WorldWideScience

Sample records for breed mapping approach

  1. Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Bannasch

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.

  2. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  3. Biotechnological approaches to rose breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The production of new rose cultivars by sexual crossing is problematic and time consuming due to sexual incompatibility. the failure of seeds to genninate. and to a limited gene pool. Biotechnology provides an obvious alternative for the creation of genetic novelty in rose. This thesis focuses on the development of novel approaches, based on embryo rescue, pollen cryopreservation, protoplast and transformation technologies. A reproducible embryo rescue technique was developed in which embr...

  4. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  5. Genetic Map of Mango: A Tool for Mango Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, David N.; Bally, Ian S. E.; Dillon, Natalie L.; Innes, David; Groh, Amy M.; Rahaman, Jordon; Ophir, Ron; Cohen, Yuval; Sherman, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop. Most of the current commercial cultivars are selections rather than the products of breeding programs. To improve the efficiency of mango breeding, molecular markers have been used to create a consensus genetic map that identifies all 20 linkage groups in seven mapping populations. Polyembryony is an important mango trait, used for clonal propagation of cultivars and rootstocks. In polyembryonic mango cultivars, in addition to a zygotic embryo, several apomictic embryos develop from maternal tissue surrounding the fertilized egg cell. This trait has been associated with linkage group 8 in our consensus genetic map and has been validated in two of the seven mapping populations. In addition, we have observed a significant association between trait and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the vegetative trait of branch habit and the fruit traits of bloom, ground skin color, blush intensity, beak shape, and pulp color. PMID:28473837

  6. Prospects for whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping in domestic dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Changbaig; Filippich, Lucio J; Lea, Rod A; Shepherd, Graeme; Hughes, Ian P; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is commonly used as a fine mapping tool in human genome mapping and has been used with some success for initial disease gene isolation in certain isolated in-bred human populations. An understanding of the population history of domestic dog breeds suggests that LD mapping could be routinely utilized in this species for initial genome-wide scans. Such an approach offers significant advantages over traditional linkage analysis. Here, we demonstrate, using canine copper toxicosis in the Bedlington terrier as the model, that LD mapping could be reasonably expected to be a useful strategy in low-resolution, genome-wide scans in pure-bred dogs. Significant LD was demonstrated over distances up to 33.3 cM. It is very unlikely, for a number of reasons discussed, that this result could be extrapolated to the rest of the genome. It is, however, consistent with the expectation given the population structure of canine breeds and, in this breed at least, with the hypothesis that it may be possible to utilize LD in a genome-wide scan. In this study, LD mapping confirmed the location of the copper toxicosis in Bedlington terrier gene (CT-BT) and was able to do so in a population that was refractory to traditional linkage analysis.

  7. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rohani; Ali, Wan N W M; Nor, Zurainee M; Ismail, Zamree; Hadi, Azahari A; Ibrahim, Mohd N; Lim, Lee H

    2011-12-13

    The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  8. Perspectives on genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In highly heterogeneous eucalypts, while conventional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping has revealed useful markers that are currently exploited in within-family selection tactics, only a more direct linkage disequilibrium mapping approach will likely uncover population-wide applicable marker–trait associations. Due to ...

  9. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  10. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  11. An update on conventional and molecular breeding approaches for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... Review. An update on conventional and molecular breeding approaches for improving fiber quality traits in cotton -. A review. Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar1,2*, Karuppanasamy Senthil Kumar3 and. Rajasekaran Ravikesavan3. 1Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural ...

  12. Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Bink, Marco Cam; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Chancerel, Emilie; Boury, Christophe; Lesur, Isabelle; Isik, Fikret; Bouffier, Laurent; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this study, two full-sib families and one breeding population of maritime pine were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for height growth and stem straightness, through linkage analysis (LA) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approaches. The populations used for LA consisted of two unrelated three-generation full-sib families (n = 197 and n = 477). These populations were assessed for height growth or stem straightness and genotyped for 248 and 217 markers, respectively. The population used for LD mapping consisted of 661 founders of the first and second generations of the breeding program. This population was phenotyped for the same traits and genotyped for 2,498 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers corresponding to 1,652 gene loci. The gene-based reference genetic map of maritime pine was used to localize and compare the QTLs detected by the two approaches, for both traits. LA identified three QTLs for stem straightness and two QTLs for height growth. The LD study yielded seven significant associations (P ≤ 0.001): four for stem straightness and three for height growth. No colocalisation was found between QTLs identified by LA and SNPs detected by LD mapping for the same trait. This study provides the first comparison of LA and LD mapping approaches in maritime pine, highlighting the complementary nature of these two approaches for deciphering the genetic architecture of two mandatory traits of the breeding program.

  13. Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bartholomé

    Full Text Available Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this study, two full-sib families and one breeding population of maritime pine were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for height growth and stem straightness, through linkage analysis (LA and linkage disequilibrium (LD mapping approaches.The populations used for LA consisted of two unrelated three-generation full-sib families (n = 197 and n = 477. These populations were assessed for height growth or stem straightness and genotyped for 248 and 217 markers, respectively. The population used for LD mapping consisted of 661 founders of the first and second generations of the breeding program. This population was phenotyped for the same traits and genotyped for 2,498 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers corresponding to 1,652 gene loci. The gene-based reference genetic map of maritime pine was used to localize and compare the QTLs detected by the two approaches, for both traits. LA identified three QTLs for stem straightness and two QTLs for height growth. The LD study yielded seven significant associations (P ≤ 0.001: four for stem straightness and three for height growth. No colocalisation was found between QTLs identified by LA and SNPs detected by LD mapping for the same trait.This study provides the first comparison of LA and LD mapping approaches in maritime pine, highlighting the complementary nature of these two approaches for deciphering the genetic architecture of two mandatory traits of the breeding program.

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci in plant breeding populations : Use of parental haplotype sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Beavis, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Applied breeding programs evaluate large numbers of progeny derived from multiple related crosses for a wide range of agronomic traits and for tens to hundreds of molecular markers. This study was conducted to determine how these phenotypic and genetic data could be used for routinely mapping

  15. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however......, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...

  16. Approaches in breeding for high quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Miloje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most African and South American countries. The main problem in human nutrition in developing countries, and in livestock feed in developed countries, is insufficient production and poor quality of cereal proteins. In the case of maize, due to the very low content of essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan in grain endosperm, biological value is very low, which is main limiting factor of common maize in human nutrition and feeding of monogastric animals. Quality protein maize (QPM can help in solving of this problem. Maize production also faces serious constraints caused by agro-ecological conditions and poor socio-economic situation. To alleviate the effect of the constraints, selected genotypes with more desirable traits and appropriate field-plot techniques to create multiple-stress conditions, were used. It was found that, in downy mildew nursery distance up to 35 m from spreader plot is providing sufficient down load of spores for plant infection, provided that the testing breeding materials are planted towards to down-stream direction of the dominant wind. Using these breeding approaches large number of early, white and flint synthetics, composites and inbred lines were created with resistance or tolerance to downy mildew (DMR, maize streak virus (SR and drought (DT. Created genotypes exhibited very good kernel modification and yield potential under low and normal inputs. In the case of synthetics and composites, besides tolerance to multiple stress factors, they were competing in yield with local QPM and normal maize checks. In the case of created inbred lines high combining ability was exhibited both in non-conventional and conventional maize hybrids. Trial data revealed that in the most cases the best entries were over-yielding the best checks.

  17. Waterlogging tolerance of crops: breeding, mechanism of tolerance, molecular approaches, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Rafii, M Y; Ismail, M R; Juraimi, A S; Rahim, H A; Asfaliza, R; Latif, M A

    2013-01-01

    Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.

  18. Waterlogging Tolerance of Crops: Breeding, Mechanism of Tolerance, Molecular Approaches, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.

  19. QTL mapping of fruit mineral contents provides new chances for molecular breeding of tomato nutritional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Carmen; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; López-Casado, Gloria; Angosto, Trinidad; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Lozano, Rafael; Capel, Juan

    2017-05-01

    Agronomical characterization of a RIL population for fruit mineral contents allowed for the identification of QTL controlling these fruit quality traits, flanked by co-dominant markers useful for marker-assisted breeding. Tomato quality is a multi-variant attribute directly depending on fruit chemical composition, which in turn determines the benefits of tomato consumption for human health. Commercially available tomato varieties possess limited variability in fruit quality traits. Wild species, such as Solanum pimpinellifolium, could provide different nutritional advantages and can be used for tomato breeding to improve overall fruit quality. Determining the genetic basis of the inheritance of all the traits that contribute to tomato fruit quality will increase the efficiency of the breeding program necessary to take advantage of the wild species variability. A high-density linkage map has been constructed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between tomato Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-relative species S. pimpinellifolium. The RIL population was evaluated for fruit mineral contents during three consecutive growing seasons. The data obtained allowed for the identification of main QTL and novel epistatic interaction among QTL controlling fruit mineral contents on the basis of a multiple-environment analysis. Most of the QTL were flanked by candidate genes providing valuable information for both tomato breeding for new varieties with novel nutritional properties and the starting point to identify the genes underlying these QTL, which will help to reveal the genetic basis of tomato fruit nutritional properties.

  20. Morphological characterization of breeds of sheep: a discriminant analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah-Boaheng, Michael; Sam, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the characterisation and separation/discrimination of three sheep breeds (crosses, West African Dwarfs (WAD) and West African Long Legged (WALL)] based on their physical traits (morphological characterisation) was investigated extensively with the application of discriminant analysis. The study's main objective was specifically based on developing a variable selection criterion that can discriminate best among the three sheep breeds and as well as obtain a reliable mathematical function/equation (discriminant functions) for provision of maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds. Data from College of Education, Mampong animal farms on various breeds of sheep (hybrid/crossed breed, Sahell/WALL and Djallonke/WAD) was used. Factor Analysis was employed as a variable selection criterion for selecting six sheep traits that can discriminate best among the sheep breeds. Canonical discriminant function was derived for the eight variable data set and was compared with the derived quadratic discriminant functions (QDFs) using the six extracted sheep traits. The six variable QDF distance classifier provided maximum separation after cross validation than the 8-variable canonical discriminant functions. The derived mathematical functions (QDFs) were able to provide maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds with a correct classification rate of 0.86.

  1. Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L

    2008-01-01

    A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over...... mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker......-assisted selection. Pleiotropic effects of the mastitis QTL were studied for three milk production traits and eight udder conformation traits. This QTL was also associated with yield traits in DR but not in FA or SRB. No QTL were found for udder conformation traits on chromosome 9...

  2. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour

  3. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Lassen, J.; Haas, de Y.

    2015-01-01

    The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite no

  4. An update on conventional and molecular breeding approaches for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. represents the most important, natural fibre crop in the world. India is the only country cultivating all the four cultivated species of cotton. Among the Gossypium spp., Gossypium hirsutum is the most cultivated species in many countries. Breeding for high cotton yield is still the primary goal of ...

  5. A Bayesian Network Approach to Ontology Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Rong; Ding, Zhongli; Yu, Yang; Peng, Yun

    2005-01-01

    .... In this approach, the source and target ontologies are first translated into Bayesian networks (BN); the concept mapping between the two ontologies are treated as evidential reasoning between the two translated BNs...

  6. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  7. QTL mapping and breeding value estimation through pedigree-based analysis of fruit size and weight in four diverse peach breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Frett, Terrence J.; Sandefur, Paul J.; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Weg, van de Eric

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic base of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) challenges efforts to accurately dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Standardized phenotypic assessment of pedigree-linked breeding germplasm and new molecular strategies and analytical approaches developed and conducted

  8. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...... adult An. culicifacies in the bedrooms. Poor housing construction was an independent risk factor for malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Risk maps of malaria in Sri Lanka can be based on the location of houses relative to streams and rivers that are potential breeding sites for the malaria vector An. culicifacies...

  9. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  10. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse...... across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease....... breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary...

  11. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  12. Concepts Map Approach in e-Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is designed as an educational research study focused on e-Classroom as a medium of instruction based on assisted didactics design and teacher assisted learning in order to develop interactive applications, integrating concepts map approach. In this context, the paper proposes a specific conceptual framework applied in a theoretical model, as a base of an analytical framework used in a case study. Such a paradigm defines the classwork as the basic activity of the student which connects the fieldwork and the deskwork, and finally, it develops the basic and specific competencies of the individual according with the educational objectives.

  13. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppälä, Eija H; Hansen, Mark S T; Lawley, Cindy T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Bannasch, Danika; Vilà, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Häggström, Jens; Hedhammar, Ake; André, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T

    2011-10-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease.

  14. Mapping the mosaic of ancestral genotypes in a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) selected via pedigree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J

    2003-06-01

    Recent oilseed rape breeding has produced low glucosinolate cultivars that yield proteinaceous meal suitable for animal feed. The low glucosinolate character was introduced into modern cultivars from Brassica napus 'Bronowski', a cultivar that is agronomically inferior in most other respects. Residual segments of 'Bronowski' genotype in modern cultivars probably cause reduced yield, poorer winter hardiness, and lower oil content. The quantity and distribution of the 'Bronowski' genotype in the modern oilseed rape cultivar Brassica napus 'Tapidor' was investigated using a segregating population derived from a cross between 'Tapidor' and its high glucosinolate progenitor. This population was analyzed with 65 informative Brassica RFLP probes and a genetic linkage map, based on the segregation at 77 polymorphic loci, was constructed. The mapping identified 15 residual segments of donor genotype in 'Tapidor', which together occupy approximately 29% of the B. napus genome. Mapping the loci that control variation for the accumulation of total seed glucosinolates in the segregating population has identified three loci that together explain >90% of the variation for this character. All of these loci are in donor segments of the 'Tapidor' genome. This result shows the extent to which conventional breeding programmes have difficulty in eliminating residual segments of donor genotype from elite material.

  15. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  16. Linkage and association mapping for two major traits used in the maritime pine breeding program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Heerwaarden, van Joost; Chancerel, Emilie; Boury, Christophe; Lesur, Isabelle; Isik, Fikret; Bouffier, Laurent; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this

  17. RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online. April 27, 2016. Image. Roma Book Cover. After a decade of work developing the Outcome Mapping Approach, IDRC has played an important role in the development of ROMA, an adaptation of IDRC's original outcome mapping research. ROMA: A guide to policy ...

  18. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    colorimetric change near body temperature. This feature enables the use of this technique to generate high-quality images of sweat pores. This Account also focuses on the results of the most recent phase of this investigation, which led to the development of a simple yet efficient and reliable technique for sweat pore mapping. The method utilizes a hydrophilic polymer composite film containing fluorescein, a commercially available dye that undergoes a fluorometric response as a result of water-dependent interconversion between its ring-closed spirolactone (nonfluorescent) and ring-opened fluorone (fluorescent) forms. Surface-modified carbon nanodots (CDs) have also been found to be efficient for hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. The results discovered by Lou et al. [ Adv. Mater. 2015 , 27 , 1389 ] are also included in this Account. Sweat pore maps obtained from fingertips using these materials were found to be useful for fingerprint analysis. In addition, this hydrochromism-based approach is sufficiently sensitive to enable differentiation between sweat-secreting active pores and inactive pores. As a result, the techniques can be applied to clinical diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores. The directions that future research in this area will follow are also discussed.

  19. A Triple-Isotope Approach to Predict the Breeding Origins of European Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Sörgel, Karin; Luckner, Anja; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ciechanowski, Mateusz; Görföl, Tamás; Niermann, Ivo; Beuneux, Grégory; Mysłajek, Robert W.; Juste, Javier; Fonderflick, Jocelyn; Kelm, Detlev H.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a commitment by the European Union to protect its migratory bat populations, conservation efforts are hindered by a poor understanding of bat migratory strategies and connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. Traditional methods like mark-recapture are ineffective to study broad-scale bat migratory patterns. Stable hydrogen isotopes (δD) have been proven useful in establishing spatial migratory connectivity of animal populations. Before applying this tool, the method was calibrated using bat samples of known origin. Here we established the potential of δD as a robust geographical tracer of breeding origins of European bats by measuring δD in hair of five sedentary bat species from 45 locations throughout Europe. The δD of bat hair strongly correlated with well-established spatial isotopic patterns in mean annual precipitation in Europe, and therefore was highly correlated with latitude. We calculated a linear mixed-effects model, with species as random effect, linking δD of bat hair to precipitation δD of the areas of hair growth. This model can be used to predict breeding origins of European migrating bats. We used δ13C and δ15N to discriminate among potential origins of bats, and found that these isotopes can be used as variables to further refine origin predictions. A triple-isotope approach could thereby pinpoint populations or subpopulations that have distinct origins. Our results further corroborated stable isotope analysis as a powerful method to delineate animal migrations in Europe. PMID:22291947

  20. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

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  1. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  2. A Bayesian Network Approach to Ontology Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Rong; Ding, Zhongli; Yu, Yang; Peng, Yun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing effort on developing a principled methodology for automatic ontology mapping based on BayesOWL, a probabilistic framework we developed for modeling uncertainty in semantic web...

  3. Breeding high-yielding drought-tolerant rice: genetic variations and conventional and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Dixit, Shalabh; Ram, T; Yadaw, R B; Mishra, K K; Mandal, N P

    2014-11-01

    The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1 , qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 3.2 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 12.1 ) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. An Optimization Approach to Improving Collections of Shape Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Andy; Ben‐Chen, Mirela; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Finding an informative, structure‐preserving map between two shapes has been a long‐standing problem in geometry processing, involving a variety of solution approaches and applications. However, in many cases, we are given not only two related shapes, but a collection of them, and considering each......, and no intrinsic mapping algorithm can distinguish between them based on these two shapes alone. Another prominent issue with shape mapping algorithms is their relative sensitivity to how “similar” two shapes are — good maps are much easier to obtain when shapes are very similar. Given the context of additional...... shape maps connecting our collection, we propose to add the constraint of global map consistency, requiring that any composition of maps between two shapes should be independent of the path chosen in the network. This requirement can help us choose among the equally good symmetric alternatives, or help...

  5. Mapping of Id locus for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese indigenous chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiguo; Lin, Shudai; Gao, Xinfeng; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-12-01

    The dermal shank pigmentation, one of the defining traits of chicken breeds, is caused by an abnormal deposition of melanin in the dermis of the shank. The abnormal deposition is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id). In this study, we aim to locate the gene responsible for the dermal shank pigmentation in chickens by an association analysis and a differential expression analysis. Based on our results, 72 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in Z chromosome (chrZ): 71-73 Mb (galGal3) were selected to further explore their relationships with the dermal shank pigmentation in pure lines of 96 Gushi hens and 96 Gushi hens with a yellow shank skin colour. The results of the association analysis showed that the SNPs located in chrZ: 72.58-72.99 Mb (galGal3) (chrZ: 79.02-79.44 Mb (galGal4)) are significantly associated with the dermal shank pigmentation. Based on the results of our previous studies and the present association analysis, the zinc-finger protein 608 (ZNF608), GRAM domain containing 3 (GRAMD3), aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 (ALDH7A1), fem-1 homologue C (FEM1C), beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) and versican (VCAN) genes were selected for the differential expression analysis. The gene expression profiles showed that the expression of GRAMD3 gene in the dermis tissues of the shank was significantly (P = 0.010738 < 0.05) higher in 350-day-old Gushi chickens characterized by the dermal shank pigmentation than in one-day-old Gushi chickens. The dermal shank pigmentation was not present in the one-day-old Gushi chickens. Additionally, the results of the association analysis and the expression analysis showed that GRAMD3 could be the most likely candidate gene for the Id locus. However, we did not detect a mutation, i.e. significantly associated with this trait within GRAMD3. Therefore, we concluded that the variations located in the flanking region of GRAMD3 led to the abnormal expression of GRAMD3, which

  6. DNA Microarray as Part of a Genomic-Assisted Breeding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Bowra, Steve

    2010-01-01

    quality made crop breeding more challenging and required a combination of new tools. We illustrate these concepts by taking examples from barley, one of the most ancient of domesticated grains with a diverse profile of utilisation (feed, brewing, new nutritional uses). Genomic-assisted breeding (GAB...

  7. A microsatellite linkage map for the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) suggests extensive regions of homozygosity in the genome that may have resulted from breeding and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Passey, T; Surbanovski, N; Lopez Girona, E; Kuchta, P; Davik, J; Harrison, R; Passey, A; Whitehouse, A B; Simpson, D W

    2012-05-01

    The linkage maps of the cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa (2n = 8x = 56) that have been reported to date have been developed predominantly from AFLPs, along with supplementation with transferrable microsatellite (SSR) markers. For the investigation of the inheritance of morphological characters in the cultivated strawberry and for the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding and selection, it is desirable to populate maps of the genome with an abundance of transferrable molecular markers such as microsatellites (SSRs) and gene-specific markers. Exploiting the recent release of the genome sequence of the diploid F. vesca, and the publication of an extensive number of polymorphic SSR markers for the genus Fragaria, we have extended the linkage map of the 'Redgauntlet' × 'Hapil' (RG × H) mapping population to include a further 330 loci, generated from 160 primer pairs, to create a linkage map for F. × ananassa containing 549 loci, 490 of which are transferrable SSR or gene-specific markers. The map covers 2140.3 cM in the expected 28 linkage groups for an integrated map (where one group is composed of two separate male and female maps), which represents an estimated 91% of the cultivated strawberry genome. Despite the relative saturation of the linkage map on the majority of linkage groups, regions of apparent extensive homozygosity were identified in the genomes of 'Redgauntlet' and 'Hapil' which may be indicative of allele fixation during the breeding and selection of modern F. × ananassa cultivars. The genomes of the octoploid and diploid Fragaria are largely collinear, but through comparison of mapped markers on the RG × H linkage map to their positions on the genome sequence of F. vesca, a number of inversions were identified that may have occurred before the polyploidisation event that led to the evolution of the modern octoploid strawberry species.

  8. Iterated-map approach to die tossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldberg, Rasmus; Szymkat, Maciej; Knudsen, Carsten

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear dissipative mapping is applied to determine the trajectory of a two-dimensional die thrown onto an elastic table. The basins of attraction for different outcomes are obtained and their distribution in the space of initial conditions discussed. The system has certain properties in common...... with chaotic systems. However, a die falls to rest after a finite number of impacts, and therefore the system has a finite sensitivity to the initial conditions. Quantitative measures of this sensitivity are proposed and their variations with the initial momentum and orientation of the die investigated....

  9. Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of maize in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.

  10. Characteristics of epileptic episodes in UK dog breeds: an epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, A D; Dunne, A; Lohi, H; Boulton, S; Carter, S D; Timofte, D; Ollier, W E R

    2011-07-09

    In this study, previously unreported cohort characteristics and seizure patterns for canine epilepsy were identified from a series of UK-based epileptic dogs containing 1260 cases from 79 known pedigree breeds and a group of crossbreed dogs.

  11. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W.; Bhatnagar, Adrienne; Parker, Heidi G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies. PMID:27874836

  12. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Dayna L; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W; Bhatnagar, Adrienne; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayna L. Dreger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies.

  14. An algebraic geometric approach to integrable maps of the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jogia, Danesh [School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Roberts, John A G [School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Vivaldi, Franco [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-03

    We show that the dynamics of a birational map on an elliptic curve over a field is, typically, conjugate to addition by a point (under the associated group law). When the field is taken to be the function field of rational complex functions of one variable, this amounts to an algebraic geometric version of the Arnold-Liouville integrability theorem for planar integrable maps. By-products of this approach are that birational maps preserving foliations are necessarily the composition of two involutions, and that relationships between birational maps preserving the same foliation can be described in terms of the respective points they add on the corresponding Weierstrass curves. When the result is applied to finite fields, it helps explain some universal features of the periodic orbit distribution function for the reductions of integrable maps.

  15. Domestic Dogs and Cancer Research: A Breed-Based Genomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are unique from other animal models of cancer in that they generally experience spontaneous disease. In addition, most types of cancer observed in humans are found in dogs, suggesting that canines may be an informative system for the study of cancer genetics. Domestic dogs are divided into over 175 breeds, with members of each breed sharing significant phenotypes. The breed barrier enhances the utility of the model, especially for genetic studies where small numbers of genes are hypothesized to account for the breed cancer susceptibility. These facts, combined with recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an unrivaled ability to use pet dog populations to find often subtle mutations that promote cancer susceptibility and progression in dogs as a whole. The meticulous record keeping associated with dog breeding makes the model still more powerful, as it facilitates both association analysis and family-based linkage studies. Key to the success of these studies is their cooperative nature, with owners, scientists, veterinarians and breed clubs working together to avoid the cost and unpopularity of developing captive populations. In this article we explore these principals and advocate for colony-free, genetic studies that will enhance our ability to diagnose and treat cancer in dogs and humans alike. PMID:24936030

  16. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction. PMID:19284677

  17. Effects of the number of markers per haplotype and clustering of haplotypes on the accuracy of QTL mapping and prediction of genomic breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrooten Chris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of haplotype definition on the precision of QTL-mapping and on the accuracy of predicted genomic breeding values. In a multiple QTL model using identity-by-descent (IBD probabilities between haplotypes, various haplotype definitions were tested i.e. including 2, 6, 12 or 20 marker alleles and clustering base haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55, 0.75 or 0.95. Simulated data contained 1100 animals with known genotypes and phenotypes and 1000 animals with known genotypes and unknown phenotypes. Genomes comprising 3 Morgan were simulated and contained 74 polymorphic QTL and 383 polymorphic SNP markers with an average r2 value of 0.14 between adjacent markers. The total number of haplotypes decreased up to 50% when the window size was increased from two to 20 markers and decreased by at least 50% when haplotypes related with an IBD probability of > 0.55 instead of > 0.95 were clustered. An intermediate window size led to more precise QTL mapping. Window size and clustering had a limited effect on the accuracy of predicted total breeding values, ranging from 0.79 to 0.81. Our conclusion is that different optimal window sizes should be used in QTL-mapping versus genome-wide breeding value prediction.

  18. Mapping Smart Regions. An Exploratory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an exploratory approach aimed at extending the ranking procedures normally used in studying the socioeconomics determinants of smart growth at the regional level.   Most of these studies adopt a methodological procedure which essentially consists of the following steps: a identification of the pertinent elementary indicators according to the study objectives; b data selection and processing; c combination of the elementary indicators by multivariate statistical techniques aimed at obtaining a robust synthetic index to rank the observation units. In the procedure a relational dimension is mainly subsumed in the system oriented perspective adopted in selecting the indicators which would best represent the system determinants depending on the goals of the analysis (step a.  In order to get deeper insights into the smartness profile of the European regions, this study makes an effort to account of the relational dimension also in steps b and c of the procedure. The novelties of the proposed approach are twofold. First, by computing region-to-region distances associated with the selected indicators it extends the conventional ranking procedure (step c. Second, it uses a relational database (step b, dealing with the regional participation to the FP7-ICT project, to modify the distances and investigate its impact on the interpretation of the regional positioning.  The main results of this exercise seem to suggest that regional collaborations would have a positive role in regional convergence process. By providing an opportunity to get contacts with the areas endowed with a comparatively more robust smartness profile, regions may have a chance to enhance their own smartness profile.

  19. Multiple QTL mapping in related plant populations via a pedigree-analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.; Uimari, P.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Janss, L.L.G.; Jansen, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    QTL mapping experiments in plant breeding may involve multiple populations or pedigrees that are related through their ancestors. These known relationships have often been ignored for the sake of statistical analysis, despite their potential increase in power of mapping. We describe here a Bayesian

  20. Multiple QTL mapping in related plant populations via a pedigree-analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.; Uimari, P.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Janss, L.L.G.; Jansen, R.C.

