasresulted. To achieve a broad acoustical view of understudied areas (namely Mexican waters),this dissertation tackles three overarching principles: (1) parameterizing current baselineambient acoustic environments for subsequent comparisons, (2) determining whether thesounds that animals introduce into their environments can pro...

  5. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  6. Rapid knockout and reporter mouse line generation and breeding colony establishment using EUCOMM conditional-ready embryonic stem cells: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. J. Coleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As little as a decade ago, generation of a single knockout mouse line was an expensive and time-consuming undertaking available to relatively few researchers. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium, established in 2007, has revolutionized the use of such models by creating an open-access repository of ES cells that, through sequential breeding with first FlpE and then Cre recombinase transgenic mice, facilitates germline global or conditional deletion of almost every gene in the mouse genome. In this Case Study, we describe our experience using the repository to create mouse lines for a variety of experimental purposes. Specifically, we discuss the process of obtaining germline transmission of two EUCOMM ‘knockout-first’ gene targeted constructs and the advantages and pitfalls of using this system. We then outline our breeding strategy and the outcomes of our efforts to generate global and conditional knockouts and reporter mice for the genes of interest. Line maintenance, removal of recombinase transgenes and cryopreservation are also considered. Our approach led to the generation of heterozygous knockout mice within 6 months of commencing breeding to the founder mice. By describing our experiences with the EUCOMM ES cells and subsequent breeding steps, we hope to assist other researchers with the application of this valuable approach to generating versatile knockout mouse lines.

  7. Rapid Knockout and Reporter Mouse Line Generation and Breeding Colony Establishment Using EUCOMM Conditional-Ready Embryonic Stem Cells: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L J; Brennan, Karen; Ngo, Tony; Balaji, Poornima; Graham, Robert M; Smith, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    As little as a decade ago, generation of a single knockout mouse line was an expensive and time-consuming undertaking available to relatively few researchers. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium, established in 2007, has revolutionized the use of such models by creating an open-access repository of embryonic stem (ES) cells that, through sequential breeding with first FLP1 recombinase and then Cre recombinase transgenic mice, facilitates germline global or conditional deletion of almost every gene in the mouse genome. In this Case Study, we describe our experience using the repository to create mouse lines for a variety of experimental purposes. Specifically, we discuss the process of obtaining germline transmission of two European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM) "knockout-first" gene targeted constructs and the advantages and pitfalls of using this system. We then outline our breeding strategy and the outcomes of our efforts to generate global and conditional knockouts and reporter mice for the genes of interest. Line maintenance, removal of recombinase transgenes, and cryopreservation are also considered. Our approach led to the generation of heterozygous knockout mice within 6 months of commencing breeding to the founder mice. By describing our experiences with the EUCOMM ES cells and subsequent breeding steps, we hope to assist other researchers with the application of this valuable approach to generating versatile knockout mouse lines.

  8. THE K2 M67 STUDY: AN EVOLVED BLUE STRAGGLER IN M67 FROM K2 MISSION ASTEROSEISMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Vanderburg, Andrew [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sandquist, Eric, E-mail: leiner@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Yellow straggler stars (YSSs) fall above the subgiant branch in optical color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), between the blue stragglers and the red giants. YSSs may represent a population of evolved blue stragglers, but none have the direct and precise mass and radius measurements needed to determine their evolutionary states and formation histories. Here we report the first asteroseismic mass and radius measurements of such a star, the yellow straggler S1237 in the open cluster M67. We apply asteroseismic scaling relations to a frequency analysis of the Kepler K2 light curve and find a mass of 2.9 ± 0.2 M {sub ⊙} and a radius of 9.2 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊙}. This is more than twice the mass of the main-sequence turnoff in M67, suggesting that S1237 is indeed an evolved blue straggler. S1237 is the primary in a spectroscopic binary. We update the binary orbital solution and use spectral energy distribution fitting to constrain the CMD location of the secondary star. We find that the secondary is likely an upper main-sequence star near the turnoff, but a slightly hotter blue straggler companion is also possible. We then compare the asteroseismic mass of the primary to its mass from CMD fitting, finding that the photometry implies a mass and radius more than 2 σ below the asteroseismic measurement. Finally, we consider formation mechanisms for this star and suggest that S1237 may have formed from dynamical encounters resulting in stellar collisions or a binary merger.

  9. From granite to highly evolved pegmatite: A case study of the Pinilla de Fermoselle granite-pegmatite system (Zamora, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Robles, E.; Pesquera, A.; Gil-Crespo, P.; Torres-Ruiz, J.

    2012-11-01

    The Pinilla de Fermoselle pegmatite is a cap-like body with an asymmetrical vertical zoning, from a granitic facies at the bottom to the upper contact with the metamorphic country-rocks. The granite grades imperceptibly into the pegmatite, which includes three main zones with different degrees of enrichment in Li + F + B (± P, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn). The essential minerals are quartz, feldspar, Al-micas from the muscovite-lepidolite series, Fe-micas (biotite and zinnwaldite), tourmaline (schorl-elbaite-rossmanite) and Fe-Mn phosphates. Apatite, beryl, cassiterite and cookeite are the most significant accessory minerals. The trace elements Li, Be and Sr show similar trends in feldspar, micas and tourmaline, with an increase in the Li and Be contents and a decrease in Sr from the granite to the most evolved pegmatitic zone. Similar trends are shown by Rb, Cs and Ba for micas and K-feldspar, Rb and Cs increasing gradually from the granite to most evolved pegmatitic zones, simultaneously to the decrease of Ba. In tourmaline Nb and Ta contents increase upwards whereas Zn contents decrease in the same way. The Mn contents increase until intermediate degrees of evolution, and decrease again in the pinkish elbaite. Combined field, petrographic and geochemical data are consistent with a fractional crystallization model from a granitic melt, with a clear petrogenetic relationship between the underlying peraluminous granite and the pegmatite body. K-feldspar and, particularly, micas and tourmaline appear as good geochemical monitors using trace elements such as Li, Rb, Be, Sr and Ba, which offer intriguing insights into the petrogenesis of pegmatites.

  10. Family living sets the stage for cooperative breeding and ecological resilience in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael; Drobniak, Szymon M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Botero, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the conditions that favor the evolution of cooperative breeding can be confounded if this process is not considered to include 2 steps. Specifically, phylogenetic linear mixed models show that the formation of families was associated with more productive and seasonal environments, where prolonged parent-offspring associations are likely to be less costly. However, our data show that the subsequent evolution of cooperative breeding was instead linked to environments with variable productivity, where helpers at the nest can buffer reproductive failure in harsh years. The proposed 2-step framework helps resolve current disagreements about the role of environmental forces in the evolution of cooperative breeding and better explains the geographic distribution of this trait. Many geographic hotspots of cooperative breeding have experienced a historical decline in productivity, suggesting that a higher proportion of family-living species could have been able to avoid extinction under harshening conditions through the evolution of cooperative breeding. These findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially different factors that drive different steps in the evolution of complex adaptations.

  11. Family living sets the stage for cooperative breeding and ecological resilience in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Griesser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the conditions that favor the evolution of cooperative breeding can be confounded if this process is not considered to include 2 steps. Specifically, phylogenetic linear mixed models show that the formation of families was associated with more productive and seasonal environments, where prolonged parent-offspring associations are likely to be less costly. However, our data show that the subsequent evolution of cooperative breeding was instead linked to environments with variable productivity, where helpers at the nest can buffer reproductive failure in harsh years. The proposed 2-step framework helps resolve current disagreements about the role of environmental forces in the evolution of cooperative breeding and better explains the geographic distribution of this trait. Many geographic hotspots of cooperative breeding have experienced a historical decline in productivity, suggesting that a higher proportion of family-living species could have been able to avoid extinction under harshening conditions through the evolution of cooperative breeding. These findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially different factors that drive different steps in the evolution of complex adaptations.

  12. The Dynamics of Arrivals of Maine Migratory Breeding Birds: Results from a 24-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Herbert Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899–1911 with the modern data (1994–2017 collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas. Only thirteen of 81 species are now arriving earlier and seven arriving later. Using quantile regression analysis with three levels of tau, the effect of year, temperature-departure from mean monthly temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation Index were weak. Most species did not respond to any of these explanatory variables using the modern data. Leaf-gleaners showed the strongest responses. Only four species showed increasing abundance in recent years, an effect that influences detectability and hence could confound interpretation of changes in arrival date.

  13. Human-Animal Relationship: A Comparative Study in Working and Breeding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a good human-horse relationship in every equestrian discipline is recognized by the specialists all over the world. The aim of the study was to comparatively assess the behavioural response towards humans in different horse categories, in two seasons. The human-animal relationship was investigated during a year, in two different seasons in working horses (171 in the winter, 168 in the summer, stallions (62 in the winter, 66 in the summer and broodmares and young horses (137 in the winter, 146 in the summer. Using specific methods, the general attitude of the horses was evaluated (apathetic or alert and their reactions (aggressiveness, fear/avoidance, indifference, friendliness to the: (1 assessors’ approach (2 walking besides and (3 the attempt of touching the animal. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The value of minimal significance was considered at P 0.05. For the behavioural responses (aggressiveness, fear, indifference or friendly response, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 were found among the assessed horse categories. The season had no significant influence on the variability of responses in the behavioural tests in none of the horse categories. The results indicate an inadequate human-animal relationship in all the studied horse categories, with negative implications on the welfare of the animals. This problem has low remedial possibilities, because it needs human mentality change of those working with horses.

  14. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  15. Study on the surface hydroxyl group on solid breeding materials by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Taniguchi, Masaki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Hydroxyl groups on the surface of Li{sub 2}O were studied by using a diffuse reflectance method with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy at high temperature up to 973K under controlled D{sub 2}O or D{sub 2} partial pressure. It was found that hydroxyl groups could exist on Li{sub 2}O surface up to 973K under Ar atmosphere. Under D{sub 2}O containing atmosphere, only the sharp peak at 2520cm{sup -1} was observed at 973K in the O-D stretching vibration region. Below 973K, multiple peaks due to the surface -OD were observed and they showed different behavior with temperature or atmosphere. Multiple peaks mean that surface is not homogeneous for D{sub 2}O adsorption. Assignment of the observed peaks to the surface bonding structure was also discussed. (author)

  16. The importance of traditional orchards for breeding birds: The preliminary study on Central European example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Orchards are parts of agriculture and apart from their economic role they may preserve biodiversity in highly transformed farmlands. An increasing intensity of orchards management is known to be threat for some species, especially pollinators and birds. On the other hand, the biodiversity of abandoned orchards was hardly investigated. Here, I present a survey of orchards in Poland to estimate how bird's diversities differ in response to the intensity of orchards management. In 2014, 66 orchards of three types - abandoned, extensively and intensively managed - were investigated. Bird species' richness and abundance were found to be highest in abandoned orchards but overall bird diversity and species composition in abandoned did not differ from these found in extensively managed orchards. In abandoned and extensively managed orchards, hollow-dwellers and insectivores (with some rare old-forest associated species) dominated, whereas in intensively managed orchards the most diverse were ground-dwellers. Among the several selected environmental features, the highest impact on bird diversity was related to the tree diversity, abundance of older trees, presence of multilayer understory and heterogeneous surrounding. The preliminary study point that traditional orchards could play a important role for wood-dwelling species in agriculture and because of that the removal or replacement of all traditional orchards by intensively managed orchards should be avoided and needs of orchard protection should be implemented into Agri-Environmental Schemes/High Nature Value farming systems and possibly also into habitat directive of EU. Unfortunately, the number of abandoned and extensively managed orchards is declining from agricultural landscapes, and traditional orchards are replaced by conventional fruit plantations.

  17. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  18. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Resilience and lessons from studies in genetics of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, I

    2017-04-01

    Production environments are expected to change, mostly to a hotter climate but also possibly more extreme and drier. Can the current generation of farm animals cope with the changes or should it be specifically selected for changing conditions? In general, genetic selection produces animals with a smaller environmental footprint but also with smaller environmental flexibility. Some answers are coming from heat-stress research across species, with heat tolerance partly understood as a greater environmental flexibility. Specific studies in various species show the complexities of defining and selecting for heat tolerance. In Holsteins, the genetic component for effect of heat stress on production approximately doubles in second and quadruples in third parity. Cows with elevated body temperature have the greatest production under heat stress but probably are at risk for increased mortality. In hot but less intensive environments, the effect of heat stress on production is minimal, although the negative effect on fertility remains. Mortality peaks under heat stress and increases with parity. In Angus, the effect of heat stress is stronger only in selected regions, probably because of adaptation of calving seasons to local conditions and crossbreeding. Genetically, the direct effect shows variability because of heat stress, but the maternal effect does not, probably because dams shield calves from environmental challenges. In pigs, the effect of heat stress is strong for commercial farms but almost nothing for nucleus farms, which have lower pig density and better heat abatement. Under intensive management, heat stress is less evident in drier environments because of more efficient cooling. A genetic component of heat stress exists, but it is partly masked by improving management and selection based on data from elite farms. Genetic selection may provide superior identification of heat-tolerant animals, but a few cycles may be needed for clear results. Also, simple

  19. Fat: an evolving issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2012-09-01

    Work on obesity is evolving, and obesity is a consequence of our evolutionary history. In the space of 50 years, we have become an obese species. The reasons why can be addressed at a number of different levels. These include separating between whether the primary cause lies on the food intake or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation, and determining how genetic and environmental effects contribute to weight variation between individuals. Opinion on whether increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure drives the obesity epidemic is still divided, but recent evidence favours the idea that food intake, rather than altered expenditure, is most important. There is more of a consensus that genetics explains most (probably around 65% of weight variation between individuals. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have identified many polymorphisms that are linked to obesity, yet much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Finding the causes of this unexplained variation will be an impetus of genetic and epigenetic research on obesity over the next decade. Many environmental factors – including gut microbiota, stress and endocrine disruptors – have been linked to the risk of developing obesity. A better understanding of gene-by-environment interactions will also be key to understanding obesity in the years to come.

  20. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  1. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  2. Molecular characterization of GPR50 gene and study of its comparative genetic variability in sheep breeds adapted to different thermo-contrasting climatic regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, S. M. K.

    2017-04-01

    GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2

  3. Emplacement and geochemical evolution of highly evolved syenites investigated by a combined structural and geochemical field study: The lujavrites of the Ilímaussaq complex, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, Barbara C.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Bons, Paul D.; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    Structural mapping and the combined study of magmatic to solid-state deformation textures and mineral compositions in highly evolved nepheline syenites (lujavrites) of the alkaline to peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex (South Greenland) reveal detailed insight into the emplacement and geochemical evolution of the melts they crystallized from. Based on magmatic to solid-state flow textures such as foliations and lineations, we propose that the investigated rock sequence forms a sill-like structure with a steep feeder zone that flattens out over a short distance and intrudes into less evolved overlying units as sub-horizontal sheets by roof uplift. Systematic compositional variation of early-magmatic eudialyte-group minerals (EGM) in the investigated rock sequence monitors the geochemical evolution of the lujavrite-forming melt(s). The chlorine contents of EGM decrease successively upwards within the rock sequence, which probably indicates a successive increase of water activity during differentiation, consistent with a change from sodic pyroxene (aegirine) to sodic amphibole (arfvedsonite) in the mineral assemblage. Both REE contents and Fe/Mn ratios of EGM are promising differentiation indicators, which increase and decrease, respectively, upwards within the sequence due to fractional crystallization. This closed-system evolution is interrupted by a shift towards less evolved melt compositions in one lujavrite unit, for which we assume magma recharge. Our study demonstrates the strength of a combined structural and petrological approach to understand the petrogenesis of an igneous body in more detail and highlights their close connection.

  4. Which Species Are We Researching and Why? A Case Study of the Ecology of British Breeding Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ailsa J.; Robertson, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Our ecological knowledge base is extensive, but the motivations for research are many and varied, leading to unequal species representation and coverage. As this evidence is used to support a wide range of conservation, management and policy actions, it is important that gaps and biases are identified and understood. In this paper we detail a method for quantifying research effort and impact at the individual species level, and go on to investigate the factors that best explain between-species differences in outputs. We do this using British breeding birds as a case study, producing a ranked list of species based on two scientific publication metrics: total number of papers (a measure of research quantity) and h-index (a measure of the number of highly cited papers on a topic – an indication of research quality). Widespread, populous species which are native, resident and in receipt of biodiversity action plans produced significantly higher publication metrics. Guild was also significant, birds of prey the most studied group, with pigeons and doves the least studied. The model outputs for both metrics were very similar, suggesting that, at least in this example, research quantity and quality were highly correlated. The results highlight three key gaps in the evidence base, with fewer citations and publications relating to migrant breeders, introduced species and species which have experienced contractions in distribution. We suggest that the use of publication metrics in this way provides a novel approach to understanding the scale and drivers of both research quantity and impact at a species level and could be widely applied, both taxonomically and geographically. PMID:26154759

  5. Which Species Are We Researching and Why? A Case Study of the Ecology of British Breeding Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKenzie

    Full Text Available Our ecological knowledge base is extensive, but the motivations for research are many and varied, leading to unequal species representation and coverage. As this evidence is used to support a wide range of conservation, management and policy actions, it is important that gaps and biases are identified and understood. In this paper we detail a method for quantifying research effort and impact at the individual species level, and go on to investigate the factors that best explain between-species differences in outputs. We do this using British breeding birds as a case study, producing a ranked list of species based on two scientific publication metrics: total number of papers (a measure of research quantity and h-index (a measure of the number of highly cited papers on a topic--an indication of research quality. Widespread, populous species which are native, resident and in receipt of biodiversity action plans produced significantly higher publication metrics. Guild was also significant, birds of prey the most studied group, with pigeons and doves the least studied. The model outputs for both metrics were very similar, suggesting that, at least in this example, research quantity and quality were highly correlated. The results highlight three key gaps in the evidence base, with fewer citations and publications relating to migrant breeders, introduced species and species which have experienced contractions in distribution. We suggest that the use of publication metrics in this way provides a novel approach to understanding the scale and drivers of both research quantity and impact at a species level and could be widely applied, both taxonomically and geographically.