    QTL mapping experiments in plant breeding may involve multiple populations or pedigrees that are related through their ancestors. These known relationships have often been ignored for the sake of statistical analysis, despite their potential increase in power of mapping. We describe here a Bayesian

  1. Multidisciplinary approach to genetic variability, inbreeding and fertility in the endangered Sorraia horse breed

    OpenAIRE

    Kjöllerström, Helena Josefina

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia da Conservação), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 The Sorraia horse is a primitive breed and regarded as a universal equine genetic resource. Recovered in 1937 in Font’Alva from 12 founder animals it has been managed as a closed population since. There are presently 10 Portuguese and eight German breeders. With only ~150 breeding mares and ~350 animals worldwide, the Sorraia horse population is in critical risk status. The Sorraia...

  2. Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2011-12-01

    Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly

  3. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  4. A linear programming approach for optimal contrast-tone mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithmic approach of image enhancement via optimal contrast-tone mapping. In a fundamental departure from the current practice of histogram equalization for contrast enhancement, the proposed approach maximizes expected contrast gain subject to an upper limit on tone distortion and optionally to other constraints that suppress artifacts. The underlying contrast-tone optimization problem can be solved efficiently by linear programming. This new constrained optimization approach for image enhancement is general, and the user can add and fine tune the constraints to achieve desired visual effects. Experimental results demonstrate clearly superior performance of the new approach over histogram equalization and its variants.

  5. Effect of concept mapping approach on students' achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the effect of concept mapping approach on students' achievement in Mathematics in Secondary School in NgorOkpala Local Government Area of Imo State. Based on the objective of the study, three hypotheses guided the study. The quasi-experimental research design was used in ...

  6. Transformation of the approach to breeding using genomics: Vison of USDA-ARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rice breeding methods have proven to be very successful with significant improvements in yield, grain quality, and resistances to biotic and abiotic stresses being seen in new cultivar releases every year. Research conducted by USDA ARS scientists at Stuttgart, Arkansas and Beaumont, Tex...

  7. Translocation as a novel approach to study effects of a new breeding habitat on reproductive output in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Claudia; Both, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions under which species reproduce have major consequences on breeding success and subsequent fitness. Therefore breeding habitat choice is ultimately important. Studies rarely address the potential fitness pay-offs of alternative natural breeding habitats by experimental

  8. An automated approach to map a French terminology to UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabti, Tayeb; Massari, Philipe; Joubert, Michel; Sadou, Eric; Lecroq, Thierry; Abdoune, Hocine; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Darmoni, Stefan J

    2010-01-01

    CCAM is a French terminology for coding clinical procedures. CCAM is a multi-hierarchical structured classification for procedures used in France for reimbursement in health care, which is external to UMLS. The objective of this work is to describe a French lexical approach allowing mapping CCAM procedures to the UMLS Metathesaurus to achieve interoperability to multiple international terminologies. This approach used a preliminary step intended to take only the significant characters used to code CCAM corresponding to anatomical and actions axes. According to the 7,926 CCAM codes used in this study, 5,212 possible matches (exact matching, single to multiple matching, partial matching) are found using the French CCAM to UMLS based mapping, 65% of the corresponding anatomical terms in the CCAM code are mapped to at least one UMLS Concept and 37% of the corresponding action terms in the CCAM code are mapped to at least one UMLS Concept. For all the exact matches found (n=200), 91% were rated by a human expert as narrower than the mapped UMLS Concepts, while only 3% were irrelevant.

  9. An automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, María; Lalín, Rosario; Martínez, Diego

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays, providing interoperability between different biomedical terminologies is a critical issue for efficient information sharing. One problem making interoperability difficult is the lack of automated methods simplifying the mapping process. In this study, we propose an automated approach to mapping external terminologies to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Our approach applies a sequential combination of two basic matching methods classically used in ontology matching. First, a lexical technique identifies similar strings between the external terminology and the UMLS. Second, a structure-based technique validates, in part, the lexical alignment by computing paths to top-level concepts and checking the compatibility of these top-level concepts across the external terminology and the UMLS. The method was applied to the mapping of the large-scale biomedical thesaurus EMTREE to the complete UMLS Metathesaurus. In total, 47.9% coverage of EMTREE terms was reached, leading to 80% coverage of EMTREE concepts. Our method has revealed a high compatibility in 6 out of 15 top-level categories across terminologies. The validation of lexical mappings ranges over 75.8% of the total lexical alignment. Overall, the method rules out a total of 6927 (7.9%) lexical mappings, with a global precision of 78%.

  10. Comparing the performance of various digital soil mapping approaches to map physical soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Pásztor, László

    2015-04-01

    Spatial information on physical soil properties is intensely expected, in order to support environmental related and land use management decisions. One of the most widely used properties to characterize soils physically is particle size distribution (PSD), which determines soil water management and cultivability. According to their size, different particles can be categorized as clay, silt, or sand. The size intervals are defined by national or international textural classification systems. The relative percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil constitutes textural classes, which are also specified miscellaneously in various national and/or specialty systems. The most commonly used is the classification system of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Soil texture information is essential input data in meteorological, hydrological and agricultural prediction modelling. Although Hungary has a great deal of legacy soil maps and other relevant soil information, it often occurs, that maps do not exist on a certain characteristic with the required thematic and/or spatial representation. The recent developments in digital soil mapping (DSM), however, provide wide opportunities for the elaboration of object specific soil maps (OSSM) with predefined parameters (resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.). Due to the simultaneous richness of available Hungarian legacy soil data, spatial inference methods and auxiliary environmental information, there is a high versatility of possible approaches for the compilation of a given soil map. This suggests the opportunity of optimization. For the creation of an OSSM one might intend to identify the optimum set of soil data, method and auxiliary co-variables optimized for the resources (data costs, computation requirements etc.). We started comprehensive analysis of the effects of the various DSM components on the accuracy of the output maps on pilot areas. The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate different

  11. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Using monitoring data to map amphibian breeding hotspots and describe wetland vulnerability in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Legg, Kristin; Sepulveda, Adam; Hossack, Blake R.; Patla, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians have been selected as a “vital sign” by several National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) networks. An eight-year amphibian monitoring data set provided opportunities to examine spatial and temporal patterns in amphibian breeding richness and wetland desiccation across Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Amphibian breeding richness was variable across both parks and only four of 31 permanent monitoring catchments contained all four widely distributed species. Annual breeding richness was also variable through time and fluctuated by as much as 75% in some years and catchments. Wetland desiccation was also documented across the region, but alone did not explain variations in amphibian richness. High annual variability across the region emphasizes the need for multiple years of monitoring to accurately describe amphibian richness and wetland desiccation dynamics.

  13. Continuous Mapping of Soil pH Using Digital Soil Mapping Approach in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH is one of the most important chemical parameters of soil, playing an essential role on the agricultural production and on the distribution of plants and soil biota communities. It is the expression of soil genesis that in turns is a function of soil forming factors and influences all the chemical, physical and biological processes that occur in the soil. Thus it shapes the entire soil ecosystem. Due to any of the above reasons, mapping of soil pH becomes very important to provide harmonised soil pH data to policy makers, public bodies and researchers. In order to obtain a continuous mapping of soil pH for Europe, adopting the digital soil mapping approach, a set of continuously distribute covariates, highly correlated with pH, were selected. The estimate of soil pH was realized using a regression procedure, coupled with the kriging of the residuals. More than 30.000 points on top soil pH (CaCl2 were used, and 27 covariates were tested as predictors. The similar approach was already applied with 12.333 samples to produce a pH map of Europe using European Soil Profile Data in 2008 which compiles several databases from 11 different sources (Reuter et al. 2008. Our study was conducted to update the previous data and maps based on LUCAS (EUROSTAT - Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey, BIOSOIL (Hiederer and Durrant, 2010 and merged database which was used to produce previous soil pH map of Europe (Reuter et al. 2008. We used a compilation of more than 30.000 soil pH measurements from 13 different sources to create a continuous map of soil pH across Europe using a geostatistical approach based on regression-kriging. Regression was based on the use of 27 covariates in the form of raster maps at 1km resolution to explain the differences in the distribution of soil pH in CaCl2 and we added the kriged map of the residuals from the regression model.

  14. Recent approaches of fish breeding /Abordagens recentes do melhoramento genético de peixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoThis review aims at addressing the main issues related to genetic improvement applied to fish species with zootechnical potential, such as selection, genetic parameters and use of biotechnology as well as address the importance of this area of study for the expansion of aquaculture and its development trend. Fish breeding is one of the most important areas of study for fish production development. Important techniques are applied in order to advance genetic progress in fish breeding (e.g., individual selection, genetic parameters estimation and the use of biotechnology. Traditional breeding in fish farming has been conducted mainly through biometric analysis, which helps in choosing selection criteria and in the assessment of genetic parameters such as heritability and correlations between interesting traits. The use of biotechnology in fish breeding has been successful; it is an important strategy that allows breeding results to be achieved faster, although at a greater cost than traditional breeding. Fish breeding in Brazil is currently in its initial stages; however, it is a field with great growth expectations, and there is still significant research to be conducted in this area.AbstractEsta revisão tem como objetivo a abordagem dos principais aspectos relacionados ao melhoramento genético aplicado em espécies de peixes com potencial zootécnico, tais como seleção, parâmetros genéticos e utilização da biotecnologia, bem como abordar a importância desta área de estudos para a ampliação da aquicultura e sua tendência de desenvolvimento. O melhoramento genético é uma das áreas prioritárias de estudo para o desenvolvimento da produção de peixes. Assim, importantes técnicas são aplicadas visando à obtenção de progresso genético no melhoramento de peixes, como por exemplo, a seleção individual, a estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e o uso da biotecnologia. O melhoramento genético tradicional na piscicultura tem

  15. A Heuristic Approach to Global Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2017-01-01

    Landslides can have significant and pervasive impacts to life and property around the world. Several attempts have been made to predict the geographic distribution of landslide activity at continental and global scales. These efforts shared common traits such as resolution, modeling approach, and explanatory variables. The lessons learned from prior research have been applied to build a new global susceptibility map from existing and previously unavailable data. Data on slope, faults, geology, forest loss, and road networks were combined using a heuristic fuzzy approach. The map was evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as several local landslide inventories. Comparisons to similar susceptibility maps suggest that the subjective methods commonly used at this scale are, for the most part, reproducible. However, comparisons of landslide susceptibility across spatial scales must take into account the susceptibility of the local subset relative to the larger study area. The new global landslide susceptibility map is intended for use in disaster planning, situational awareness, and for incorporation into global decision support systems.

  16. A Practical Approach for Designing Breeding Groups to Maximize Genetic Diversity in a Large Colony of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Raboin, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Limited guidance is available on practical approaches for maintaining genetic diversity in large NHP colonies that support biomedical research, despite the fact that reduced diversity in these colonies is likely to compromise the application of findings in NHP to human disease. In particular, constraints related to simultaneously housing, breeding, and providing ongoing veterinary care for thousands of animals with a highly complex social structure creates unique challenges for genetic management in these colonies. Because the composition of new breeding groups is a critical component of genetic management, here we outline a 3-stage protocol for forming new breeding groups of NHP that is aimed at maximizing genetic diversity in the face of frequent restrictions on age, sex, and numbers of animals per breeding group. As an example application of this protocol, we describe optimal combinations of rhesus macaques from an analysis of candidate animals available for breeding in July 2013, selected from among the approximately 4000 macaques maintained at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. In addition, a simulation study to explore the genetic diversity in breeding groups formed by using this protocol, indicated an approximate 10-fold higher genome uniqueness, 50% lower mean kinship, and an 84-fold lower mean inbreeding coefficient among potential offspring within groups, when compared with a suboptimal group design. We conclude that this protocol provides a practical and effective approach to breeding group design for colony managers who want to prevent the loss of genetic diversity in large, semiisolated NHP colonies.

  17. Prostaglandins and its analogues : An approach for treatment of anoestrus and to enhance breeding efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G B Dudhatra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin F analogue. It is a FP (Prostaglandin F receptor agonist, which shows 2á powerful luteolytic effects. It also stimulates the contraction of uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and produces vasoconstriction in some vessels. Anoestrous may be due to some conditions like abnormal pregnancy, early pregnancy, pyometra, endometritis, retention of placenta, maceration and mummification. So, get rid of this conditions cloprostenol is widely used. It has been now in vogue to administer PGF or its analogue in early 2á postpartum cows and buffaloes in order to hasten early resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and thereby to increase the reproductive efficiency. To improve reproductive efficiency, it is necessary to inseminate cows early in the breeding season so that, thereby achieving a more compact calving season. Breeding efficiency is increased by means of synchronization of estrus, conception rate and pregnancy rate. Estrus synchronization can be achieved by lysis of corpus luteum by administration of prostaglandin (PGF or its synthetic analogue on 5-17 2á days of the estrus cycle. The cows will return to estrus within 3-5 days. The effective therapeutic doses for cloprostenol are 500 μg in cattle and 175 μg in pigs. However, for R-cloprostenol, the recommended doses are: 150 μg in cattle and 75 μg in pigs. In both cases, it is administered by the intramuscular route. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 378-384

  18. Modern Breeding and Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Carotenoid Accumulation in Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A

    There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids.

  19. Physico-empirical approach for mapping soil hydraulic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Urso

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Pedo-transfer functions are largely used in soil hydraulic characterisation of large areas. The use of physico-empirical approaches for the derivation of soil hydraulic parameters from disturbed samples data can be greatly enhanced if a characterisation performed on undisturbed cores of the same type of soil is available. In this study, an experimental procedure for deriving maps of soil hydraulic behaviour is discussed with reference to its application in an irrigation district (30 km2 in southern Italy. The main steps of the proposed procedure are: i the precise identification of soil hydraulic functions from undisturbed sampling of main horizons in representative profiles for each soil map unit; ii the determination of pore-size distribution curves from larger disturbed sampling data sets within the same soil map unit. iii the calibration of physical-empirical methods for retrieving soil hydraulic parameters from particle-size data and undisturbed soil sample analysis; iv the definition of functional hydraulic properties from water balance output; and v the delimitation of soil hydraulic map units based on functional properties.

  20. Development of erosion risk map using fuzzy logic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Manyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion-hazard assessment is an important aspect in the management of a river basin such as Siak River Basin, Riau Province, Indonesia. This study presents an application of fuzzy logic approach to develop erosion risk map based on geographic information system. Fuzzy logic is a computing approach based on “degrees of truth” rather than the usual “true or false” (1 or 0 Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. The results of the erosion risk map were verified by using field measurements. The verification result shows that the parameter of soil-erodibility (K indicates a good agreement with field measurement data. The classification of soil-erodibility (K as the result of validation were: very low (0.0–0.1, medium (0.21-0.32, high (0.44-0.55 and very high (0.56-0.64. The results obtained from this study show that the erosion risk map of Siak River Basin were dominantly classified as medium level which cover about 68.54%. The other classifications were high and very low erosion level which cover about 28.84% and 2.61% respectively.

  1. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  2. Sparsity constrained deconvolution approaches for acoustic source mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardibi, Tarik; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre; Cattafesta, Louis N

    2008-05-01

    Using microphone arrays for estimating source locations and strengths has become common practice in aeroacoustic applications. The classical delay-and-sum approach suffers from low resolution and high sidelobes and the resulting beamforming maps are difficult to interpret. The deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources (DAMAS) deconvolution algorithm recovers the actual source levels from the contaminated delay-and-sum results by defining an inverse problem that can be represented as a linear system of equations. In this paper, the deconvolution problem is carried onto the sparse signal representation area and a sparsity constrained deconvolution approach (SC-DAMAS) is presented for solving the DAMAS inverse problem. A sparsity preserving covariance matrix fitting approach (CMF) is also presented to overcome the drawbacks of the DAMAS inverse problem. The proposed algorithms are convex optimization problems. Our simulations show that CMF and SC-DAMAS outperform DAMAS and as the noise in the measurements increases, CMF works better than both DAMAS and SC-DAMAS. It is observed that the proposed algorithms converge faster than DAMAS. A modification to SC-DAMAS is also provided which makes it significantly faster than DAMAS and CMF. For the correlated source case, the CMF-C algorithm is proposed and compared with DAMAS-C. Improvements in performance are obtained similar to the uncorrelated case.

  3. The Effects of Reciprocal Teaching and Direct Instruction Approaches on Knowledge Map (k-map) Generation Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgen, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate whether reciprocal teaching approach or direct instruction approach is more effective in the teaching of k-map generation skill. Secondary purpose of the study is to determine which of the k-map generation principles are more challenging for students to apply. The results of the study…

  4. Mapping topographic plant location properties using a dense matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Rutzinger, Martin; Lamprecht, Andrea; Bardy-Durchhalter, Manfred; Pauli, Harald; Winkler, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Within the project MEDIALPS (Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains) six regions in Alpine and in Mediterranean mountain regions are investigated to assess how plant species respond to climate change. The project is embedded in the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA), which is a well-established global monitoring initiative for systematic observation of changes in the plant species composition and soil temperature on mountain summits worldwide to discern accelerating climate change pressures on these fragile alpine ecosystems. Close-range sensing techniques such as terrestrial photogrammetry are well suited for mapping terrain topography of small areas with high resolution. Lightweight equipment, flexible positioning for image acquisition in the field, and independence on weather conditions (i.e. wind) make this a feasible method for in-situ data collection. New developments of dense matching approaches allow high quality 3D terrain mapping with less requirements for field set-up. However, challenges occur in post-processing and required data storage if many sites have to be mapped. Within MEDIALPS dense matching is used for mapping high resolution topography for 284 3x3 meter plots deriving information on vegetation coverage, roughness, slope, aspect and modelled solar radiation. This information helps identifying types of topography-dependent ecological growing conditions and evaluating the potential for existing refugial locations for specific plant species under climate change. This research is conducted within the project MEDIALPS - Disentangling anthropogenic drivers of climate change impacts on alpine plant species: Alps vs. Mediterranean mountains funded by the Earth System Sciences Programme of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

  5. A high-resolution integrated map of copy number polymorphisms within and between breeds of the modern domesticated dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Thomas J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variation contributes to the rich genetic and phenotypic diversity of the modern domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, although compared to other organisms, catalogs of canine copy number variants (CNVs are poorly defined. To this end, we developed a customized high-density tiling array across the canine genome and used it to discover CNVs in nine genetically diverse dogs and a gray wolf. Results In total, we identified 403 CNVs that overlap 401 genes, which are enriched for defense/immunity, oxidoreductase, protease, receptor, signaling molecule and transporter genes. Furthermore, we performed detailed comparisons between CNVs located within versus outside of segmental duplications (SDs and find that CNVs in SDs are enriched for gene content and complexity. Finally, we compiled all known dog CNV regions and genotyped them with a custom aCGH chip in 61 dogs from 12 diverse breeds. These data allowed us to perform the first population genetics analysis of canine structural variation and identify CNVs that potentially contribute to breed specific traits. Conclusions Our comprehensive analysis of canine CNVs will be an important resource in genetically dissecting canine phenotypic and behavioral variation.

  6. Biotechnological approach in exploring vegetative desiccation tolerance: from aseptic culture to molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldi, O; Dancs, G; Dobrányi, Sz; Gyuricza, Cs; Gémesi, Zs; Scott, P

    2010-01-01

    What is remarkable about resurrection plants is the ability of vegetative tissues (root, shoot, stem, leaves) to tolerate dehydration of the tissues and then return as functional units on rehydration. This phenomenon made resurrection plants exciting targets for molecular analysis of the poikilohydric ability and drought tolerance. The protective mechanisms of vegetative desiccation tolerance appear to involve three major components, sugars, proteins and antioxidants. According to the recent scientific consensus all three are postulated to be involved in maintaining cellular integrity during the drying phases. The aim of this review is to establish a provisional hierarchy among these stress avoiding mechanisms that are associated with desiccation tolerance. The main reason for ranking these signal metabolites and protective agents is their potential importance in practical applications. Although vegetative desiccation tolerance is a complex trait both genetically and physiologically, there are already examples where outcomes of targeted studies in resurrection plants are going to be directly utilized to engineer crop plants genetically. Here we also show that conventional genetic transformation techniques, via in vitro plant regeneration systems, still represent an unavoidable part of the high-throughput technology chain of molecular breeding.

  7. Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei. PMID:24086466

  8. Genetic map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL detection of growth-related traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for selective breeding applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farafidy Andriantahina

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP and simple sequence repeats (SSR markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW, total length (TL and partial carapace length (PCL, two QTLs for body length (BL, one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD, third abdominal segment depth (TASD and first abdominal segment width (FASW, which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei .

  9. A Multi-Dasymetric Mapping Approach for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of measuring at municipal level tourism density has been a daunting task for both statisticians and geographers. The reason of this is enforced by the fact that administrative areas, such as municipalities, tend to be large spatial administrative units, sharing a large demographic asymmetry of tourist demand within the municipality. The rationale is that geographic characteristics such as coastal line, climate and vegetation, play a crucial role in tourist offer, leaning towards the conclusion that traditional census at administrative level are simply not enough to interpret the true distribution of tourism data. A more quantifiable method is necessary to assess the distribution of socio-economic data. This is developed by means of a dasymetric approach adding on the advantages of multi-temporal comparison. This paper adopts a dasymetric approach for defining tourism density per land use types using the CORINE Land Cover dataset. A density map for tourism is calculated, creating a modified areal weighting (MAW approach to assess the distribution of tourism density per administrative municipality. This distribution is then assessed as a bidirectional layer on the land use datasets for two temporal stamps: 2000 and 2006, which leads to (i a consistent map on a more accurate distribution of tourism in Algarve, (ii the calculation of tourism density surfaces, and (iii a multi-locational and temporal assessment through density crosstabulation. Finally a geovisual interpretation of locational analysis of tourism change in Algarve for the last decade is created. This integrative spatial methodology offers unique characteristics for more accurate decision making at regional level, bringing an integrative methodology to the forefront of linking tourism with the spatio-temporal clusters formed in rapidly changing economic regions.

  10. Molecular mapping of the Rf3 fertility restoration gene to facilitate its utilization in breeding confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of a previously identified dominant Rf gene in confection line RHA 280 has been determined and designated as Rf3. This study reports the mapping of the Rf3 locus using an F2 population of 227 individuals derived from CMS HA 89-3149 x RHA 280. Bulked segregant analysis with 624 pairs ...

  11. New approach for fish breeding by chemical mutagenesis: establishment of TILLING method in fugu (Takifugu rubripes) with ENU mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Miwa; Katayama, Takashi; Imai, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Chisada, Shin-ichi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsushita, Tomonao; Fujita, Masashi; Nozawa, Aoi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-13

    In fish breeding, it is essential to discover and generate fish exhibiting an effective phenotype for the aquaculture industry, but screening for natural mutants by only depending on natural spontaneous mutations is limited. Presently, reverse genetics has become an important tool to generate mutants, which exhibit the phenotype caused by inactivation of a gene. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a reverse genetics strategy that combines random chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput discovery technologies for screening the induced mutations in target genes. Although the chemical mutagenesis has been used widely in a variety of model species and also genetic breeding of microorganisms and crops, the application of the mutagenesis in fish breeding has been only rarely reported. In this study, we developed the TILLING method in fugu with ENU mutagenesis and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect base pair changes in target sequences. Fugu males were treated 3 times at weekly intervals with various ENU concentrations, and then the collected sperm after the treatment was used to fertilize normal female for generating the mutagenized population (F1). The fertilization and the hatching ratios were similar to those of the control and did not reveal a dose dependency of ENU. Genomic DNA from the harvested F1 offspring was used for the HRM analysis. To obtain a fish exhibiting a useful phenotype (e.g. high meat production and rapid growth), fugu myostatin (Mstn) gene was examined as a target gene, because it has been clarified that the mstn deficient medaka exhibited double-muscle phenotype in common with MSTN knockout mice and bovine MSTN mutant. As a result, ten types of ENU-induced mutations were identified including a nonsense mutation in the investigated region with HRM analysis. In addition, the average mutation frequency in fugu Mstn gene was 1 mutant per 297 kb, which is similar to values calculated for zebrafish and medaka TILLING

  12. Mapping the distribution of malaria: current approaches and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the distribution of malaria has received substantial attention because the disease is a major source of illness and mortality in humans, especially in developing countries. It also has a defined temporal and spatial distribution. The distribution of malaria is most influenced by its mosquito vector, which is sensitive to extrinsic environmental factors such as rainfall and temperature. Temperature also affects the development rate of the malaria parasite in the mosquito. Here, we review the range of approaches used to model the distribution of malaria, from spatially explicit to implicit, mechanistic to correlative. Although current methods have significantly improved our understanding of the factors influencing malaria transmission, significant gaps remain, particularly in incorporating nonlinear responses to temperature and temperature variability. We highlight new methods to tackle these gaps and to integrate new data with models.

  13. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  14. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  15. Development of high-density genetic maps for barley and wheat using a novel two-enzyme genotyping-by-sequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A Poland

    Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled whole genome re-sequencing in many species providing unprecedented discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. There are limitations, however, to next-generation sequencing approaches for species with large complex genomes such as barley and wheat. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS has been developed as a tool for association studies and genomics-assisted breeding in a range of species including those with complex genomes. GBS uses restriction enzymes for targeted complexity reduction followed by multiplex sequencing to produce high-quality polymorphism data at a relatively low per sample cost. Here we present a GBS approach for species that currently lack a reference genome sequence. We developed a novel two-enzyme GBS protocol and genotyped bi-parental barley and wheat populations to develop a genetically anchored reference map of identified SNPs and tags. We were able to map over 34,000 SNPs and 240,000 tags onto the Oregon Wolfe Barley reference map, and 20,000 SNPs and 367,000 tags on the Synthetic W9784 × Opata85 (SynOpDH wheat reference map. To further evaluate GBS in wheat, we also constructed a de novo genetic map using only SNP markers from the GBS data. The GBS approach presented here provides a powerful method of developing high-density markers in species without a sequenced genome while providing valuable tools for anchoring and ordering physical maps and whole-genome shotgun sequence. Development of the sequenced reference genome(s will in turn increase the utility of GBS data enabling physical mapping of genes and haplotype imputation of missing data. Finally, as a result of low per-sample costs, GBS will have broad application in genomics-assisted plant breeding programs.

  16. [Comparison of three approaches to breed industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved ethanol tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Xinqing; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bai, Fengwu

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol tolerance is related to the expression of multiple genes, and genome-based engineering approaches are much more efficient than manipulation of single genes. In this study, ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma mutagenesis, and artificial transcription factor (ATF) technology were adopted to treat an industrial yeast strain S. cerevisiae Sc4126 to obtain mutants with improved ethanol tolerance. Mutants with high ethanol tolerance were obtained, and the ratio of positive mutants was compared. Among the three approaches, the rate of positive mutation obtained by ATF technology was 10- to 100-folds of that of the two other methods, with highest genetic stability, suggesting the ATF technology promising for rapid alteration of phenotypes of industry yeast strains for efficient ethanol fermentation.

  17. Pure P2P mediation system: A mappings discovery approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    selma, El yahyaoui El idrissi; Zellou, Ahmed; Idri, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The information integration systems consist in offering a uniform interface to provide access to a set of autonomous and distributed information sources. The most important advantage of this system is that it allows users to specify what they want, rather than thinking about how to get the responses. The works realized in this area have particular leads to two major classes of integration systems: the mediation systems based on the paradigm mediator / adapter and peer to peer systems (P2P). The combination of both systems has led to a third type; is the mediation P2P systems. The P2P systems are large-scale systems, self-organized and distributed. They allow the resource management in a completely decentralized way. However, the integration of structured information sources, heterogeneous and distributed proves to be a complex problem. The objective of this work is to propose an approach to resolve conflicts and establish a mapping between the heterogeneous elements. This approach is based on clustering; the latter is to group similar Peers that share common information in the same subnet. Thus, to facilitate the heterogeneity, we introduced three additional layers of our hierarchy of peers: internal schema, external schema and Schema directory peer. We used linguistic techniques, and precisely the name correspondence technique, that is based on the similarity of names to propose a correspondence.

  18. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Chapman, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30–100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5–1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304

  19. A direct comparison of remote sensing approaches for high-throughput phenotyping in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tattaris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT and a vegetation index (NDVI, to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30-100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5-1m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 x 2.4 m due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency.

  20. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P; Chapman, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30-100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5-1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency.

  1. A geostatistical approach to mapping site response spectral amplifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanaka, H.

    2010-01-01

    If quantitative estimates of the seismic properties do not exist at a location of interest then the site response spectral amplifications must be estimated from data collected at other locations. Currently, the most common approach employs correlations of site class with maps of surficial geology. Analogously, correlations of site class with topographic slope can be employed where the surficial geology is unknown. Our goal is to identify and validate a method to estimate site response with greater spatial resolution and accuracy for regions where additional effort is warranted. This method consists of three components: region-specific data collection, a spatial model for interpolating seismic properties, and a theoretical method for computing spectral amplifications from the interpolated seismic properties. We consider three spatial interpolation schemes: correlations with surficial geology, termed the geologic trend (GT), ordinary kriging (OK), and kriging with a trend (KT). We estimate the spectral amplifications from seismic properties using the square root of impedance method, thereby linking the frequency-dependent spectral amplifications to the depth-dependent seismic properties. Thus, the range of periods for which this method is applicable is limited by the depth of exploration. A dense survey of near-surface S-wave slowness (Ss) throughout Kobe, Japan shows that the geostatistical methods give more accurate estimates of Ss than the topographic slope and GT methods, and the OK and KT methods perform equally well. We prefer the KT model because it can be seamlessly integrated with geologic maps that cover larger regions. Empirical spectral amplifications show that the region-specific data achieve more accurate estimates of observed median short-period amplifications than the topographic slope method. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Adverse Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Nasim, Aashir; Rosas, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use has grown rapidly in popularity within a short period of time. As ECIG products continue to evolve and more individuals begin using ECIGs, it is important to understand the potential adverse effects that are associated with ECIG use. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the acute adverse effects associated with ECIG use. This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory approach called concept mapping (CM). Experienced ECIG users (n = 85) provided statements that answered the focus prompt "A specific negative or unpleasant effect (ie, physical or psychological) that I have experienced either during or immediately after using an electronic cigarette device is…" in an online program. Participants sorted these statements into piles of common themes and rated each statement. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, a concept map of the adverse effects statements was created. Participants generated 79 statements that completed the focus prompt and were retained by researchers. Analysis generated a map containing five clusters that characterized perceived adverse effects of ECIG use: Stigma, Worry/Guilt, Addiction Signs, Physical Effects, and Device/Vapor Problems. ECIG use is associated with adverse effects that should be monitored as ECIGs continue to grow in popularity. If ECIGs are to be regulated, policies should be created that minimize the likelihood of user identified adverse effects. This article provides a list of adverse effects reported by experienced ECIG users. This article organizes these effects into a conceptual model that may be useful for better understanding the adverse outcomes associated with ECIG use. These identified adverse effects may be useful for health professionals and policy makers. Health professionals should be aware of potential negative health effects that may be associated with ECIG use and policy makers could design ECIG regulations that minimize the

  3. Data management for genomic mapping applications: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, V.M.; Lewis, S.; McCarthy, J.; Olken, F.; Zorn, M.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the construction of data management systems for genomic mapping applications in molecular biology, genetics, and plant breeding. We discuss the architecture of such systems and propose an incremental approach to the development of such systems. We illustrate the proposed approach and architecture with a case study of a prototype data management system for genomic maps.

  4. Raising yield potential of wheat. I. Overview of a consortium approach and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Bonnett, David; Chapman, Scott C; Furbank, Robert T; Manès, Yann; Mather, Diane E; Parry, Martin A J

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that wheat yield potential could be increased by up to 50% through the genetic improvement of radiation use efficiency (RUE). However, to achieve agronomic impacts, structural and reproductive aspects of the crop must be improved in parallel. A Wheat Yield Consortium (WYC) has been convened that fosters linkage between ongoing research platforms in order to develop a cohesive portfolio of activities that will maximize the probability of impact in farmers' fields. Attempts to increase RUE will focus on improving the performance and regulation of Rubisco, introduction of C(4)-like traits such as CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms, improvement of light interception, and improvement of photosynthesis at the spike and whole canopy levels. For extra photo-assimilates to translate into increased grain yield, reproductive aspects of growth must be tailored to a range of agro-ecosystems to ensure that stable expression of a high harvest index (HI) is achieved. Adequate partitioning among plant organs will be critical to achieve favourable expression of HI, and to ensure that plants with heavier grain have strong enough stems and roots to avoid lodging. Trait-based hybridization strategies will aim to achieve their simultaneous expression in elite agronomic backgrounds, and wide crossing will be employed to augment genetic diversity where needed; for example, to introduce traits for improving RUE from wild species or C(4) crops. Genomic selection approaches will be employed, especially for difficult-to-phenotype traits. Genome-wide selection will be evaluated and is likely to complement crossing of complex but complementary traits by identifying favourable allele combinations among progeny. Products will be delivered to national wheat programmes worldwide via well-established international nursery systems and are expected to make a significant contribution to global food security.

  5. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  6. An optimization approach for extracting and encoding consistent maps in a shape collection

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qi-Xing

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a novel approach for computing high quality point-topoint maps among a collection of related shapes. The proposed approach takes as input a sparse set of imperfect initial maps between pairs of shapes and builds a compact data structure which implicitly encodes an improved set of maps between all pairs of shapes. These maps align well with point correspondences selected from initial maps; they map neighboring points to neighboring points; and they provide cycle-consistency, so that map compositions along cycles approximate the identity map. The proposed approach is motivated by the fact that a complete set of maps between all pairs of shapes that admits nearly perfect cycleconsistency are highly redundant and can be represented by compositions of maps through a single base shape. In general, multiple base shapes are needed to adequately cover a diverse collection. Our algorithm sequentially extracts such a small collection of base shapes and creates correspondences from each of these base shapes to all other shapes. These correspondences are found by global optimization on candidate correspondences obtained by diffusing initial maps. These are then used to create a compact graphical data structure from which globally optimal cycle-consistent maps can be extracted using simple graph algorithms. Experimental results on benchmark datasets show that the proposed approach yields significantly better results than state-of-theart data-driven shape matching methods. © 2012 ACM.

  7. Spectral similarity approach for mapping turbidity of an inland waterbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vaibhav; Senthil Kumar, A.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Kumar, Vinay; Dhote, Pankaj R.; Thakur, Praveen K.; Nikam, Bhaskar R.; Sambare, Rohit S.; Siddiqui, Asfa; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2017-07-01

    Turbidity is an important quality parameter of water from its optical property point of view. It varies spatio-temporally over large waterbodies and its well distributed measurement on field is tedious and time consuming. Generally, normalized difference turbidity index (NDTI), or band ratio, or regression analysis between turbidity concentration and band reflectance, approaches have been adapted to retrieve turbidity using multispectral remote sensing data. These techniques usually provide qualitative rather than quantitative estimates of turbidity. However, in the present study, spectral similarity analysis, between the spectral characteristics of spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data and spectral library generated on field, was carried out to quantify turbidity in the part of Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Spatial spectral contextual image analysis, spectral angle mapper (SAM) technique was evaluated for the same. The SAM spectral matching technique has been widely used in geological application (mineral mapping), however, the application of this kind of techniques is limited in water quality studies due to non-availability of reference spectral libraries. A spectral library was generated on field for the different concentrations of turbidity using well calibrated instruments like field spectro-radiometer, turbidity meter and hand held global positioning system. The field spectra were classified into 7 classes of turbidity concentration as 100 NTU for analysis. Analysis reveal that at each location in the lake under consideration, the field spectra matched with the image spectra with SAM score of 0.8 and more. The observed turbidity at each location was also very much falling in the estimated turbidity class range. It was observed that the spectral similarity approach provides more quantitative estimate of turbidity as compared to NDTI.

  8. Artificial Neural Network Approach for Mapping Contrasting Tillage Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Howell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillage information is crucial for environmental modeling as it directly affects evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, carbon sequestration, and soil losses due to wind and water erosion from agricultural fields. However, collecting this information can be time consuming and costly. Remote sensing approaches are promising for rapid collection of tillage information on individual fields over large areas. Numerous regression-based models are available to derive tillage information from remote sensing data. However, these models require information about the complex nature of underlying watershed characteristics and processes. Unlike regression-based models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN provides an efficient alternative to map complex nonlinear relationships between an input and output datasets without requiring a detailed knowledge of underlying physical relationships. Limited or no information currently exist quantifying ability of ANN models to identify contrasting tillage practices from remote sensing data. In this study, a set of Landsat TM-based ANN models was developed to identify contrasting tillage practices in the Texas High Plains. Observed tillage data from Moore and Ochiltree Counties were used to develop and evaluate the models, respectively. The overall classification accuracy for the 15 models developed with the Moore County dataset varied from 74% to 91%. Statistical evaluation of these models against the Ochiltree County dataset produced results with an overall classification accuracy varied from 66% to 80%. The ANN models based on TM band 5 or indices of TM Band 5 may provide consistent and accurate tillage information when applied to the Texas High Plains.

  9. Molecular markers in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the marker assisted selection (MAS is being routinely applied in breeding programs of large private companies. However, the implementation of molecular markers for commercial use in small companies and public sec- tor is on a considerably smaller scale. Numerous researches on QTL mapping, theoretical analysis and simulation models for MAS give impetus to new research on the validation of quantitative trait loci and the application of molecular markers in maize breeding. This paper presents basic concepts related to MAS, the principles of QTL mapping, marker-trait association analysis and examples of successful application of markers in breeding for qualitative and quantitative traits.

  10. Mapping of multi-floor buildings: A barometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for mapping multi5floor buildings. The method combines laser range sensor for metric mapping and barometric pressure sensor for detecting floor transitions and map segmentation. We exploit the fact that the barometric pressure is a function of the elevation......, and it varies between different floors. The method is tested with a real robot in a typical indoor environment, and the results show that physically consistent multi5floor representations are achievable....

  11. A Hierarchical and Distributed Approach for Mapping Large Applications to Heterogeneous Grids using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Soumya; Jain, Amit; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed approach for mapping a single large application to a heterogeneous grid environment. To minimize the execution time of the parallel application, we distribute the mapping overhead to the available nodes of the grid. This approach not only provides a fast mapping of tasks to resources but is also scalable. We adopt a hierarchical grid model and accomplish the job of mapping tasks to this topology using a scheduler tree. Results show that our three-phase algorithm provides high quality mappings, and is fast and scalable.

  12. Curriculum Mapping across the Disciplines: Differences, Approaches, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, Fiona; Bowen, Tracey; Murck, Barbara; Hong, Rosa Junghwa

    2017-01-01

    Curriculum mapping can be used to document, align, visualize, and assess curricular data, such as learning outcomes, assessment materials, instructional techniques, and student pre- and post-testing scores. A cross-disciplinary Curriculum Mapping Initiative currently underway at the University of Toronto Mississauga aims to: (1) develop guidelines…

  13. RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach Guide now online | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... ... of ROMA, an adaptation of IDRC's original outcome mapping research. ROMA: A guide to policy engagement and influence, has been released by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). The publication is the latest result of phase three of IDRC's Outcome Mapping Virtual Learning Community project.

  14. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

    OpenAIRE

    Garoui Nassreddine; Jarboui Anis

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  15. A mapping approach for distortion correction in sinusoidally scanned images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, J.; Woods, C. L.; Haji-saeed, Bahareh; Pyburn, Dana; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Kierstead, J.

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a mapping algorithm for correcting sinusoidally scanned images from their distortions. Our algorithm is based on an approximate relationship between linear and sinusoidal scanning. Straightforward implementation of this algorithm showed that the mapped image has either missing lines or redundant lines. The missing lines were filled by fusing the mapped image with its median filtered version. The implementation of this algorithm shows that it is possible to retrieve up to 96.43% of the original image, as measured by the recovered energy.

  16. Parallel mapping and simultaneous sequencing reveals deletions in BCAN and FAM83H associated with discrete inherited disorders in a domestic dog breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P Forman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic dog (Canis familiaris segregates more naturally-occurring diseases and phenotypic variation than any other species and has become established as an unparalled model with which to study the genetics of inherited traits. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS and targeted resequencing of DNA from just five dogs to simultaneously map and identify mutations for two distinct inherited disorders that both affect a single breed, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. We investigated episodic falling (EF, a paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, alongside the phenotypically distinct condition congenital keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ichthyosiform dermatosis (CKCSID, commonly known as dry eye curly coat syndrome. EF is characterised by episodes of exercise-induced muscular hypertonicity and abnormal posturing, usually occurring after exercise or periods of excitement. CKCSID is a congenital disorder that manifests as a rough coat present at birth, with keratoconjunctivitis sicca apparent on eyelid opening at 10-14 days, followed by hyperkeratinisation of footpads and distortion of nails that develops over the next few months. We undertook a GWAS with 31 EF cases, 23 CKCSID cases, and a common set of 38 controls and identified statistically associated signals for EF and CKCSID on chromosome 7 (P(raw 1.9×10(-14; P(genome = 1.0×10(-5 and chromosome 13 (P(raw 1.2×10(-17; P(genome = 1.0×10(-5, respectively. We resequenced both the EF and CKCSID disease-associated regions in just five dogs and identified a 15,724 bp deletion spanning three exons of BCAN associated with EF and a single base-pair exonic deletion in FAM83H associated with CKCSID. Neither BCAN or FAM83H have been associated with equivalent disease phenotypes in any other species, thus demonstrating the ability to use the domestic dog to study the genetic basis of more than one disease simultaneously in a single breed and to identify multiple novel candidate genes in

  17. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transboundary aquifer mapping and management in Africa: a harmonised approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altchenko, Yvan; Villholth, Karen G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention to transboundary aquifers (TBAs) in Africa reflects the growing importance of these resources for development in the continent. However, relatively little research on these aquifers and their best management strategies has been published. This report recapitulates progress on mapping and management frameworks for TBAs in Africa. The world map on transboundary aquifers presented at the 6th World Water Forum in 2012 identified 71 TBA systems in Africa. This report presents an updated African TBA map including 80 shared aquifers and aquifer systems superimposed on 63 international river basins. Furthermore, it proposes a new nomenclature for the mapping based on three sub-regions, reflecting the leading regional development communities. The map shows that TBAs represent approximately 42 % of the continental area and 30 % of the population. Finally, a brief review of current international law, specific bi- or multilateral treaties, and TBA management practice in Africa reveals little documented international conflicts over TBAs. The existing or upcoming international river and lake basin organisations offer a harmonised institutional base for TBA management while alternative or supportive models involving the regional development communities are also required. The proposed map and geographical classification scheme for TBAs facilitates identification of options for joint institutional setups.

  19. How Albot0 finds its way home: a novel approach to cognitive mapping using robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wai K

    2011-10-01

    Much of what we know about cognitive mapping comes from observing how biological agents behave in their physical environments, and several of these ideas were implemented on robots, imitating such a process. In this paper a novel approach to cognitive mapping is presented whereby robots are treated as a species of their own and their cognitive mapping is being investigated. Such robots are referred to as Albots. The design of the first Albot, Albot0 , is presented. Albot0 computes an imprecise map and employs a novel method to find its way home. Both the map and the return-home algorithm exhibited characteristics commonly found in biological agents. What we have learned from Albot0 's cognitive mapping are discussed. One major lesson is that the spatiality in a cognitive map affords us rich and useful information and this argues against recent suggestions that the notion of a cognitive map is not a useful one. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  1. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    .... It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process...

  2. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...

  3. Accuracy of genomic breeding values revisited: Assessment of two established approaches and a novel one to determine the accuracy in two-step genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, G; Kipp, S; Simianer, H; Erbe, M

    2017-06-01

    Selection decisions in genomic selection schemes are made based on genomic breeding values (GBV) of candidates. Thus, the accuracy of GBV is a relevant parameter, as it reflects the stability of prediction and the possibility that the GBV might change when more information becomes available. Accuracy of genomic prediction defined as the correlation between GBV and true breeding values (TBV), however, is difficult to assess, considering TBV of the candidates are not available in reality. In previous studies, several methods were proposed to assess the accuracy of GBV including methods using population parameters or parameters inferred from mixed-model equations. In practice, most approaches tended to overestimate the accuracy of genomic prediction. We thus tested approaches used in previous studies in order to assess the magnitude of bias. Analyses were performed based on simulated data under a variety of scenarios mimicking different livestock breeding programmes. Furthermore, we proposed a novel method and tested it both with simulated data and in a real Holstein data set. The new method provided a better prediction for the accuracy of GBV in the simulated scenarios. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Partnering with Youth to Map Their Neighborhood Environments: A Multi-Layered GIS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topmiller, Michael; Jacquez, Farrah; Vissman, Aaron T.; Raleigh, Kevin; Miller-Francis, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Mapping approaches offer great potential for community-based participatory researchers interested in displaying youth perceptions and advocating for change. We describe a multi-layered approach for gaining local knowledge of neighborhood environments that engages youth as co-researchers and active knowledge producers. By integrating geographic information systems (GIS) with environmental audits, an interactive focus group, and sketch mapping, the approach provides a place-based understanding of physical activity resources from the situated experience of youth. Youth report safety and a lack of recreational resources as inhibiting physical activity. Maps reflecting youth perceptions aid policy-makers in making place-based improvements for youth neighborhood environments. PMID:25423245

  5. Partnering with youth to map their neighborhood environments: a multilayered GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topmiller, Michael; Jacquez, Farrah; Vissman, Aaron T; Raleigh, Kevin; Miller-Francis, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Mapping approaches offer great potential for community-based participatory researchers interested in displaying youth perceptions and advocating for change. We describe a multilayered approach for gaining local knowledge of neighborhood environments that engages youths as coresearchers and active knowledge producers. By integrating geographic information systems with environmental audits, an interactive focus group, and sketch mapping, the approach provides a place-based understanding of physical activity resources from the situated experience of youths. Youths report safety and a lack of recreational resources as inhibiting physical activity. Maps reflecting youth perceptions aid policy makers in making place-based improvements for youth neighborhood environments.

  6. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  7. The Facebook Influence Model: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College student participants were identified using purposeful sampling. The 80 participants had a mean age of 20.5 years, and included 36% males. A total of 169 statements were generated during brainstorming, and sorted into between 6 and 22 groups. The final concept map included 13 clusters. Interpretation data led to grouping of clusters into four final domains, including connection, comparison, identification, and Facebook as an experience. The Facebook Influence Concept Map illustrates key constructs that contribute to influence, incorporating perspectives of older adolescent Facebook users. While Facebook provides a novel lens through which to consider behavioral influence, it can best be considered in the context of existing behavioral theory. The concept map may be used toward development of potential future intervention efforts. PMID:23621717

  8. Cognitions of Expert Supervisors in Academe: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemer, Gülsah; Borders, L. DiAnne; Willse, John

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen expert supervisors reported their thoughts while preparing for, conducting, and evaluating their supervision sessions. Concept mapping (Kane & Trochim, [Kane, M., 2007]) yielded 195 cognitions classified into 25 cognitive categories organized into 5 supervision areas: conceptualization of supervision, supervisee assessment,…

  9. A National Approach to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  10. Mapping of health facilities in Jimeta Metropolis: a digital approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two sets of data were acquired and used, cartographic data and attribute data. Scanning was carried out using CorelDraw!2 while Georeferencing and Digitizing was done using ILWIS3.1 academic Software packages. A digital map, showing the spatial distribution of health facilities in Jimeta metropolis was produced; this ...

  11. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  12. The Right Tools for the Job: Cooperative Breeding Theory and an Evaluation of the Methodological Approaches to Understanding the Evolution and Maintenance of Sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Hing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Why do we observe so many examples in nature in which individuals routinely delay or completely forgo their own reproductive opportunities in order to join and remain within a group? Cooperative breeding theory provides a rich framework with which to study the factors that may influence the costs and benefits of remaining philopatric as a non-breeder. This is often viewed as an initial step in the development of costly helping behavior provided by non-breeding subordinates. Despite many excellent empirical studies testing key concepts of the theory, there is still debate regarding the relative importance of various evolutionary forces, suggesting that there may not be a general explanation but rather a dynamic and taxonomically varied combination of factors influencing the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Here, we explore two potential improvements in the study of sociality that could aid in the progress of this field. The first addresses the fact that empirical studies of social evolution are typically conducted using either comparative, observational or manipulative methodologies. Instead, we suggest a holistic approach, whereby observational and experimental studies are designed with the explicit view of advancing comparative analyses of sociality for the taxon, and in tandem, where comparative work informs targeted research effort on specific (usually understudied species within the lineage. A second improvement relates to the broadening of tests of cooperative breeding theory to include taxa where subordinates do not necessarily provide active cooperation within the group. The original bias toward “helpful subordinates” arose from a focus on terrestrial taxa. However, recent consideration of other taxa, especially marine taxa, is slowly revealing that the theory can and should encompass a continuum of cooperative social systems, including those where subordinates do not actively help. This review summarizes the major hypotheses

  13. Comparison of validity of mapping between drug indications and ICD-10. Direct and indirect terminology based approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Y; Jung, C; Chae, Y; Kang, M; Kim, J; Joung, K; Lim, J; Cho, S; Sung, S; Lee, E; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    .... This study was undertaken to compare the validity of a direct mapping approach and an indirect terminology based mapping approach of drug indications against the gold standard drawn from the results...

  14. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. DREAM - A Novel Approach for Robust, Ultra-Fast, Multi-Slice B1 Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nehrke, K.; Boernert, P.

    2012-01-01

    Fast and robust in vivo B1 mapping is an essential prerequisite forquantitative MRI or multi-element transmit applications like RF-shimming or accelerated multi-dimensional RF pulses. However, especially at higher field strength, the acquisition speed of current B1-mapping approaches is

  16. A Time Sequence-Oriented Concept Map Approach to Developing Educational Computer Games for History Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been recognized as an effective tool for students to organize their knowledge; however, in history courses, it is important for students to learn and organize historical events according to the time of their occurrence. Therefore, in this study, a time sequence-oriented concept map approach is proposed for developing a game-based…

  17. Evaluating the Use of an Object-Based Approach to Lithological Mapping in Vegetated Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grebby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based approaches to lithological mapping are traditionally pixel-oriented, with classification performed on either a per-pixel or sub-pixel basis with complete disregard for contextual information about neighbouring pixels. However, intra-class variability due to heterogeneous surface cover (i.e., vegetation and soil or regional variations in mineralogy and chemical composition can result in the generation of unrealistic, generalised lithological maps that exhibit the “salt-and-pepper” artefact of spurious pixel classifications, as well as poorly defined contacts. In this study, an object-based image analysis (OBIA approach to lithological mapping is evaluated with respect to its ability to overcome these issues by instead classifying groups of contiguous pixels (i.e., objects. Due to significant vegetation cover in the study area, the OBIA approach incorporates airborne multispectral and LiDAR data to indirectly map lithologies by exploiting associations with both topography and vegetation type. The resulting lithological maps were assessed both in terms of their thematic accuracy and ability to accurately delineate lithological contacts. The OBIA approach is found to be capable of generating maps with an overall accuracy of 73.5% through integrating spectral and topographic input variables. When compared to equivalent per-pixel classifications, the OBIA approach achieved thematic accuracy increases of up to 13.1%, whilst also reducing the “salt-and-pepper” artefact to produce more realistic maps. Furthermore, the OBIA approach was also generally capable of mapping lithological contacts more accurately. The importance of optimising the segmentation stage of the OBIA approach is also highlighted. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the potential of OBIA for lithological mapping applications, particularly in significantly vegetated and heterogeneous terrain.

  18. Concept Mapping as an Approach to Facilitate Participatory Intervention Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Allen, Michele; Schaleben-Boateng, Dane; Davey, Cynthia S; Hang, Mikow; Pergament, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    A challenge to addressing community-defined need through community-based participatory intervention building is ensuring that all collaborators' opinions are represented. Concept mapping integrates perspectives of individuals with differing experiences, interests, or expertise into a common visually depicted framework, and ranks composite views on importance and feasibility. To describe the use of concept mapping to facilitate participatory intervention building for a school-based, teacher-focused, positive youth development (PYD) promotion program for Latino, Hmong, and Somali youth. Particiants were teachers, administrators, youth, parents, youth workers, and community and university researchers on the projects' community collaborative board. We incorporated previously collected qualitative data into the process. In a mixed-methods process we 1) generated statements based on key informant interview and focus group data from youth workers, teachers, parents, and youth in multiple languages regarding ways teachers promote PYD for Somali, Latino and Hmong youth; 2) guided participants to individually sort statements into meaningful groupings and rate them by importance and feasibility; 3) mapped the statements based on their relation to each other using multivariate statistical analyses to identify concepts, and as a group identified labels for each concept; and 4) used labels and statement ratings to identify feasible and important concepts as priorities for intervention development. We identified 12 concepts related to PYD promotion in schools and prioritized 8 for intervention development. Concept mapping facilitated participatory intervention building by formally representing all participants' opinions, generating visual representation of group thinking, and supporting priority setting. Use of prior qualitative work increased the diversity of viewpoints represented.

  19. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  20. Treatment decisions for localized prostate cancer: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Stephanie L; Mullen, Patricia D; Byrd, Theresa L; Cantor, Scott B; Le, Yen-Chi; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Pettaway, Curtis; Volk, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Few decision aids emphasize active surveillance (AS) for localized prostate cancer. Concept mapping was used to produce a conceptual framework incorporating AS and treatment. Fifty-four statements about what men need to make a decision for localized prostate cancer were derived from focus groups with African American, Latino and white men previously screened for prostate cancer and partners (n = 80). In the second phase, 89 participants sorted and rated the importance of statements. An eight cluster map was produced for the overall sample. Clusters were labelled Doctor-patient exchange, Big picture comparisons, Weighing the options, Seeking and using information, Spirituality and inner strength, Related to active treatment, Side-effects and Family concerns. A major division was between medical and home-based clusters. Ethnic groups and genders had similar sorting, but some variation in importance. Latinos rated Big picture comparisons as less important. African Americans saw Spirituality and inner strength most important, followed by Latinos, then whites. Ethnic- and gender-specific concept maps were not analysed because of high similarity in their sorting patterns. We identified a conceptual framework for management of early-stage prostate cancer that included coverage of AS. Eliciting the conceptual framework is an important step in constructing decision aids which will address gaps related to AS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  2. Stakeholder approach, Stakeholders mental model: A visualization test with cognitive mapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui Nassreddine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the firm with respect to the stakeholder approach of corporate governance. The use of the cognitive map to view these diagrams to show the ways of thinking and conceptualization of the stakeholder approach. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses stakeholder model. It takes also a cognitive mapping technique.