  6. Which Species Are We Researching and Why? A Case Study of the Ecology of British Breeding Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ailsa J; Robertson, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Our ecological knowledge base is extensive, but the motivations for research are many and varied, leading to unequal species representation and coverage. As this evidence is used to support a wide range of conservation, management and policy actions, it is important that gaps and biases are identified and understood. In this paper we detail a method for quantifying research effort and impact at the individual species level, and go on to investigate the factors that best explain between-species differences in outputs. We do this using British breeding birds as a case study, producing a ranked list of species based on two scientific publication metrics: total number of papers (a measure of research quantity) and h-index (a measure of the number of highly cited papers on a topic--an indication of research quality). Widespread, populous species which are native, resident and in receipt of biodiversity action plans produced significantly higher publication metrics. Guild was also significant, birds of prey the most studied group, with pigeons and doves the least studied. The model outputs for both metrics were very similar, suggesting that, at least in this example, research quantity and quality were highly correlated. The results highlight three key gaps in the evidence base, with fewer citations and publications relating to migrant breeders, introduced species and species which have experienced contractions in distribution. We suggest that the use of publication metrics in this way provides a novel approach to understanding the scale and drivers of both research quantity and impact at a species level and could be widely applied, both taxonomically and geographically.

  7. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.

  8. Genome wide association study using deregressed breeding values for cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia in two pig lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevillano Del Aguila, C.A.; Soares Lopes, M.; Harlizius, B.; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Knol, E.F.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism and scrotal/inguinal hernia are the most frequent congenital defects in pigs. Identification of genomic regions that control these congenital defects is of great interest to breeding programs, both from an animal welfare point of view as well as for economic reasons. The

  9. Implications of the difference between true and predicted breeding values for the study of natural selection and micro-evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict individual breeding values in natural populations with known pedigrees has provided a powerful tool to separate phenotypic values into their genetic and environmental components in a nonexperimental setting. This has allowed sophisticated analyses of selection, as well as

  10. Dog bites in The Netherlands: A study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Hopster, H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification

  11. Recent pulsed EPR studies of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex: implications as to water oxidation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, R David; Campbell, Kristy A; Peloquin, Jeffrey M; Gilchrist, M Lane; Aznar, Constantino P; Dicus, Michelle M; Robblee, John; Messinger, Johannes

    2004-04-12

    The pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and electron spin echo-electron nuclear double resonance (ESE-ENDOR) are used to investigate the structure of the Photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), including the paramagnetic manganese cluster and its immediate surroundings. Recent unpublished results from the pulsed EPR laboratory at UC-Davis are discussed, along with aspects of recent publications, with a focus on substrate and cofactor interactions. New data on the proximity of exchangeable deuterons around the Mn cluster poised in the S(0)-state are presented and interpreted. These pulsed EPR results are used in an evaluation of several recently proposed mechanisms for PSII water oxidation. We strongly favor mechanistic models where the substrate waters bind within the OEC early in the S-state cycle. Models in which the O-O bond is formed by a nucleophilic attack by a Ca(2+)-bound water on a strong S(4)-state electrophile provide a good match to the pulsed EPR data.

  12. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, WeiZhen; Wang, YaChun; Zhang, Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation. Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized. Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered, i.e., traditional progeny testing breeding scheme (denoted as STANPT), GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information, MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family, GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology, COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT, and three non-progeny testing schemes, i.e. the MOET, GAMO and COMB schemes, corresponding to MOETPT, GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system. Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was estimated under an animal model framework. Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario. The influences of using QTL information and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency, true breeding values, polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated, for five different populations including active sires, lactating cows, bull dams, bull sires, and young bulls. The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed. The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant. The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes. The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year. The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL

  13. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  14. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in Indian Gaddi (goat) breed bucks: clinical, hemato-biochemical, parasitological and chemotherapeutic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Sharma, Ankur; Verma, Madan Singh; Kumar, Ravindra; Dogra, Pradeep Kumar; Moudgil, Pallavi

    2017-12-01

    The present study was envisaged with an aim to evaluate gastrointestinal parasitic infections in a herd of conserved Gaddi (goat) breed bucks (6-9 months of age) kept on semi-intensive feeding management. The individuals (n = 20) representing the herd were selected and divided into two groups; group I (n = 10), clinically ill and group II (n = 10), sub clinically infected individuals. The clinical examination revealed anemia, emaciation and rise in body temperature of the individuals of group I as compared to group II. The detailed copro-parasitological examination and copro-culture revealed the presence of eggs of Moniezia expansa and larvae of Haemonchus species, respectively in the fecal samples of both clinically and sub clinically infected individuals. The hemato-biochemical parameters proved vital indicators of the health of group I individuals and exhibited decline in the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count as compared to group II. Significant (P < 0.05) hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia and increased levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed in infected individuals as compared to treated ones. The detailed parasitological, hemato-biochemical observations and clinical findings elucidated and supported the presence of concurrent gastrointestinal parasitism in the herd. The significant improvement was observed in the health status of the herd after 1 month of the therapeutic management, which was carried out using a combination of fenbendazole and praziquantel in both clinically and sub clinically infected individuals.

  15. How Mentor Identity Evolves: Findings From a 10-Year Follow-Up Study of a National Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Darden, Alix; Chandran, Latha; D'Alessandro, Donna; Gusic, Maryellen E

    2018-02-20

    Despite academic medicine's endorsement of professional development and mentoring, little is known about what junior faculty learn about mentoring in the implicit curriculum of professional development programs, and how their mentor identity evolves in this context. The authors explored what faculty-participants in the Educational Scholars Program implicitly learned about mentoring and how the implicit curriculum affected mentor identity transformation. Semi-structured interviews with 19 of 36 former faculty-participants were conducted in 2016. Consistent with constructivist grounded theory, data collection and analysis overlapped. The authors created initial codes informed by Ibarra's model for identity transformation, iteratively revised codes based on patterns in incoming data, and created visual representations of relationships amongst codes in order to gain a holistic and shared understanding of the data. In the implicit curriculum, faculty-participants learned the importance of having multiple mentors, the value of peer mentors, and the incremental process of becoming a mentor. The authors used Ibarra's model to understand how the implicit curriculum worked to transform mentor identity: faculty-participants reported observing mentors, experimenting with different ways to mentor and to be a mentor, and evaluating themselves as mentors. The Educational Scholars Program's implicit curriculum facilitated faculty-participants taking on a mentor identity via opportunities it afforded to watch mentors, experiment with mentoring, and evaluate self as mentor, key ingredients for professional identity construction. Leaders of professional development programs can develop faculty as mentors by capitalizing on what faculty-participants learn in the implicit curriculum and deliberately structuring post-graduation mentoring opportunities.

  16. Mercury-T: A new code to study tidally evolving multi-planet systems. Applications to Kepler-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, Sean N.; Leconte, Jeremy; Hersant, Franck; Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of observed planetary systems contain several planets in a compact orbital configuration, and often harbor at least one close-in object. These systems are then most likely tidally evolving. We investigate how the effects of planet-planet interactions influence the tidal evolution of planets. We introduce for that purpose a new open-source addition to the MercuryN-body code, Mercury-T, which takes into account tides, general relativity and the effect of rotation-induced flattening in order to simulate the dynamical and tidal evolution of multi-planet systems. It uses a standard equilibrium tidal model, the constant time lag model. Besides, the evolution of the radius of several host bodies has been implemented (brown dwarfs, M-dwarfs of mass 0.1 M⊙, Sun-like stars, Jupiter). We validate the new code by comparing its output for one-planet systems to the secular equations results. We find that this code does respect the conservation of total angular momentum. We applied this new tool to the planetary system Kepler-62. We find that tides influence the stability of the system in some cases. We also show that while the four inner planets of the systems are likely to have slow rotation rates and small obliquities, the fifth planet could have a fast rotation rate and a high obliquity. This means that the two habitable zone planets of this system, Kepler-62e ad f are likely to have very different climate features, and this of course would influence their potential at hosting surface liquid water. The code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A116

  17. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  18. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  19. Accuracy of breeding values in small genotyped populations using different sources of external information-A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, S; Lourenco, D A L; Fragomeni, B O; Masuda, Y; Pocrnic, I; Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2017-01-01

    Genetically linked small and large dairy cattle populations were simulated to test the effect of different sources of information from foreign populations on the accuracy of predicting breeding values for young animals in a small population. A large dairy cattle population (PL) with >20 generations was simulated, and a small subpopulation (PS) with 3 generations was formed as a related population, including phenotypes and genomic information. Predicted breeding values for young animals in the small population were calculated using BLUP and single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) in 4 different scenarios: (S1) 3,166 phenotypes, 22,855 pedigree animals, and 1,000 to 6,000 genotypes for PS; (S2) S1 plus genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for 4,475 sires from PL as external information; (S3) S1 plus 221,580 phenotypes, 402,829 pedigree animals, and 53,558 genotypes for PL; and (S4) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects calculated based on PL data. The ability to predict true breeding value was assessed in the youngest third of the genotyped animals in the small population. When data only from the small population were used and 1,000 animals were genotyped, the accuracy of GEBV was only 1 point greater than the estimated breeding value accuracy (0.32 vs. 0.31). Adding external GEBV for sires from PL did not considerably increase accuracy (0.33 vs. 0.32 in S1). Combining phenotypes, pedigree, and genotypes for PS and PL was beneficial for predicting accuracy of GEBV in the small population, and the prediction accuracy of GEBV in this scenario was 0.38 compared with 0.31 from estimated breeding values. When SNP effects from PL were used to predict GEBV for young genotyped animals from PS, accuracy was greatest (0.56). With 6,000 genotyped animal in PS, accuracy was greatest (0.61) with the combined populations. In a small population with few genotypes, the highest accuracy of evaluation may be obtained by using SNP effects derived from a related large population

  20. Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marki, Petter Z; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon; Kennedy, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    Birds vary greatly in their life-history strategies, including their breeding systems, which range from brood parasitism to a system with multiple nonbreeding helpers at the nest. By far the most common arrangement, however, is where both parents participate in raising the young. The traits associated with parental care have been suggested to affect dispersal propensity and lineage diversification, but to date tests of this potential relationship at broad temporal and spatial scales have been limited. Here, using data from a globally distributed group of corvoid birds in concordance with state-dependent speciation and extinction models, we suggest that pair breeding is associated with elevated speciation rates. Estimates of transition between breeding systems imply that cooperative lineages frequently evolve biparental care, whereas pair breeders rarely become cooperative. We further highlight that these groups have differences in their spatial distributions, with pair breeders overrepresented on islands, and cooperative breeders mainly found on continents. Finally, we find that speciation rates appear to be significantly higher on islands compared to continents. These results imply that the transition from cooperative breeding to pair breeding was likely a significant contributing factor facilitating dispersal across tropical archipelagos, and subsequent world-wide phylogenetic expansion among the core Corvoidea. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Breeding biology and the evolution of dynamic sexual dichromatism in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R C; Webster, G N; Whiting, M J

    2017-08-22

    Dynamic sexual dichromatism is a temporary colour change between the sexes and has evolved independently in a wide range of anurans, many of which are explosive breeders wherein males physically compete for access to females. Behavioural studies in a few species indicate that dynamic dichromatism functions as a visual signal in large breeding aggregations; however, the prevalence of this trait and the social and environmental factors underlying its expression are poorly understood. We compiled a database of 178 anurans with dynamic dichromatism that include representatives from 15 families and subfamilies. Dynamic dichromatism is common in two of the three subfamilies of hylid treefrogs. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of 355 hylid species (of which 95 display dynamic dichromatism) reveal high transition rates between dynamic dichromatism, ontogenetic (permanent) dichromatism and monochromatism reflecting the high evolutionary lability of this trait. Correlated evolution in hylids between dynamic dichromatism and forming large breeding aggregations indicates that the evolution of large breeding aggregations precedes the evolution of dynamic dichromatism. Multivariate phylogenetic logistic regression recovers the interaction between biogeographic distribution and forming breeding aggregations as a significant predictor of dynamic dichromatism in hylids. Accounting for macroecological differences between temperate and tropical regions, such as seasonality and the availability of breeding sites, may improve our understanding of ecological contexts in which dynamic dichromatism is likely to arise in tropical lineages and why it is retained in some temperate species and lost in others. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Collaborative Plant Breeding for Organic Agricultural Systems in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Goldringer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Because organic systems present complex environmental stress, plant breeders may either target very focused regions for different varieties, or create heterogeneous populations which can then evolve specific adaptation through on-farm cultivation and selection. This often leads to participatory plant breeding (PPB strategies which take advantage of the specific knowledge of farmers. Participatory selection requires increased commitment and engagement on the part of the farmers and researchers. Projects may begin as researcher initiatives with farmer participation or farmer initiatives with researcher participation and over time evolve into true collaborations. These projects are difficult to plan in advance because by nature they change to respond to the priorities and interests of the collaborators. Projects need to provide relevant information and analysis in a time-frame that is meaningful for farmers, while remaining scientifically rigorous and innovative. This paper presents two specific studies: the first was a researcher-designed experiment that assessed the potential adaptation of landraces to organic systems through on-farm cultivation and farmer selection. The second is a farmer-led plant breeding project to select bread wheat for organic systems in France. Over the course of these two projects, many discussions among farmers, researchers and farmers associations led to the development of methods that fit the objectives of those involved. This type of project is no longer researcher-led or farmer-led but instead an equal collaboration. Results from the two research projects and the strategy developed for an ongoing collaborative plant breeding project are discussed.

  3. A prospective study on canine hip dysplasia and growth in a cohort of four large breeds in Norway (1998-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontveit, Randi I; Nødtvedt, Ane; Sævik, Bente K; Ropstad, Erik; Skogmo, Hege K; Trangerud, Cathrine

    2010-12-01

    The study-objective was to measure the effect of weight and growth related parameters on the risk of development of Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD). The hypothesis was that heavy and fast growing dogs of large sized breeds were at increased risk of development of CHD compared to lighter and slower growing dogs. A prospective cohort study was conducted among dogs of four large breeds: Newfoundland (NF), Leonberger (LEO), Labrador retriever (LR), and Irish wolfhound (IW). The dogs were privately owned with individualized nutrition and environment, and they were followed from birth and throughout the growth period until the official screening for CHD was performed. The study sample consisted of 501 dogs from 103 litters, with the breed distribution 125 NF, 180 LEO, 133 LR, and 63 IW. Because the dogs were clustered in litters a multivariable random effects logistic regression model was used to assess statistically significant growth-related risk factors for CHD. The estimated incidence risk of CHD was 36% in NF, 25% in LEO, 20% in LR, and 10% in IW. Based upon the final multilevel model it appears that the odds of CHD among both LR and IW (odds ratio (OR) 0.22) are about one-fifth of the odds for NF. The odds for LEO (OR 0.60) are not significantly different from NF. There appeared to be an inverse relationship between body weight at 3 months of age and odds of CHD, with an OR of 0.89 (P=0.044). The degree of clustering at the litter-level was high (22.6%) and highly significant (Pdogs from four large sized breeds were at increased risk for development of CHD. There might be other unmeasured environmental risk factors for CHD in this cohort of dogs, although the contribution of the genetic variance to the litter-level clustering also needs further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of the dynamics of Salmonella infection in turkey breeding, rearing and finishing houses with special reference to elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Doblies, Doris; Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Davies, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the dynamics of Salmonella infection of turkey flocks were investigated by repeated sampling of houses where Salmonella had been identified. The aim of the study was to identify the most common scenarios involved in elimination, persistence and introduction of Salmonella in the different branches of the turkey industry. Sixty-two houses on 34 turkey farms (comprising breeding, rearing and finishing farms) were sampled longitudinally, starting with the identification of a positive flock. A total of 117 follow-on flocks were tested and cleaning and disinfection (C&D) was assessed during 66 post-C&D visits. A total of 155 incidents (clearance, persistence or introduction of Salmonella) were recorded. Persistence was seen in 35.5% of incidents and was seen more frequently in breeding and rearing houses compared with finishing houses. Most persistence incidents were the result of insufficient C&D. Clearance was seen in 40% of incidents and was more often observed in finishing houses than in breeding or rearing houses. Introduction was seen in 24.5% of incidents and was more common in breeding and finishing flocks than in rearing flocks. Contamination of a house with Salmonella Typhimurium was more likely to be cleared compared with other serovars. The total number of positive samples found at a post-C&D visit was correlated with the probability of carry-over of infection, whereas the location of the positive samples seemed to be less important. Our highly sensitive post-C&D sampling method allowed us to predict a negative follow-on flock in most cases.

  5. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  6. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  7. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  8. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  9. Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in the Brazilian Canindé goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N M V; Pimenta Filho, E C; Arandas, J K G; Gomes Filho, M A; Ferreira, E; Del Cerro, I; Fonseca, C; Ribeiro, M N

    2017-05-18

    The success of the geographical distribution of goat populations around the world is a consequence of the adaptive potential of these breeds. Several relevant traits to the success of the species in colonizing different ecosystems (and use by man) evolved before domestication. These features were relevant for the selection of different breeds. Each breed represents a genetic heritage that may be unique and essential for maintaining the species. The objective of this study was to catalog the mtDNA haplotypes of the Brazilian autochthonous Canindé goat breed and to characterize the genetic diversity observed in subpopulations by sequencing a 481-bp fragment corresponding to the first portion of the control region in 178 individuals from 10 herds, sampled in six Brazilian states. The global population displays a total of 29 haplotypes and 56 polymorphic sites. About one-third (10) of the haplotypes were common to all subpopulations while the remaining (19) were exclusive to a single subpopulation. The population exhibited high average haplotype diversity (0.82), with maximum and minimum values of 0.90 and 0.56 in individual subpopulations, respectively. In contrast, nucleotide diversity was 0.014, with maximum and minimum values of 0.020 and 0.004, respectively. The spatial analysis of molecular variance did not detect structure within the Canindé goat breed, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that 88.4% of the variation observed in the population was due to differences among individuals in the same subpopulation. Only 11.4% of the genetic variation referred to differences among subpopulations. About one-third (33.1%) of the individuals within population shared the same haplotype, which may be due not only to the breed developing from a small number of matrilines. The Brazilian autochthonous Canindé breed was classified as haplogroup A, a haplotype predominant in the Europe region.