  3. New approach for fish breeding by chemical mutagenesis: establishment of TILLING method in fugu (Takifugu rubripes) with ENU mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroyanagi, Miwa; Katayama, Takashi; Imai, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Chisada, Shin-ichi; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Matsushita, Tomonao; Fujita, Masashi; Nozawa, Aoi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background In fish breeding, it is essential to discover and generate fish exhibiting an effective phenotype for the aquaculture industry, but screening for natural mutants by only depending on natural spontaneous mutations is limited. Presently, reverse genetics has become an important tool to generate mutants, which exhibit the phenotype caused by inactivation of a gene. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a reverse genetics strategy that combines random chemical mutagen...

  4. Biofortified Crops Generated by Breeding, Agronomy, and Transgenic Approaches Are Improving Lives of Millions of People around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Garg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification is an upcoming, promising, cost-effective, and sustainable technique of delivering micronutrients to a population that has limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Unfortunately, major food crops are poor sources of micronutrients required for normal human growth. The manuscript deals in all aspects of crop biofortification which includes—breeding, agronomy, and genetic modification. It tries to summarize all the biofortification research that has been conducted on different crops. Success stories of biofortification include lysine and tryptophan rich quality protein maize (World food prize 2000, Vitamin A rich orange sweet potato (World food prize 2016; generated by crop breeding, oleic acid, and stearidonic acid soybean enrichment; through genetic transformation and selenium, iodine, and zinc supplementation. The biofortified food crops, especially cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, are providing sufficient levels of micronutrients to targeted populations. Although a greater emphasis is being laid on transgenic research, the success rate and acceptability of breeding is much higher. Besides the challenges biofortified crops hold a bright future to address the malnutrition challenge.

  5. Breeding success of a marine central place forager in the context of climate change: A modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Massardier-Galatà

    Full Text Available In response to climate warming, a southward shift in productive frontal systems serving as the main foraging sites for many top predator species is likely to occur in Subantarctic areas. Central place foragers, such as seabirds and pinnipeds, are thus likely to cope with an increase in the distance between foraging locations and their land-based breeding colonies. Understanding how central place foragers should modify their foraging behavior in response to changes in prey accessibility appears crucial. A spatially explicit individual-based simulation model (Marine Central Place Forager Simulator (MarCPFS, including bio-energetic components, was built to evaluate effects of possible changes in prey resources accessibility on individual performances and breeding success. The study was calibrated on a particular example: the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella, which alternates between oceanic areas in which females feed and the land-based colony in which they suckle their young over a 120 days rearing period. Our model shows the importance of the distance covered to feed and prey aggregation which appeared to be key factors to which animals are highly sensitive. Memorization and learning abilities also appear to be essential breeding success traits. Females were found to be most successful for intermediate levels of prey aggregation and short distance to the resource, resulting in optimal female body length. Increased distance to resources due to climate warming should hinder pups' growth and survival while female body length should increase.

  6. Comparative Performance Analysis of a Hyper-Temporal Ndvi Analysis Approach and a Landscape-Ecological Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Scarrott, R. G.; Ha, N. T. T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    Both agricultural area expansion and intensification are necessary to cope with the growing demand for food, and the growing threat of food insecurity which is rapidly engulfing poor and under-privileged sections of the global population. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to have the ability to accurately estimate crop area and spatial distribution. Remote sensing has become a valuable tool for estimating and mapping cropland areas, useful in food security monitoring. This work contributes to addressing this broad issue, focusing on the comparative performance analysis of two mapping approaches (i) a hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis approach and (ii) a Landscape-ecological approach. The hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach utilized SPOT 10-day NDVI imagery from April 1998-December 2008, whilst the Landscape-ecological approach used multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired intermittently between 1992 and 2002. Pixels in the time-series NDVI dataset were clustered using an ISODATA clustering algorithm adapted to determine the optimal number of pixel clusters to successfully generalize hyper-temporal datasets. Clusters were then characterized with crop cycle information, and flooding information to produce an NDVI unit map of rice classes with flood regime and NDVI profile information. A Landscape-ecological map was generated using a combination of digitized homogenous map units in the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery, a Land use map 2005 of the Mekong delta, and supplementary datasets on the regions terrain, geo-morphology and flooding depths. The output maps were validated using reported crop statistics, and regression analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between land use area estimated from maps, and those reported in district crop statistics. The regression analysis showed that the hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach explained 74% and 76% of the variability in reported crop statistics in two rice crop and three

  7. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HYPER-TEMPORAL NDVI ANALYSIS APPROACH AND A LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL MAPPING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Both agricultural area expansion and intensification are necessary to cope with the growing demand for food, and the growing threat of food insecurity which is rapidly engulfing poor and under-privileged sections of the global population. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to have the ability to accurately estimate crop area and spatial distribution. Remote sensing has become a valuable tool for estimating and mapping cropland areas, useful in food security monitoring. This work contributes to addressing this broad issue, focusing on the comparative performance analysis of two mapping approaches (i a hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI analysis approach and (ii a Landscape-ecological approach. The hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach utilized SPOT 10-day NDVI imagery from April 1998–December 2008, whilst the Landscape-ecological approach used multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired intermittently between 1992 and 2002. Pixels in the time-series NDVI dataset were clustered using an ISODATA clustering algorithm adapted to determine the optimal number of pixel clusters to successfully generalize hyper-temporal datasets. Clusters were then characterized with crop cycle information, and flooding information to produce an NDVI unit map of rice classes with flood regime and NDVI profile information. A Landscape-ecological map was generated using a combination of digitized homogenous map units in the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery, a Land use map 2005 of the Mekong delta, and supplementary datasets on the regions terrain, geo-morphology and flooding depths. The output maps were validated using reported crop statistics, and regression analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between land use area estimated from maps, and those reported in district crop statistics. The regression analysis showed that the hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach explained 74% and 76% of the variability in reported crop statistics in two

  8. Mapping Partners Master Drug Dictionary to RxNorm using an NLP-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Chang, Frank Y; DiMaggio, Dana; Rocha, Roberto A

    2012-08-01

    To develop an automated method based on natural language processing (NLP) to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a mapping between RxNorm and a local medication terminology for interoperability and meaningful use purposes. We mapped 5961 terms from Partners Master Drug Dictionary (MDD) and 99 of the top prescribed medications to RxNorm. The mapping was conducted at both term and concept levels using an NLP tool, called MTERMS, followed by a manual review conducted by domain experts who created a gold standard mapping. The gold standard was used to assess the overall mapping between MDD and RxNorm and evaluate the performance of MTERMS. Overall, 74.7% of MDD terms and 82.8% of the top 99 terms had an exact semantic match to RxNorm. Compared to the gold standard, MTERMS achieved a precision of 99.8% and a recall of 73.9% when mapping all MDD terms, and a precision of 100% and a recall of 72.6% when mapping the top prescribed medications. The challenges and gaps in mapping MDD to RxNorm are mainly due to unique user or application requirements for representing drug concepts and the different modeling approaches inherent in the two terminologies. An automated approach based on NLP followed by human expert review is an efficient and feasible way for conducting dynamic mapping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping and assessing variability in the Antarctic marginal ice zone, pack ice and coastal polynyas in two sea ice algorithms with implications on breeding success of snow petrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Campbell, G. Garrett; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore, mapping their spatial extent as well as seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biologically active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas in the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent record for assessing the proportion of the sea ice cover that is covered by each of these ice categories. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depend strongly on which sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap, and applies the same thresholds to the sea ice concentrations to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal that the seasonal cycle in the MIZ and pack ice is generally similar between both algorithms, yet the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Trends also differ, with the Bootstrap algorithm suggesting statistically significant trends towards increased pack ice area and no statistically significant trends in the MIZ. The NASA Team algorithm on the other hand indicates statistically significant positive trends in the MIZ during spring. Potential coastal polynya area and amount of broken ice within the consolidated ice pack are also larger in the NASA Team algorithm. The timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These

  10. AERIAL TERRAIN MAPPING USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root

  11. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  12. Concept mapping and network analysis: an analytic approach to measure ties among constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alyssa W; Kane, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Group concept mapping is a mixed-methods approach that helps a group visually represent its ideas on a topic of interest through a series of related maps. The maps and additional graphics are useful for planning, evaluation and theory development. Group concept maps are typically described, interpreted and utilized through points, clusters and distances, and the implications of these features in understanding how constructs relate to one another. This paper focuses on the application of network analysis to group concept mapping to quantify the strength and directionality of relationships among clusters. The authors outline the steps of this analysis, and illustrate its practical use through an organizational strategic planning example. Additional benefits of this analysis to evaluation projects are also discussed, supporting the overall utility of this supplemental technique to the standard concept mapping methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A FISH approach for mapping the human genome using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, R.S.; Chen, X.N.; Mitchell, S. [Univ. of Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    As the Human Genome Project progresses, large insert cloning vectors such as BACs, P1, and P1 Artificial Chromosomes (PACs) will be required to complement the YAC mapping efforts. The value of the BAC vector for physical mapping lies in the stability of the inserts, the lack of chimerism, the length of inserts (up to 300 kb), the ability to obtain large amounts of pure clone DNA and the ease of BAC manipulation. These features helped us design two approaches for generating physical mapping reagents for human genetic studies. The first approach is a whole genome strategy in which randomly selected BACs are mapped, using FISH, to specific chromosomal bands. To date, 700 BACs have been mapped to single chromosome bands at a resolution of 2-5 Mb in addition to BACs mapped to 14 different centromeres. These BACs represent more than 90 Mb of the genome and include >70% of all human chromosome bands at the 350-band level. These data revealed that >97% of the BACs were non-chimeric and have a genomic distribution covering most gaps in the existing YAC map with excellent coverage of gene-rich regions. In the second approach, we used YACs to identify BACs on chromosome 21. A 1.5 Mb contig between D21S339 and D21S220 nears completion within the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region. Seventeen BACs ranging in size from 80 kb to 240 kb were ordered using 14 STSs with FISH confirmation. We have also used 40 YACs spanning 21q to identify, on average, >1 BAC/Mb to provide molecular cytogenetic reagents and anchor points for further mapping. The contig generated on chromosome 21 will be helpful in isolating the genes for DS-CHD. The physical mapping reagents generated using the whole genome approach will provide cytogenetic markers and mapped genomic fragments that will facilitate positional cloning efforts and the identification of genes within most chromosomal bands.

  14. Orthogonal matching pursuit applied to the deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Berry, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Microphone arrays and beamforming have become a standard method to localize aeroacoustic sources. Deconvolution techniques have been developed to improve spatial resolution of beamforming maps. The deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources (DAMAS) is a standard deconvolution technique, which has been enhanced via a sparsity approach called sparsity constrained deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources (SC-DAMAS). In this paper, the DAMAS inverse problem is solved using the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) and compared with beamforming and SC-DAMAS. The resulting noise source maps show that OMP-DAMAS is an efficient source localization technique in the case of uncorrelated or correlated acoustic sources. Moreover, the computation time is clearly reduced as compared to SC-DAMAS.

  15. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures

  16. Mapping national capacity to engage in health promotion: overview of issues and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, Maurice B; Wise, Marilyn; Nam, Eun Woo; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Fosse, Elisabeth; Saan, Hans; Hagard, Spencer; Tang, Kwok Cho

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews approaches to the mapping of resources needed to engage in health promotion at the country level. There is not a single way, or a best way to make a capacity map, since it should speak to the needs of its users as they define their needs. Health promotion capacity mapping is therefore approached in various ways. At the national level, the objective is usually to learn the extent to which essential policies, institutions, programmes and practices are in place to guide recommendations about what remedial measures are desirable. In Europe, capacity mapping has been undertaken at the national level by the WHO for a decade. A complimentary capacity mapping approach, HP-Source.net, has been undertaken since 2000 by a consortium of European organizations including the EC, WHO, International Union for Health Promotion and Education, Health Development Agency (of England) and various European university research centres. The European approach emphasizes the need for multi-methods and the principle of triangulation. In North America, Canadian approaches have included large- and small-scale international collaborations to map capacity for sustainable development. US efforts include state-level mapping of capacity to prevent chronic diseases and reduce risk factor levels. In Australia, two decades of mapping national health promotion capacity began with systems needed by the health sector to design and deliver effective, efficient health promotion, and has now expanded to include community-level capacity and policy review. In Korea and Japan, capacity mapping is newly developing in collaboration with European efforts, illustrating the usefulness of international health promotion networks. Mapping capacity for health promotion is a practical and vital aspect of developing capacity for health promotion. The new context for health promotion contains both old and new challenges, but also new opportunities. A large scale, highly collaborative approach to capacity

  17. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.

    2003-01-01

    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  18. Conjecture Mapping: An Approach to Systematic Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William

    2014-01-01

    Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This…

  19. ODI launches RAPID Outcome Mapping Approach online guide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... The UK-based Overseas Development Institute has released its online guide to understanding, engaging with, and influencing policy. ... The RAPID team's focus on learning and evolution remains a central part of the approach, with a chapter devoted to the design of monitoring and evaluation activities that ...

  20. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  1. Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia

    2013-07-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study.

  2. Classification Algorithms for Big Data Analysis, a Map Reduce Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayma, V. A.; Ferreira, R. S.; Happ, P.; Oliveira, D.; Feitosa, R.; Costa, G.; Plaza, A.; Gamba, P.

    2015-03-01

    Since many years ago, the scientific community is concerned about how to increase the accuracy of different classification methods, and major achievements have been made so far. Besides this issue, the increasing amount of data that is being generated every day by remote sensors raises more challenges to be overcome. In this work, a tool within the scope of InterIMAGE Cloud Platform (ICP), which is an open-source, distributed framework for automatic image interpretation, is presented. The tool, named ICP: Data Mining Package, is able to perform supervised classification procedures on huge amounts of data, usually referred as big data, on a distributed infrastructure using Hadoop MapReduce. The tool has four classification algorithms implemented, taken from WEKA's machine learning library, namely: Decision Trees, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The results of an experimental analysis using a SVM classifier on data sets of different sizes for different cluster configurations demonstrates the potential of the tool, as well as aspects that affect its performance.

  3. A National Approach to Quantify and Map Biodiversity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services, i.e., "services provided to humans from natural systems," have become a key issue of this century in resource management, conservation planning, human well-being, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have become strategic national interests for integrating ecology with economics to help understand the effects of human policies and actions and their subsequent impacts on both ecosystem function and human welfare. The degradation of natural ecosystems and climate variation impact the environment and society by affecting ecological integrity and ecosystems’ capacity to provide critical services (i.e., the contributions of ecosystems to human well-being). These challenges will require complex management decisions that can often involve significant trade-offs between societal desires and environmental needs. Evaluating trade-offs in terms of ecosystem services and human well-being provides an intuitive and comprehensive way to assess the broad implications of our decisions and to help shape policies that enhance environmental and social sustainability. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. government has created a partnership among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and, Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas, an online Decision Support Tool that allows users (e.g., planners, policy-makers, resource managers, NGOs, private indu

  4. CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS FOR BIG DATA ANALYSIS, A MAP REDUCE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ayma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since many years ago, the scientific community is concerned about how to increase the accuracy of different classification methods, and major achievements have been made so far. Besides this issue, the increasing amount of data that is being generated every day by remote sensors raises more challenges to be overcome. In this work, a tool within the scope of InterIMAGE Cloud Platform (ICP, which is an open-source, distributed framework for automatic image interpretation, is presented. The tool, named ICP: Data Mining Package, is able to perform supervised classification procedures on huge amounts of data, usually referred as big data, on a distributed infrastructure using Hadoop MapReduce. The tool has four classification algorithms implemented, taken from WEKA’s machine learning library, namely: Decision Trees, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines (SVM. The results of an experimental analysis using a SVM classifier on data sets of different sizes for different cluster configurations demonstrates the potential of the tool, as well as aspects that affect its performance.

  5. Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amidou N'Diaye

    Full Text Available Association mapping is usually performed by testing the correlation between a single marker and phenotypes. However, because patterns of variation within genomes are inherited as blocks, clustering markers into haplotypes for genome-wide scans could be a worthwhile approach to improve statistical power to detect associations. The availability of high-density molecular data allows the possibility to assess the potential of both approaches to identify marker-trait associations in durum wheat. In the present study, we used single marker- and haplotype-based approaches to identify loci associated with semolina and pasta colour in durum wheat, the main objective being to evaluate the potential benefits of haplotype-based analysis for identifying quantitative trait loci. One hundred sixty-nine durum lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and 12,234 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were generated and used to assess the population structure and the linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns. A total of 8,581 SNPs previously localized to a high-density consensus map were clustered into 406 haplotype blocks based on the average LD distance of 5.3 cM. Combining multiple SNPs into haplotype blocks increased the average polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.27 per SNP to 0.50 per haplotype. The haplotype-based analysis identified 12 loci associated with grain pigment colour traits, including the five loci identified by the single marker-based analysis. Furthermore, the haplotype-based analysis resulted in an increase of the phenotypic variance explained (50.4% on average and the allelic effect (33.7% on average when compared to single marker analysis. The presence of multiple allelic combinations within each haplotype locus offers potential for screening the most favorable haplotype series and may facilitate marker-assisted selection of grain pigment colour in durum wheat. These results suggest a benefit of

  6. Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Haile, Jemanesh K; Cory, Aron T; Clarke, Fran R; Clarke, John M; Knox, Ron E; Pozniak, Curtis J

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is usually performed by testing the correlation between a single marker and phenotypes. However, because patterns of variation within genomes are inherited as blocks, clustering markers into haplotypes for genome-wide scans could be a worthwhile approach to improve statistical power to detect associations. The availability of high-density molecular data allows the possibility to assess the potential of both approaches to identify marker-trait associations in durum wheat. In the present study, we used single marker- and haplotype-based approaches to identify loci associated with semolina and pasta colour in durum wheat, the main objective being to evaluate the potential benefits of haplotype-based analysis for identifying quantitative trait loci. One hundred sixty-nine durum lines were genotyped using the Illumina 90K Infinium iSelect assay, and 12,234 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were generated and used to assess the population structure and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. A total of 8,581 SNPs previously localized to a high-density consensus map were clustered into 406 haplotype blocks based on the average LD distance of 5.3 cM. Combining multiple SNPs into haplotype blocks increased the average polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.27 per SNP to 0.50 per haplotype. The haplotype-based analysis identified 12 loci associated with grain pigment colour traits, including the five loci identified by the single marker-based analysis. Furthermore, the haplotype-based analysis resulted in an increase of the phenotypic variance explained (50.4% on average) and the allelic effect (33.7% on average) when compared to single marker analysis. The presence of multiple allelic combinations within each haplotype locus offers potential for screening the most favorable haplotype series and may facilitate marker-assisted selection of grain pigment colour in durum wheat. These results suggest a benefit of haplotype

  7. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  8. Mapping Transcription Factors on Extended DNA: A Single Molecule Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Yuval; Gassman, Natalie; Weiss, Shimon

    The ability to determine the precise loci and distribution of nucleic acid binding proteins is instrumental to our detailed understanding of cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and chromatin reorganization. Traditional molecular biology approaches and above all Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) based methods have provided a wealth of information regarding protein-DNA interactions. Nevertheless, existing techniques can only provide average properties of these interactions, since they are based on the accumulation of data from numerous protein-DNA complexes analyzed at the ensemble level. We propose a single molecule approach for direct visualization of DNA binding proteins bound specifically to their recognition sites along a long stretch of DNA such as genomic DNA. Fluorescent Quantum dots are used to tag proteins bound to DNA, and the complex is deposited on a glass substrate by extending the DNA to a linear form. The sample is then imaged optically to determine the precise location of the protein binding site. The method is demonstrated by detecting individual, Quantum dot tagged T7-RNA polymerase enzymes on the bacteriophage T7 genomic DNA and assessing the relative occupancy of the different promoters.

  9. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  10. Development and Comparison of Techniques for Generating Permeability Maps using Independent Experimental Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingerl, Ferdinand; Romanenko, Konstantin; Pini, Ronny; Balcom, Bruce; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    We have developed and evaluated methods for creating voxel-based 3D permeability maps of a heterogeneous sandstone sample using independent experimental data from single phase flow (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI) and two-phase flow (X-ray Computed Tomography, CT) measurements. Fluid velocities computed from the generated permeability maps using computational fluid dynamics simulations fit measured velocities very well and significantly outperform empirical porosity-permeability relations, such as the Kozeny-Carman equation. Acquiring images on the meso-scale from porous rocks using MRI has till recently been a great challenge, due to short spin relaxation times and large field gradients within the sample. The combination of the 13-interval Alternating-Pulsed-Gradient Stimulated-Echo (APGSTE) scheme with three-dimensional Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement (SPRITE) - a technique recently developed at the UNB MRI Center - can overcome these challenges and enables obtaining quantitative 3 dimensional maps of porosities and fluid velocities. Using porosity and (single-phase) velocity maps from MRI and (multi-phase) saturation maps from CT measurements, we employed three different techniques to obtain permeability maps. In the first approach, we applied the Kozeny-Carman relationship to porosities measured using MRI. In the second approach, we computed permeabilities using a J-Leverett scaling method, which is based on saturation maps obtained from N2-H2O multi-phase experiments. The third set of permeabilities was generated using a new inverse iterative-updating technique, which is based on porosities and measured velocities obtained in single-phase flow experiments. The resulting three permeability maps provided then input for computational fluid dynamics simulations - employing the Stanford CFD code AD-GPRS - to generate velocity maps, which were compared to velocity maps measured by MRI. The J-Leveret scaling method and the iterative-updating method

  11. RENNSH: a novel α-helix identification approach for intermediate resolution electron density maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingyu; Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Accurate identification of protein secondary structures is beneficial to understand three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules. In this paper, a novel refined classification framework is proposed, which treats alpha-helix identification as a machine learning problem by representing each voxel in the density map with its Spherical Harmonic Descriptors (SHD). An energy function is defined to provide statistical analysis of its identification performance, which can be applied to all the α-helix identification approaches. Comparing with other existing α-helix identification methods for intermediate resolution electron density maps, the experimental results demonstrate that our approach gives the best identification accuracy and is more robust to the noise.

  12. Ontology Mapping: An Information Retrieval and Interactive Activation Network Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ming

    Ontology mapping is to find semantic correspondences between similar elements of different ontologies. It is critical to achieve semantic interoperability in the WWW. This paper proposes a new generic and scalable ontology mapping approach based on propagation theory, information retrieval technique and artificial intelligence model. The approach utilizes both linguistic and structural information, measures the similarity of different elements of ontologies in a vector space model, and deals with constraints using the interactive activation network. The results of pilot study, the PRIOR, are promising and scalable.

  13. Streamlined approach to mapping the magnetic induction of skyrmionic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, Jordan J., E-mail: jchess@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Montoya, Sergio A. [Center for Memory and Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Harvey, Tyler R. [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Ophus, Colin [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Couture, Simon; Lomakin, Vitaliy; Fullerton, Eric E. [Center for Memory and Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McMorran, Benjamin J. [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A method to reconstruction the phase of electrons after pasting though a sample that requires a single defocused image is presented. • Restrictions as to when it is appropriate to apply this method are described. • The relative error associated with this method is compared to conventional transport of intensity equation analysis. - Abstract: Recently, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) has helped researchers advance the emerging field of magnetic skyrmions. These magnetic quasi-particles, composed of topologically non-trivial magnetization textures, have a large potential for application as information carriers in low-power memory and logic devices. LTEM is one of a very few techniques for direct, real-space imaging of magnetic features at the nanoscale. For Fresnel-contrast LTEM, the transport of intensity equation (TIE) is the tool of choice for quantitative reconstruction of the local magnetic induction through the sample thickness. Typically, this analysis requires collection of at least three images. Here, we show that for uniform, thin, magnetic films, which includes many skyrmionic samples, the magnetic induction can be quantitatively determined from a single defocused image using a simplified TIE approach.

  14. Benthic habitat mapping in a Portuguese Marine Protected Area using EUNIS: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Victor; Guerra, Miriam Tuaty; Mendes, Beatriz; Gaudêncio, Maria José; Fonseca, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    A growing demand for seabed and habitat mapping has taken place over the past years to support the maritime integrated policies at EU and national levels aiming at the sustainable use of sea resources. This study presents the results of applying the hierarchical European Nature Information System (EUNIS) to classify and map the benthic habitats of the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park, a marine protected area (MPA), located in the mainland Portuguese southwest coast, in the Iberian Peninsula. The habitat map was modelled by applying a methodology based on EUNIS to merge biotic and abiotic key habitat drivers. The modelling in this approach focused on predicting the association of different data types: substrate, bathymetry, light intensity, waves and currents energy, sediment grain size and benthic macrofauna into a common framework. The resulting seamless medium scale habitat map discriminates twenty six distinct sublittoral habitats, including eight with no match in the current classification, which may be regarded as new potential habitat classes and therefore will be submitted to EUNIS. A discussion is provided examining the suitability of the current EUNIS scheme as a standardized approach to classify marine benthic habitats and map their spatial distribution at medium scales in the Portuguese coast. In addition the factors that most affected the results available in the predictive habitat map and the role of the environmental factors on macrofaunal assemblage composition and distribution are outlined.

  15. An Effective NoSQL-Based Vector Map Tile Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within a digital map service environment, the rapid growth of Spatial Big-Data is driving new requirements for effective mechanisms for massive online vector map tile processing. The emergence of Not Only SQL (NoSQL databases has resulted in a new data storage and management model for scalable spatial data deployments and fast tracking. They better suit the scenario of high-volume, low-latency network map services than traditional standalone high-performance computer (HPC or relational databases. In this paper, we propose a flexible storage framework that provides feasible methods for tiled map data parallel clipping and retrieval operations within a distributed NoSQL database environment. We illustrate the parallel vector tile generation and querying algorithms with the MapReduce programming model. Three different processing approaches, including local caching, distributed file storage, and the NoSQL-based method, are compared by analyzing the concurrent load and calculation time. An online geological vector tile map service prototype was developed to embed our processing framework in the China Geological Survey Information Grid. Experimental results show that our NoSQL-based parallel tile management framework can support applications that process huge volumes of vector tile data and improve performance of the tiled map service.

  16. A regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropella, Kathleen M; Noll, Douglas C

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping that uses structural information to improve the accuracy of conductivity maps. The inverse of the three-dimensional Laplacian operator is used to model the relationship between measured phase maps and the object conductivity in a penalized weighted least-squares optimization problem. Spatial masks based on structural information are incorporated into the problem to preserve data near boundaries. The proposed Inverse Laplacian method was compared against a restricted Gaussian filter in simulation, phantom, and human experiments. The Inverse Laplacian method resulted in lower reconstruction bias and error due to noise in simulations than the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method also produced conductivity maps closer to the measured values in a phantom and with reduced noise in the human brain, as compared to the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method calculates conductivity maps with less noise and more accurate values near boundaries. Improving the accuracy of conductivity maps is integral for advancing the applications of conductivity mapping. Magn Reson Med 78:2011-2021, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. An Approach of Dynamic Object Removing for Indoor Mapping Based on UGV SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of indoor mapping for Location Based Service (LBS becomes more and more popular in recent years. LiDAR SLAM based mapping method seems to be a promising indoor mapping solution. However, there are some dynamic objects such as pedestrians, indoor vehicles, etc. existing in the raw LiDAR range data. They have to be removal for mapping purpose. In this paper, a new approach of dynamic object removing called Likelihood Grid Voting (LGV is presented. It is a model free method and takes full advantage of the high scanning rate of LiDAR, which is moving at a relative low speed in indoor environment. In this method, a counting grid is allocated for recording the occupation of map position by laser scans. The lower counter value of this position can be recognized as dynamic objects and the point cloud will be removed from map. This work is a part of algorithms in our self- developed Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV simultaneous localization and Mapping (SLAM system- NAVIS. Field tests are carried in an indoor parking place with NAVIS to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that all the small size objects like pedestrians can be detected and removed quickly; large size of objects like cars can be detected and removed partly.

  18. A Visual-Based Approach for Indoor Radio Map Construction Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang

    2017-08-04

    Localization of users in indoor spaces is a common issue in many applications. Among various technologies, a Wi-Fi fingerprinting based localization solution has attracted much attention, since it can be easily deployed using the existing off-the-shelf mobile devices and wireless networks. However, the collection of the Wi-Fi radio map is quite labor-intensive, which limits its potential for large-scale application. In this paper, a visual-based approach is proposed for the construction of a radio map in anonymous indoor environments. This approach collects multi-sensor data, e.g., Wi-Fi signals, video frames, inertial readings, when people are walking in indoor environments with smartphones in their hands. Then, it spatially recovers the trajectories of people by using both visual and inertial information. Finally, it estimates the location of fingerprints from the trajectories and constructs a Wi-Fi radio map. Experiment results show that the average location error of the fingerprints is about 0.53 m. A weighted k-nearest neighbor method is also used to evaluate the constructed radio map. The average localization error is about 3.2 m, indicating that the quality of the constructed radio map is at the same level as those constructed by site surveying. However, this approach can greatly reduce the human labor cost, which increases the potential for applying it to large indoor environments.

  19. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  20. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr.

  1. Physical Mapping of Bread Wheat Chromosome 5A: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Barabaschi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The huge size, redundancy, and highly repetitive nature of the bread wheat [ (L.] genome, makes it among the most difficult species to be sequenced. To overcome these limitations, a strategy based on the separation of individual chromosomes or chromosome arms and the subsequent production of physical maps was established within the frame of the International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium (IWGSC. A total of 95,812 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones of short-arm chromosome 5A (5AS and long-arm chromosome 5A (5AL arm-specific BAC libraries were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs by complementary analytical approaches based on the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC and Linear Topological Contig (LTC tools. Combined anchoring approaches based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR marker screening, microarray, and sequence homology searches applied to several genomic tools (i.e., genetic maps, deletion bin map, neighbor maps, BAC end sequences (BESs, genome zipper, and chromosome survey sequences allowed the development of a high-quality physical map with an anchored physical coverage of 75% for 5AS and 53% for 5AL with high portions (64 and 48%, respectively of contigs ordered along the chromosome. In the genome of grasses, [ (L. Beauv.], rice ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench] homologs of genes on wheat chromosome 5A were separated into syntenic blocks on different chromosomes as a result of translocations and inversions during evolution. The physical map presented represents an essential resource for fine genetic mapping and map-based cloning of agronomically relevant traits and a reference for the 5A sequencing projects.

  2. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  3. Determination of contact maps in proteins: A combination of structural and chemical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek, E-mail: mc@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gómez-Sicilia, Àngel [Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Av. Doctor Arce, 37, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), C/Faraday 9, 28049 Cantoblanco (Madrid) (Spain)

    2015-12-28

    Contact map selection is a crucial step in structure-based molecular dynamics modelling of proteins. The map can be determined in many different ways. We focus on the methods in which residues are represented as clusters of effective spheres. One contact map, denoted as overlap (OV), is based on the overlap of such spheres. Another contact map, named Contacts of Structural Units (CSU), involves the geometry in a different way and, in addition, brings chemical considerations into account. We develop a variant of the CSU approach in which we also incorporate Coulombic effects such as formation of the ionic bridges and destabilization of possible links through repulsion. In this way, the most essential and well defined contacts are identified. The resulting residue-residue contact map, dubbed repulsive CSU (rCSU), is more sound in its physico-chemical justification than CSU. It also provides a clear prescription for validity of an inter-residual contact: the number of attractive atomic contacts should be larger than the number of repulsive ones — a feature that is not present in CSU. However, both of these maps do not correlate well with the experimental data on protein stretching. Thus, we propose to use rCSU together with the OV map. We find that the combined map, denoted as OV+rCSU, performs better than OV. In most situations, OV and OV+rCSU yield comparable folding properties but for some proteins rCSU provides contacts which improve folding in a substantial way. We discuss the likely residue-specificity of the rCSU contacts. Finally, we make comparisons to the recently proposed shadow contact map, which is derived from different principles.

  4. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  5. The Criterion-Related Validity of a Computer-Based Approach for Scoring Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder; Salehi, Roya

    2006-01-01

    This investigation seeks to confirm a computer-based approach that can be used to score concept maps (Poindexter & Clariana, 2004) and then describes the concurrent criterion-related validity of these scores. Participants enrolled in two graduate courses (n=24) were asked to read about and research online the structure and function of the heart…

  6. An innovative multimodality approach for sentinel node mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borbón-Arce, M.; Brouwer, O. R.; van den Berg, N. S.; Mathéron, H.; Klop, W. M. C.; Balm, A. J. M.; van Leeuwen, F. W. B.; Valdés-Olmos, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent innovations such as preoperative SPECT/CT, intraoperative imaging using portable devices and a hybrid tracer were evaluated in a multimodality approach for sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies. Material and methods: The evaluation included 25

  7. Orbital stability during the mapping and approach phases of the MarcoPolo-R spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickhusen, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Luedicke, F.

    2012-09-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission we are analyzing the motion of the spacecraft in the vicinity of its primary target, the binary asteroid system 175706 (1996 FG3). We ran simulations in order to support the general mapping, the approach, and the sampling phase

  8. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL MAPPING OF CITY TERRITORY (ON THE EXAMPLE OFKHABAROVSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Mayorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article methodical approaches in ecological mapping and offers on structure of layers of a card of an ecological condition of Khabarovsk are considered. Examples of layers of ‘Dump’ and ‘Landfill and waste Processors’ in QGIS are resulted.

  9. Testing a Landsat-based approach for mapping disturbance causality in U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Schroeder; Karen G. Schleeweis; Gretchen G. Moisen; Chris Toney; Warren B. Cohen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Zhiqiang Yang; Chengquan Huang

    2017-01-01

    In light of Earth's changing climate and growing human population, there is an urgent need to improve monitoring of natural and anthropogenic disturbanceswhich effect forests' ability to sequester carbon and provide other ecosystem services. In this study, a two-step modeling approach was used to map the type and timing of forest disturbances occurring...

  10. Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement through the Implementation of Multiple Intelligence Approach with Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiana, I. Wayan; Jampel, I. Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    This classroom action research aimed to improve the students' creative thinking and achievement in learning science. It conducted through the implementation of multiple intelligences with mind mapping approach and describing the students' responses. The subjects of this research were the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat, Kubu, and…

  11. Mapping community vulnerability to poaching: A whole-of-society approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available in Cartography and GIScience Mapping community vulnerability to poaching: A whole-of-society approach Peter M.U. Schmitz,1,2,3 Duarte Gonçalves,4 and Merin Jacob4 1. CSIR Built Environment, Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, Pretoria, South Africa; pschmitz...

  12. A Soft OR Approach to Fostering Systems Thinking: SODA Maps plus Joint Analytical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills are important for managers. Systems thinking is an important type of higher order thinking in business education. This article investigates a soft Operations Research approach to teaching and learning systems thinking. It outlines the integrative use of Strategic Options Development and Analysis maps for visualizing…

  13. Mapping quantitative trait loci in a selectively genotyped outbred population using a mixture model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, David L.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1999-01-01

    A mixture model approach is employed for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the situation where individuals, in an outbred population, are selectively genotyped. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is obtained from an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm facilitated by

  14. Improved spatial accuracy of functional maps in the rat olfactory bulb using supervised machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Poplawsky, Alexander J; Vazquez, Alberto L; Chan, Kevin C; Kim, Seong-Gi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a popular and important tool for noninvasive mapping of neural activity. As fMRI measures the hemodynamic response, the resulting activation maps do not perfectly reflect the underlying neural activity. The purpose of this work was to design a data-driven model to improve the spatial accuracy of fMRI maps in the rat olfactory bulb. This system is an ideal choice for this investigation since the bulb circuit is well characterized, allowing for an accurate definition of activity patterns in order to train the model. We generated models for both cerebral blood volume weighted (CBVw) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI data. The results indicate that the spatial accuracy of the activation maps is either significantly improved or at worst not significantly different when using the learned models compared to a conventional general linear model approach, particularly for BOLD images and activity patterns involving deep layers of the bulb. Furthermore, the activation maps computed by CBVw and BOLD data show increased agreement when using the learned models, lending more confidence to their accuracy. The models presented here could have an immediate impact on studies of the olfactory bulb, but perhaps more importantly, demonstrate the potential for similar flexible, data-driven models to improve the quality of activation maps calculated using fMRI data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-molecule approach to bacterial genomic comparisons via optical mapping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shiguo [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Kile, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Bechner, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Kvikstad, E. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Deng, W. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Wei, J. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Severin, J. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Dimalanta, E. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lamers, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Burland, V. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Blattner, F. R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, David C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2004-01-01

    Modern comparative genomics has been established, in part, by the sequencing and annotation of a broad range of microbial species. To gain further insights, new sequencing efforts are now dealing with the variety of strains or isolates that gives a species definition and range; however, this number vastly outstrips our ability to sequence them. Given the availability of a large number of microbial species, new whole genome approaches must be developed to fully leverage this information at the level of strain diversity that maximize discovery. Here, we describe how optical mapping, a single-molecule system, was used to identify and annotate chromosomal alterations between bacterial strains represented by several species. Since whole-genome optical maps are ordered restriction maps, sequenced strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a (2457T and 301), Yersinia pestis (CO 92 and KIM), and Escherichia coli were aligned as maps to identify regions of homology and to further characterize them as possible insertions, deletions, inversions, or translocations. Importantly, an unsequenced Shigella flexneri strain (serotype Y strain AMC[328Y]) was optically mapped and aligned with two sequenced ones to reveal one novel locus implicated in serotype conversion and several other loci containing insertion sequence elements or phage-related gene insertions. Our results suggest that genomic rearrangements and chromosomal breakpoints are readily identified and annotated against a prototypic sequenced strain by using the tools of optical mapping.

  16. Large-extent digital soil mapping approaches for total soil depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Titia; Lacoste, Marine; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Arrouays, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Total soil depth (SDt) plays a key role in supporting various ecosystem services and properties, including plant growth, water availability and carbon stocks. Therefore, predictive mapping of SDt has been included as one of the deliverables within the GlobalSoilMap project. In this work SDt was predicted for France following the directions of GlobalSoilMap, which requires modelling at 90m resolution. This first method, further referred to as DM, consisted of modelling the deterministic trend in SDt using data mining, followed by a bias correction and ordinary kriging of the residuals. Considering the total surface area of France, being about 540K km2, employed methods may need to be able dealing with large data sets. Therefore, a second method, multi-resolution kriging (MrK) for large datasets, was implemented. This method consisted of modelling the deterministic trend by a linear model, followed by interpolation of the residuals. For the two methods, the general trend was assumed to be explained by the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions, as described by the Soil-Landscape paradigm. The mapping accuracy was evaluated by an internal validation and its concordance with previous soil maps. In addition, the prediction interval for DM and the confidence interval for MrK were determined. Finally, the opportunities and limitations of both approaches were evaluated. The results showed consistency in mapped spatial patterns and a good prediction of the mean values. DM was better capable in predicting extreme values due to the bias correction. Also, DM was more powerful in capturing the deterministic trend than the linear model of the MrK approach. However, MrK was found to be more straightforward and flexible in delivering spatial explicit uncertainty measures. The validation indicated that DM was more accurate than MrK. Improvements for DM may be expected by predicting soil depth classes. MrK shows potential for modelling beyond the country level, at high

  17. Letting youths choose for themselves: concept mapping as a participatory approach for program and service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Patel, Sejal; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy; OʼCampo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that the voices of youths are heard is key in creating services that align with the needs and goals of youths. Concept mapping, a participatory mixed-methods approach, was used to engage youths, families, and service providers in an assessment of service gaps facing youth in an underserviced neighborhood in Toronto, Canada. We describe 6 phases of concept mapping: preparation, brainstorming, sorting and rating, analysis, interpretation, and utilization. Results demonstrate that youths and service providers vary in their conceptualizations of youth service needs and priorities. Implications for service planning and for youth engagement in research are discussed.

  18. An automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover over high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields) from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N). Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September) over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI) of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall) of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to rapidly

  19. An Automated Approach for Mapping Persistent Ice and Snow Cover over High Latitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N. Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI, and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI, with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to

  20. Information rich mapping requirement to product architecture through functional system deployment: The multi entity domain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagny; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for mapping requirements to architecture. These approaches do not fully support the steps and information created during product design synthesis. Design Specifications used to guide the design are often documented in text based documents, outside the design models. This results in lack of traceability which....... The results suggest that it is possible to present design information in structural domain views, presenting more elaborate information of the design synthesis than provided by previous approaches. However, further validation in a practical project setting is required to validate the approach....

  1. Genomic selection & association mapping in rice: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number & statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its ef...

  2. [Breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at Zhalong of Northeast China: a multi-scale approach based on TM and ASAR image data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales.

  3. Clustering of the Self-Organizing Map based Approach in Induction Machine Rotor Faults Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TOUMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-Organizing Maps (SOM is an excellent method of analyzingmultidimensional data. The SOM based classification is attractive, due to itsunsupervised learning and topology preserving properties. In this paper, theperformance of the self-organizing methods is investigated in induction motorrotor fault detection and severity evaluation. The SOM is based on motor currentsignature analysis (MCSA. The agglomerative hierarchical algorithms using theWard’s method is applied to automatically dividing the map into interestinginterpretable groups of map units that correspond to clusters in the input data. Theresults obtained with this approach make it possible to detect a rotor bar fault justdirectly from the visualization results. The system is also able to estimate theextent of rotor faults.

  4. Combining participatory and socioeconomic approaches to map fishing effort in small-scale fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauric Thiault

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial allocation of fishing effort while including key stakeholders in the decision making process is essential for effective fisheries management but is difficult to implement in complex small-scale fisheries that are diffuse, informal and multifaceted. Here we present a standardized but flexible approach that combines participatory mapping approaches (fishers' spatial preference for fishing grounds, or fishing suitability with socioeconomic approaches (spatial extrapolation of social surrogates, or fishing capacity to generate a comprehensive map of predicted fishing effort. Using a real world case study, in Moorea, French Polynesia, we showed that high predicted fishing effort is not simply located in front of, or close to, main fishing villages with high dependence on marine resources; it also occurs where resource dependency is moderate and generally in near-shore areas and reef passages. The integrated approach we developed can contribute to addressing the recurrent lack of fishing effort spatial data through key stakeholders' (i.e., resource users participation. It can be tailored to a wide range of social, ecological and data availability contexts, and should help improve place-based management of natural resources.

  5. A DEM-based approach for large-scale floodplain mapping in ungauged watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadegan, Keighobad; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2017-07-01

    Binary threshold classifiers are a simple form of supervised classification methods that can be used in floodplain mapping. In these methods, a given watershed is examined as a grid of cells with a particular morphologic value. A reference map is a grid of cells labeled as flood and non-flood from hydraulic modeling or remote sensing observations. By using the reference map, a threshold on morphologic feature is determined to label the unknown cells as flood and non-flood (binary classification). The main limitation of these methods is the threshold transferability assumption in which a homogenous geomorphological and hydrological behavior is assumed for the entire region and the same threshold derived from the reference map (training area) is used for other locations (ungauged watersheds) inside the study area. In order to overcome this limitation and consider the threshold variability inside a large region, regression modeling is used in this paper to predict the threshold by relating it to the watershed characteristics. Application of this approach for North Carolina shows that the threshold is related to main stream slope, average watershed elevation, and average watershed slope. By using the Fitness (F) and Correct (C) criteria of C > 0.9 and F > 0.6, results show the threshold prediction and the corresponding floodplain for 100-year design flow are comparable to that from Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) in the region. However, the floodplains from the proposed model are underpredicted and overpredicted in the flat (average watershed slope 20%). Overall, the proposed approach provides an alternative way of mapping floodplain in data-scarce regions.

  6. Automated mapping of glacial overdeepenings beneath contemporary ice sheets: Approaches and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Swift, Darrel A.; Clark, Chris D.; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Cook, Simon J.; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-03-01

    Awareness is growing on the significance of overdeepenings in ice sheet systems. However, a complete understanding of overdeepening formation is lacking, meaning observations of overdeepening location and morphometry are urgently required to motivate process understanding. Subject to the development of appropriate mapping approaches, high resolution subglacial topography data sets covering the whole of Antarctica and Greenland offer significant potential to acquire such observations and to relate overdeepening characteristics to ice sheet parameters. We explore a possible method for mapping overdeepenings beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and illustrate a potential application of this approach by testing a possible relationship between overdeepening elongation ratio and ice sheet flow velocity. We find that hydrological and terrain filtering approaches are unsuited to mapping overdeepenings and develop a novel rule-based GIS methodology that delineates overdeepening perimeters by analysis of closed-contour properties. We then develop GIS procedures that provide information on overdeepening morphology and topographic context. Limitations in the accuracy and resolution of bed-topography data sets mean that application to glaciological problems requires consideration of quality-control criteria to (a) remove potentially spurious depressions and (b) reduce uncertainties that arise from the inclusion of depressions of nonglacial origin, or those in regions where empirical data are sparse. To address the problem of overdeepening elongation, potential quality control criteria are introduced; and discussion of this example serves to highlight the limitations that mapping approaches - and applications of such approaches - must confront. We predict that improvements in bed-data quality will reduce the need for quality control procedures and facilitate increasingly robust insights from empirical data.

  7. MRPack: Multi-Algorithm Execution Using Compute-Intensive Approach in MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Muhammad; Hussain, Shujaat; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Hassan, Waseem; Syed Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    Large quantities of data have been generated from multiple sources at exponential rates in the last few years. These data are generated at high velocity as real time and streaming data in variety of formats. These characteristics give rise to challenges in its modeling, computation, and processing. Hadoop MapReduce (MR) is a well known data-intensive distributed processing framework using the distributed file system (DFS) for Big Data. Current implementations of MR only support execution of a single algorithm in the entire Hadoop cluster. In this paper, we propose MapReducePack (MRPack), a variation of MR that supports execution of a set of related algorithms in a single MR job. We exploit the computational capability of a cluster by increasing the compute-intensiveness of MapReduce while maintaining its data-intensive approach. It uses the available computing resources by dynamically managing the task assignment and intermediate data. Intermediate data from multiple algorithms are managed using multi-key and skew mitigation strategies. The performance study of the proposed system shows that it is time, I/O, and memory efficient compared to the default MapReduce. The proposed approach reduces the execution time by 200% with an approximate 50% decrease in I/O cost. Complexity and qualitative results analysis shows significant performance improvement.

  8. Benchmarking for research-related competencies - a curricular mapping approach at medical faculties in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Fritze, Olaf; Giesler, Marianne; Narciss, Elisabeth; Steffens, Sandra; Wosnik, Annette; Griewatz, Jan

    2017-11-16

    Internationally, scientific and research-related competencies need to be sufficiently targeted as core outcomes in many undergraduate medical curricula. Since 2015, standards have been recommended for Germany in the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue in Medicine (NKLM). The aim of this study is to develop a multi-center mapping approach for curricular benchmarking against national standards and against other medical faculties. A total of 277 faculty members from four German medical faculties have mapped the local curriculum against the scientific and research-related NKLM objectives, using consented procedures, metrics, and tools. The amount of mapping citations of each objective is used as indicator for its weighting in the local curriculum. Achieved competency levels after five-year education are compared. All four programs fulfill the NKLM standards, with each emphasizing different sub-competencies explicitly in writing (Scholar: 17-41% of all courses; Medical Scientific Skills: 14-37% of all courses). Faculties show major or full agreement in objective weighting: Scholar 44%, scientific skills 79%. The given NKLM competency level is met or even outperformed in 78-100% of the courses. The multi-center mapping approach provides an informative dataset allowing curricular diagnosis by external benchmarking and guidance for optimization of local curricula.

  9. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground-based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well-suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory-oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego-motion makes use of the Fourier-Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real-world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  10. MRPack: Multi-Algorithm Execution Using Compute-Intensive Approach in MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Large quantities of data have been generated from multiple sources at exponential rates in the last few years. These data are generated at high velocity as real time and streaming data in variety of formats. These characteristics give rise to challenges in its modeling, computation, and processing. Hadoop MapReduce (MR) is a well known data-intensive distributed processing framework using the distributed file system (DFS) for Big Data. Current implementations of MR only support execution of a single algorithm in the entire Hadoop cluster. In this paper, we propose MapReducePack (MRPack), a variation of MR that supports execution of a set of related algorithms in a single MR job. We exploit the computational capability of a cluster by increasing the compute-intensiveness of MapReduce while maintaining its data-intensive approach. It uses the available computing resources by dynamically managing the task assignment and intermediate data. Intermediate data from multiple algorithms are managed using multi-key and skew mitigation strategies. The performance study of the proposed system shows that it is time, I/O, and memory efficient compared to the default MapReduce. The proposed approach reduces the execution time by 200% with an approximate 50% decrease in I/O cost. Complexity and qualitative results analysis shows significant performance improvement. PMID:26305223

  11. Turkers in Africa: A Crowdsourcing Approach to Improving Agricultural Landcover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Choi, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the coming decades a substantial portion of Africa is expected to be transformed to agriculture. The scale of this conversion may match or exceed that which occurred in the Brazilian Cerrado and Argentinian Pampa in recent years. Tracking the rate and extent of this conversion will depend on having an accurate baseline of the current extent of croplands. Continent-wide baseline data do exist, but the accuracy of these relatively coarse resolution, remotely sensed assessments is suspect in many regions. To develop more accurate maps of the distribution and nature of African croplands, we develop a distributed "crowdsourcing" approach that harnesses human eyeballs and image interpretation capabilities. Our initial goal is to assess the accuracy of existing agricultural land cover maps, but ultimately we aim to generate "wall-to-wall" cropland maps that can be revisited and updated to track agricultural transformation. Our approach utilizes the freely avail- able, high-resolution satellite imagery provided by Google Earth, combined with Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk platform, an online service that provides a large, global pool of workers (known as "Turkers") who perform "Human Intelligence Tasks" (HITs) for a fee. Using open-source R and python software, we select a random sample of 1 km2 cells from a grid placed over our study area, stratified by field density classes drawn from one of the coarse-scale land cover maps, and send these in batches to Mechanical Turk for processing. Each Turker is required to conduct an initial training session, on the basis of which they are assigned an accuracy score that determines whether the Turker is allowed to proceed with mapping tasks. Completed mapping tasks are automatically retrieved and processed on our server, and subject to two further quality control measures. The first of these is a measure of the spatial accuracy of Turker mapped areas compared to a "gold standard" maps from selected locations that are randomly

  12. Mapping a major QTL responsible for dwarf architecture in Brassica napus using a single-nucleotide polymorphism marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yankun; Chen, Wenjing; Chu, Pu; Wan, Shubei; Yang, Mao; Wang, Mingming; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-08-18

    Key genes related to plant type traits have played very important roles in the "green revolution" by increasing lodging resistance and elevating the harvest indices of crop cultivars. Although there have been numerous achievements in the development of dwarfism and plant type in Brassica napus breeding, exploring new materials conferring oilseed rape with efficient plant types that provide higher yields is still of significance in breeding, as well as in elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant development. Here, we report a new dwarf architecture with down-curved leaf mutant (Bndwf/dcl1) isolated from an ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized B. napus line, together with its inheritance and gene mapping, and pleiotropic effects of the mapped locus on plant-type traits. We constructed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map using a backcross population derived from the Bndwf/dcl1 mutant and the canola cultivar 'zhongshuang11' ('ZS11') and mapped the dwarf architecture with the down-curved leaf dominant locus, BnDWF/DCL1, in a 6.58-cM interval between SNP marker bins M46180 and M49962 on the linkage group (LG) C05 of B. napus. Further mapping with other materials derived from Bndwf/dcl1 narrowed the interval harbouring BnDWF/DCL1 to 175 kb in length and this interval contained 16 annotated genes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mappings with the backcross population for plant type traits, including plant height, branching height, main raceme length and average branching interval, indicated that the mapped QTLs for plant type traits were located at the same position as the BnDWF/DCL1 locus. This study suggests that the BnDWF/DCL1 locus is a major pleiotropic locus/QTL in B. napus, which may reduce plant height, alter plant type traits and change leaf shape, and thus may lead to compact plant architecture. Accordingly, this locus may have substantial breeding potential for increasing planting density.

  13. Mapping urban impervious surfaces from an airborne hyperspectral imagery using the object-oriented classification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguejdad Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to explore the capabilities of the hyperspectral imagery in mapping the urban impervious objects and identifying the surface materials using an object-oriented approach. The application is conducted to Toulouse city (France within the HYEP research project in charge of using hyperspectral imagery for the environmental urban planning. The method uses the multi-resolution segmentation and classification algorithms. The first results highlight a high potential of the hyperspectral imagery in land cover mapping of the urban environment, especially the extraction of impervious surfaces. They, also, illustrate, that the object-oriented approach by means of the fuzzy logic classifier yields promising results in distinguishing the mean roofing materials based only on the spectral information. Conversely to the red clay tiles and metal roofs, which are easily identified, the concrete, gravel and asphalt roofs are still confused with roads.

  14. Conceptualizing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rita; Videira, Nuno

    2015-12-01

    A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  15. An efficient approach to the travelling salesman problem using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Frederico Carvalho; Dória Neto, Adrião Duarte; Costa, José Alfredo Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an approach to the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM algorithm has interesting topological information about its neurons configuration on cartesian space, which can be used to solve optimization problems. Aspects of initialization, parameters adaptation, and complexity analysis of the proposed SOM based algorithm are discussed. The results show an average deviation of 3.7% from the optimal tour length for a set of 12 TSP instances.

  16. An Approach to Dynamic Fusion of the Knowledge Maps of an Activities Process: Application on Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Menaouer Brahami; Baghdad Atmani; Nada Matta

    2015-01-01

    The interest of companies for a greater valuation of their information, knowledge and competency is increasing. These companies have a knowledge capital (tacit and explicit) often poorly exploited. These information resources include knowledge and information useful and necessary to the execution of trades' processes and that it will be captured and formalized by using knowledge engineering methods, such as knowledge mapping techniques. In this context, the authors present a new approach to d...

  17. Mapping audiovisual translation investigations: research approaches and the role of technology

    OpenAIRE

    Matamala, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This article maps audiovisual translation research by analysing in a contrastive way the abstracts presented at three audiovisual translation conferences ten years ago and nowadays. The comparison deals with the audiovisual transfer modes and topics under discussion, and the approach taken by the authors in their abstracts. The article then shifts the focus to the role of technology in audiovisual translation research, as it is considered an element that is impacting and will continue to impa...