  10. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  11. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  12. An Educational Interventional Study to Assess Awareness about Mosquito Breeding, Diseases Caused and Protective Measures Against them among Families Residing in an Urban Slum of Indore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Raghunath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community participation plays an important role in control of Mosquito borne diseases. This study tries to assess impact of educational intervention on various aspects of mosquito borne diseases in an urban slum. Methodology: An educational interventional study was done in 200 families residing in a slum (Badi Gwaltoli which is in field practice area of Urban Health Centre attached to Department of Community Medicine of M.G.M.Medical College, Indore. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the Head of the family which studied their awareness and perception regarding breeding sites and biting habits of mosquitoes, diseases spread by them and personal protective measures used, followed by an educational intervention and post assessment. Data was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: 46% of study population knew the correct breeding season of mosquitoes (monsoon season during pre-intervention and 68% of the population post- intervention (p- value 0.004. When asked at what time mosquitoes bite the most, maximum number (92% of people said that mosquitoes bite most in the evening and night, while only 6% and 2% were for morning and noon, respectively. Only 3.5% of the population who knew about breeding sites knew about artificial collections of water. Majority said mosquito breed in dirty stagnant water (78.5%. About 96%of the study population was aware that mosquitoes spread diseases. However, only 33.3%of respondents knew correctly about the diseases spread which improved to 68% in the post-intervention period (p-value=.000. 46% knew all the protection measures against mosquitoes in the pre-intervention which increased to 86% in the post intervention (p.value-.005. Conclusion: Awareness about Aedes mosquitoes and its habits is quite poor and many people still believe that only dirty water serves as a breeding place in mosquitoes. Regular IEC sessions

  13. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  14. Sow efficiency and early piglet mortality in two local pig breeds on smallholder farms in northern Vietnam-a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Philipp C; Huyen, Le T T; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2017-08-01

    In the recent past, pig performance and sow management on smallholder farms in the Southeast Asian Massif have been extensively researched. But the objective of this study was to investigate the lifetime efficiency of breeding sows of the local Vietnamese Ban (n = 89) and Mong Cai (n = 131) breeds in a production system context. The impact of sow longevity was considered in particular. In addition, predictors of early pre-weaning mortality in piglets were investigated. In total, nine villages of Son La province, situated in the uplands of north-western Vietnam, were selected, differing in access to markets, production intensity, and pig management level. Data was collected over a period of 10 years through an on-farm performance testing system. It was shown that sows of both breeds that achieved five or more parities farrowed and weaned significantly more piglets per life year compared to sows with only one or two parities. The conception rate (Spearman's rho = 0.374) and age at first farrowing (Spearman's rho = -0.424) were significantly correlated with the number of weaned piglets per life year of stayable (≥4 parities) Mong Cai sows. The risk of early pre-weaning death of piglets born to Mong Cai sows was affected more by litter size, while for piglets born to Ban sows, the risk was influenced more by the season. Therefore, interventions to improve the sow lifetime efficiency and piglet survivability must match the sow breed and management level.

  15. Nature conservation on agricultural land: a case study of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding at Koobabbie in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Saunders

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature conservation and agricultural production may be considered as conflicting objectives, but for a wheat and sheep property in Western Australia they have been pivotal management objectives for the last 48 years. Koobabbie, a 7,173 ha property, has retained 41.5% of the original native vegetation, and is a designated Important Bird Area by BirdLife Australia, while still being an economically profitable agricultural enterprise. Since 1987 the owners of Koobabbie have kept detailed records of the avifauna of the property, and encouraged staff from government, non-government and academic organisations to conduct research and monitoring of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding on their property. In addition, they have instituted control programs for two over-abundant cockatoo species which compete with Carnaby’s Cockatoo for nest sites, and for Feral Cats that are predators of nesting female Carnaby’s Cockatoo and their offspring. This paper presents the results of research and monitoring from 2003-2013, during which seven artificial nesting hollows were erected, and former active nest hollows that had become derelict were repaired. By 2008, the number of breeding pairs on the property was at least 27, but two mass deaths of breeding females in 2009 and 2012 reduced the number of breeding pairs by 80%. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring conservation on private property, and raises a number of issues in relation to management of endangered species dependent on large hollow-bearing trees on private property.

  16. Retrospective study on the occurrence of canine lymphoma and associated breed risks in a population of dogs in NSW (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Ppy; Dhand, N K; Thomson, P C; Taylor, R M

    2017-05-01

    To identify risk factors for canine lymphoma in dogs from New South Wales, Australia, and to compare factors affecting remission duration. Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma presented to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVTH), University of Sydney, between 2001 and 2009 (n = 134) were compared with a control population of dogs seen in that period of time with a diagnosis other than lymphoma to evaluate association of explanatory variables (breed, age and sex) with the outcome (case or control status). The Australian Cattle Dog (odds ratio (OR) = 4.71; 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.31-9.62; P dogs attending the UVTH compared with crossbreds. The results suggested that the Border Collie (OR = 3.38; 95% Cl 1.52-7.53; P = 0.008) and Boxer (OR = 3.85; 95% Cl 1.65-8.95; P = 0.006) also have increased odds of lymphoma among the pure-breed dogs attending the UVTH when compared with crossbred dogs. The results of this study confirmed a breed predilection for lymphoma in dogs, with the Australian Cattle Dog and Doberman having increased odds of lymphoma. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  18. Animal breeding in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T. (Theodor); Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.

    2001-01-01

    After a general introduction into the available breeding techniques for animal breeding and an overview of the organic principles, points for discussion are identified and scenario's for organically accepted breeding methods are discussed.

  19. THE BREEDING CYCLE OF MALE LIZA DUMERILI (TELEOSTEI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding cycle of male Liza dumerili was studied in the Swartkops Estuary using a visual index, a gonosomatic index and a histological index. Histological studies were superior to any other means of establishing the breeding cycle in detail. Male fISh were in the inactive or non-breeding state during the winter months.

  20. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  1. Smartphone, an Evolving Payment Gateway: A Study on Mobile Payment and Related Infrastructures in Norway and China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Monan

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to study mobile payment in Norway and China from the perspective of infrastructures. To gain a deep understanding of mobile payment, my journey started from the understanding of preceding payment methods and relevant monetary history. Using the Information infrastructure theory as a theoretical framework, analytical model was invented for classifying and comparing technologies from an infrastructure point of view. An intrinsic multi-case study is conducted in th...

  2. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, pbreed group (F=10.66, numDF=8, denDF=772, pbreed purpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pbreeds were bolder than heading and cattle-herding breeds (Reg. Coef.=1.744; S.E.=0.866; p=0.045 and Reg. Coef.=1.842; S.E.=0.693; p=0.0084, respectively). This study supports the existence of the shy-bold continuum in dogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE KINETIC PROFILE OF SULFAMETHAZINE IN ADULT LOCAL BREED DOG KAJIAN AWAL TENTANG PROFIL KINETIK SULFAMETAZIN PADA PERANAKAN ANJING LOKAL DEWASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic parameters of sulmethazine in blood plasma were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at vaious times following intramuscular administration of 50 mg/kg body weight in local breed dog (Surabaya breed x DEnpasar breed. The objectives of this research

  4. Donkey jack (Equus asinus) semen cryopreservation: studies of seminal parameters, post breeding inflammatory response, and fertility in donkey jennies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Panzani, D; Sabatini, C; Camillo, F

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate motility parameters of donkey jack (jack; Equus asinus) semen cryopreserved in INRA-96 (INRA; IMV Technologies, France, 2% egg-yolk enriched) using either glycerol (GLY) or ethylene glycol (EG) as a cryoprotector; (2) to compare in vitro the postthaw re-extension with homologous seminal plasma (SPL) or INRA; (3) to compare fertility in donkey jennies (jennies; Equus asinus) timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY or EG, re-extended with INRA; (4) to compare fertility in jennies timed artificially inseminated with jack semen cryopreserved using GLY re-extended with SPL, INRA, or not re-extended (NN); and (5) to describe some preliminary results of the inflammatory uterine response postbreeding. Semen from two jacks was collected and frozen in an INRA-2% egg yolk extender added of either 2.2% GLY or 1.4% EG. Postthaw motility was evaluated by a computer-assisted motility analyzer. Uterine inflammatory response and fertility were evaluated after artificial insemination (AI) of 13 jennies with frozen-thawed semen, either further extended with INRA (Group GLY-INRA, 13 cycles, and EG-INRA, 8 cycles), or with SPL (Group GLY-SPL, 13 cycles), or not re-extended (GLY-NN, 5 cycles). In each cycle, jennies were bred twice with 500 × 10(6) sperm cells (250 × 10(6) from each jack), at fixed times after induction of ovulation, and uterus was flushed at 6 and 10 h after first and second breeding, respectively. Cells in the recovered fluid were counted and distinguished as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) or other cell types. Total and progressive motility did not differ between cryoprotectants, but were higher when semen samples were re-extended in INRA, compared with SPL (P < 0.05). Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal palpation and ultrasonography examinations at 14 and 16 days postovulation. In 7/13 (53.8%) jennies and 12/39 (30.4%) cycles postbreeding intrauterine fluid accumulation was observed

  5. STUDIES ON THE BREEDING STRUCTURE OF TREE SPECIES IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST. I: FAMILY CLUMPS AND INTRAPOPULATION DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAN-ICHI SAKAI

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding structures of two tropical rain forest tree species, Altingia excelsa in Java and Agathis borneensis in Kalimantan were investigated. Assuming that similarity in the assortment pattern of the isoperoxidase bands tells genetic relationship between trees, on the one hand, and that inbreeding increases smaller values of the disagreement counts, on the other, it has been concluded that inbreeding occurs considerably in Altingia excelsa and to some extent in Agathis borneensis. Finding that trees showing very low disagreement counts are located close to each other, they were grouped as an assumptive family. It was found that different families were quite dissimilar with respect to isoperoxide constitution and in several leaf characters as well. The distance between two trees at which they can mate is estimated to be 16 to 18 meters or 16.5 meters and the area one family occupies is 200 to 250 m^, assuming that a family clump can be a breeding unit in Altingia excelsa, within which trees mate at random. Some families were distributed mixed with each other within the mating distance, but they were found still genetically differentiated from each other. This reproductive isolation among families is interpreted to be due to genetic differences between families in flowering time. In Agathis borneensis, there was no indication of family clump formation. Related trees may have been widely scattered in the forest, and the inbreeding of the species may be due to self-fertilization of individual trees and not to outcrossing between relatives.

  6. Situating studies of education and conflict within the evolving field of comparative and international education: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Shah, R.; Gross, Z.; Davies, L.

    2015-01-01

    As two of the convenors responsible for the thematic group on Education and Conflict at the 2013 Comparative Education World Congress in Buenos Aires, we envisaged, in line with the conference theme of New Times, New Voices, a group of papers which would show how studies investigating the myriad

  7. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  10. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  11. Evolved priors for ethnolinguistic categorization: A case study from the Quechua-Aymara boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Ethnic categories uniquely structure human social worlds. People readily form stereotypes about these, and other social categories, but it is unclear whether certain dimensions are privileged for making predictions about strangers when information is limited. If humans have been living in culturally-structured groups for much of their evolutionary history, we might expect them to have adaptations for prioritizing ethno-linguistic cues as a basis for making predictions about others. We provide a strong test of this possibility through a series of studies in a field context along the Quechua-Aymara linguistic boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano where the language boundary is not particularly socially meaningful. We find evidence of such psychological priors among children and adults at this site by showing that their age, and the social categories' novelty affect participants' reliance on ethno-linguistic inductive inferences (i.e. one-to-many predictions). Studies 1-3 show that participants make more ethno-linguistic inferences when the social categories are more removed from their real-world context. Additionally, in Study 4 when the category is marked with acoustic cues of language use, young children rely heavily on ethno-linguistic predictions, even though adults do not.

  12. Short Note Breeding phenology and moult of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding phenology and moult cycle of the vulnerable and range-restricted Bannerman's Weaver Ploceus bannermani was studied on the Obudu Plateau in the eastern region of Nigeria. The peak breeding season was between August and October; a major cause of breeding failure was egg predation by children.

  13. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate...

  14. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  15. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  16. Interactive painting. An evolving study to facilitate reduced exclusion from classical music concerts for the deaf community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Exclusion from the joy of experiencing music, especially in concert venues, is especially applicable to those with an auditory impairment. There have been limited investigations into how to reduce the exclusion for this community in attending classical orchestra music concerts. Through utilizing...... computer technology and human machine interfaces (sensors and cameras) to stimulate complementary senses through interpretation it is possible to reduce this exclusion. Case studies are presented where multi-sensory multi-modal interpretation of the music is suggested as able to give new meaning...

  17. Ultra-fast in-situ X-ray studies of evolving columnar dendrites in solidifying steel weld pools

    OpenAIRE

    Mirihanage, W.U.; Di Michiel, M.; Mathiesen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    High-brilliance polychromatic synchrotron radiation has been used to conduct in-situ studies of the solidification microstructure evolution during simulated welding. The welding simulations were realized by rapidly fusing ~ 5 mm spot in Fe-Cr-Ni steel. During the solid- liquid-solid phase transformations, a section of the weld pool was placed in an incident 50-150 keV polychromatic synchrotron X-ray beam, in a near-horizontal position at a very low inclination angle. Multiple high-resolution ...

  18. CONTRIBUTION TO THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE HYDRAULIC JUMP EVOLVING IN AN U-SHAPED CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the threshold-controlled hydraulic jump, moving in channel profile 'U' fully rough for a single roughness value  = 7,14 mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the jump, showing the effect of bottom friction channel, are obtained as: y2= (-14,19y1 + 6, 42 Q*; y2= 1,13y10,65 exp [0,95y10,61.s/h1] . The method is as follows: we vary the flow volume by manipulating the valve and their measurements are read directly on the meter display éctronique. Supply channel is by means of a pump flow up 40 l / s. The flume was designed in the laboratory 'LARHYSS, University of Biskra.

  19. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: A synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Kevin N.; Silvers, Jennifer A.; Buhle, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes functional imaging research that over the past decade has begun to offer new insights into the brain mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. Towards that end, the first section of the paper outlines a model of the processes and neural systems involved in emotion generation and regulation. The second section surveys recent research supporting and elaborating the model, focusing primarily on studies of the most commonly investigated strategy, which is known as reappraisal. At its core, the model specifies how prefrontal and cingulate control systems modulate activity in perceptual, semantic and affect systems as a function of one's regulatory goals, tactics, and the nature of the stimuli and emotions being regulated. This section also shows how the model can be generalized to understand the brain mechanisms underlying other emotion regulation strategies as well as a range of other allied phenomena. The third and last section considers directions for future research, including how basic models of emotion regulation can be translated to understand changes in emotion across the lifespan and in clinical disorders. PMID:23025352

  20. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  1. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris) in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Bauer, Amy E; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2) to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3) to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445) representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV) was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3). An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; Pperiodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV) suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  2. In situ evolved gas analysis assisted thermogravimetric (TG-FTIR and TG/DTA–MS) studies on non-activated copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domán, Andrea; Madarász, János; László, Krisztina (Budapest)

    2017-01-01

    The results of a complete thermogravimetric study of copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC or HKUST-1) are reported here together with mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses of the evolved gases up to 800 °C. Oxidative and inert conditions were applied to reveal the stoichiometry of the as-received synthesis product. In spite of using a water-ethanol mixture during the synthesis and the filtration, only water is retained in the pores. It is proposed that the thermolytic release of ethanol in the temperature range 150–250 °C originates from ethanol-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (BTC) esters situated on the surface of the HKUST-1 crystal, and which limit the size of the developing crystals during the synthesis.

  3. STUDY OF ROMANIAN BLACK AND WHITE BREED PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES FROM BISTRIŢA-NĂSĂUD COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MURESAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the main cattle productive features of Romanian Black Spotted breed, raised for milk production in Bistrita-Năsăud county. A number of 386 milk cows were taken into research which produced a total of 1194 lactations. Production and reproduction data were obtained through the official control of milk production, the existing databases at UARZ units (origin, reproduction and production from the named county and there were taken, processed and statistically interpreted. In Bistrita-Năsăud Romanian Black Spotted cows achieved performances between 1047 kg of milk and 17196 kg of milk, with an average production on normal lactation of 4212 kg of milk, and 4846 kg of milk on total lactation.