  18. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  19. Area-Based Approach for Mapping and Monitoring Riverine Vegetation Using Mobile Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Kaartinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays an important role in stabilizing the soil and decreasing fluvial erosion. In certain cases, vegetation increases the accumulation of fine sediments. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in the fluvial environment. Here, we develop an area-based approach for mapping and monitoring the vegetation structure along a river channel. First, a 2 × 2 m grid was placed over the study area. Metrics describing vegetation density and height were derived from mobile laser-scanning (MLS data and used to predict the variables in the nearest-neighbor (NN estimations. The training data were obtained from aerial images. The vegetation cover type was classified into the following four classes: bare ground, field layer, shrub layer, and canopy layer. Multi-temporal MLS data sets were applied to the change detection of riverine vegetation. This approach successfully classified vegetation cover with an overall classification accuracy of 72.6%; classification accuracies for bare ground, field layer, shrub layer, and canopy layer were 79.5%, 35.0%, 45.2% and 100.0%, respectively. Vegetation changes were detected primarily in outer river bends. These results proved that our approach was suitable for mapping riverine vegetation.

  20. Putting people on the map through an approach that integrates social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanson, Sheri L; Mascia, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Conservation planning is integral to strategic and effective operations of conservation organizations. Drawing upon biological sciences, conservation planning has historically made limited use of social data. We offer an approach for integrating data on social well-being into conservation planning that captures and places into context the spatial patterns and trends in human needs and capacities. This hierarchical approach provides a nested framework for characterizing and mapping data on social well-being in 5 domains: economic well-being, health, political empowerment, education, and culture. These 5 domains each have multiple attributes; each attribute may be characterized by one or more indicators. Through existing or novel data that display spatial and temporal heterogeneity in social well-being, conservation scientists, planners, and decision makers may measure, benchmark, map, and integrate these data within conservation planning processes. Selecting indicators and integrating these data into conservation planning is an iterative, participatory process tailored to the local context and planning goals. Social well-being data complement biophysical and threat-oriented social data within conservation planning processes to inform decisions regarding where and how to conserve biodiversity, provide a structure for exploring socioecological relationships, and to foster adaptive management. Building upon existing conservation planning methods and insights from multiple disciplines, this approach to putting people on the map can readily merge with current planning practices to facilitate more rigorous decision making. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  2. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, G; Iannuccelli, N; Legault, C; Milan, D; Groenen, M A; Giuffra, E; Andersson, L; Nissen, P H; Jørgensen, C B; Beeckmann, P; Geldermann, H; Foulley, J L; Chevalet, C; Ollivier, L

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall F(ST)= 0.27), and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  3. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  4. An assessment of a collaborative mapping approach for exploring land use patterns for several European metropolises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, land surveys and digital interpretation of remotely sensed imagery have been used to generate land use inventories. These techniques however, are often cumbersome and costly, allocating large amounts of technical and temporal costs. The technological advances of web 2.0 have brought a wide array of technological achievements, stimulating the participatory role in collaborative and crowd sourced mapping products. This has been fostered by GPS-enabled devices, and accessible tools that enable visual interpretation of high resolution satellite images/air photos provided in collaborative mapping projects. Such technologies offer an integrative approach to geography by means of promoting public participation and allowing accurate assessment and classification of land use as well as geographical features. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has supported the evolution of such techniques, contributing to the existence of a large inventory of spatial land use information. This paper explores the introduction of this novel participatory phenomenon for land use classification in Europe's metropolitan regions. We adopt a positivistic approach to assess comparatively the accuracy of these contributions of OSM for land use classifications in seven large European metropolitan regions. Thematic accuracy and degree of completeness of OSM data was compared to available Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) datasets for the chosen metropolises. We further extend our findings of land use within a novel framework for geography, justifying that volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources are of great benefit for land use mapping depending on location and degree of VGI dynamism and offer a great alternative to traditional mapping techniques for metropolitan regions throughout Europe. Evaluation of several land use types at the local level suggests that a number of OSM classes (such as anthropogenic land use, agricultural and some natural environment

  5. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  6. Information rich mapping requirement to product architecture through functional system deployment: The multi entity domain approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagny; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for mapping requirements to architecture. These approaches do not fully support the steps and information created during product design synthesis. Design Specifications used to guide the design are often documented in text based documents, outside the design models. This results in lack of traceability which......Successful transformation of design information from customer requirements to design implementation is critical for engineering design. As systems become complex the tracking of how customer requirements are implement becomes difficult. Existing approaches suggest so called domain modelling...... may impede the ability to evolve, maintain or reuse systems. In this paper the Multi Entity Domain Approach (MEDA) is presented. The approach combines different design information within the domain views, incorporates both Software and Hardware design and supports iterative requirements definition...

  7. Whole-Genome Restriction Mapping by "Subhaploid"-Based RAD Sequencing: An Efficient and Flexible Approach for Physical Mapping and Genome Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jinzhuang; Dou, Huaiqian; Mu, Chuang; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Yangping; Wang, Jia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuli; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-07-01

    Assembly of complex genomes using short reads remains a major challenge, which usually yields highly fragmented assemblies. Generation of ultradense linkage maps is promising for anchoring such assemblies, but traditional linkage mapping methods are hindered by the infrequency and unevenness of meiotic recombination that limit attainable map resolution. Here we develop a sequencing-based "in vitro" linkage mapping approach (called RadMap), where chromosome breakage and segregation are realized by generating hundreds of "subhaploid" fosmid/bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone pools, and by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of these clone pools to produce an ultradense whole-genome restriction map to facilitate genome scaffolding. A bootstrap-based minimum spanning tree algorithm is developed for grouping and ordering of genome-wide markers and is implemented in a user-friendly, integrated software package (AMMO). We perform extensive analyses to validate the power and accuracy of our approach in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and human. We also demonstrate the utility of RadMap for enhancing the contiguity of a variety of whole-genome shotgun assemblies generated using either short Illumina reads (300 bp) or long PacBio reads (6-14 kb), with up to 15-fold improvement of N50 (∼816 kb-3.7 Mb) and high scaffolding accuracy (98.1-98.5%). RadMap outperforms BioNano and Hi-C when input assembly is highly fragmented (contig N50 = 54 kb). RadMap can capture wide-range contiguity information and provide an efficient and flexible tool for high-resolution physical mapping and scaffolding of highly fragmented assemblies. Copyright © 2017 Dou et al.

  8. Extreme rainfall distribution mapping: Comparison of two approaches in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthou, G.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Blanchet, J.; Quantin, G.; Ali, A.

    2012-12-01

    In a world where populations are increasingly exposed to natural hazards, extreme rainfall mapping remains an important subject of research. Extreme rainfall maps are required for both flood risk management and civil engineering structure design, the challenge being to take into account the local information provided by point rainfall series as well as the necessity of some regional coherency. Such a coherency is not guaranteed when extreme value distributions are fitted separately to individual maximum rainfall series. Two approaches based on the extreme value theory (Block Maxima Analysis) are compared here, with an application to extreme rainfall mapping in West Africa. Annual daily rainfall maxima are extracted from rain-gauges series and modeled over the study region by GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) distributions. These two approaches are the following: (i) The Local Fit and Interpolation (LFI) approach which consists of a spatial interpolation of the GEV distribution parameters estimated independently at each raingauge serie. (ii) The Spatial Maximum Likelihood Estimation (SMLE) which directly estimates the GEV distribution over the entire region by a single maximum likelihood fit using jointly all measurements combined with spatial covariates. Five LFI and three SMLE methods are considered, using the information provided by 126 daily rainfall series covering the period 1950-1990. The methods are first evaluated in calibration. Then the predictive skills and the robustness are assessed through a cross validation and an independent network validation process. The SMLE approach, especially when using the mean annual rainfall as covariate, appears to perform better for most of the scores computed. Using a reference series of 104 years of daily data recorded at Niamey (Niger), it is also shown that the SMLE approach has the capacity to deal more efficiently with the effect of local outliers by using the spatial information provided by nearby stations.

  9. Geologic Map of the Olympia Cavi Region of Mars (MTM 85200): A Summary of Tactical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2010-01-01

    The 1:500K-scale geologic map of MTM 85200 - the Olympia Cavi region of Mars - has been submitted for peer review [1]. Physiographically, the quadrangle includes portions of Olympia Rupes, a set of sinuous scarps which elevate Planum Boreum 800 meters above Olympia Planum. The region includes the high-standing, spiral troughs of Boreales Scopuli, the rugged and deep depressions of Olympia Cavi, and the vast dune fields of Olympia Undae. Geologically, the mapped units and landforms reflect the recent history of repeated accumulation and degradation. The widespread occurrence of both weakly and strongly stratified units implicates the drape-like accumulation of ice, dust, and sand through climatic variations. Similarly, the occurrence of layer truncations, particularly at unit boundaries, implicates punctuated periods of both localized and regional erosion and surface deflation whereby underlying units were exhumed and their material transported and re-deposited. Herein, we focus on the iterative mapping approaches that allowed not only the accommodation of the burgeoning variety and volume of data sets, but also facilitated the efficient presentation of map information. Unit characteristics and their geologic history are detailed in past abstracts [2-3].

  10. Concept mapping as an approach for expert-guided model building: The example of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Renate; Lenartz, Norbert; Rudinger, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping served as the starting point for the aim of capturing the comprehensive structure of the construct of 'health literacy.' Ideas about health literacy were generated by 99 experts and resulted in 105 statements that were subsequently organized by 27 experts in an unstructured card sorting. Multidimensional scaling was applied to the sorting data and a two and three-dimensional solution was computed. The three dimensional solution was used in subsequent cluster analysis and resulted in a concept map of nine "clusters": (1) self-regulation, (2) self-perception, (3) proactive approach to health, (4) basic literacy and numeracy skills, (5) information appraisal, (6) information search, (7) health care system knowledge and acting, (8) communication and cooperation, and (9) beneficial personality traits. Subsequently, this concept map served as a starting point for developing a "qualitative" structural model of health literacy and a questionnaire for the measurement of health literacy. On the basis of questionnaire data, a "quantitative" structural model was created by first applying exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and then cross-validating the model with confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Concept mapping proved to be a highly valuable tool for the process of model building up to translational research in the "real world". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  12. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  13. An optimization approach for mapping and measuring the divergence and correspondence between paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T; Perelman, Brandon S; Veinott, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Many domains of empirical research produce or analyze spatial paths as a measure of behavior. Previously, approaches for measuring the similarity or deviation between two paths have either required timing information or have used ad hoc or manual coding schemes. In this paper, we describe an optimization approach for robustly measuring the area-based deviation between two paths we call ALCAMP (Algorithm for finding the Least-Cost Areal Mapping between Paths). ALCAMP measures the deviation between two paths and produces a mapping between corresponding points on the two paths. The method is robust to a number of aspects in real path data, such as crossovers, self-intersections, differences in path segmentation, and partial or incomplete paths. Unlike similar algorithms that produce distance metrics between trajectories (i.e., paths that include timing information), this algorithm uses only the order of observed path segments to determine the mapping. We describe the algorithm and show its results on a number of sample problems and data sets, and demonstrate its effectiveness for assessing human memory for paths. We also describe available software code written in the R statistical computing language that implements the algorithm to enable data analysis.

  14. Mapping wildfire vulnerability in Mediterranean Europe. Testing a stepwise approach for operational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Félix, Fernando; Nunes, Adélia; Lourenço, Luciano; Laneve, Giovanni; Sebastián-López, Ana

    2017-10-20

    Vulnerability assessment is a vital component of wildfire management. This research focused on the development of a framework to measure and map vulnerability levels in several areas within Mediterranean Europe, where wildfires are a major concern. The framework followed a stepwise approach to evaluate its main components, expressed by exposure, sensitivity and coping capacity. Data on population density, fuel types, protected areas location, roads infrastructure and surveillance activities, among others, were integrated to create composite indices, representing each component and articulated in multiple dimensions. Maps were created for several test areas, in northwest Portugal, southwest Sardinia in Italy and northeast Corsica in France, with the contribution of local participants from civil protection institutions and forest services. Results showed the influence of fuel sensitivity levels, population distribution and protected areas coverage for the overall vulnerability classes. Reasonable levels of accuracy were found on the maps provided through the validation procedure, with an overall match above 72% for the several sites. The systematic and flexible approach applied allowed for adjustments to local circumstances with regards to data availability and fire management procedures, without compromising its consistency and with substantial operational capabilities. The results obtained and the positive feedback of end-users encourage its further application, as a means to improve wildfire management strategies at multiple levels with the latest scientific outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Photogrammetric Approach for Assessing Positional Accuracy of OpenStreetMap© Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Doucette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.

  16. A GIS based method for soil mapping in Sardinia, Italy: a geomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, A; Loddo, S; Melis, M T; Funedda, A; Puddu, R; Verona, M; Fanni, S; Fantola, F; Madrau, S; Marrone, V A; Serra, G; Tore, C; Manca, D; Pasci, S; Puddu, M R; Schirru, P

    2014-06-01

    A new project was recently initiated for the realization of the "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a scale of 1:50,000 to support land use planning. In this study, we outline the general structure of the project and the methods used in the activities that have been thus far conducted. A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution or the prediction of soil properties based on landscape features. The work is divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on land cover, geology and topography were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. The methods used in the interpretation are based on consolidated and generalized knowledge about the influence of geology, topography and land cover on soil properties. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. Point data considered to be usable were input into a specific database created for the project. Using expert interpretation, all digital data were merged to produce a first draft of the Land Unit Map. During the second phase, this map will be implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field if also needed with new soil data collection, and the final Land Unit Map will be produced. The Land Unit and Soil Capability Map will be produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ConMap: Investigating new computer-based approaches to assessing conceptual knowledge structure in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2000-06-01

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap (``Conceptual Mapping'') project, described in this dissertation, proposed and investigated some novel methods for assessing the conceptual knowledge structure of physics students. A set of brief computer-administered tasks for eliciting students' conceptual associations was designed. The basic approach of the tasks was to elicit spontaneous term associations from subjects by presenting them with a prompt term, or problem, or topic area, and having them type a set of response terms. Each response was recorded along with the time spent thinking of and typing it. Several studies were conducted in which data was collected on introductory physics students' performance on the tasks. A detailed statistical description of the data was compiled. Phenomenological characterization of the data (description and statistical summary of observed patterns) provided insight into the way students respond to the tasks, and discovered some notable features to guide modeling efforts. Possible correlations were investigated, some among different aspects of the ConMap data, others between aspects of the data and students' in-course exam scores. Several correlations were found which suggest that the ConMap tasks can successfully reveal information about students' knowledge structuring and level of expertise. Similarity was observed between data from one of the tasks and results from a traditional concept map task. Two rudimentary quantitative models for the temporal aspects of student performance on one of the tasks were constructed, one based on random probability distributions and the other on a detailed deterministic representation of conceptual knowledge structure. Both models were

  18. A New Approach to Liquefaction Potential Mapping Using Remote Sensing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T.; Baise, L. G.

    2007-12-01

    learning capabilities of a human brain and make appropriate predictions that involve intuitive judgments and a high degree of nonlinearity. The accuracy of the developed liquefaction potential map was tested using independent testing data that was not used for the model development. The results show that the developed liquefaction potential map has an overall classification accuracy of 84%, indicating that the combination of remote sensing data and other relevant spatial data together with machine learning can be a promising approach for liquefaction potential mapping.

  19. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  20. Alternative SERRS probes for the immunochemical localization of ovalbumin in paintings: an advanced mapping detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Giorgia; Litti, Lucio; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Prati, Silvia; Ricci, Marilena; Gobbo, Marina; Roda, Aldo; Castellucci, Emilio; Meneghetti, Moreno; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2013-08-21

    In the field of analytical chemistry, many scientific efforts have been devoted to develop experimental procedures for the characterization of organic substances present in heterogeneous artwork samples, due to their challenging identification. In particular, performances of immunochemical techniques have been recently investigated, optimizing ad hoc systems for the identification of proteins. Among all the different immunochemical approaches, the use of metal nanoparticles - for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection - remains one of the most powerful methods that has still not been explored enough for the analysis of artistic artefacts. For this reason, the present research work was aimed at proposing a new optimized and highly efficient indirect immunoassay for the detection of ovalbumin. In particular, the study proposed a new SERRS probe composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalised with Nile Blue A and produced with an excellent green and cheap alternative approach to the traditional chemical nanoparticles synthesis: the laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS). This procedure allows us to obtain stable nanoparticles which can be easily functionalized without any ligand exchange reaction or extensive purification procedures. Moreover, the present research work also focused on the development of a comprehensive analytical approach, based on the combination of potentialities of immunochemical methods and Raman analysis, for the simultaneous identification of the target protein and the different organic and inorganic substances present in the paint matrix. An advanced mapping detection system was proposed to achieve the exact spatial location of all the components through the creation of false colour chemical maps.

  1. Conceptualizing Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Ecosystem Services: A Participatory Systems Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Rita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A participatory system dynamics modelling approach is advanced to support conceptualization of feedback processes underlying ecosystem services and to foster a shared understanding of leverage intervention points. The process includes systems mapping workshop and follow-up tasks aiming at the collaborative construction of causal loop diagrams. A case study developed in a natural area in Portugal illustrates how a stakeholder group was actively engaged in the development of a conceptual model depicting policies for sustaining the climate regulation ecosystem service.

  2. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Valentin Nedelcu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems.

  3. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  4. A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: a focus on positive psychology interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Lee, Josephine; Otto, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach. As an initial prototype for demonstrating this method, we mapped 50 positive psychology interventions targeting well-being (as captured in the Bolier et al. [2013] meta-analysis, [Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83]). Each intervention domain/subdomain was mapped according to its average effect size (indexed by vertical elevation), number of studies providing effect sizes (indexed by horizontal area), and therapist/client burden (indexed by shading). The geographical placement of intervention domains/subdomains was determined by their conceptual proximity, allowing viewers to gauge the general conceptual "direction" in which promising intervention effects can be found. The resulting graphical displays revealed several prominent features of the well-being intervention "landscape," such as more strongly and uniformly positive effects of future-focused interventions (including, goal-pursuit and optimism training) compared to past/present-focused ones.

  5. A Novel Approach on Designing Augmented Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Using Fuzzified Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I.

    This paper proposes a new methodology for designing Fuzzy Cognitive Maps using crisp decision trees that have been fuzzified. Fuzzy cognitive map is a knowledge-based technique that works as an artificial cognitive network inheriting the main aspects of cognitive maps and artificial neural networks. Decision trees, in the other hand, are well known intelligent techniques that extract rules from both symbolic and numeric data. Fuzzy theoretical techniques are used to fuzzify crisp decision trees in order to soften decision boundaries at decision nodes inherent in this type of trees. Comparisons between crisp decision trees and the fuzzified decision trees suggest that the later fuzzy tree is significantly more robust and produces a more balanced decision making. The approach proposed in this paper could incorporate any type of fuzzy decision trees. Through this methodology, new linguistic weights were determined in FCM model, thus producing augmented FCM tool. The framework is consisted of a new fuzzy algorithm to generate linguistic weights that describe the cause-effect relationships among the concepts of the FCM model, from induced fuzzy decision trees.

  6. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  7. The field line map approach for simulations of magnetically confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Stegmeir, Andreas; Maj, Omar; Hallatschek, Klaus; Lackner, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In the presented field line map approach the simulation domain of a tokamak is covered with a cylindrical grid, which is Cartesian within poloidal planes. Standard finite-difference methods can be used for the discretisation of perpendicular (w.r.t.~magnetic field lines) operators. The characteristic flute mode property $\\left(k_{\\parallel}\\ll k_{\\perp}\\right)$ of structures is exploited computationally by a grid sparsification in the toroidal direction. A field line following discretisation of parallel operators is then required, which is achieved via a finite difference along magnetic field lines. This includes field line tracing and interpolation or integration. The main emphasis of this paper is on the discretisation of the parallel diffusion operator. Based on the support operator method a scheme is constructed which exhibits only very low numerical perpendicular diffusion. The schemes are implemented in the new code GRILLIX, and extensive benchmarks are presented which show the validity of the approach ...

  8. Genealogy and fine mapping of obscuravenosa, a gene affecting the distribution of chloroplasts in leaf veins, and evidence of selection during breeding of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum; Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl M; Rick, Charles M; Adams, Dawn; Jernstedt, Judy; Chetelat, Roger T

    2007-06-01

    In the processes of plant domestication and variety development, some traits are under direct selection, while others may be introduced by indirect selection or linkage. In the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum = Solanum lycopersicum), and all other Solanaceae examined, chloroplasts are normally absent from subepidermal and mesophyll cells surrounding the leaf veins, and thus, veins appear clear upon subillumination. The tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv), in contrast, contains chloroplasts in cells around the vein, and thus, veins appear as dark as the surrounding leaf tissue. Among tomato cultivars, the obv allele is common in processing varieties bred for mechanical harvest, but is otherwise rare. We traced the source of obv in processing tomatoes to the cultivar Earliana, released in the 1920s. The obv locus was mapped to chromosome 5, bin 5G, using introgression lines containing single chromosome segments from the wild species L. pennellii. This region also contains a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for plant height, pht5.4, which cosegregated with SP5G, a paralog of self-pruning (sp), the gene that controls the switch between determinate and indeterminate growth in tomato. The pht5.4 QTL was partially dominant and associated with a reduced percentage of red fruit at harvest. Our data suggest that the prevalence of obv in nearly all processing varieties may have resulted from its tight linkage to a QTL conferring a more compact, and horticulturally desirable, plant habit.

  9. A new multicriteria risk mapping approach based on a multiattribute frontier concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Downing, Marla; Sapio, Frank; Siltanen, Marty

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species risk maps provide broad guidance on where to allocate resources for pest monitoring and regulation, but they often present individual risk components (such as climatic suitability, host abundance, or introduction potential) as independent entities. These independent risk components are integrated using various multicriteria analysis techniques that typically require prior knowledge of the risk components' importance. Such information is often nonexistent for many invasive pests. This study proposes a new approach for building integrated risk maps using the principle of a multiattribute efficient frontier and analyzing the partial order of elements of a risk map as distributed in multidimensional criteria space. The integrated risks are estimated as subsequent multiattribute frontiers in dimensions of individual risk criteria. We demonstrate the approach with the example of Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, a high-risk pest that may threaten North American oak forests in the near future. Drawing on U.S. and Canadian data, we compare the performance of the multiattribute ranking against a multicriteria linear weighted averaging technique in the presence of uncertainties, using the concept of robustness from info-gap decision theory. The results show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of tradeoffs between multiple risk components changes integrated risk rankings. Both methods delineate similar geographical regions of high and low risks. Overall, aggregation based on a delineation of multiattribute efficient frontiers can be a useful tool to prioritize risks for anticipated invasive pests, which usually have an extremely poor prior knowledge base. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Development of mapping populations for genetic analysis in yams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress is being made at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria) to develop molecular tools for marker-assisted selection that would complement and expedite conventional breeding approaches for genetic improvement of yams (Dioscorea spp.). F1 full-sib mapping populations were ...

  11. Efficacy of the transtemporal approach with awake brain mapping to reach the dominant posteromedial temporal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kentaro; Motomura, Kazuya; Chalise, Lushun; Hirano, Masaki; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Surgeries for lesions in the dominant hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus involving the posteromedial temporal regions are challenging to perform because they are located close to Wernicke's area; white matter fibers related with language; the optic radiations; and critical neurovascular structures. We performed a transtemporal approach with awake functional mapping for lesions affecting the dominant posteromedial temporal regions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake craniotomy for these lesions. We retrospectively reviewed four consecutive patients with tumors or cavernous angiomas located in the left hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus, which further extended to the posteromedial temporal regions, who underwent awake surgery between December 2014 and January 2016. Four patients with lesions associated with the left hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus, including the posteromedial temporal area, who underwent awake surgery were registered in the study. In all four patients, cortical and subcortical eloquent areas were identified via direct electrical stimulation. This allowed determination of the optimal surgical route to the angioma or tumor, even in the language-dominant hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus. In particular, this approach enabled access to the upper part of posteromedial temporal lesions, while protecting the subcortical language-related fibers, such as the superior longitudinal fasciculus. This study revealed that awake brain mapping can enable the safe resection of dominant posteromedial temporal lesions, while protecting cortical and subcortical eloquent areas. Furthermore, our experience with four patients demonstrates the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake surgery for these lesions.

  12. Cross-section comparisons of cloaks designed by transformation optical and optical conformal mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.; Kundtz, Nathan B.; Smith, David R.; Pendry, John B.

    2011-02-01

    We review several approaches to optical invisibility designed using transformation optics (TO) and optical conformal mapping (CM) techniques. TO is a general framework for solving inverse scattering problems based on mimicking spatial coordinate transformations with distributions of material properties. There are two essential steps in the design of TO media: first, a coordinate transformation that achieves some desired functionality, resulting in a continuous spatial distribution of constitutive parameters that are generally anisotropic; and, second, the reduction of the derived continuous constitutive parameters to a metamaterial that serves as a stepwise approximation. We focus here on the first step, discussing the merits of various TO strategies proposed for the long-sought 'invisibility cloak'—a structure that renders opaque objects invisible. We also evaluate the cloaking capabilities of structures designed by the related CM approach, which makes use of conformal mapping to achieve index-only material distributions. The performance of the various cloaks is evaluated and compared using a universal measure—the total (all-angle) scattering cross section.

  13. In Silico Design of Human IMPDH Inhibitors Using Pharmacophore Mapping and Molecular Docking Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH is one of the crucial enzymes in the de novo biosynthesis of guanosine nucleotides. It has served as an attractive target in immunosuppressive, anticancer, antiviral, and antiparasitic therapeutic strategies. In this study, pharmacophore mapping and molecular docking approaches were employed to discover novel Homo sapiens IMPDH (hIMPDH inhibitors. The Güner-Henry (GH scoring method was used to evaluate the quality of generated pharmacophore hypotheses. One of the generated pharmacophore hypotheses was found to possess a GH score of 0.67. Ten potential compounds were selected from the ZINC database using a pharmacophore mapping approach and docked into the IMPDH active site. We find two hits (i.e., ZINC02090792 and ZINC00048033 that match well the optimal pharmacophore features used in this investigation, and it is found that they form interactions with key residues of IMPDH. We propose that these two hits are lead compounds for the development of novel hIMPDH inhibitors.

  14. HAGR-D: A Novel Approach for Gesture Recognition with Depth Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diego G; Fernandes, Bruno J T; Bezerra, Byron L D

    2015-11-12

    The hand is an important part of the body used to express information through gestures, and its movements can be used in dynamic gesture recognition systems based on computer vision with practical applications, such as medical, games and sign language. Although depth sensors have led to great progress in gesture recognition, hand gesture recognition still is an open problem because of its complexity, which is due to the large number of small articulations in a hand. This paper proposes a novel approach for hand gesture recognition with depth maps generated by the Microsoft Kinect Sensor (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) using a variation of the CIPBR (convex invariant position based on RANSAC) algorithm and a hybrid classifier composed of dynamic time warping (DTW) and Hidden Markov models (HMM), called the hybrid approach for gesture recognition with depth maps (HAGR-D). The experiments show that the proposed model overcomes other algorithms presented in the literature in hand gesture recognition tasks, achieving a classification rate of 97.49% in the MSRGesture3D dataset and 98.43% in the RPPDI dynamic gesture dataset.

  15. Constructivist-Visual Mind Map Teaching Approach and the Quality of Students' Cognitive Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Makarimi-Kasim; Roger Anderson, O.

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the effects of a constructivist-visual mind map teaching approach (CMA) and of a traditional teaching approach (TTA) on (a) the quality and richness of students' knowledge structures and (b) TTA and CMA students' perceptions of the extent that a constructivist learning environment (CLE) was created in their classes. The sample of the study consisted of six classes (140 Form 3 students of 13-15 years old) selected from a typical coeducational school in Brunei. Three classes (40 boys and 30 girls) were taught using the TTA while three other classes (41 boys and 29 girls) used the CMA, enriched with PowerPoint presentations. After the interventions (lessons on magnetism), the students in both groups were asked to describe in writing their understanding of magnetism accrued from the lessons. Their written descriptions were analyzed using flow map analyses to assess their content knowledge and its organisation in memory as evidence of cognitive structure. The extent of CLE was measured using a published CLE survey. The results showed that the cognitive structures of the CMA students were more extensive, thematically organised and richer in interconnectedness of thoughts than those of TTA students. Moreover, CMA students also perceived their classroom learning environment to be more constructivist than their counterparts. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers consider using the CMA teaching technique to help students enrich their understanding, especially for more complex or abstract scientific content.

  16. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  17. Hyperspectral Data for Mangrove Species Mapping: A Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual image interpretation and digital image classification have been used to map and monitor mangrove extent and composition for decades. The presence of a high-spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor can potentially improve our ability to differentiate mangrove species. However, little research has explored the use of pixel-based and object-based approaches on high-spatial hyperspectral datasets for this purpose. This study assessed the ability of CASI-2 data for mangrove species mapping using pixel-based and object-based approaches at the mouth of the Brisbane River area, southeast Queensland, Australia. Three mapping techniques used in this study: spectral angle mapper (SAM and linear spectral unmixing (LSU for the pixel-based approaches, and multi-scale segmentation for the object-based image analysis (OBIA. The endmembers for the pixel-based approach were collected based on existing vegetation community map. Nine targeted classes were mapped in the study area from each approach, including three mangrove species: Avicennia marina, Rhizophora stylosa, and Ceriops australis. The mapping results showed that SAM produced accurate class polygons with only few unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 69%, Kappa 0.57, the LSU resulted in a patchy polygon pattern with many unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 56%, Kappa 0.41, and the object-based mapping produced the most accurate results (overall accuracy 76%, Kappa 0.67. Our results demonstrated that the object-based approach, which combined a rule-based and nearest-neighbor classification method, was the best classifier to map mangrove species and its adjacent environments.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  19. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process. Such carpeting process can be found in several industries such as construction, aviation, and automotive. Design/methodology/approach: The improvement process was built through a sequential implementation of appropriate interconnected tools at each phase of the DMAIC approach. Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings: The carpeting process capability, quality of the product, customer satisfaction, and cost of poor quality were significantly improved. Explicitly, the sigma level was improved from 2.297 to 2.886 and the defects per million opportunities (DPMO was reduced from 21615 to 3905. Originality/value: This paper has approved the capability of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to analyze, investigate, and remove the root causes of the carpeting (preparation-installation process nonconformities .

  20. MAP-MRF-Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction Approach for Coded Aperture Compressive Temporal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghua Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coded Aperture Compressive Temporal Imaging (CACTI can afford low-cost temporal super-resolution (SR, but limits are imposed by noise and compression ratio on reconstruction quality. To utilize inter-frame redundant information from multiple observations and sparsity in multi-transform domains, a robust reconstruction approach based on maximum a posteriori probability and Markov random field (MAP-MRF model for CACTI is proposed. The proposed approach adopts a weighted 3D neighbor system (WNS and the coordinate descent method to perform joint estimation of model parameters, to achieve the robust super-resolution reconstruction. The proposed multi-reconstruction algorithm considers both total variation (TV and ℓ 2 , 1 norm in wavelet domain to address the minimization problem for compressive sensing, and solves it using an accelerated generalized alternating projection algorithm. The weighting coefficient for different regularizations and frames is resolved by the motion characteristics of pixels. The proposed approach can provide high visual quality in the foreground and background of a scene simultaneously and enhance the fidelity of the reconstruction results. Simulation results have verified the efficacy of our new optimization framework and the proposed reconstruction approach.

  1. Remote Sensing in Mapping Mangrove Ecosystems — An Object-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tuan Vo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, clearing for shrimp farming has caused severe losses of mangroves in the Mekong Delta (MD of Vietnam. Although the increasing importance of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought significant financial benefits to the local communities, the rapid and largely uncontrolled increase in aquacultural area has contributed to a considerable loss of mangrove forests and to environmental degradation. Although different approaches have been used for mangrove classification, no approach to date has addressed the challenges of the special conditions that can be found in the aquaculture-mangrove system in the Ca Mau province of the MD. This paper presents an object-based classification approach for estimating the percentage of mangroves in mixed mangrove-aquaculture farming systems to assist the government to monitor the extent of the shrimp farming area. The method comprises multi-resolution segmentation and classification of SPOT5 data using a decision tree approach as well as local knowledge from the region of interest. The results show accuracies higher than 75% for certain classes at the object level. Furthermore, we successfully detect areas with mixed aquaculture-mangrove land cover with high accuracies. Based on these results, mangrove development, especially within shrimp farming-mangrove systems, can be monitored. However, the mangrove forest cover fraction per object is affected by image segmentation and thus does not always correspond to the real farm boundaries. It remains a serious challenge, then, to accurately map mangrove forest cover within mixed systems.

  2. Evaluation of digital soil mapping approaches with large sets of environmental covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nussbaum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial assessment of soil functions requires maps of basic soil properties. Unfortunately, these are either missing for many regions or are not available at the desired spatial resolution or down to the required soil depth. The field-based generation of large soil datasets and conventional soil maps remains costly. Meanwhile, legacy soil data and comprehensive sets of spatial environmental data are available for many regions. Digital soil mapping (DSM approaches relating soil data (responses to environmental data (covariates face the challenge of building statistical models from large sets of covariates originating, for example, from airborne imaging spectroscopy or multi-scale terrain analysis. We evaluated six approaches for DSM in three study regions in Switzerland (Berne, Greifensee, ZH forest by mapping the effective soil depth available to plants (SD, pH, soil organic matter (SOM, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC, clay, silt, gravel content and fine fraction bulk density for four soil depths (totalling 48 responses. Models were built from 300–500 environmental covariates by selecting linear models through (1 grouped lasso and (2 an ad hoc stepwise procedure for robust external-drift kriging (georob. For (3 geoadditive models we selected penalized smoothing spline terms by component-wise gradient boosting (geoGAM. We further used two tree-based methods: (4 boosted regression trees (BRTs and (5 random forest (RF. Lastly, we computed (6 weighted model averages (MAs from the predictions obtained from methods 1–5. Lasso, georob and geoGAM successfully selected strongly reduced sets of covariates (subsets of 3–6 % of all covariates. Differences in predictive performance, tested on independent validation data, were mostly small and did not reveal a single best method for 48 responses. Nevertheless, RF was often the best among methods 1–5 (28 of 48 responses, but was outcompeted by MA for 14 of these 28

  3. Evaluation of digital soil mapping approaches with large sets of environmental covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Spiess, Kay; Baltensweiler, Andri; Grob, Urs; Keller, Armin; Greiner, Lucie; Schaepman, Michael E.; Papritz, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The spatial assessment of soil functions requires maps of basic soil properties. Unfortunately, these are either missing for many regions or are not available at the desired spatial resolution or down to the required soil depth. The field-based generation of large soil datasets and conventional soil maps remains costly. Meanwhile, legacy soil data and comprehensive sets of spatial environmental data are available for many regions. Digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches relating soil data (responses) to environmental data (covariates) face the challenge of building statistical models from large sets of covariates originating, for example, from airborne imaging spectroscopy or multi-scale terrain analysis. We evaluated six approaches for DSM in three study regions in Switzerland (Berne, Greifensee, ZH forest) by mapping the effective soil depth available to plants (SD), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), clay, silt, gravel content and fine fraction bulk density for four soil depths (totalling 48 responses). Models were built from 300-500 environmental covariates by selecting linear models through (1) grouped lasso and (2) an ad hoc stepwise procedure for robust external-drift kriging (georob). For (3) geoadditive models we selected penalized smoothing spline terms by component-wise gradient boosting (geoGAM). We further used two tree-based methods: (4) boosted regression trees (BRTs) and (5) random forest (RF). Lastly, we computed (6) weighted model averages (MAs) from the predictions obtained from methods 1-5. Lasso, georob and geoGAM successfully selected strongly reduced sets of covariates (subsets of 3-6 % of all covariates). Differences in predictive performance, tested on independent validation data, were mostly small and did not reveal a single best method for 48 responses. Nevertheless, RF was often the best among methods 1-5 (28 of 48 responses), but was outcompeted by MA for 14 of these 28 responses. RF tended to over

  4. Clinical medication review tool for polypharmacy: Mapping approach for pharmacotherapeutic classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Mori, Tomoyo; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Endo, Hideharu; Hirashita, Tomoyuki; Ichino, Takanobu; Akishita, Masahiro; Furuta, Katsunori

    2017-11-01

    Polypharmacy is an extremely important problem, because it increases the risk of adverse drug reactions. The aim of the current study was to create a clinical medication review tool to detect inappropriate medication use, and assess this new method with elderly Japanese patients. The new method involves optimizing prescription drugs from indications, based on the chronic disease-anatomical therapeutic class code list. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications in 5667 Japanese patients aged ≥65 years with polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) in comparison with the Beers criteria 2012. We propose a new method called the Mapping Approach for Pharmacotherapeutic Classifications: (i) identify the chronic disease-anatomical therapeutic class code assigned to the prescription drugs; (ii) identify the chronic disease-anatomical therapeutic class code corresponding to the patient's chronic disease; (iii) compare the prescription drug and patient's chronic disease chronic disease-anatomical therapeutic class codes; and (iv) identify the appropriateness of medication use based on the comparison (appropriate use is defined as matching codes). The mean number of potentially inappropriate medications detected was significantly different between the mapping approach and Beers criteria 2012 (3.1 ± 2.6 vs 0.6 ± 0.8 drugs, respectively; P Approach for Pharmacotherapeutic Classifications is highly dependent on the chronic condition. Pharmacists should confirm the chronic condition with the treating physician before reducing a patient's medications. We hope this process will further influence prescribing patterns, and decrease the inappropriate use of medications and associated adverse drug reactions in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2025-2033. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. A MapReduce approach to diminish imbalance parameters for big deoxyribonucleic acid dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Sarwar; Ripon, Shamim Hasnat; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Santhi, V

    2016-07-01

    In the age of information superhighway, big data play a significant role in information processing, extractions, retrieving and management. In computational biology, the continuous challenge is to manage the biological data. Data mining techniques are sometimes imperfect for new space and time requirements. Thus, it is critical to process massive amounts of data to retrieve knowledge. The existing software and automated tools to handle big data sets are not sufficient. As a result, an expandable mining technique that enfolds the large storage and processing capability of distributed or parallel processing platforms is essential. In this analysis, a contemporary distributed clustering methodology for imbalance data reduction using k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classification approach has been introduced. The pivotal objective of this work is to illustrate real training data sets with reduced amount of elements or instances. These reduced amounts of data sets will ensure faster data classification and standard storage management with less sensitivity. However, general data reduction methods cannot manage very big data sets. To minimize these difficulties, a MapReduce-oriented framework is designed using various clusters of automated contents, comprising multiple algorithmic approaches. To test the proposed approach, a real DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) dataset that consists of 90 million pairs has been used. The proposed model reduces the imbalance data sets from large-scale data sets without loss of its accuracy. The obtained results depict that MapReduce based K-NN classifier provided accurate results for big data of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  7. The land morphology approach to flood risk mapping: An application to Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, N S; Magalhães, M R; Domingos, T; Abreu, M M; Küpfer, C

    2017-05-15

    In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains. Floodplains are considered a part of a larger system called Wet System (WS). The WS includes permanent and temporary streams, water bodies, wetlands and valley bottoms. Valley bottom is a broad concept which comprehends not only floodplains but also flat and concave areas, contiguous to streams, in which slope is less than 5%. This will be addressed through a consistent method based on a land morphology approach that classifies landforms according to their hydrological position in the watershed. This method is based on flat areas (slopes less than 5%), surface curvature and hydrological features. The comparison between WS and flood risk data from the Portuguese Environmental Agency for the main rivers of mainland Portugal showed that in downstream areas of watersheds, valley bottoms are coincident with floodplains modelled by hydrological methods. Mapping WS has a particular interest in analysing river ecosystems position and function in the landscape, from upstream to downstream areas in the watershed. This morphological approach is less demanding data and time-consuming than hydrological methods and can be used as the preliminary delimitation of floodplains and potential flood risk areas in situations where there is no hydrological data available. The results were also compared with the land use/cover map at a national level and detailed in Trancão river basin, located in Lisbon

  8. Comparison of Flood Inundation Mapping Techniques between Different Modeling Approaches and Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Munasinghe, D.; Huang, Y. F.; Lin, P.; Fang, N. Z.; Cohen, S.; Tsang, Y. P.

    2016-12-01

    Flood inundation extent serves as a crucial information source for both hydrologists and decision makers. Accurate and timely inundation mapping can potentially improve flood risk management and reduce flood damage. In this study, the authors applied two modeling approaches to estimate flood inundation area for a large flooding event that occurred in May 2016 in the Brazos River: The Height Above the Nearest Drainage combined with National Hydrograph Dataset (NHD-HAND) and the International River Interface Cooperative - Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels (iRIC-FaSTMECH). NHD-HAND features a terrain model that simplifies the dynamic flood inundation mapping process while iRIC-FaSTMECH is a hydrodynamic model that simulates flood extent under quasi-steady approximation. In terms of data sources, HAND and iRIC utilized the National Water Model (NWM) output and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream gage data, respectively. The flood inundation extents generated from these two approaches were validated against Landsat 8 Satellite Imagery. Four remote sensing classification techniques were used to provide alternative observations: supervised, unsupervised, normalized difference water index and delta-cue change detection of water. According to the quantitative analysis that compares simulated areas with different remote sensing classifications, the advanced fitness index of iRIC simulation ranges from 57.5% to 69.9% while that of HAND ranges from 49.4% to 55.5%. We found that even though HAND better captures some details than iRIC in the inundation extent, it has problems in certain areas where subcatchments are not behaving independently, especially for extreme flooding events. The iRIC model performs better in this case, however, we cannot simply conclude iRIC is a better-suited approach than HAND considering the uncertainties in remote sensing observations and iRIC model parameters. Further research will include more

  9. An Approach to Assessment of Relief Formats for Hardcopy Topographic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    determine what types of relief information must be ex-dtracted from maps by representative users, we studied and analyzed Army Field Manual FM 21-16, "Map...extensive review materiall (a) study of one map format might facilitate (or hinder) use of another map format. TRAINING NECESSARY [OR TEST USE This test

  10. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis approach for GIS-based multicriteria landslide susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-03-04

    GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly being used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, the uncertainties that are associated with MCDA techniques may significantly impact the results. This may sometimes lead to inaccurate outcomes and undesirable consequences. This article introduces a new GIS-based MCDA approach. We illustrate the consequences of applying different MCDA methods within a decision-making process through uncertainty analysis. Three GIS-MCDA methods in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and Dempster-Shafer theory are analyzed for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) in the Urmia lake basin in Iran, which is highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The methodology comprises three stages. First, the LSM criteria are ranked and a sensitivity analysis is implemented to simulate error propagation based on the MCS. The resulting weights are expressed through probability density functions. Accordingly, within the second stage, three MCDA methods, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted average (OWA), are used to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. In the third stage, accuracy assessments are carried out and the uncertainties of the different results are measured. We compare the accuracies of the three MCDA methods based on (1) the Dempster-Shafer theory and (2) a validation of the results using an inventory of known landslides and their respective coverage based on object-based image analysis of IRS-ID satellite images. The results of this study reveal that through the integration of GIS and MCDA models, it is possible to identify strategies for choosing an appropriate method for LSM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integration of MCDA and MCS can significantly improve the accuracy of the results. In LSM, the AHP method performed best, while the OWA reveals better performance in the reliability assessment. The WLC operation

  11. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected

  12. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  13. A new LPV modeling approach using PCA-based parameter set mapping to design a PSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabali, Mohammad B Abolhasani; Kazemi, Mohammad H

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the modeling and control of power systems based on an uncertain polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV) approach using parameter set mapping with principle component analysis (PCA). An LPV representation of the power system dynamics is generated by linearization of its differential-algebraic equations about the transient operating points for some given specific faults containing the system nonlinear properties. The time response of the output signal in the transient state plays the role of the scheduling signal that is used to construct the LPV model. A set of sample points of the dynamic response is formed to generate an initial LPV model. PCA-based parameter set mapping is used to reduce the number of models and generate a reduced LPV model. This model is used to design a robust pole placement controller to assign the poles of the power system in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) region, such that the response of the power system has a proper damping ratio for all of the different oscillation modes. The proposed scheme is applied to controller synthesis of a power system stabilizer, and its performance is compared with a tuned standard conventional PSS using nonlinear simulation of a multi-machine power network. The results under various conditions show the robust performance of the proposed controller.

  14. Policy, Research and Residents' Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Ivana; Howard, Natasha J; Daniel, Mark; Cargo, Margaret

    2017-02-09

    An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups' perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  15. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stankov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  16. Geographical information system approaches for hazard mapping of dilute lahars on Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, A. R.; Barclay, J.; Herd, R. A.; Phillips, J. C.; Lovett, A. A.; Cole, P.

    2012-08-01

    Many research tools for lahar hazard assessment have proved wholly unsuitable for practical application to an active volcanic system where field measurements are challenging to obtain. Two simple routing models, with minimal data demands and implemented in a geographical information system (GIS), were applied to dilute lahars originating from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Single-direction flow routing by path of steepest descent, commonly used for simulating normal stream-flow, was tested against LAHARZ, an established lahar model calibrated for debris flows, for ability to replicate the main flow routes. Comparing the ways in which these models capture observed changes, and how the different modelled paths deviate can also provide an indication of where dilute lahars, do not follow behaviour expected from single-phase flow models. Data were collected over two field seasons and provide (1) an overview of gross morphological change after one rainy season, (2) details of dominant channels at the time of measurement, and (3) order of magnitude estimates of individual flow volumes. Modelling results suggested both GIS-based predictive tools had associated benefits. Dominant flow routes observed in the field were generally well-predicted using the hydrological approach with a consideration of elevation error, while LAHARZ was comparatively more successful at mapping lahar dispersion and was better suited to long-term hazard assessment. This research suggests that end-member models can have utility for first-order dilute lahar hazard mapping.

  17. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Ivana; Howard, Natasha J.; Daniel, Mark; Cargo, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention. PMID:28208786

  18. Reasons for electronic cigarette use beyond cigarette smoking cessation: A concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Rosas, Scott R; Nasim, Aashir

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) continue to grow in popularity, however, limited research has examined reasons for ECIG use. This study used an integrated, mixed-method participatory research approach called concept mapping (CM) to characterize and describe adults' reasons for using ECIGs. A total of 108 adults completed a multi-module online CM study that consisted of brainstorming statements about their reasons for ECIG use, sorting each statement into conceptually similar categories, and then rating each statement based on whether it represented a reason why they have used an ECIG in the past month. Participants brainstormed a total of 125 unique statements related to their reasons for ECIG use. Multivariate analyses generated a map revealing 11, interrelated components or domains that characterized their reasons for use. Importantly, reasons related to Cessation Methods, Perceived Health Benefits, Private Regard, Convenience and Conscientiousness were rated significantly higher than other categories/types of reasons related to ECIG use (p<.05). There also were significant model differences in participants' endorsement of reasons based on their demography and ECIG behaviors. This study shows that ECIG users are motivated to use ECIGs for many reasons. ECIG regulations should address these reasons for ECIG use in addition to smoking cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An efficient unsupervised index based approach for mapping urban vegetation from IKONOS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, Julius Y.; Ananga, Erick O.; Pu, Ruiliang

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increased availability of high resolution satellite image data, their operational use for mapping urban land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be limited by lack of computational resources and technical expertise. As such, there is need for simple and efficient image classification techniques. Using Bamenda in North West Cameroon as a test case, we investigated two completely unsupervised pixel based approaches to extract tree/shrub (TS) and ground vegetation (GV) cover from an IKONOS derived soil adjusted vegetation index. These included: (1) a simple Jenks Natural Breaks classification and (2) a two-step technique that combined the Jenks algorithm with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Both techniques were compared with each other and with a non-linear support vector machine (SVM) for classification performance. While overall classification accuracy was generally high for all techniques (>90%), One-Way Analysis of Variance tests revealed the two step technique to outperform the simple Jenks classification in terms of predicting the GV class. It also outperformed the SVM in predicting the TS class. We conclude that the unsupervised methods are technically as good and practically superior for efficient urban vegetation mapping in budget and technically constrained regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Data Mining Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Umyeonsan, Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of data mining models has become increasingly popular in recent years in assessments of a variety of natural hazards such as landslides and floods. Data mining techniques are useful for understanding the relationships between events and their influencing variables. Because landslides are influenced by a combination of factors including geomorphological and meteorological factors, data mining techniques are helpful in elucidating the mechanisms by which these complex factors affect landslide events. In this study, spatial data mining approaches based on data on landslide locations in the geographic information system environment were investigated. The topographical factors of slope, aspect, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, slope length factor, standardized height, valley depth, and downslope distance gradient were determined using topographical maps. Additional soil and forest variables using information obtained from national soil and forest maps were also investigated. A total of 17 variables affecting the frequency of landslide occurrence were selected to construct a spatial database, and support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN models were applied to predict landslide susceptibility from the selected factors. In the SVM model, linear, polynomial, radial base function, and sigmoid kernels were applied in sequence; the model yielded 72.41%, 72.83%, 77.17% and 72.79% accuracy, respectively. The ANN model yielded a validity accuracy of 78.41%. The results of this study are useful in guiding effective strategies for the prevention and management of landslides in urban areas.

  1. A new LPV modeling approach using PCA-based parameter set mapping to design a PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Abolhasani Jabali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for the modeling and control of power systems based on an uncertain polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV approach using parameter set mapping with principle component analysis (PCA. An LPV representation of the power system dynamics is generated by linearization of its differential-algebraic equations about the transient operating points for some given specific faults containing the system nonlinear properties. The time response of the output signal in the transient state plays the role of the scheduling signal that is used to construct the LPV model. A set of sample points of the dynamic response is formed to generate an initial LPV model. PCA-based parameter set mapping is used to reduce the number of models and generate a reduced LPV model. This model is used to design a robust pole placement controller to assign the poles of the power system in a linear matrix inequality (LMI region, such that the response of the power system has a proper damping ratio for all of the different oscillation modes. The proposed scheme is applied to controller synthesis of a power system stabilizer, and its performance is compared with a tuned standard conventional PSS using nonlinear simulation of a multi-machine power network. The results under various conditions show the robust performance of the proposed controller.

  2. Multi-scale hierarchical approach for parametric mapping: assessment on multi-compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Turkheimer, F E; Bertoldo, A

    2013-02-15

    This paper investigates a new hierarchical method to apply basis function to mono- and multi-compartmental models (Hierarchical-Basis Function Method, H-BFM) at a voxel level. This method identifies the parameters of the compartmental model in its nonlinearized version, integrating information derived at the region of interest (ROI) level by segmenting the cerebral volume based on anatomical definition or functional clustering. We present the results obtained by using a two tissue-four rate constant model with two different tracers ([(11)C]FLB457 and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY100635), one of the most complex models used in receptor studies, especially at the voxel level. H-BFM is robust and its application on both [(11)C]FLB457 and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY100635 allows accurate and precise parameter estimates, good quality parametric maps and a low percentage of voxels out of physiological bound (modeling at the voxel level. In particular, different from other proposed approaches, this method can also be used when the linearization of the model is not appropriate. We expect that applying it to clinical data will generate reliable parametric maps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The D4Science Approach toward Grid Resource Sharing: The Species Occurrence Maps Generation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Leonardo; Pagano, Pasquale

    Nowadays science is highly multidisciplinary and requires innovative research environments. Such research environments, also known as Virtual Research Environments, should be powerful and flexible enough to help researchers in all disciplines to manage the complex range of tasks involved in carrying out eScience activities. Such research environments should support computationallyintensive, data-intensive and collaboration-intensive tasks on both small and large scale. The community to be served by a specific research environment is expected to be potentially distributed across multiple organizational domains and institutions. This paper discusses the approach put in place in the context of the D4Science EU project to enable on-demand production of Virtual Research Environments by relying on an innovative, grid-based Infrastructure. In particular, the foundational principles, the enabling technology and the concrete experience resulting from developing (i) a production Infrastructure and (ii) a Virtual Research Environment for generating predictive species distribution maps are described.

  4. F-MAP: A Bayesian approach to infer the gene regulatory network using external hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoust, Maryam; Pezeshk, Hamid; Mahjub, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The Common topological features of related species gene regulatory networks suggest reconstruction of the network of one species by using the further information from gene expressions profile of related species. We present an algorithm to reconstruct the gene regulatory network named; F-MAP, which applies the knowledge about gene interactions from related species. Our algorithm sets a Bayesian framework to estimate the precision matrix of one species microarray gene expressions dataset to infer the Gaussian Graphical model of the network. The conjugate Wishart prior is used and the information from related species is applied to estimate the hyperparameters of the prior distribution by using the factor analysis. Applying the proposed algorithm on six related species of drosophila shows that the precision of reconstructed networks is improved considerably compared to the precision of networks constructed by other Bayesian approaches.

  5. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  6. An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsik Bang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS. PNS need a map-matching process to project a user’s locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles.

  7. An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yoonsik; Kim, Jiyoung; Yu, Kiyun

    2016-10-22

    Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS). PNS need a map-matching process to project a user's locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles.

  8. Novel fine-scale aerial mapping approach quantifies grassland weed cover dynamics and response to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Butterfield, H Scott; Planck, Laura; Long, Christopher W; Eviner, Valerie T

    2017-01-01

    Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers. We demonstrate application of a more accessible and cost-effective remote sensing approach, based on simple aerial imagery, for quantifying weed cover dynamics over time. In California annual grasslands, the target communities of interest include invasive weedy grasses (Aegilops triuncialis and Elymus caput-medusae) and desirable forage grass species (primarily Avena spp. and Bromus spp.). Detecting invasion of annual grasses into an annual-dominated community is particularly challenging, but we were able to consistently characterize these two communities based on their phenological differences in peak growth and senescence using maximum likelihood supervised classification of imagery acquired twice per year (in mid- and end-of season). This approach permitted us to map weed-dominated cover at a 1-m scale (correctly detecting 93% of weed patches across the landscape) and to evaluate weed cover change over time. We found that weed cover was more pervasive and persistent in management units that had no significant grazing for several years than in those that were grazed, whereas forage cover was more abundant and stable in the grazed units. This application demonstrates the power of this method for assessing fine-scale vegetation transitions across heterogeneous landscapes. It thus provides means for small-scale early detection of invasive species and for testing fundamental questions about landscape dynamics.