  4. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  5. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  6. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Rachel; Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanché, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary albumin and urinary immunoglobulin G) on stored specimens. Diagnostic performances of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis to identify dogs with elevated urinary biomarkers were assessed. Samples from 102 adult Dogue de Bordeaux dogs (47 non-proteinuric [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio≤0.2], 20 borderline-proteinuric [0.20.5]) were used, of which 2 were suffering from familial glomerulonephropathy. The electrophoretic protein patterns, for all but one proteinuric dog, were indicative of a glomerular origin and, in all dogs, the urinary albumin concentration related to creatinine concentration and the urinary immunoglobulin G concentration related to creatinine concentration were above the upper limit of the reference interval established for the breed. Sensitivity and specificity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis identifying dogs with elevated urinary albumin concentration were 94% and 92%, respectively, while diagnostic performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis in detecting dogs with elevated urinary immunoglobulin G concentration yielded sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 74%, respectively. These results suggest that all proteinuric and some borderline-proteinuric Dogue de Bordeaux dogs likely have underlying glomerular lesions and that sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and urinary markers might be useful to screen dogs with borderline-proteinuria. Additional investigations are

  7. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Rachel; Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M Y; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanché, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary albumin and urinary immunoglobulin G) on stored specimens. Diagnostic performances of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis to identify dogs with elevated urinary biomarkers were assessed. Samples from 102 adult Dogue de Bordeaux dogs (47 non-proteinuric [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤ 0.2], 20 borderline-proteinuric [0.2dogs [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.5]) were used, of which 2 were suffering from familial glomerulonephropathy. The electrophoretic protein patterns, for all but one proteinuric dog, were indicative of a glomerular origin and, in all dogs, the urinary albumin concentration related to creatinine concentration and the urinary immunoglobulin G concentration related to creatinine concentration were above the upper limit of the reference interval established for the breed. Sensitivity and specificity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis identifying dogs with elevated urinary albumin concentration were 94% and 92%, respectively, while diagnostic performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis in detecting dogs with elevated urinary immunoglobulin G concentration yielded sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 74%, respectively. These results suggest that all proteinuric and some borderline-proteinuric Dogue de Bordeaux dogs likely have underlying glomerular lesions and that sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and urinary markers might be useful to screen dogs with borderline

  8. Energetics of free existence in swallows and martins (hirundinidae) during breeding: a comparative study using doubly labeled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Bryant, David M

    1984-06-01

    Energy metabolism of three sympatric swallows (Hirundinidae) was investigated during the breeding season using doubly labeled water ((2)H2(18)O). Interspecific and intraspecific differences in energy metabolism were examined in relation to the habits, size and environment of the birds. To facilitate comparisons we expressed energy metabolism (M) as the ratio of average daily metabolic rate (ADMR, cm(3)CO2g(-1)h(-1)) to basal metabolic rate (BMR). We observed adults during incubation and when feeding nestlings. Then, both sexes of Sand Martins Riparia riparia and House Martins Delinchon urbica were either at the nest or on the wing. Incubation reduced activity levels during the day resulting in M (incubation) being 17-26% lower than during rearing. Differences in energy costs for rearing chicks depended mainly on flight behaviour, the smaller Sand Martin doing nearly twice as much flapping during flight as the House Martin, giving higher values for M. In Swallows Hirundo rustica the female incubates alone, alternating between short feeding trips and incubating in daytime. This pattern was linked with a relatively high value for M in the only individual behaving like our controls. Both sexes of Swallows feed the chicks, and they showed similar values of M. They also closely resembled House Martins, despite contrasts in the time spent flying and their behaviour during flight. Feeding conditions affected activity, and thereby M, in a species specific way. The House Martin did more gliding in poor weather, taking less mobile prey, reducing M. Swallows reduced foraging costs further by using body reserves, as in the House Martin. The smaller Sand Martin, in contrast, showed a high expenditure in poor weather. Over two breeding seasons ADMR reached values around 5 BMR for all three species.

  9. The search for the mdr1-1Δ mutation of the MDR1 gene in four canine breeds in Uruguay (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study is to analyze the frequency of mdr1-1Δ mutation in German Shepherd, Doberman, Border Collie and Greyhound dog breeds in Uruguay. Materials and methods. A total of 95 animals from the four breeds mentioned above were studied. DNA was isolated from blood using potassium acetate with a subsequent degradation from RNA with RNAsaH. The concentration and quality of the DNA obtained was evaluated with a Nanodrop, ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To determine the presence or absence of the mdr1-1Δ mutation, DNA samples were sent to Gene Seek, Neogen Corporation of Chicago, United States, for genotyping. Results. In all 95 animals studied, the mdr1-1Δ mutation was not present. Conclusions. Based on the preliminary results obtained, other elements that may cause adverse drug reactions must be considered: unidentified mutations in other regions of the MDR1 gene; mutations in other genes involved in the transport of drugs from the same subfamily or another; mutations in enzymes involved in drug metabolism (e.g. Cytochrome P450. Moreover, especially with Border Collies and Greyhounds, it is advisable to increase the number of animals in the study.

  10. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for

  11. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  12. Evolutionary Plant Breeding in Cereals—Into a New Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S. Wolfe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In evolutionary plant breeding, crop populations with a high level of genetic diversity are subjected to the forces of natural selection. In a cycle of sowing and re-sowing seed from the plant population year after year, those plants favored under prevailing growing conditions are expected to contribute more seed to the next generation than plants with lower fitness. Thus, evolving crop populations have the capability of adapting to the conditions under which they are grown. Here we review the current state of research in evolutionary plant breeding and concentrate on the ability of evolving plant populations to deal with stressful, variable, and unpredictable environments. This resilience of evolving plant populations is seen as a major advantage under the predicted threats faced by agriculture such as global climate change. We have conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of this breeding approach and suggest how its concept can be broadened and expanded. Given the current legal restrictions for realizing the potential of evolutionary plant breeding, we call for a change in legislation to allow evolving crop populations to enter agricultural practice on a larger scale.

  13. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Value of first day angiography/angioplasty in evolving Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: an open multicenter randomized trial. The VINO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, R; Widimský, P; Straka, Z; Jiresová, E; Dvorák, J; Polásek, R; Karel, I; Jirmár, R; Lisa, L; Budesínský, T; Málek, F; Stanka, P

    2002-02-01

    Direct angioplasty is an effective treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The role of very early angioplasty in non-ST-elevation infarction is not known. Thus, a randomized study of first day angiography/angioplasty vs early conservative therapy of evolving myocardial infarction without persistent ST-elevation was conducted. One hundred and thirty-one patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevations were randomized within 24 h of last rest chest pain: 64 in the first day angiography/angioplasty group and 67 in the early conservative group (coronary angiography only after recurrent or stress induced myocardial ischaemia). All patients in the invasive group underwent coronary angiography on the day of admission (mean randomization-angiography time 6.2 h). First day angioplasty of the infarct related artery was performed in 47% of the patients and bypass surgery in 35%. In the conservative group, 55% underwent coronary angiography, 10% angioplasty and 30% bypass surgery within 6 months. The primary end-point (death/reinfarction) at 6 months occurred in 6.2% vs 22.3% (P<0.001). Six month mortality in the first day angiography/angioplasty group was 3.1% vs 13.4% in the conservative group (P<0.03). Non-fatal reinfarction occurred in 3.1% vs. 14.9% (P<0.02). First day coronary angiography followed by angioplasty whenever possible reduces mortality and reinfarction in evolving myocardial infarction without persistent ST-elevation, in comparison with an early conservative treatment strategy. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  16. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka.

  17. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  18. Comparison of Vietnamese and European pig breeds using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, N T D; Melchinger-Wild, E; Kuss, A W; Cuong, N V; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H

    2006-10-01

    This study characterized autochthonous pig breeds of Vietnam and compared them with breeds from other regions. A total of 343 animals were considered from 5 indigenous pig breeds of Vietnam (Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na, and Mong Cai), 2 exotic breeds kept in Vietnam (Landrace and Yorkshire), 3 European commercial breeds (German Land-race, Piétrain, and Large White), the Chinese breed Meishan, and the European Wild Boar. Each individual was genotyped for 20 selected polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Vietnamese autochthonous breeds showed higher degrees of polymorphism, allelic diversity, and heterozygosity than the other pig breeds. Also, large genetic diversity was observed across the area of distribution, with village-specific subpopulations, which led to significant inbreeding coefficients. As expected, genetic distances showed large differences among European-based, Chinese, and Vietnamese indigenous breeds and reflected the geographical distribution of breeds. In comparison with the European breeds, the Vietnamese indigenous pig breeds harbored a considerable amount of genetic diversity and, therefore, will be of significance for livestock bioconservation.

  19. The Evolutionary Ecology of Multi-Queen Breeding in Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huszár, Dóra Borbála

    Ants, like other social insects, have evolved cooperative societies based on kinship. Colonies headed by a single breeding queen (monogyny) was the ancestral state but today ca. half of the ant species live in multi-queen societies (polygyny), which can sometimes reach extreme sizes (supercolony...... that only ants, not the other obligatorily social insects were able to decrease social and sexual conflicts sufficiently to make polygyny reach obligate form in some species. This can be explained by general ant biology, such as perennial lifehistories, foraging on foot instead of wings and having one...... mating event in life instead of ongoing events between pairs. Second, by empirical studies on the native ant species Myrmica rubra we were able to demonstrate that the three social syndromes can co-exist within populations, but with possible overlap in certain traits. Genetic and morphology results...

  20. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  1. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  2. Evolving endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel

    2014-06-01

    Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Asymmetric evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.

    2003-10-01

    We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.

  4. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Bennett, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load...... of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning...... and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from...

  6. Applicability of anatid and galliform microsatellite markers to the genetic diversity studies of domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus through the genotyping of the endangered zatorska breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkowska Ewa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers seriously limits the cognition of genetic relationships within and between populations of many species. Likewise, the genetic diversity of domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus, with a great number of breeds throughout the world, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Findings Thirty-five goose, seventeen duck and eight chicken microsatellite primer pairs were screened for their utility in the cross-species amplification on DNA from 96 individuals of Zatorska breed of domestic geese. Twenty-seven of 42 amplifying primer pairs revealed length-polymorphic products, but three of them were difficult to score. Fifteen primer pairs amplifying the same length product across all individuals. One polymorphic microsatellite locus was assigned by genotyping of known sex individuals to the Z-chromosome. Conclusions We present a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers useful for population genetic studies of the domestic goose. Another 15 markers were classified as monomorphic, but they might also be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in geese.

  7. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  8. Studies of blood groups and protein polymorphisms in the Brazilian horse breeds Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga (Equus caballus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Samaha Lippi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelic frequencies at 12 loci (five blood groups: C, D, K, P, and U; and seven protein polymorphisms: Al, A1B, Es, Gc, Hb, PGD, and Tf, are given for two Brazilian horse breeds: Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga. The high genetic identity value found (96.0% is consistent with their common origin, although, at some point of the development of Mangalarga Marchador, Mangalarga separated from the original stock. The expected average heterozygosity was higher in Mangalarga Marchador. The populations presented genetic differentiation, as shown by the statistically significant value of F ST. The nonsignificant F IS values showed that there was no appreciable consanguineous mating in any of the two populations. Exclusion probability calculated for the 12 loci was 87.0% and 86.5% for Mangalarga Marchador and Mangalarga, respectively. No genetic equilibrium was observed in the A1B, Tf, and Es loci of Mangalarga Marchador. The frequencies of blood factors A, Q, and T were calculated.

  9. Preliminary study of Malaysian fruit bats species diversity in Lenggong Livestock Breeding Center, Perak: Potential risk of spill over infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Mikail

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Farms that are neighboring wildlife sanctuaries are at risk of spillover infection from wildlife, and the objective of this research is to examine the species diversity of Malaysian fruit bats in livestock farm in determining the possible risk of spill over infection to livestock. Materials and Methods: Fifty individual fruit bats were captured using six mists net, from May to July 2017. The nets were set at dusk (1830 h as bats emerge for foraging and monitored at every 30-min intervals throughout the night until dawn when they returned to the roost. The nets were closed for the day until next night, and captured bats were identified to species levels. Results: All the captured bats were mega chiropterans, and Cynopterus brachyotis was the highest captured species, representing 40% of the total capture. Shannon-Weiner index is 2.80, and Simpson index is 0.2. Our result suggests that there is a degree of species dominance with low diversity in Lenggong Livestock Breeding Center. Conclusion: We concluded that fruit bats are indeed, encroaching livestock areas and the species identified could be a potential source of infection to susceptible livestock. Hence, an active surveillance should be embarked on farms that border wildlife sanctuaries.

  10. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  11. The biodiversity and genetic structure of Balearic sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, A L; Landi, V; Martinez, A; Delgado, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Balearic sheep breeds, Mallorquina, Menorquina, Roja Mallorquina, Ibicenca and one possible new genetic group, Formentera, constitute a unique genetic resource in the Mediterranean farming landscape, displaying high genetic diversity levels and being well differentiated among themselves and with respect to the continental sheep breeds. We used a microsatellite panel of markers to study genetic diversity and relationships with other Spanish breeds. The results reported in this study have important implications for the use, conservation and breeding of Balearic sheep stocks. A mean number of 7.59 alleles was found among the Balearic sheep breeds for the microsatellites scored. The whole mean value of observed heterozygosity amounted to 0.62, whereas the expected heterozygosity value was 0.69, suggesting the presence of a great degree of genetic variability, although a significant deficit of heterozygotes was detected for some markers. Genetic distance estimates showed that Balearic sheep are differentiated from the other Spanish breeds and in particular, from the Merino type. The Ibicenca breed showed the highest distance value from other breeds. The neighbour-net method of analysis clustered the Roja Mallorquina, Menorquina and Mallorquina breeds. The Structure results clearly demonstrated the genetic differentiation among the four Balearic sheep breeds, with the Ibicenca and Formentera races joined, with slight migration among them. Few external genetic influences from the Spanish mainland breeds were detected. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Population structure and genetic heterogeneity in popular dog breeds in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, Richard J; Ogden, Rob; Clements, Dylan N; French, Anne T; Gow, Adam G; Powell, Roger; Corcoran, Brendan; Schoeman, Johan P; Summers, Kim M

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing concern that reproductive isolation related to breed specifications in dogs, while maintaining genetic differences among breeds, is likely to promote breed-specific genetic disorders. This study examined genetic diversity among 13 popular dog breed groups in the UK. Most breeds showed high levels of homozygosity when compared with crossbred animals. The Boxer and West Highland white terrier showed the lowest heterozygosity, while the Jack Russell terrier group (not a registered breed in the UK) had a level of heterozygosity comparable to crossbred dogs. Analysis of genetic distance between breeds showed significantly different inbreeding coefficients for pairwise comparisons among registered breeds, with the most divergent breeds being the Boxer and West Highland white terrier. The Rottweiler and Golden retriever showed the highest levels of inbreeding. The least distinct group contained crossbred dogs. The results show that the registered breeds are subject to a 'breed barrier' which promotes reduction in genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  14. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a

  15. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  16. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  17. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  18. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  19. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  20. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  1. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. Secondary emissions are most important for the congeners with 5–6 chlorine atoms. Correspondingly, the levels of these congeners are predicted to decrease slowest. Changes in congener mixture composition (fractionation are characterized both geographically and temporally. In high latitudes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in response to decreasing emissions are found. The delivery of the contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances. The trends of decline of organic contaminant levels in the abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients.

  2. Abdim\\'s Stork Ciconia abdimii in Niger: population size, breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdim's Stork is a common breeding bird in most human settlements across the Sahel. However, very few studies have surveyed the population and described its breeding and feeding ecology during the breeding season. We identified the breeding range in Niger, surveyed nests in 23 villages/towns and, based on the ...

  3. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  4. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  5. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  6. Disgust: Evolved function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and

  7. Electronic structure of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II, as revealed by 55Mn Davies ENDOR studies at 2.5 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Smith, Paul; Noble, Christopher J; Stranger, Rob; Hanson, Graeme R; Pace, Ron J

    2014-05-07

    We report the first (55)Mn pulsed ENDOR studies on the S2 state multiline spin ½ centre of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in Photosystem II (PS II), at temperatures below 4.2 K. These were performed on highly active samples of spinach PS II core complexes, developed previously in our laboratories for photosystem spectroscopic use, at temperatures down to 2.5 K. Under these conditions, relaxation effects which have previously hindered observation of most of the manganese ENDOR resonances from the OEC coupled Mn cluster are suppressed. (55)Mn ENDOR hyperfine couplings ranging from ∼50 to ∼680 MHz are now seen on the S2 state multiline EPR signal. These, together with complementary high resolution X-band CW EPR measurements and detailed simulations, reveal that at least two and probably three Mn hyperfine couplings with large anisotropy are seen, indicating that three Mn(III) ions are likely present in the functional S2 state of the enzyme. This suggests a low oxidation state paradigm for the OEC (mean Mn oxidation level 3.0 in the S1 state) and unexpected Mn exchange coupling in the S2 state, with two Mn ions nearly magnetically silent. Our results rationalize a number of previous ligand ESEEM/ENDOR studies and labelled water exchange experiments on the S2 state of the photosystem, in a common picture which is closely consistent with recent photo-assembly (Kolling et al., Biophys. J. 2012, 103, 313-322) and large scale computational studies on the OEC (Gatt et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 12025-12028, Kurashige et al. Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 660-666).

  8. Intrinsic incompatibilities evolving as a by-product of divergent ecological selection: Considering them in empirical studies on divergence with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, J; Westram, A M

    2017-06-01

    The possibility of intrinsic barriers to gene flow is often neglected in empirical research on local adaptation and speciation with gene flow, for example when interpreting patterns observed in genome scans. However, we draw attention to the fact that, even with gene flow, divergent ecological selection may generate intrinsic barriers involving both ecologically selected and other interacting loci. Mechanistically, the link between the two types of barriers may be generated by genes that have multiple functions (i.e., pleiotropy), and/or by gene interaction networks. Because most genes function in complex networks, and their evolution is not independent of other genes, changes evolving in response to ecological selection can generate intrinsic barriers as a by-product. A crucial question is to what extent such by-product barriers contribute to divergence and speciation-that is whether they stably reduce gene flow. We discuss under which conditions by-product barriers may increase isolation. However, we also highlight that, depending on the conditions (e.g., the amount of gene flow and the strength of selection acting on the intrinsic vs. the ecological barrier component), the intrinsic incompatibility may actually destabilize barriers to gene flow. In practice, intrinsic barriers generated as a by-product of divergent ecological selection may generate peaks in genome scans that cannot easily be interpreted. We argue that empirical studies on divergence with gene flow should consider the possibility of both ecological and intrinsic barriers. Future progress will likely come from work combining population genomic studies, experiments quantifying fitness and molecular studies on protein function and interactions. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  10. Extreme evolved solar systems (EESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2017-08-01

    In just 20 years, we went from not knowing if the solar system is a fluke of Nature to realising that it is totally normal for stars to have planets. More remarkably, it is now clear that planet formation is a robust process, as rich multi-planet systems are found around stars more massive and less massive than the Sun. More recently, planetary systems have been identified in increasingly complex architectures, including circumbinary planets, wide binaries with planets orbiting one or both stellar components, and planets in triple stellar systems.We have also learned that many planetary systems will survive the evolution of their host stars into the white dwarf phase. Small bodies are scattered by unseen planets into the gravitational field of the white dwarfs, tidally disrupt, form dust discs, and eventually accrete onto the white dwarf, where they can be spectroscopically detected. HST/COS has played a critical role in the study these evolved planetary systems, demonstrating that overall the bulk composition of the debris is rocky and resembles in composition the inner the solar system, including evidence for water-rich planetesimals. Past observations of planetary systems at white dwarfs have focused on single stars with main-sequence progenitors of 1.5 to 2.5Msun. Here we propose to take the study of evolved planetary systems into the extremes of parameter ranges to answer questions such as: * How efficient is planet formation around 4-10Msun stars? * What are the metallicities of the progenitors of debris-accreting white dwarfs?* What is the fate of circumbinary planets?* Can star-planet interactions generate magnetic fields in the white dwarf host?

  11. Evolving virtual creatures and catapults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Nicolas; Egli, Richard; Adami, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We present a system that can evolve the morphology and the controller of virtual walking and block-throwing creatures (catapults) using a genetic algorithm. The system is based on Sims' work, implemented as a flexible platform with an off-the-shelf dynamics engine. Experiments aimed at evolving Sims-type walkers resulted in the emergence of various realistic gaits while using fairly simple objective functions. Due to the flexibility of the system, drastically different morphologies and functions evolved with only minor modifications to the system and objective function. For example, various throwing techniques evolved when selecting for catapults that propel a block as far as possible. Among the strategies and morphologies evolved, we find the drop-kick strategy, as well as the systematic invention of the principle behind the wheel, when allowing mutations to the projectile.

  12. The ecology of cooperative breeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Emlen, Stephen T; Koenig, Walter D; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-06-01

    Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size. We argue that the different grouping benefits realised from resource defence and collective action profoundly affect insider-outsider conflict resolution, resulting in predictable differences in the per capita productivity, stable group size, kin structure and stability of the social group. We also suggest that different types of environmental variation (spatial vs. temporal) select for societies that form because of the different grouping benefits, thus helping to resolve the paradox of why cooperative breeding evolves in such different types of environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Accelerating plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  15. Ocular biometry by computed tomography in different dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwitt, Carolin L H; Baines, Stephen J; Mahoney, Paul; Tanner, Andrew; Heinrich, Christine L; Rhodes, Michael; Featherstone, Heidi J

    2017-09-01

    To (i) correlate B-mode ocular ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) (prospective pilot study), (ii) establish a reliable method to measure the normal canine eye using CT, (iii) establish a reference guide for some dog breeds, (iv) compare eye size between different breeds and breed groups, and (v) investigate the correlation between eye dimensions and body weight, gender, and skull type (retrospective study). B-mode US and CT were performed on ten sheep cadaveric eyes. CT biometry involved 100 adult pure-bred dogs with nonocular and nonorbital disease, representing eleven breeds. Eye length, width, and height were each measured in two of three planes (horizontal, sagittal, and equatorial). B-mode US and CT measurements of sheep cadaveric eyes correlated well (0.70-0.71). The shape of the canine eye was found to be akin to an oblate spheroid (a flattened sphere). A reference guide was established for eleven breeds. Eyes of large breed dogs were significantly larger than those of medium and small breed dogs (P dogs were significantly larger than those of small breed dogs (P guide was established for eleven breeds. Eye size correlated with breed size and body weight. Because correlation between B-mode US and CT was shown, the obtained values can be applied in the clinical setting, for example, for the diagnosis of microphthalmos and buphthalmos. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E; Currie, Rob W; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J; Guarna, M Marta

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper's profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P.; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock. Historically, the only method for identifying desirable traits in honey bees to improve breeding was through observation of bee behavior. A team of Canadian scientists have recently identified markers in bee antennae that correspond to behavioral traits in bees and can be tested for in a laboratory. These scientists have demonstrated that this marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to produce hygienic, pathogen-resistant honey bee colonies. Based on this research, we present a beekeeping case study where a beekeeper’s profit function is used to evaluate the economic impact of adopting colonies selected for hygienic behavior using MAS into an apiary. Our results show a net profit gain from an MAS colony of between 2% and 5% when Varroa mites are effectively treated. In the case of ineffective treatment, MAS generates a net profit benefit of between 9% and 96% depending on the Varroa load. When a Varroa mite population has developed some treatment resistance, we show that MAS colonies generate a net profit gain of between 8% and 112% depending on the Varroa load and degree of treatment resistance. PMID:28334400

  18. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  19. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrup, S. V.; Bennett, P. C.; Forkman, B.; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H. F.; Serpell, J. A.; Lund, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog’s personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems. PMID:28234931

  20. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  1. The Electronic Structure of Mn in Oxides, Coordination Complexes, and the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II Studied by Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Visser, Hendrik; Robblee, John H.; Gu, Weiwei; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Christou, George; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) was used to collect Mn K pre-edge spectra and to study the electronic structure in oxides, molecular coordination complexes, as well as the S1 and S2 states of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that can be interpreted along the incident (absorption) energy or the energy transfer axis. The second energy dimension separates the pre-edge (predominantly 1s to 3d transitions) from the main K-edge, and a detailed analysis is thus possible. The 1s2p RIXS final-state electron configuration along the energy transfer axis is identical to conventional L-edge absorption spectroscopy, and the RIXS spectra are therefore sensitive to the Mn spin state. This new technique thus yields information on the electronic structure that is not accessible in conventional K-edge absorption spectroscopy. The line splittings can be understood within a ligand field multiplet model, i.e., (3d,3d) and (2p,3d) two-electron interactions are crucial to describe the spectral shapes in all systems. We propose to explain the shift of the K pre-edge absorption energy upon Mn oxidation in terms of the effective number of 3d electrons (fractional 3d orbital population). The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p3/2 RIXS spectra between the PS II S1 and S2 states are small compared to that of the oxides and two of the coordination complexes (MnIII(acac)3 and MnIV(sal)2(bipy)). We conclude that the electron in the step from S1 to S2 is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital. PMID:15303869

  2. Principles and practicality of organic dairy cattle breeding: different options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, MSc W.J.; Roep, Dr. D.

    2008-01-01

    As yet there is no set of generally acknowledged rules for organic animal breeding. Most organic farmers depend on conventional breeding programmes, which conflict with organic principles. Do we need a separate, distinct organic breeding system? And how can we support the development of organic breeding? These questions were explored in a PhD study. In general organic farmers and other interest groups express the need for a separate, fully organic breeding system, particularly in view of the ...

  3. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  5. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  6. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...... operating environment and internal demands, and also reassess this “fit” from time to time in order to deliberately detect need for change....

  7. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...... the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first...

  8. Evolving Soccer Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salustowicz, R.; Wiering, M.A.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1997-01-01

    We study multiagent learning in a simulated soccer scenario. Players from the same team share a common policy for mapping inputs to actions. They get rewarded or punished collectively in case of goals. For varying team sizes we compare the following learning algorithms: TD-Q learning with

  9. Evolving haloalkane dehalogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.B.

    Mechanistic insight into the biochemistry of carbon–halogen bond cleavage is rapidly growing because of recent structural, biochemical and computational studies that have provided further insight into how haloalkane dehalogenases achieve their impressive catalytic activity. An occluded water-free

  10. When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger Buick

    2008-01-01

    ...2.4 Ga ago, but when the photosynthetic oxygen production began is debatable. However, geological and geochemical evidence from older sedimentary rocks indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before this oxygenation event...

  11. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  12. Evolving nucleotide binding surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber-Emmons, T.; Rein, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the stability and nature of binding of a nucleotide to several known dehydrogenases. The employed approach includes calculation of hydrophobic stabilization of the binding motif and its intermolecular interaction with the ligand. The evolutionary changes of the binding motif are studied by calculating the Euclidean deviation of the respective dehydrogenases. Attention is given to the possible structural elements involved in the origin of nucleotide recognition by non-coded primordial polypeptides.

  13. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  14. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  15. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  16. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  17. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  18. Metabolic memory: Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    The relationships of glycemic control over time with the development of complications have been investigated in several studies, but new areas of debate continue to arise. Does glycemic control have greater benefit when attained earlier than when attained later in the natural history of diabetes? Is it simply the duration of better or worse levels of glycemia that lead a given individual to have fewer or greater levels of complications? Might glycemic control have similar benefit throughout the duration of diabetes until irreversible damage occurs, perhaps varying by organ system (neurologic, renal, retinal, cardiovascular)? Specific benefits or adverse effects of treatment agents may further complicate the interpretation of what has been characterized as "metabolic memory." The notion of metabolic memory was based on findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) of type 1 diabetes (T1D), in which the initial 2% HbA1c separation between the groups of patients randomized to intensive or conventional control was lost during the follow up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, when the two groups of participants returned to standard treatment and showed similar HbA1c levels but the initial intensively treated group continued to have lower rates of development of microvascular and, subsequently, macrovascular complications. Similarly, a decade after the conclusion of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the intensive therapy group, despite showing similar levels of glycemic control to those receiving standard care, continued to have significant reductions in microvascular endpoints and reductions in myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality. A 6-year follow up of the Veteran's Administration Diabetes Trial suggested that the formerly intensively controlled subset were more likely to maintain an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73m 2 than those randomized

  19. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...... provides the opportunity to consciously match an organization to its operating environment and internal demands....

  20. Evolving Information Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines how people in organizations appropriate new computer-based media, that is, how they adopt, reconfigure, and integrate advanced communication technologies such as groupware or desktop conferencing systems into their work practice. The chapter presents and analyzes findings from...... an in-depth field study of the adoption and use of a Web-based groupware application—a “virtual workspace”—in a large multinational firm. The analysis focuses, in particular, on the fact that people in modern organizations have plenty of media at their disposal and often combine old and new media...... to accomplish their work tasks. Furthermore, it highlights the crucial role of organizational communication genres in shaping how people adopt and use new media. The authors argue that understanding and facilitating the process of appropriation is the key to the successful introduction of new media...

  1. Survival of the fastest: Evolving wings for flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Mitchel, Thomas; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    To optimize flapping flight with regard to wing shape, we use an evolutionary or genetic algorithm to improve the forward speed of 3d-printed wings or hydrofoils that heave up-and-down and self-propel within water. In this scheme, ``genes'' are mathematical parameters specifying wing shape, and ``breeding'' involves the merging and mutation of genes from two parent wings to form a child. A wing's swimming speed is its ``fitness'', which dictates the likelihood of breeding and thus passing on its genes to the next generation. We find that this iterative process leads to marked improvements in relatively few generations, and several distinct shape features are shared among the fastest wings. We also investigate the favorable flow structures produced by these elite swimmers and compare their shape and performance to biologically evolved wings, fins, tails, and flippers.

  2. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mugler, Andrew [COLUMBIA UNIV; Ziv, Etay [COLUMBIA UNIV; Wiggins, Chris H [COLUMBIA UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  3. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  4. Evolving adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitesh Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is the most common cause of Addison′s disease in India. The exact status of adrenal reserve in tuberculosis is still an enigma and recovery of adrenal function is unpredictable. Objective: We report a case with a pre-Addisonian state and unchanged adrenal size after 1 year treatment. Materials and Methods: A 31-year patient with adrenal tuberculosis was diagnosed and treated with anti tubercular drugs (ATDs and steroid. Results: A 31-year male, presented with fever and weight loss for 3½ months with anorexia, nausea, hyperpigmentation of skin, and buccal mucosa and weakness with past h/o adequately treated pulmonary tuberculosis at 3 years of age. On examination, the patient was anemic. A non-tender, firm right (Rt. submandibular lymphnode was palpable. Investigations revealed: High erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, negative HIV, and sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Initial cortisol was high but subsequently became low with negative short synacthin test (SST. Computed tomography showed bilateral (B/L enlarged hypodense adrenal mass with inconclusive fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and negative AFB culture. Rt. submandibular lymph node FNAC showed caseating granuloma. ATDs and steroids were started, the lymphadenopathy regressed and symptoms subsided. However, after 1 year of treatment steroid withdrawal failed and adrenal size remained the same. Conclusion: The adrenal has considerable capacity to regenerate during active infection and ultimately become normal or smaller in size. However, in the case reported here, they failed to regress. Reversal of adrenal function following ATD is a controversial issue. Some studies have shown normalization following therapy, while others have contradicted it similar to the finding in our case.

  5. High-order evolving surface finite element method for parabolic problems on evolving surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    High-order spatial discretisations and full discretisations of parabolic partial differential equations on evolving surfaces are studied. We prove convergence of the high-order evolving surface finite element method, by showing high-order versions of geometric approximation errors and perturbation error estimates and by the careful error analysis of a modified Ritz map. Furthermore, convergence of full discretisations using backward difference formulae and implicit Runge-Kutta methods are als...

  6. Reconstruction of paternal genotypes over multiple breeding seasons reveals male green turtles do not breed annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lucy I; Fuller, Wayne J; Godley, Brendan J; McGowan, Andrew; Tregenza, Tom; Broderick, Annette C

    2012-07-01

    For species of conservation concern, knowledge of key life-history and demographic components, such as the number and sex ratio of breeding adults, is essential for accurate assessments of population viability. Species with temperature-dependent sex determination can produce heavily biased primary sex ratios, and there is concern that adult sex ratios may be similarly skewed or will become so as a result of climate warming. Prediction and mitigation of such impacts are difficult when life-history information is lacking. In marine turtles, owing to the difficultly in observing males at sea, the breeding interval of males is unknown. It has been suggested that male breeding periodicity may be shorter than that of females, which could help to compensate for generally female-biased sex ratios. Here we outline how the use of molecular-based paternity analysis has allowed us, for the first time, to assess the breeding interval of male marine turtles across multiple breeding seasons. In our study rookery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), 97% of males were assigned offspring in only one breeding season within the 3-year study period, strongly suggesting that male breeding intervals are frequently longer than 1year at this site. Our results also reveal a sex ratio of breeding adults of at least 1.3 males to each female. This study illustrates the utility of molecular-based parentage inference using reconstruction of parental genotypes as a method for monitoring the number and sex ratio of breeders in species where direct observations or capture are difficult. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F

    2004-01-01

    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  10. Behavior of a modified Dissociation element in barley: a tool for genetic studies and for breeding transgenic barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize-derived sequences from the transposable elements Activator (Ac) and Dissociation (Ds) have enabled studies of gene function via transposon tagging. The characteristics of synthetic, transgene-containing Ds elements constructed for some of these studies has demonstrated their ability to resolve...

  11. Evolution of evolvability in gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crombach

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.

  12. Breeding biology of the Cape Bulbul Pycnonotus capensis: a 40 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No differences were found between the two study periods in the timing of breeding, clutch size, number of fledglings per nesting attempt or successful nesting attempt, indicating no major shift in the life history strategy or breeding success of the population. During my study period, there was a strong calendar effect on ...

  13. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding biology of House Crows (Corvus splendens) in Durban, South Africa. D G Allan, G B Davies. Abstract. Nesting House Crows Corvus splendens were studied in the suburb of Merewent, Durban, South Africa, during the summer breeding season of 1999–2000. The c. 1km2 study area supported 52–62 pairs.

  14. Studies of the breeding and population ecology of seabirds at Semidi Islands, Alaska: A summary of work completed in 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species mentioned include Fulmar, petrel, gull, kittiwake, murre, auklet, and puffin. Continued study of the reproductive ecology of Northern Fulmar.

  15. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  16. Breeding replacement gilts for organic pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Napel, ten J.; Hanenberg, E.H.A.T.; Merks, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, breeding structures and commercial sow lines were evaluated by economic and genetic simulation studies for their suitability to provide the Dutch organic pig sector with replacement gilts. Sow and litter performance from over 2000 crossbred sows from 2006 to 2007 were collected on 11

  17. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbála Turcsán

    Full Text Available Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds. We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1 less calm, (2 less sociable toward other dogs, and (3 showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p 10% differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both, which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1 more trainable than purebreds, (2 less calm, and (3 showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all. We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the "average" dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  18. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR (University and Research Centre).

  19. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  20. Community participation in mosquito breeding site control : an interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Jelte; van der Veen, Henry T; Gerstenbluth, Izzy; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Arie; Grobusch, Martin P; Tami, Adriana; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but

  1. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  2. Die leierskapsrol en -bevoegdhede van die skoolhoof en die bedryfsleier : 'n vergelykende studie / J.A. Breed

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, Josef Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    Although schools and industrial organisations have historically been, and in some cases still are, considered completely different entities, there is nevertheless an increasing awareness that similarities also exist. It can be a determining factor for the roles and competencies of school principals as leaders if indeed there is truth in the conception that schools ought to be led and managed as businesses (industrial organisations, companies). The aim of this study was to determine which ...

  3. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change....... Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...

  4. Another breed of "service" animals: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovery from serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Saedi, Goal Auzeen; Green, Carla A

    2009-07-01

    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8 years) in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies (STARS). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals in recovery from serious mental illness by (a) providing empathy and "therapy"; (b) providing connections that can assist in redeveloping social avenues; (c) serving as "family" in the absence of or in addition to human family members; and (d) supporting self-efficacy and strengthening a sense of empowerment. Pets appear to provide more benefits than merely companionship. Participants' reports of pet-related contributions to their well-being provide impetus to conduct more formal research on the mechanisms by which pets contribute to recovery and to develop pet-based interventions.

  5. Breed Differences in Domestic Dogs' (Canis familiaris) Comprehension of Human Communicative Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Wobber, Victoria Elizabeth; Wrangham, Richard W.; Hare, Brian; Koler-Matznick, Janice; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some human-like social skills evolved in dogs (Canis familiaris) during domestication as an incidental by-product of selection for “tame” forms of behavior. It is still possible, however, that the social skills of certain dog breeds came under direct selection that led to further increases in social problem solving ability. To test this hypothesis, different breeds of domestic dogs were compared for their ability to use various human communicative behaviors to fi...

  6. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  7. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  8. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  9. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  10. Breeding biology of the endangered Mauritius Olive White-eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding biology of the endangered Mauritius Olive White-eyeZosterops chloronothos,the least known extant species of the endemic Mauritian avifauna, was studied for three consecutive breeding seasons between 1998 and 2001. Fifteen territories were monitored each year. Six nests were found and closely monitored.

  11. Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the breeding biology of the Banded Kestrel (Falco zoniventris) in the forest edge habitat of Masoala Peninsula of north-eastern Madagascar from 1997 to 1999. Banded Kestrels begin their breeding season at the end of the wet season during August and the start of the dry season in September. Courtship began ...

  12. Predicting the breeding success of large raptors in arid southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raptors are often priorities for conservation efforts and breeding success is a target measure for assessing their conservation status. The breeding success of large raptors in arid southern Africa is thought to be higher in years of high rainfall. While this correlation has been found in several studies, it has not yet been shown ...

  13. Characterisation of White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...

  14. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  15. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the animals closely on a regular basis. Though individual differences do exists amongst cattle farmers in selecting breeding stock yet they have several parameters that are very common as indicated in this study which can be utilized for further scientific investigation. Key words: indigenous knowledge, cattle, breeding ...

  16. growth and development of the reproduction organs of breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theodore Olivier

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the growth rate of the reproductive organs of breeding female ostriches, which may be used in a prediction model for estimating nutrient requirements of breeders. Forty breeding female ostriches were sampled over an eight week period (five per week) starting at the onset of the.

  17. Energetic costs of foraging in breeding Cape gannets Morus capensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullers, Ralf H.E.; Navarro, René A.; Daan, Serge; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Meijer, Harro A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Seabirds fly considerable distances during the breeding season in search for food for themselves and their young. Variation in the distance from the breeding colony to the offshore food resources is expected to impact the energy spent on foraging trips. In 2005-06 and 2006-07 we studied foraging

  18. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  19. Breeding ecology of the Chestnut-backed Sparrowlark Eremopterix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the breeding ecology of the Chestnut-backed Sparrowlark Eremopterix leucotis over three years between 2008 and 2010. The breeding season was bimodal with a main peak in laying in autumn (March–April) and another smaller peak in spring (September–October). Nest microhabitat analyses showed they ...

  20. The breeding biology of the greywing francolin Francolinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-03-13

    Mar 13, 1992 ... We studied the breeding biology of the greywing francolin Francolinus africanus on the Stormberg Plateau of the eastern Cape Province, South Africa during 1988-1991. Timing of breeding, nesting behaviour, clutch size, egg size, and clutch survival rates were recorded and compared with published and ...

  1. Study on the Evolvement of Technology Development and Energy Efficiency—A Case Study of the Past 30 Years of Development in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William X. Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in regional energy efficiency by using macro statistical data has demonstrated that technology development could improve regional energy efficiency. Since the start of reform and opening up in 1978, China has mainly adopted energy import and foreign direct investment to promote economic growth. At the same time, the country has also increased the input of technology and R&D to prompt technological reformation and imported technology absorption. However, there is limited research on the relationship between technology development and energy efficiency. Using the grounded theory method, the authors of this paper study the relationship between technology input-output and energy utilization efficiency in Shanghai over the past 30 years. They conclude that although the tactics of technology import and foreign direct investment can improve energy efficiency in the initial stages of modern industrialization, they cannot improve it continuously. In the more advanced stages of modern industrialization, the improvement of energy efficiency relies not only on increased R&D investment but also on R&D investment structure optimization and independent technological innovation.

  2. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  3. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  4. Prospects for genomic selection in cassava breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop in the tropics. Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented at three breeding institutions in Africa in order to reduce cycle times. Initial studies provided promising estimates of predictive abilities. Here, we expand on p...

  5. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BLUE»

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990) and it gradually decreases with feather development and may cease altogether during the late stages nest life. In this study active nests were visited daily to ..... 523-526. Cody, M.L. (1966). A general theory of clutch size. Evolution 20: 174-184. Din, N.A (1986). Breeding biology of some weaver birds in lle- lfe, Nigeria.

  6. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  7. Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Juliana; Brochero, Helena; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Basso, César; Romero, Sonnia; Caprara, Andrea; De Lima Cunha, Jane Cris; Beltrán-Ayala, Efraín; Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannnes; Petzold, Max

    2014-01-21

    Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and -except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and "dengue mosquitoes" was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and -particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container types; 2) the need to raise public awareness

  8. Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Mukiibi, Robert; Ampaire, A.; Benda-Beckmann, von K.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old

  9. Influence of production circumstances and economic evaluation criteria on economic comparison of breeds and breed-crosses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahi, A.K.; Koskey, I.S.; Cardoso, V.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ranking of genotypes (i.e., breeds and breed crosses) for economic performance depends on the production circumstances of the herd and the criteria for economic evaluation. In this study, the effects of evaluation criteria and production circumstance are quantified using data from the literature

  10. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  11. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on 1986-1999 Breeding Ground Survyes of Dusky Canada Geese on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1999 Copper River Delta survey for breeding dusky Canada geese was conducted on 17-18 May by the Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  12. Breed distribution of dogs with diabetes mellitus admitted to a tertiary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R S; Kass, P H; Ward, C R

    2000-05-01

    To determine which dog breeds are at low and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM). Cohort study. Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years. 165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category) were represented in the hospital population. Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific totals during the study period. Breeds or breed groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted to those that had a combined observed and expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs were chosen as the reference breed. Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier. The finding that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for developing DM suggests that some genetic defects may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas other genetic factors may protect dogs from development of DM.

  13. Reliability of molecular breeding values for Warner-Bratzler shear force and carcass traits of beef cattle - an independent validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, E C; Plastow, G; Woodward, B W; Bauck, S; Okut, H; Wu, X-L; Sun, C; Aalhus, J L; Moore, S S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in genetic improvement of carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle using genome-based selection (GS) and marker-assisted management programs is increasing. The success of such a program depends on the presence of linkage disequilibrium between the observed markers and the underlying QTL as well as on the relationship between the discovery, validation, and target populations. For molecular breeding values (MBV) predicted for a target population using SNP markers, reliabilities of these MBV can be obtained from validation analyses conducted in an independent population distinct from the discovery set. The objective of this study was to test MBV predicted for carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle in a Canadian-based validation population that is largely independent of a United States-based discovery set. The discovery data set comprised of genotypes and phenotypes from >2,900 multibreed beef cattle while the validation population consisted of 802 crossbred feeder heifers and steers. A bivariate animal model that fitted actual phenotype and MBV was used for validation analyses. The reliability of MBV was defined as square of the genetic correlation (R(2) g) that represents the proportion of the additive genetic variance explained by the SNP markers. Several scenarios involving different starting marker panels (384, 3K, 7K, and 50K) and different sets of SNP selected to compute MBV (50, 100, 200, 375, 400, 600, and 800) were investigated. Validation results showed that the most reliable MBV (R(2) g) were 0.34 for HCW, 0.36 for back fat thickness, 0.28 for rib eye area, 0.30 for marbling score, 0.25 for yield grade, and 0.38 for Warner-Bratzler shear force across the different scenarios explored. The results indicate that smaller SNP panels can be developed for use in genetic improvement of beef carcass and tenderness traits to exploit GS benefits.

  14. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  15. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  16. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  17. Molecular markers in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the marker assisted selection (MAS is being routinely applied in breeding programs of large private companies. However, the implementation of molecular markers for commercial use in small companies and public sec- tor is on a considerably smaller scale. Numerous researches on QTL mapping, theoretical analysis and simulation models for MAS give impetus to new research on the validation of quantitative trait loci and the application of molecular markers in maize breeding. This paper presents basic concepts related to MAS, the principles of QTL mapping, marker-trait association analysis and examples of successful application of markers in breeding for qualitative and quantitative traits.

  18. The Evolving Resource Metadata Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    The search and discovery mechanisms that will facilitate and simplify systematic research on the Internet depend on systematic classifications of resources, as well as on standardized access to such metadata. The principles and technologies that will make this possible are evolving in the work of the Internet Engineering Task Force and the digital library initiatives, among others. The desired outcome is a set of standards, tools, and practices that permits both cataloging and retrieval to be comprehensive and efficient.

  19. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  20. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  1. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  2. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O

    2001-01-01

    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  3. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Nusrat, Sharmin; Hawken, Laura H

    2012-10-16

    Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions- institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms.Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as 'program management and implementation' entities rather than as lead 'technical advisory' bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. The 'technical functions' and 'implementation and management functions' should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building technical and analytical capacity) and sector-wide organizational units (for building

  4. A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Manju

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmented service delivery with consequent inefficiencies in health systems was one of the main concerns raised during scaling up of disease-specific programs in the last two decades. The organized response to NCD is in infancy in most LMICs with little evidence on how the response is evolving in terms of institutional arrangements and policy development processes. Methods Drawing on qualitative review of policy and program documents from five LMICs and data from global key-informant surveys conducted in 2004 and 2010, we examine current status of governance of response to NCDs at national level along three dimensions— institutional arrangements for stewardship and program management and implementation; policies/plans; and multisectoral coordination and partnerships. Results Several positive trends were noted in the organization and governance of response to NCDs: shift from specific NCD-based programs to integrated NCD programs, increasing inclusion of NCDs in sector-wide health plans, and establishment of high-level multisectoral coordination mechanisms. Several areas of concern were identified. The evolving NCD-specific institutional structures are being treated as ‘program management and implementation’ entities rather than as lead ‘technical advisory’ bodies, with unclear division of roles and responsibilities between NCD-specific and sector-wide structures. NCD-specific and sector-wide plans are poorly aligned and lack prioritization, costing, and appropriate targets. Finally, the effectiveness of existing multisectoral coordination mechanisms remains questionable. Conclusions The ‘technical functions’ and ‘implementation and management functions’ should be clearly separated between NCD-specific units and sector-wide institutional structures to avoid duplicative segmented service delivery systems. Institutional capacity building efforts for NCDs should target both NCD-specific units (for building

  5. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  6. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  7. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  8. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  9. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest a...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry.......This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...

  10. Marked reduction in demographic rates and reduced fitness advantage for early breeding is not linked to reduced thermal matching of breeding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas

    2017-12-01

    Warmer springs may cause animals to become mistimed if advances of spring timing, including available resources and of timing of breeding occur at different speed. We used thermal sums (cumulative sum of degree days) during spring to describe the thermal progression (timing) of spring and investigate its relationship to breeding phenology and demography of a long-distant migrant bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.). We first compare 20-year trends in spring timing, breeding time, selection for breeding time, and annual demographic rates. We then explicitly test whether annual variation in selection for breeding time and demographic rates associates with the degree of phenological matching between breeding time and thermal progression of spring. Both thermal progression of spring and breeding time of wheatears advanced in time during the study period. But despite breeding on average 7 days earlier with respect to date, wheatears bred about 4 days later with respect to thermal spring progression. Over the same time period, selection for breeding time changed from distinct within-season advantage of breeding early to no or very weak advantage. Furthermore, demographic rates (nest success, fledgling production, recruitment, adult survival) and nestling weight declined markedly by 16%-79%. Those temporal trends suggest that a reduced degree of phenological matching may affect within-season fitness advantage of early breeding and population demographic rates. In contrast, when we investigate links based on annual variation, we find no significant relationship between either demographic rates or fitness advantage of early breeding with annual variation in the degree of phenological matching. Our results show that corresponding temporal trends in phenological matching, selection for breeding time and demographic rates are inconclusive evidence for demographic effects of changed phenological matching. Instead, we suggest that the trends in selection for

  11. Population structure and genome characterization of local pig breeds in Russia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traspov, Aleksei; Deng, Wenjiang; Kostyunina, Olga; Ji, Jiuxiu; Shatokhin, Kirill; Lugovoy, Sergey; Zinovieva, Natalia; Yang, Bin; Huang, Lusheng

    2016-03-01

    It is generally accepted that domestication of pigs took place in multiple locations across Eurasia; the breeds that originated in Europe and Asia have been well studied. However, the genetic structure of pig breeds from Russia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, which represent large geographical areas and diverse climatic zones in Eurasia, remains largely unknown. This study provides the first genomic survey of 170 pigs representing 13 breeds from Russia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine; 288 pigs from six Chinese and seven European breeds were also included for comparison. Our findings show that the 13 novel breeds tested derived mainly from European pigs through the complex admixture of Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire and other breeds, and that they display no geographic structure based on genetic distance. We also found a considerable Asian contribution to the miniature Siberian pigs (Minisib breed) from Russia. Apart from the Minisib, Urzhum, Ukrainian Spotted Steppe and Ukrainian White Steppe breeds, which may have undergone intensive inbreeding, the breeds included in this study showed relatively high genetic diversity and low levels of homozygosity compared to the Chinese indigenous pig breeds. This study provides the first genomic overview of the population structure and genetic diversity of 13 representative pig breeds from Russia, Belorussia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine; this information will be useful for the preservation and management of these breeds.

  12. Public research in plant breeding and intellectual property rights: a new call for new institutional policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using intellectual property rights (IPRs) in public sector breeding, and the potential impact on breeding strategies and on the costs and benefits. The paper is based on a study on the impact of IPRs in the breeding industry in developing countries. There are three

  13. Genetics similarity among four breeds of sheep in Egypt detected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic analysis using RAPD markers was performed for studying variation in four breeds of sheep (Baladi, Barki, Rahmani and Saffolk). Nineteen random primers were used to amplify DNA fragments in these breeds. RAPD patterns with a level of polymorphism were detected between breeds. Results showed closer ...

  14. Habitat selection by breeding red-winged blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Habitat preferences of breeding Red-winged Blackbirds in an agricultural area were determined by comparing population density, landscape characteristics, and vegetational descriptions. Observations were made throughout the breeding season. Preferred breeding habitats of Red-wings, in order of preference, were wetlands, hayfields, old fields, and pastures. Males and females occupied old fields and wetlands first, then hayfields, and finally, pastures. Cutting of hayfields caused territorial abandonment by both sexes within 48 h. The apparent movement of displaced females from cut hayfields to uncut hayfields suggests that habitat fidelity of females is strong after the breeding effort has begun. Breeding Red-wings exhibited general preferences for trees, large amounts of habitat edge, erect old vegetation, and sturdy, tall, and dense vegetation. Vegetative forms and species, such as upland grasses, broad- and narrow-leafed monocots in wetlands, and forbs were important to the Red-wing at various times during the breeding season. Landscape and vegetational preferences of breeding adults were easier to observe early in the breeding season (March through May) than later. Vegetational growth and increases in the size of the breeding population probably make these preferences more difficult to detect. Territory size was poorly correlated with landscape and vegetational characteristics in uplands but strongly correlated with broad- and narrow-leafed mono cots and vegetative height in wetlands. Wetland territories were smaller than upland territories. Territories increased in size during the middle and late portions of the breedi g season. Habitat selection by the Red-winged Blackbird can best be studied by evaluating vegetative preferences throughout the breeding season.

  15. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel: A multi-factorial study

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, S.; Dell'Omo, G.; Costantini, D.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in adult male and female Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus) over the breeding season, and evaluated the relationship between coloration and levels of carotenoids, androgens and estroge...

  17. A Bio-Economic Case Study of Canadian Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies: Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in Queen Breeding Affects Beekeeper Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Bixby, Miriam; Baylis, Kathy; Hoover, Shelley E.; Currie, Rob W.; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Pernal, Stephen F.; Foster, Leonard J.; Guarna, M. Marta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pat...

  18. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving to hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzukowiak, Tina Renae

    2015-04-01

    Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia is most commonly characterized as deep, boring, nonpulsatile, severe, unilateral facial and head pain in the distribution of the V1 area combined with ipsilateral oculosympathetic palsy and autonomic symptoms. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua, a rare primary, chronic headache syndrome characterized by unilateral pain and response to indomethacin, has rarely been documented. The purpose of this case report is to contribute to the medical literature a single case of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia presenting as multiple cranial nerve palsies that evolved into hemicrania continua that was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. A 52-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with the complaint of severe, aching, constant eye pain radiating to the V1 area for 1 week with associated ptosis and photophobia of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed involvement of cranial nerves II, III, V, and VI. Additional symptoms included ipsilateral lacrimation, eyelid edema, and rhinorrhea. Extensive medical work-up showed normal results. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed with multiple cranial nerve involvement; the headache component became chronic with periodic exacerbations of autonomic symptoms evolving to a diagnosis of hemicrania continua. The patient was intolerant to traditional indomethacin treatment, and the headache was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Recognition of ipsilateral signs such as miosis, ptosis, hydrosis, eyelid edema, hyperemia, rhinorrhea, or nasal congestion is useful in the differential diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia, particularly in the diagnosis of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia and hemicrania continua. This case study illustrates a rare presentation of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua presenting as a painful ophthalmoplegia with multiple cranial nerve involvement. The example supports the

  19. The evolvability of programmable hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598

  20. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  1. Feeding and Breeding Biology of Amblypharyngodon mola – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblypharyngodon mola is a popular food fish of Indian sub-continent due to its high nutritional value. Earlier many workers have carried out studies on feeding and breeding biology of this fish species but consolidated information on the same is not available. So, a survey of published literatures on the feeding and breeding biology of A. mola has been carried out to consolidate the available information.  Lacunae of information has been pointed out for further study mainly on age group wise variation in food preference and correlation of breeding periodicity with hydrological parameters and photoperiod.

  2. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2003/04 breeding season was the shortest and had the lowest breeding productivity. The 2002/03 breeding season had a lower breeding productivity than 2001/02 because of the loss of a large number of nests during storm surge and spring high tides. The start and duration of the egg-laying period are influenced by ...

  3. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  4. Additive genetic variance in polyandry enables its evolution, but polyandry is unlikely to evolve through sexy or good sperm processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, L M; Simmons, L W; Garcia-Gonzalez, F

    2016-05-01

    Polyandry is widespread despite its costs. The sexually selected sperm hypotheses ('sexy' and 'good' sperm) posit that sperm competition plays a role in the evolution of polyandry. Two poorly studied assumptions of these hypotheses are the presence of additive genetic variance in polyandry and sperm competitiveness. Using a quantitative genetic breeding design in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, we first established the potential for polyandry to respond to selection. We then investigated whether polyandry can evolve through sexually selected sperm processes. We measured lifetime polyandry and offensive sperm competitiveness (P2 ) while controlling for sampling variance due to male × male × female interactions. We also measured additive genetic variance in egg-to-adult viability and controlled for its effect on P2 estimates. Female lifetime polyandry showed significant and substantial additive genetic variance and evolvability. In contrast, we found little genetic variance or evolvability in P2 or egg-to-adult viability. Additive genetic variance in polyandry highlights its potential to respond to selection. However, the low levels of genetic variance in sperm competitiveness suggest that the evolution of polyandry may not be driven by sexy sperm or good sperm processes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Territory choice during the breeding tenure of male sedge warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Tadeusz; Bielański, Wojciech; Solarz, Wojciech

    2011-12-01

    A territorial male can shift the location of its territory from year to year in order to increase its quality. The male can base its decision on environmental cues or else on its breeding experiences (when territory shift is caused by breeding failure in previous seasons). We tested these possible mechanisms of territory choice in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), a territorial migrating passerine that occupies wetlands. This species bases its territory choices on an environmental cue: tall wetland vegetation cover. We found that the magnitude of territory quality improvement between seasons (measured as the area of tall wetland vegetation) increased throughout the early stages of a male's breeding career as a result of territory shifts dependent on the earliness of arrival. The distance the territory was shifted between seasons depended negatively on the previous year's territory quality and, less clearly, on the previous year's mating success. On the other hand, previous mating or nesting success had no influence on territory quality improvement between seasons as measured in terms of vegetation. The results imply that tall wetland vegetation is a long-term, effective environmental cue and that a preference for territories in which this type of landcover prevails has evolved into a rigid behavioral mechanism, supplemented by short-term individual experiences of breeding failure.

  7. Tracing the breeding farm of domesticated pig using feature selection (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Kwon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Increasing food safety demands in the animal product market have created a need for a system to trace the food distribution process, from the manufacturer to the retailer, and genetic traceability is an effective method to trace the origin of animal products. In this study, we successfully achieved the farm tracing of 6,018 multi-breed pigs, using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers strictly selected through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO feature selection. Methods We performed farm tracing of domesticated pig (Sus scrofa from SNP markers and selected the most relevant features for accurate prediction. Considering multi-breed composition of our data, we performed feature selection using LASSO penalization on 4,002 SNPs that are shared between breeds, which also includes 179 SNPs with small between-breed difference. The 100 highest-scored features were extracted from iterative simulations and then evaluated using machine-leaning based classifiers. Results We selected 1,341 SNPs from over 45,000 SNPs through iterative LASSO feature selection, to minimize between-breed differences. We subsequently selected 100 highest-scored SNPs from iterative scoring, and observed high statistical measures in classification of breeding farms by cross-validation only using these SNPs. Conclusion The study represents a successful application of LASSO feature selection on multi-breed pig SNP data to trace the farm information, which provides a valuable method and possibility for further researches on genetic traceability.

  8. Morphological characterization of breeds of sheep: a discriminant analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah-Boaheng, Michael; Sam, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the characterisation and separation/discrimination of three sheep breeds (crosses, West African Dwarfs (WAD) and West African Long Legged (WALL)] based on their physical traits (morphological characterisation) was investigated extensively with the application of discriminant analysis. The study's main objective was specifically based on developing a variable selection criterion that can discriminate best among the three sheep breeds and as well as obtain a reliable mathematical function/equation (discriminant functions) for provision of maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds. Data from College of Education, Mampong animal farms on various breeds of sheep (hybrid/crossed breed, Sahell/WALL and Djallonke/WAD) was used. Factor Analysis was employed as a variable selection criterion for selecting six sheep traits that can discriminate best among the sheep breeds. Canonical discriminant function was derived for the eight variable data set and was compared with the derived quadratic discriminant functions (QDFs) using the six extracted sheep traits. The six variable QDF distance classifier provided maximum separation after cross validation than the 8-variable canonical discriminant functions. The derived mathematical functions (QDFs) were able to provide maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds with a correct classification rate of 0.86.

  9. Loops and autonomy promote evolvability of ecosystem networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianxi

    2014-09-29

    The structure of ecological networks, in particular food webs, determines their ability to evolve further, i.e. evolvability. The knowledge about how food web evolvability is determined by the structures of diverse ecological networks can guide human interventions purposefully to either promote or limit evolvability of ecosystems. However, the focus of prior food web studies was on stability and robustness; little is known regarding the impact of ecological network structures on their evolvability. To correlate ecosystem structure and evolvability, we adopt the NK model originally from evolutionary biology to generate and assess the ruggedness of fitness landscapes of a wide spectrum of model food webs with gradual variation in the amount of feeding loops and link density. The variation in network structures is controlled by linkage rewiring. Our results show that more feeding loops and lower trophic link density, i.e. higher autonomy of species, of food webs increase the potential for the ecosystem to generate heritable variations with improved fitness. Our findings allow the prediction of the evolvability of actual food webs according to their network structures, and provide guidance to enhancing or controlling the evolvability of specific ecosystems.

  10. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Does timing of breeding matter less where the grass is greener? Seasonal declines in breeding performance differ between regions in an endangered endemic raptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The timing of breeding can strongly influence individual breeding performance and fitness. Seasonal declines in breeding parameters have been often documented in birds, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer studies have investigated whether seasonal declines in productivity vary in space, which would have implications for a species’ population dynamics across its distributional range. We report here on variation in the timing of breeding in the Black Harrier (Circus maurus, an endangered and endemic raptor to Southern Africa. We investigated how key breeding parameters (clutch size, nesting success and productivity varied with the timing of breeding, weather conditions (rainfall and temperature and between contrasted regions (coastal vs. interior-mountain. Black Harrier onset of breeding extended over an 8-month period, with a peak of laying between mid-August and end of September. We show a marked seasonal decline in all breeding parameters. Importantly, for clutch size and productivity these seasonal declines differed regionally, being more pronounced in interior-mountain than in coastal regions, where the breeding season was overall shorter. Timing of breeding, clutch size and productivity were also partly explained by weather conditions. In coastal regions, where environmental conditions, in particular rainfall, appear to be less variable, the timing of breeding matters less for breeding output than in interior-mountain regions, and breeding attempts thus occurred over a longer period. The former areas may act as population sources and be key in protecting the long-term population viability of this threatened endemic raptor. This study provides unique evidence for a regionally variable seasonal decline in breeding performance with implications for population biology and conservation.

  12. Exploring natural selection to guide breeding for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Robert James; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-08-01

    Climate change threatens reduced crop production and poses major challenges to food security. The breeding of climate-resilient crop varieties is increasingly urgent. Wild plant populations evolve to cope with changes in their environment due to the forces of natural selection. This adaptation may be followed over time in populations at the same site or explored by examining differences between populations growing in different environments or across an environmental gradient. Survival in the wild has important differences to the objective of agriculture to maximize crop yields. However, understanding the nature of adaptation in wild populations at the whole genome level may suggest strategies for crop breeding to deliver agricultural production with more resilience to climate variability. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166144.html Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction: Study ... from drug addiction, new research suggests. Teens at elite U.S. high schools seem to face a higher ...

  14. Breeding ecology of Kittlitz's murrelet at Agattu Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2008, we initiated the first year of a comprehensive 4-year monitoring project to study the breeding ecology of Kittlitz’s murrelets at Agattu Island with the...

  15. Reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values in Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Su, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of genomic selection in breeding plans, it is essential to have reliable estimates of the genomic breeding values. This study investigated reliabilities of direct genomic values (DGVs) in the Jersey population estimated by three different methods. The validation methods...... of DGV. The data set consisted of 1003 Danish Jersey bulls with conventional estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 14 different traits included in the Nordic selection index. The bulls were genotyped for Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina 54 K chip. A Bayesian method was used...

  16. How cooperatively breeding birds identify relatives and avoid incest: New insights into dispersal and kin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Stern, Caitlin A

    2015-12-01

    Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring - usually males - delay dispersal from their natal group, remaining with the family to help rear younger kin. Sex-biased dispersal is thought to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of inbreeding, resulting in low relatedness between mates and the loss of indirect fitness benefits for the dispersing sex. In this review, we discuss several recent studies showing that dispersal patterns are more variable than previously thought, often leading to complex genetic structure within cooperative avian societies. These empirical findings accord with recent theoretical models suggesting that sex- biased dispersal is neither necessary, nor always sufficient, to prevent inbreeding. The ability to recognize relatives, primarily by learning individual or group-specific vocalizations, may play a more important role in incest avoidance than currently appreciated. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of breeding guidelines for reducing the prevalence of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, S P; McFadyen, A K; Rusbridge, C

    Several toy breed dogs are predisposed to syringomyelia (SM), a spinal cord disorder, characterised by fluid-filled cavitation. SM is a complex trait with a moderately high heritability. Selective breeding against SM is confounded by its complex inheritance, its late onset nature and high prevalence in some breeds. This study investigated the early outcome of existing SM breeding guidelines. Six hundred and forty-three dogs, 550 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and 93 Griffon Bruxellois (GB), were identified as having either one (454 dogs) or both parents (189 dogs) with MRI-determined SM status. Offspring without SM were more common when the parents were both clear of SM (SM-free; CKCS 70 per cent, GB 73 per cent). Conversely, offspring with SM were more likely when both parents had SM (SM-affected; CKCS 92 per cent, GB 100 per cent). A mating of one SM-free parent with an SM-affected parent was risky for SM affectedness with 77 per cent of CKCS and 46 per cent of GB offspring being SM-affected. It is recommended that all breeding dogs from breeds susceptible to SM be MRI screened; that the SM status at five years old is established; and all results submitted to a central database that can be used by dog breeders to better enable mate selection based on estimated breeding values.

  18. Primordial evolvability: Impasses and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Vera; Fernando, Chrisantha; Szilágyi, András; Zachár, István; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    While it is generally agreed that some kind of replicating non-living compounds were the precursors of life, there is much debate over their possible chemical nature. Metabolism-first approaches propose that mutually catalytic sets of simple organic molecules could be capable of self-replication and rudimentary chemical evolution. In particular, the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, depicting assemblies of amphiphilic molecules, has received considerable interest. The system propagates compositional information across generations and is suggested to be a target of natural selection. However, evolutionary simulations indicate that the system lacks selectability (i.e. selection has negligible effect on the equilibrium concentrations). We elaborate on the lessons learnt from the example of the GARD model and, more widely, on the issue of evolvability, and discuss the implications for similar metabolism-first scenarios. We found that simple incorporation-type chemistry based on non-covalent bonds, as assumed in GARD, is unlikely to result in alternative autocatalytic cycles when catalytic interactions are randomly distributed. An even more serious problem stems from the lognormal distribution of catalytic factors, causing inherent kinetic instability of such loops, due to the dominance of efficiently catalyzed components that fail to return catalytic aid. Accordingly, the dynamics of the GARD model is dominated by strongly catalytic, but not auto-catalytic, molecules. Without effective autocatalysis, stable hereditary propagation is not possible. Many repetitions and different scaling of the model come to no rescue. Despite all attempts to show the contrary, the GARD model is not evolvable, in contrast to reflexively autocatalytic networks, complemented by rare uncatalyzed reactions and compartmentation. The latter networks, resting on the creation and breakage of chemical bonds, can generate novel ('mutant') autocatalytic loops from a given set of

  19. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a bet...

  20. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  1. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cross-breeding of Zlotnicka Spotted sows with Duroc and Polish Large White boars on the quality of meat of crossbred fatteners. The investigation was done on 50 carcasses of fatteners from four genetic groups: Zlotnicka Spotted x Zlotnicka Spotted (n = 20), Zlotnicka ...

  2. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: behavior and laboratory breeding success in three xyleborine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly understood. This may be in part because of their cryptic life habits within the wood of trees. Here we present data obtained by varying a laboratory breeding technique based on artificial medium inside glass tubes, which enables behavioral observations. We studied species of the three most widespread genera of Xyleborina in the temperate zone: Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus. We raised several generations of each species with good breeding success in two types of media. The proportion of females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg producing offspring within 40 d depended significantly on founder female origin, which shows a transgenerational effect. Labor-intensive microbial sterilization techniques did not increase females' breeding success relative to a group of females shortly treated with ethanol. Gallery productivity measured as the mean number of mature offspring produced after 40 d varied between species and was weakly affected by the type of medium used and foundress origin (field or laboratory) in X. saxesenii, whereas different preparation and sterilization techniques of the beetles had no effect. Behavioral observations showed the time course of different reproductive stages and enabled to obtain detailed behavioral information in all species studied. We propose that the laboratory techniques we describe here are suited for extensive studies of sociality and modes of agriculture in the xyleborine ambrosia beetles, which may yield important insights into the evolution of fungal agriculture and advanced social organization.

  3. Peripartum hysterectomy: an evolving picture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.

  4. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  5. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies.

  6. Breed distribution of the nt230(del4) MDR1 mutation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Irina; Leidolf, Regina; Döring, Barbara; Klintzsch, Stefanie; Krämer, Eva-Maria; Yalcin, Ebru; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    A 4-bp deletion mutation associated with multiple drug sensitivity exists in the canine multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. This mutation has been detected in more than 10 purebred dog breeds as well as in mixed breed dogs. To evaluate the breed distribution of this mutation in Germany, 7378 dogs were screened, including 6999 purebred and 379 mixed breed dogs. The study included dog breeds that show close genetic relationship or share breeding history with one of the predisposed breeds but in which the occurrence of the MDR1 mutation has not been reported. The breeds comprised Bearded Collies, Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Greyhound, Belgian Tervuren, Kelpie, Borzoi, Australian Cattle Dog and the Irish Wolfhound. The MDR1 mutation was not detected is any of these breeds, although it was found as expected in the Collie, Longhaired Whippet, Shetland Sheepdog, Miniature Australian Shepherd, Australian Shepherd, Wäller, White Swiss Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog and Border Collie with varying allelic frequencies for the mutant MDR1 allele of 59%, 45%, 30%, 24%, 22%, 17%, 14%, 4% and 1%, respectively. Allelic frequencies of 8% and 2% were determined in herding breed mixes and unclassified mixed breeds, respectively. Because of its widespread breed distribution and occurrence in many mixed breed dogs, it is difficult for veterinarians and dog owners to recognise whether MDR1-related drug sensitivity is relevant for an individual animal. This study provides a comprehensive overview of all affected dog breeds and many dog breeds that are probably unaffected on the basis of ∼15,000 worldwide MDR1 genotyping data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity within and between European pig breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanCristobal, M; Chevalet, C; Haley, C S; Joosten, R; Rattink, A P; Harlizius, B; Groenen, M A M; Amigues, Y; Boscher, M-Y; Russell, G; Law, A; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Désautés, C; Alderson, L; Fimland, E; Bagga, M; Delgado, J V; Vega-Pla, J L; Martinez, A M; Ramos, M; Glodek, P; Meyer, J N; Gandini, G C; Matassino, D; Plastow, G S; Siggens, K W; Laval, G; Archibald, A L; Milan, D; Hammond, K; Cardellino, R

    2006-06-01

    An important prerequisite for a conservation programme is a comprehensive description of genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to use anonymous genetic markers to assess the between- and the within-population components of genetic diversity for European pig breeds at the scale of the whole continent using microsatellites. Fifty-eight European pig breeds and lines were analysed including local breeds, national varieties of international breeds and commercial lines. A sample of the Chinese Meishan breed was also included. Eleven additional breeds from a previous project were added for some analyses. Approximately 50 individuals per breed were genotyped for a maximum of 50 microsatellite loci. Substantial within-breed variability was observed, with the average expected heterozygosity and observed number of alleles per locus being 0.56 [range 0.43-0.68] and 4.5 respectively. Genotypic frequencies departed from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P < 0.01) in 15 European populations, with an excess of homozygotes in 12 of them. The European breeds were on average genetically very distinct, with a Wright F(ST) index value of 0.21. The Neighbour-Joining tree drawn from the Reynolds distances among the breeds showed that the national varieties of major breeds and the commercial lines were mostly clustered around their breeds of reference (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Large White and Piétrain). In contrast, local breeds, with the exception of the Iberian breeds, exhibited a star-like topology. The results are discussed in the light of various forces, which may have driven the recent evolution of European pig breeds. This study has consequences for the interpretation of biodiversity results and will be of importance for future conservation programmes.

  8. Temporal Feeding Pattern May Influence Reproduction Efficiency, the Example of Breeding Mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhajali, Haifa; Ezzaouia, Mohammed; Lunel, Christophe; Charfi, Faouzia; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the “continuous feeding” group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding. PMID:24098636

  9. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  10. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  11. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  12. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  13. Amino acids content and electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Salmen, Saleh H.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Al-Saleh, Abdulrahman A.; Metwalli, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study.

  14. Advances in Diagnostics and Therapeutic Techniques in Breeding Behavior Disorders in Stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sue M

    2016-12-01

    Despite the suboptimal aspects of domestic breeding conditions compared with the natural conditions under which their reproductive behavior evolved, most domestic stallions can adapt to management and breeding programs. Most respond adequately or quickly learn to safely abide the restraint and direction of a human handler, and can adapt to changes in methods of breeding for semen collection. If not, the problems can range from inadequate or variable sexual interest and response to overenthusiastic or aggressive response beyond the ability of the handlers to safely direct and control. This article discusses veterinary evaluation as well as housing and handling strategies for addressing stallion breeding behavior problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) using dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS)-based approach: case study of Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present application of an artificial intelligence (AI) technique model called dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS) based on an evolving clustering method (ECM), for modelling dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. To demonstrate the forecasting capability of DENFIS, a one year period from 1 January 2009 to 30 December 2009, of hourly experimental water quality data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 420853121505500) station at Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA, were used for model development. Two DENFIS-based models are presented and compared. The two DENFIS systems are: (1) offline-based system named DENFIS-OF, and (2) online-based system, named DENFIS-ON. The input variables used for the two models are water pH, temperature, specific conductance, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott index of agreement (d) and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. The lowest root mean square error and highest correlation coefficient values were obtained with the DENFIS-ON method. The results obtained with DENFIS models are compared with linear (multiple linear regression, MLR) and nonlinear (multi-layer perceptron neural networks, MLPNN) methods. This study demonstrates that DENFIS-ON investigated herein outperforms all the proposed techniques for DO modelling.

  16. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  17. Genetic Distinctiveness of the Herdwick Sheep Breed and Two Other Locally Adapted Hill Breeds of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus. PMID

  18. Development and establishment of a protocol of an individual aggressiveness test in breeding does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Olivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to define the optimal conditions to perform a resident-intruder test in individually housed breeding does as a measure of aggressiveness and describe the biological characteristics of aggressiveness in rabbit does: severity, frequency, duration and latency of aggressive events. Sixty-four nulliparous does at 90 d of age were used for this experiment, half (32 does as residents and the rest as intruders, testing them once a week for 14 wk. The time and duration of each aggressive behaviour was recorded and analysed to assess the aforementioned measures. According to the results, and regarding the studied effects, the origin of the animals caused no effect, whereas the level of aggressiveness seemed to be clearly increased in weeks 3-7 of the experiment, when animals were 110-140 d of age. In conclusion, a resident-intruder test lasting 1 min is enough to assess individual aggressiveness in adult breeding does, the response of which evolves with age and repetition.

  19. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  20. Policies to promote socialization and welfare in dog breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Dog breeding is an unregulated industry in British Columbia and most of Canada, resulting in poor outcomes in some dogs’ welfare: genetic make-up, physical health, and mental health. This suffering in dogs results in subsequent costs to taxpayers and dog guardians. This study explores the question: How can British Columbia overcome the negative externalities surrounding the welfare and socialization of dogs in the dog- breeding industry? Policies in five countries are reviewed, informed by le...

  1. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared ...

  2. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared...

  3. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, S F A; Meijndert, L E; Fieten, H; Carrière, B J; van Steenbeek, F G; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J; Nielen, M

    2017-05-01

    Current public and professional opinion is that many dog breeds suffer from health issues related to inherited diseases or extreme phenotypes. The aim of this historical comparative observational study was to evaluate the breed-related disease burden in three purebred dog populations (Chihuahua, French bulldog, Labrador retriever) and one purebred cat breed (Persian cats) in the Netherlands by comparison to a control population of mixed-breed dogs and European Shorthair cats. A qualitative query was performed, consisting of a literature review and collecting the expert opinions of University veterinary specialists, to gather insight into potential diseases of the study population. Next, a referral clinic case control study of the patients referred to specific medical disciplines in the University Clinic was performed. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the likelihood of a patient referred to a particular medical discipline being a certain breed. Together, the qualitative query and the case control study resulted in a list of potentially relevant diseases limited to five organ systems per breed. These were analysed in data from primary practices. Patient files from ten primary practices over a period of two years were manually extracted and examined. Four-hundred individual patient records per breed as well as 1000 non-breed records were randomly selected from the 10 practices, weighted per practice size. Records were then examined and the presence or absence of certain diseases was identified. To evaluate the disease burden per breed, proportional difference (PD) was estimated, as well as the animal's age at presentation in months. The results of the referral clinic case control study showed an overrepresentation (Odds Ratio>1.5) of the selected breeds in several medical specialties, while median age at presentation was in some cases significantly lower than in the non-breed animals. Results of the practice-based extended cross-sectional study showed

  4. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN CATTLE BREEDS USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REBEDEA MARIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a genetic characterization of cattle breeds in Romania based onbiochemical markers in the blood and the milk. The surveyed breeds are: RomanianBlack Spotted Cattle (BNR, Romanian Spotted Cattle (BR, Romanian Brown (Band Romanian Steppe, and the markers identified are represented by some proteins,serum transferrin (Tf, serum albumins (Al, hemoglobin (Hb respectively-from theblood and beta-lactoglobulin (βLg-from the milk. In order to determine thegenotypes in the studied populations electrophoresis was used in three differentvariations, depending on the type of the protein, and the migration substrates usedwere starch and polyacrylamide. The identified genetic structures in the individualsfrom the surveyed breeds allowed their genetic characterization based on gene andgenotype frequencies, as well as using these data in establishing the identity andpaternity of the individuals in the surveyed breeds.

  5. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variale, V; Rainò, A C; Clauser, T

    2012-02-01

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  6. Survivability is more fundamental than evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Palmer

    Full Text Available For a lineage to survive over long time periods, it must sometimes change. This has given rise to the term evolvability, meaning the tendency to produce adaptive variation. One lineage may be superior to another in terms of its current standing variation, or it may tend to produce more adaptive variation. However, evolutionary outcomes depend on more than standing variation and produced adaptive variation: deleterious variation also matters. Evolvability, as most commonly interpreted, is not predictive of evolutionary outcomes. Here, we define a predictive measure of the evolutionary success of a lineage that we call the k-survivability, defined as the probability that the lineage avoids extinction for k generations. We estimate the k-survivability using multiple experimental replicates. Because we measure evolutionary outcomes, the initial standing variation, the full spectrum of generated variation, and the heritability of that variation are all incorporated. Survivability also accounts for the decreased joint likelihood of extinction of sub-lineages when they 1 disperse in space, or 2 diversify in lifestyle. We illustrate measurement of survivability with in silico models, and suggest that it may also be measured in vivo using multiple longitudinal replicates. The k-survivability is a metric that enables the quantitative study of, for example, the evolution of 1 mutation rates, 2 dispersal mechanisms, 3 the genotype-phenotype map, and 4 sexual reproduction, in temporally and spatially fluctuating environments. Although these disparate phenomena evolve by well-understood microevolutionary rules, they are also subject to the macroevolutionary constraint of long-term survivability.

  7. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  8. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  9. Plant mutation breeding and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Q. Y; Forster, Brian P; Nakagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    ... (FAO / IAEA) Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, with its global coordinating and synergistic roles, that plant mutation breeding became a common tool available to plant breeders worldwide. Since these early days the Joint Division continues to play a considerable role in fostering the use of mutation techni...

  10. CERN internal communication is evolving

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here).      Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website​. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-κB pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  12. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  13. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  14. Effects of spring conditions on breeding propensity of Greater Snow Goose females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed, E. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding propensity, defined as the probability that a sexually mature adult will breed in a given year, is an important determinant of annual productivity. It is also one of the least known demographic parameters in vertebrates. We studied the relationship between breeding propensity and conditions on spring staging areas (a spring conservation hunt and the breeding grounds (spring snow cover in Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica, a long distance migrant that breeds in the High Arctic. We combined information from mark–recapture, telemetry, and nest survey data to estimate breeding propensity over a 7– year period. True temporal variation in breeding propensity was considerable (mean: 0.574 [95% CI considering only process variation: 0.13 to 1.0]. Spring snow cover was negatively related to breeding propensity (bsnow=-2,05 ± 0,96 SE and tended to be reduced in years with a spring hunt (b = -0,78 ± 0,35. Nest densities on the breeding colony and fall ratios of young:adults were good indices of annual variation in breeding propensity, with nest densities being slightly more precise. These results suggest that conditions encountered during the pre-breeding period can have a significant impact on productivity of Arctic-nesting birds

  15. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale development on consumer behavior toward counterfeit drugs in a developing country: a quantitative study exploiting the tools of an evolving paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2013-09-11

    Although desperate need and drug counterfeiting are linked in developing countries, little research has been carried out to address this link, and there is a lack of proper tools and methodology. This study addresses the need for a new methodological approach by developing a scale to aid in understanding the demand side of drug counterfeiting in a developing country. The study presents a quantitative, non-representative survey conducted in Sudan. A face-to-face structured interview survey methodology was employed to collect the data from the general population (people in the street) in two phases: pilot (n = 100) and final survey (n = 1003). Data were analyzed by examining means, variances, squared multiple correlations, item-to-total correlations, and the results of an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. As an approach to scale purification, internal consistency was examined and improved. The scale was reduced from 44 to 41 items and Cronbach's alpha improved from 0.818 to 0.862. Finally, scale items were assessed. The result was an eleven-factor solution. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that the "Consumer Behavior Toward Counterfeit Drugs Scale" is a valid, reliable measure with a solid theoretical base. Ultimately, the study offers public health policymakers a valid measurement tool and, consequently, a new methodological approach with which to build a better understanding of the demand side of counterfeit drugs and to develop more effective strategies to combat the problem.

  17. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  18. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  19. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lammel; I. Stemmler

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.
    &...

  20. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lammel; I. Stemmler

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

  1. Evolving patterns in the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy: data from a prospective Central European multicenter study with proposal of a new histologic scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Schmack, Bertram; Bordel, Hartmut; Höfler, Bernd; Eherer, Andreas; Schulz, Tilman; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-12-01

    Histologic examination of gastric biopsies is crucial for determining the cause of gastritis. This prospective multicenter study was undertaken to investigate different histologic parameters arguing in favor or against the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy and to correlate findings with patient's symptoms and endoscopic findings. A total of 1123 individuals aged 15-93 years participated in a prospective multicenter study (histoGERD trial). Diagnosis of Helicobacter gastritis was made following the Updated Sydney System. Diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was based upon Dixon's parameters of foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers in the lamina propria and vasodilatation and congestion of mucosal capillaries. Including paucity of acute and chronic inflammatory cells in analysis, a new score with visual analog scales for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy was developed. All three histologic parameters in favor of the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy were positively associated with the endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis (p acute and chronic inflammatory cells in lamina propria was positively associated with Helicobacter infection (p gastritis. Our score demonstrated strong association between histologic and endoscopic diagnoses (p < 0.001), yet not with patient's symptoms. In conclusion, our data prove foveolar hyperplasia, smooth muscle fibers and vasodilatation and congestion as key histologic parameters for the diagnosis of reactive gastropathy. The proposed score may enhance the diagnostic accuracy. It should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  3. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  4. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  5. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  6. Morphological and milkability breed differences of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bobić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical characteristics of dairy cattle are not equal for all breeds, meaning that the morphological traits of udder and teats could favor an individual performance or a determined breed. Changes in teat tissue after machine milking occur because of the negative influence of the vacuum and mechanical forces of the teat cup liner. Duration and performance of machine milking also depend on the udder and teat conformation and milkability traits of cows. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of Simmental and Holstein cows before and after machine milking, as well as to elaborate the differences in some of milkability traits of the cows during process of milking. A correlation (from -0.30 to 0.37 was determined between exterior and interior traits of teats and the performance of milkability traits. In both cow breeds, statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 was found between the pre- and post-milking values in all investigated traits, with exception of teat end width. Holstein cows had significantly (p<0.001 higher amount of milk per milking, maximum and average milk flow, while cows of the Simmental breed had longer milking time duration, but without statistical significance. In comparison to Holstein breed, results of internal morphological traits of teats showed that cows of Simmental breed had longer teat canals and wider teat ends for both front and rear teats. Holstein breed compared to Simmental had thinner teats wall, but wider teat cistern. If compared to pre-milking stage, differences in teat cistern width and teat wall thickness that occur after milking were more expressed in the Holstein breed than in Simmental. Simmental cows had significantly (p<0.05 longer and wider rear teats. Future research should focus on proving the differences in changes of teat tissue due to milking between different groups of cows, as depending on the milk flow. Ultrasound method of recording can be

  7. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Evolving treatment implementation among HIV-infected pregnant women and their partners: results from a national surveillance study in Italy, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridia, Marco; Frisina, Valentina; Ravizza, Marina; Marconi, Anna Maria; Pinnetti, Carmela; Cetin, Irene; Sansone, Matilde; Molinari, Atim; Cervi, Francesca; Meloni, Alessandra; Luzi, Kety; Masuelli, Giulia; Tamburrini, Enrica

    2017-06-01

    The current global and national indications for antiretroviral treatment (ART, usually triple combination therapy) in adolescent and adults, including pregnant women, recommend early ART before immunologic decline, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV-negative partners in serodiscordant couples. There is limited information on the implementation of these recommendations among pregnant women with HIV and their partners. The present analysis was performed in 2016, using data from clinical records of pregnant women with HIV, followed between 2001 and 2015 at hospital or university clinics within a large, nationally representative Italian cohort study. The study period was divided in three intervals of five years each (2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015), and the analysis evaluated temporal trends in rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy, maternal antiretroviral treatment at conception, prevalence of HIV infection among partners of pregnant women with HIV, and proportion of seronegative and seropositive male partners receiving antiretroviral treatment. The analysis included 2755 pregnancies in women with HIV. During the three time intervals considered the rate of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy (overall 23.3%), and the distribution of HIV status among male partners (overall 48.7% HIV-negative, 28.6% HIV-positive and 22.8% unknown) remained substantially unchanged. Significant increases were observed in the proportion of women with HIV diagnosed before pregnancy who were on antiretroviral treatment at conception (from 62.0% in 2001-2005 to 81.3% in 2011-2015, P HIV-positive partners on antiretroviral treatment (from 73.3% in 2001-2005 to 95.8% in 2011-2015, P = 0.002). Antiretroviral treatment was administered in 99.1% of the pregnancies that did not end early because of miscarriage, termination, or intrauterine death, and in 75.3% of those not ending in a live birth. No implementation of antiretroviral treatment was introduced among male HIV

  9. The evolving relationship between premorbid intelligence and serious depression across the lifespan - A longitudinal study of 43,540 Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Emil; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma

    2017-03-15

    An association between higher intelligence and lower probability of serious depression has previously been established. Yet, to our knowledge, no large prospective study has examined the relationship across the lifespan. A cohort of 49,321 Swedish men was followed from conscription in 1969-70 (age 18-20) through to 2008. Odds ratios (OR) for first time hospitalisation for depression (FTHD) were calculated in relation to intelligence for distinct time periods across the lifespan, while controlling for established risk factors for depression. There was a linear association between higher intelligence in youth and lower odds for FTHD during the entire follow-up period, 1973-2008. The association got progressively weaker across the lifespan. During 1973-80, one step down on the stanine scale was associated with an unadjusted increase in OR of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.42], adjusted OR 1.23 [1.15-1.32]; while, during 2001-2008, the ORs were less than half of the magnitude of the first period, unadjusted 1.14 [1.07-1.21], and adjusted 1.09 [1.01-1.17]. The study includes men only, and the number of available places for in-patient care decreased during the follow-up period. For the first time, we have shown that the association between lower intelligence and depression decreases over time. The attenuation of the association in the adjusted models suggests a slower accumulation of depressogenic stressors among people with a higher IQ-score. Further exploration of intelligence's role in the etiology of depression across the lifespan is required in order to facilitate adequate diagnoses and ameliorating interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson James R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy (IE is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD, and Beagles, and that the gene(s responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Results Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Conclusions Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  11. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Patterson, Edward E; Minor, Katie M; Mickelson, James R

    2011-04-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS), Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD), and Beagles, and that the gene(s) responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  12. Frequency of gray coat color in native Chinese horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, K X; Chen, N B; Liu, W J; Li, R; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Dang, R H

    2015-10-30

    Gray horses are born colored, and they then gradually lose their hair pigmentation. Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for graying with age in horses in recent years. Results show that gray coat color in horses is caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of the syntaxin 17 gene (STX17), which constitutes a cis-acting-regulatory mutation. However, little is known about the gray phenotype in native Chinese horses. This study was conducted to explore the frequency distribution of the gray mutation in native Chinese horse breeds. A total of 489 samples from 14 native Chinese horse breeds were genotyped for the STX17 duplication using a simplified conventional PCR-based method. The results show that the gray mutation was present in 12 native Chinese horse breeds, except the Balikun and Guanzhong breeds. The Chakouyi and Hequ breeds had the highest frequency of the gray mutation (P(G) = 0.367 and P(G) = 0.274, respectively). There was no significant geographical difference in the distribution of gray coat color across native Chinese horse breeds. Our results suggest that gray is a common coat color in Chinese horses.

  13. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  14. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  15. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Mette Sagbakken,1,2 Bernadette Kumar2 1Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Norwegian Centre for Minority Health Research, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda – both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway’s approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants’ support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence

  16. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  17. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  18. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  19. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  20. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species