  9. A universal airborne LiDAR approach for tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Mascaro, Joseph; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Vaudry, Romuald; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Hall, Jefferson S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2012-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is fast turning the corner from demonstration technology to a key tool for assessing carbon stocks in tropical forests. With its ability to penetrate tropical forest canopies and detect three-dimensional forest structure, LiDAR may prove to be a major component of international strategies to measure and account for carbon emissions from and uptake by tropical forests. To date, however, basic ecological information such as height-diameter allometry and stand-level wood density have not been mechanistically incorporated into methods for mapping forest carbon at regional and global scales. A better incorporation of these structural patterns in forests may reduce the considerable time needed to calibrate airborne data with ground-based forest inventory plots, which presently necessitate exhaustive measurements of tree diameters and heights, as well as tree identifications for wood density estimation. Here, we develop a new approach that can facilitate rapid LiDAR calibration with minimal field data. Throughout four tropical regions (Panama, Peru, Madagascar, and Hawaii), we were able to predict aboveground carbon density estimated in field inventory plots using a single universal LiDAR model (r ( 2 ) = 0.80, RMSE = 27.6 Mg C ha(-1)). This model is comparable in predictive power to locally calibrated models, but relies on limited inputs of basal area and wood density information for a given region, rather than on traditional plot inventories. With this approach, we propose to radically decrease the time required to calibrate airborne LiDAR data and thus increase the output of high-resolution carbon maps, supporting tropical forest conservation and climate mitigation policy.

  10. A coherent geostatistical approach for combining choropleth map and field data in the spatial interpolation of soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, P

    2011-06-01

    Information available for mapping continuous soil attributes often includes point field data and choropleth maps (e.g. soil or geological maps) that model the spatial distribution of soil attributes as the juxtaposition of polygons (areas) with constant values. This paper presents two approaches to incorporate both point and areal data in the spatial interpolation of continuous soil attributes. In the first instance, area-to-point kriging is used to map the variability within soil units while ensuring the coherence of the prediction so that the average of disaggregated estimates is equal to the original areal datum. The resulting estimates are then used as local means in residual kriging. The second approach proceeds in one step and capitalizes on: 1) a general formulation of kriging that allows the combination of both point and areal data through the use of area-to-area, area-to-point, and point-to-point covariances in the kriging system, 2) the availability of GIS to discretize polygons of irregular shape and size, and 3) knowledge of the point-support variogram model that can be inferred directly from point measurements, thereby eliminating the need for deconvolution procedures. The two approaches are illustrated using the geological map and heavy metal concentrations recorded in the topsoil of the Swiss Jura. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the new procedures improve prediction over ordinary kriging and traditional residual kriging based on the assumption that the local mean is constant within each mapping unit.

  11. A Systematic Approach to Modified BCJR MAP Algorithms for Convolutional Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patenaude François

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Berrou, Glavieux and Thitimajshima published their landmark paper in 1993, different modified BCJR MAP algorithms have appeared in the literature. The existence of a relatively large number of similar but different modified BCJR MAP algorithms, derived using the Markov chain properties of convolutional codes, naturally leads to the following questions. What is the relationship among the different modified BCJR MAP algorithms? What are their relative performance, computational complexities, and memory requirements? In this paper, we answer these questions. We derive systematically four major modified BCJR MAP algorithms from the BCJR MAP algorithm using simple mathematical transformations. The connections between the original and the four modified BCJR MAP algorithms are established. A detailed analysis of the different modified BCJR MAP algorithms shows that they have identical computational complexities and memory requirements. Computer simulations demonstrate that the four modified BCJR MAP algorithms all have identical performance to the BCJR MAP algorithm.

  12. Labelling plants the Chernobyl way: A new approach for mapping rhizodeposition and biopore reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Callum; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    A novel approach for mapping root distribution and rhizodeposition using 137Cs and 14C was applied. By immersing cut leaves into vials containing 137CsCl solution, the 137Cs label is taken up and partly released into the rhizosphere, where it strongly binds to soil particles, thus labelling the distribution of root channels in the long term. Reuse of root channels in crop rotations can be determined by labelling the first crop with 137Cs and the following crop with 14C. Imaging of the β- radiation with strongly differing energies differentiates active roots growing in existing root channels (14C + 137Cs activity) from roots growing in bulk soil (14C activity only). The feasibility of the approach was shown in a pot experiment with ten plants of two species, Cichorium intybus L., and Medicago sativa L. The same plants were each labelled with 100 kBq of 137CsCl and after one week with 500 kBq of 14CO2. 96 h later pots were cut horizontally at 6 cm depth. After the first 137Cs + 14C imaging of the cut surface, imaging was repeated with three layers of plastic film between the cut surface and the plate for complete shielding of 14C β- radiation to the background level, producing an image of the 137Cs distribution. Subtracting the second image from the first gave the 14C image. Both species allocated 18 - 22% of the 137Cs and about 30 - 40% of 14C activity below ground. Intensities far above the detection limit suggest that this approach is applicable to map the root system by 137Cs and to obtain root size distributions through image processing. The rhizosphere boundary was defined by the point at which rhizodeposited 14C activity declined to 5% of the activity of the root centre. Medicago showed 25% smaller rhizosphere extension than Cichorium, demonstrating that plant-specific rhizodeposition patterns can be distinguished. Our new approach is appropriate to visualise processes and hotspots on multiple scales: Heterogeneous rhizodeposition, as well as size and counts

  13. A local segmentation parameter optimization approach for mapping heterogeneous urban environments using VHR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, Tais; Georganos, Stefanos; Lennert, Moritz; Vanhuysse, Sabine; Wolff, Eléonore

    2017-10-01

    Mapping large heterogeneous urban areas using object-based image analysis (OBIA) remains challenging, especially with respect to the segmentation process. This could be explained both by the complex arrangement of heterogeneous land-cover classes and by the high diversity of urban patterns which can be encountered throughout the scene. In this context, using a single segmentation parameter to obtain satisfying segmentation results for the whole scene can be impossible. Nonetheless, it is possible to subdivide the whole city into smaller local zones, rather homogeneous according to their urban pattern. These zones can then be used to optimize the segmentation parameter locally, instead of using the whole image or a single representative spatial subset. This paper assesses the contribution of a local approach for the optimization of segmentation parameter compared to a global approach. Ouagadougou, located in sub-Saharan Africa, is used as case studies. First, the whole scene is segmented using a single globally optimized segmentation parameter. Second, the city is subdivided into 283 local zones, homogeneous in terms of building size and building density. Each local zone is then segmented using a locally optimized segmentation parameter. Unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO), relying on an optimization function which tends to maximize both intra-object homogeneity and inter-object heterogeneity, is used to select the segmentation parameter automatically for both approaches. Finally, a land-use/land-cover classification is performed using the Random Forest (RF) classifier. The results reveal that the local approach outperforms the global one, especially by limiting confusions between buildings and their bare-soil neighbors.

  14. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  15. A new approach of mapping soils in the Alps - Challenges of deriving soil information and creating soil maps for sustainable land use. An example from South Tyrol (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian E.; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays sustainable land use management is gaining importance because intensive land use leads to increasing soil degradation. Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps sustainable land use management is important, as topography limits land use. Therefore, a database containing detailed information of soil characteristics is required. However, information of soil properties is far from being comprehensive. The project "ReBo - Terrain classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, aims at developing a methodical framework of how to obtain soil data. The approach combines geomorphometric analysis and soil mapping to generate modern soil maps at medium-scale in a time and cost efficient way. In this study the open source GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon (Jasciewicz and Stepinski, 2013) is used to derive topographically homogeneous landform units out of high resolution DTMs on scale 1:5.000. Furthermore, for terrain segmentation and classification we additionally use medium-scale data sets (geology, parent material, land use etc.). As the Alps are characterized by a great variety of topography, parent material, wide range of moisture regimes etc. getting reliable soil data is difficult. Additionally, geomorphic activity (debris flow, landslide etc.) leads to natural disturbances. Thus, soil properties are highly diverse and largely scale dependent. Furthermore, getting soil information of anthropogenically influenced soils is an added challenge. Due to intensive cultivation techniques the natural link between the soil forming factors is often repealed. In South Tyrol we find the largest pome producing area in Europe. Normally, the annual precipitation is not enough for intensive orcharding. Thus, irrigation strategies are in use. However, as knowledge about the small scaled heterogeneous soil properties is mostly lacking, overwatering and modifications of the

  16. Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha ePazhamala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection. This would lead to accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme, mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic male sterile lines, maintainers and hybrids have also been sequenced to identify genes responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore, several diagnostic molecular markers have been developed to assess the purity of commercial hybrids. In summary, pigeonpea has become a genomic resources-rich crop and efforts have already been initiated to integrate these resources in pigeonpea breeding.

  17. A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubini Marcello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived species to their environment. As a first step toward the construction of a SSR-based linkage map of oak for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping, we describe the mining and survey of EST-SSRs as well as a fast and cost-effective approach (bin mapping to assign these markers to an approximate map position. We also compared the level of polymorphism between genomic and EST-derived SSRs and address the transferability of EST-SSRs in Castanea sativa (chestnut. Results A catalogue of 103,000 Sanger ESTs was assembled into 28,024 unigenes from which 18.6% presented one or more SSR motifs. More than 42% of these SSRs corresponded to trinucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 748 putative unigenes. Overall 37.7% (283 were found to amplify a single polymorphic locus in a reference full-sib pedigree of Quercus robur. The usefulness of these loci for establishing a genetic map was assessed using a bin mapping approach. Bin maps were constructed for the male and female parental tree for which framework linkage maps based on AFLP markers were available. The bin set consisting of 14 highly informative offspring selected based on the number and position of crossover sites. The female and male maps comprised 44 and 37 bins, with an average bin length of 16.5 cM and 20.99 cM, respectively. A total of 256 EST-SSRs were assigned to bins and their map position was further validated by linkage mapping. EST-SSRs were found to be less polymorphic than genomic SSRs, but their transferability rate to chestnut, a phylogenetically related species to oak, was higher. Conclusion We have generated a bin map for oak

  18. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  19. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargett, Charles William; Doty, Joseph P; Hauck, Jennifer N; Webb, Allison Mb; Cook, Steven H; Tsipis, Nicholas E; Neumann, Julie A; Andolsek, Kathryn M; Taylor, Dean C

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group's ideas) to identify stakeholders' mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies. Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare. A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were "Acting with Personal Integrity", "Communicating Effectively", "Acting with Professional Ethical Values", "Pursuing Excellence", "Building and Maintaining Relationships", and "Thinking Critically". Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient Centeredness and the core competencies of Integrity, Teamwork, Critical Thinking, Emotional Intelligence, and Selfless Service. Using a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach, we developed a graphical representation of a shared leadership model derived in the healthcare setting. This model may enhance learning, teaching, and patient care in this important area, as well as guide future research.

  20. Factors Influencing Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Uptake in Emergency Medical Services Workers: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Dipti P; Baker, Elizabeth A; Zelicoff, Alan P; Elliott, Michael B

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal influenza has serious impacts on morbidity and mortality and has a significant economic toll through lost workforce time and strains on the health system. Health workers, particularly emergency medical services (EMS) workers have the potential to transmit influenza to those in their care, yet little is known of the factors that influence EMS workers' decisions regarding seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) uptake, a key factor in reducing potential for transmitting disease. This study utilizes a modified Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model as a guiding framework to explore the factors that influence SIV uptake in EMS workers. Concept mapping, which consists of six-stages (preparation, generation, structuring, representation, interpretation, and utilization) that use quantitative and qualitative approaches, was used to identify participants' perspectives towards SIV. This study identified nine EMS-conceptualized factors that influence EMS workers' vaccination intent and behavior. The EMS-conceptualized factors align with the modified TPB model and suggest the need to consider community-wide approaches that were not initially conceptualized in the model. Additionally, the expansion of non-pharmaceutical measures went above and beyond original conceptualization. Overall, this study demonstrates the need to develop customized interventions such as messages highlighting the importance of EMS workers receiving SIV as the optimum solution. EMS workers who do not intend to receive the SIV should be provided with accurate information on the SIV to dispel misconceptions. Finally, EMS workers should also receive interventions which promote voluntary vaccination, encouraging them to be proactive in the health decisions they make for themselves.

  1. KNN-MDR: a learning approach for improving interactions mapping performances in genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Alchamlat, Sinan; Farnir, Frédéric

    2017-03-21

    Finding epistatic interactions in large association studies like genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with the nowadays-available large volume of genomic data is a challenging and largely unsolved issue. Few previous studies could handle genome-wide data due to the intractable difficulties met in searching a combinatorial explosive search space and statistically evaluating epistatic interactions given a limited number of samples. Our work is a contribution to this field. We propose a novel approach combining K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and Multi Dimensional Reduction (MDR) methods for detecting gene-gene interactions as a possible alternative to existing algorithms, e especially in situations where the number of involved determinants is high. After describing the approach, a comparison of our method (KNN-MDR) to a set of the other most performing methods (i.e., MDR, BOOST, BHIT, MegaSNPHunter and AntEpiSeeker) is carried on to detect interactions using simulated data as well as real genome-wide data. Experimental results on both simulated data and real genome-wide data show that KNN-MDR has interesting properties in terms of accuracy and power, and that, in many cases, it significantly outperforms its recent competitors. The presented methodology (KNN-MDR) is valuable in the context of loci and interactions mapping and can be seen as an interesting addition to the arsenal used in complex traits analyses.

  2. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. S......-based Modeling (SMM). These include Space Derivative Mapping (SDM), Generalized Space Mapping (GSM) and Space Mapping-based Neuromodeling (SMN). Finally, we address open points for research and future development....

  3. Mapping science through bibliometric triangulation: an experimental approach applied to water research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bei; Horlings, Edwin; van der Zouwen, Marielle; Van den Besselaar, P.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of constructing science maps based on bibliographic data has intrigued researchers for decades, and various techniques have been developed to map the structure of research disciplines. Most science mapping studies use a single method. However, as research fields have various properties, a

  4. Reliable Radiation Hybrid Maps: An Efficient Scalable Clustering-based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process of mapping markers from radiation hybrid mapping (RHM) experiments is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem and, thereby, has combinatorial complexity. As an additional problem, experiments typically result in some unreliable markers that reduce the overall quality of the map. We ...

  5. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  6. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality, is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical

  7. Towards a virtual hub approach for landscape assessment and multimedia ecomuseum using multitemporal-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumana, R.; Santana Quintero, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Banfi, F.; Oreni, D.; Roels, D.; Roncoroni, F.

    2015-08-01

    Landscapes are dynamic entities, stretching and transforming across space and time, and need to be safeguarded as living places for the future, with interaction of human, social and economic dimensions. To have a comprehensive landscape evaluation several open data are needed, each one characterized by its own protocol, service interface, limiting or impeding this way interoperability and their integration. Indeed, nowadays the development of websites targeted to landscape assessment and touristic purposes requires many resources in terms of time, cost and IT skills to be implemented at different scales. For this reason these applications are limited to few cases mainly focusing on worldwide known touristic sites. The capability to spread the development of web-based multimedia virtual museum based on geospatial data relies for the future being on the possibility to discover the needed geo-spatial data through a single point of access in an homogenous way. In this paper the proposed innovative approach may facilitate the access to open data in a homogeneous way by means of specific components (the brokers) performing interoperability actions required to interconnect heterogeneous data sources. In the specific case study here analysed it has been implemented an interface to migrate a geo-swat chart based on local and regional geographic information into an user friendly Google Earth©-based infrastructure, integrating ancient cadastres and modern cartography, accessible by professionals and tourists via web and also via portable devices like tables and smartphones. The general aim of this work on the case study on the Lake of Como (Tremezzina municipality), is to boost the integration of assessment methodologies with digital geo-based technologies of map correlation for the multimedia ecomuseum system accessible via web. The developed WebGIS system integrates multi-scale and multi-temporal maps with different information (cultural, historical, landscape levels

  8. Evolution of syncarpy and other morphological characters in African Annonaceae: a posterior mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, T L P; Richardson, J E; Sosef, M S M; Erkens, R H J; Chatrou, L W

    2008-04-01

    The congenital fusion of carpels, or syncarpy, is considered a key innovation as it is found in more than 80% of angiosperms. Within the magnoliids however, syncarpy has rarely evolved. Two alternative evolutionary origins of syncarpy were suggested in order to explain the evolution of this feature: multiplication of a single carpel vs. fusion of a moderate number of carpels. The magnoliid family Annonaceae provides an ideal situation to test these hypotheses as two African genera, Isolona and Monodora, are syncarpous in an otherwise apocarpous family with multicarpellate and unicarpellate genera. In addition to syncarpy, the evolution of six other morphological characters was studied. Well-supported phylogenetic relationships of African Annonaceae and in particular those of Isolona and Monodora were reconstructed. Six plastid regions were sequenced and analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. The Bayesian posterior mapping approach to study character evolution was used as it accounts for both mapping and phylogenetic uncertainty, and also allows multiple state changes along the branches. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered a fully resolved clade comprising twelve genera endemic to Africa, including Isolona and Monodora, which was nested within the so-called long-branch clade. This is the largest and most species-rich clade of African genera identified to date within Annonaceae. The two syncarpous genera were inferred with maximum support to be sister to a clade characterized by genera with multicarpellate apocarpous gynoecia, supporting the hypothesis that syncarpy arose by fusion of a moderate number of carpels. This hypothesis was also favoured when studying the floral anatomy of both genera. Annonaceae provide the only case of a clear evolution of syncarpy within an otherwise apocarpous magnoliid family. The results presented here offer a better understanding of the evolution of syncarpy in Annonaceae and within angiosperms in general.

  9. Mapping Natural Terroir Units using a multivariate approach and legacy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Bucelli, Piero; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2014-05-01

    was then subdivided into 9 NTUs, statistically differentiated for the used variables. The vineyard areas of Siena province was subdivided into 9 NTU, statistically differentiated for the used variables. The study demonstrated the strength of a multivariate approach for NTU mapping at province scale (1:125,000), using viticultural legacy data. Identification and mapping of terroir diversity within the DOC and DOCG at the province scale suggest the adoption of viticultural subzones. The subzones, based on the NTU, could bring to the fruition of different wine-production systems that enhanced the peculiarities of the terroir.

  10. Mapping behavioral landscapes for animal movement: a finite mixture modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Zhu, Jun; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its role in many ecological processes, movement of animals in response to landscape features is an important subject in ecology and conservation biology. In this paper, we develop models of animal movement in relation to objects or fields in a landscape. We take a finite mixture modeling approach in which the component densities are conceptually related to different choices for movement in response to a landscape feature, and the mixing proportions are related to the probability of selecting each response as a function of one or more covariates. We combine particle swarm optimization and an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters. We use this approach to analyze data for movement of three bobcats in relation to urban areas in southern California, USA. A behavioral interpretation of the models revealed similarities and differences in bobcat movement response to urbanization. All three bobcats avoided urbanization by moving either parallel to urban boundaries or toward less urban areas as the proportion of urban land cover in the surrounding area increased. However, one bobcat, a male with a dispersal-like large-scale movement pattern, avoided urbanization at lower densities and responded strictly by moving parallel to the urban edge. The other two bobcats, which were both residents and occupied similar geographic areas, avoided urban areas using a combination of movements parallel to the urban edge and movement toward areas of less urbanization. However, the resident female appeared to exhibit greater repulsion at lower levels of urbanization than the resident male, consistent with empirical observations of bobcats in southern California. Using the parameterized finite mixture models, we mapped behavioral states to geographic space, creating a representation of a behavioral landscape. This approach can provide guidance for conservation planning based on analysis of animal movement data using

  11. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa): effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  12. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Spindel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic Selection (GS is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline.

  13. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  14. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  15. Using a constructivist approach with online concept maps: relationship between theory and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C O; Taylor, Linda D

    2007-01-01

    Concept maps have been used in nursing education as a method for students to organize and analyze data. This article describes an online course that used concept maps and self-reflective journals to assess students' thinking processes. The self-reflective journals of 21 students collected over two semesters were qualitatively examined. Three major themes emerged from students' use of concept maps: 1) factors influencing the map creation, 2) developmental learning process over time, and 3) validation of existing knowledge and construction of new knowledge. The use of concept maps with reflective journaling provided a learning experience that allowed students to integrate content consistent with a constructivist paradigm. This integration is a developmental process influenced by the personal preferences of students, concept map design, and content complexity. This developmental process provides early evidence that the application of concept mapping in the online environment, along with reflective journaling, allows students to make new connections, integrate previous knowledge, and validate existing knowledge.

  16. Animal breeding in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T. (Theodor); Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.

    2001-01-01

    After a general introduction into the available breeding techniques for animal breeding and an overview of the organic principles, points for discussion are identified and scenario's for organically accepted breeding methods are discussed.

  17. Breeding for Quality Protein Maize (QPM Varieties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane N. Tandzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional evaluation of quality protein maize (QPM in feeding trials has proved its nutritional superiority over non-QPM varieties for human and livestock consumption. The present paper reviews some of the most recent achievements in development of QPM varieties using both conventional and molecular breeding under stressed and non-stressed environments. It is evident that numerous QPM varieties have been developed and released around the world over the past few decades. While the review points out some gaps in information or research efforts, challenges associated with adoption QPM varieties are highlighted and suggestions to overcome them are presented. The adoption of released varieties and challenges facing QPM production at the farmer level are also mentioned. Several breeding methods have been conventionally used to develop QPM varieties in stressed (drought, low soil nitrogen, resistance to grey leaf spot, Turcicum leaf blight, ear rot, and Striga and non-stressed environments. At least three genetic loci have been found to be implicated in controlling the levels of a protein synthesis factor correlated with lysine. They have been mapped on chromosomes 2, 4, and 7. While the use of molecular approaches will improve the efficiency and speed of variety development, the cost implications might limit the use of these technologies in the developing world. More emphasis should be given to breeding QPM for tolerance to environmental stresses, such as low soil pH, heat, and combined heat and drought stress. The post-harvest attack of QPM grains should also be considered. The adoption of QPM genotypes by farmers has been found to be limited mainly due to the minimal collaboration between maize breeders, farmers, agricultural extension workers, and other relevant stakeholders, as well as the need for isolating QPM varieties from normal maize. Therefore, there is need to use participatory plant breeding (PPB and/or participatory variety

  18. Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of

  19. An approach for mapping large-area impervious surfaces: Synergistic use of Landsat-7 ETM+ and high spatial resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Homer, Collin G.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Coan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of urban ecosystem studies, including urban hydrology, urban climate, land use planning, and resource management, require current and accurate geospatial data of urban impervious surfaces. We developed an approach to quantify urban impervious surfaces as a continuous variable by using multisensor and multisource datasets. Subpixel percent impervious surfaces at 30-m resolution were mapped using a regression tree model. The utility, practicality, and affordability of the proposed method for large-area imperviousness mapping were tested over three spatial scales (Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Richmond, Virginia, and the Chesapeake Bay areas of the United States). Average error of predicted versus actual percent impervious surface ranged from 8.8 to 11.4%, with correlation coefficients from 0.82 to 0.91. The approach is being implemented to map impervious surfaces for the entire United States as one of the major components of the circa 2000 national land cover database.

  20. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  1. Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2007-10-11

    Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs.

  2. Agricultural Land Use mapping by multi-sensor approach for hydrological water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Lukas; Kodesova, Radka; Kodes, Vit

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to demonstrate potential of operational use of the high and medium resolution remote sensing data for hydrological water quality monitoring by mapping agriculture intensity and crop structures. In particular use of remote sensing mapping for optimization of pesticide monitoring. The agricultural mapping task is tackled by means of medium spatial and high temporal resolution ESA Envisat MERIS FR images together with single high spatial resolution IRS AWiFS image covering the whole area of interest (the Czech Republic). High resolution data (e.g. SPOT, ALOS, Landsat) are often used for agricultural land use classification, but usually only at regional or local level due to data availability and financial constraints. AWiFS data (nominal spatial resolution 56 m) due to the wide satellite swath seems to be more suitable for use at national level. Nevertheless, one of the critical issues for such a classification is to have sufficient image acquisitions over the whole vegetation period to describe crop development in appropriate way. ESA MERIS middle-resolution data were used in several studies for crop classification. The high temporal and also spectral resolution of MERIS data has indisputable advantage for crop classification. However, spatial resolution of 300 m results in mixture signal in a single pixel. AWiFS-MERIS data synergy brings new perspectives in agricultural Land Use mapping. Also, the developed methodology procedure is fully compatible with future use of ESA (GMES) Sentinel satellite images. The applied methodology of hybrid multi-sensor approach consists of these main stages: a/ parcel segmentation and spectral pre-classification of high resolution image (AWiFS); b/ ingestion of middle resolution (MERIS) vegetation spectro-temporal features; c/ vegetation signatures unmixing; and d/ semantic object-oriented classification of vegetation classes into final classification scheme. These crop groups were selected to be

  3. Making sense of human ecology mapping: an overview of approaches to integrating socio-spatial data into environmental planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca McLain; Melissa R. Poe; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee K. Cerveny; Diane Besser; Dale J. Blahna

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem-based planning and management have stimulated the need to gather sociocultural values and human uses of land in formats accessible to diverse planners and researchers. Human Ecology Mapping (HEM) approaches offer promising spatial data gathering and analytical tools, while also addressing important questions about human-landscape connections. This article...

  4. Effects of Cooperative Concept Mapping Teaching Approach on Secondary School Students' Motivation in Biology in Gucha District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraro, Fred Nyabuti; Wachanga, Samuel W.; Orora, William

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using the cooperative concept mapping (CCM) teaching approach on secondary school students' motivation in biology. A non equivalent control group design under the quasi-experimental research was used in which a random sample of four co-educational secondary schools was used. The four schools were randomly…

  5. Using an empirical and rule-based modeling approach to map cause of disturbance in U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Schroeder; Gretchen G. Moisen; Karen Schleeweis; Chris Toney; Warren B. Cohen; Zhiqiang Yang; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Recently completing over a decade of research, the NASA/NACP funded North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has led to several important advancements in the way U.S. forest disturbance dynamics are mapped at regional and continental scales. One major contribution has been the development of an empirical and rule-based modeling approach which addresses two of the...

  6. From genetical genomics to systems genetics: potential applications in quantitative genomics and animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadarmideen, Haja N; von Rohr, Peter; Janss, Luc L G

    2006-06-01

    This article reviews methods of integration of transcriptomics (and equally proteomics and metabolomics), genetics, and genomics in the form of systems genetics into existing genome analyses and their potential use in animal breeding and quantitative genomic modeling of complex traits. Genetical genomics or the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping method and key findings in this research are reviewed. Various procedures and potential uses of eQTL mapping, global linkage clustering, and systems genetics are illustrated using actual analysis on recombinant inbred lines of mice with data on gene expression (for diabetes- and obesity-related genes), pathway, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage maps. Experimental and bioinformatics difficulties and possible solutions are discussed. The main uses of this systems genetics approach in quantitative genomics were shown to be in refinement of the identified QTL, candidate gene and SNP discovery, understanding gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, detection of candidate regulator genes/eQTL, discriminating multiple QTL/eQTL, and detection of pleiotropic QTL/eQTL, in addition to its use in reconstructing regulatory networks. The potential uses in animal breeding are direct selection on heritable gene expression measures, termed "expression assisted selection," and genetical genomic selection of both QTL and eQTL based on breeding values of the respective genes, termed "expression-assisted evaluation."

  7. Genomic tools in pearl millet breeding for drought tolerance: Status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Debelo Serba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Penisetum glaucum (L R. Br. is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by hundreds of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  9. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  10. Development of Return Period Inundation Maps In A Changing Climate Using a Systems of Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Alizad, K.; Passeri, D. L.; Irish, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide, coastal land margins are experiencing increased vulnerability from natural and manmade disasters [Nicholls et al., 1999]. Specifically, coastal flooding is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change, and sea level rise (SLR) in particular. A systems of systems (SoS) approach has been implemented to better understand the dynamic and nonlinear effects of SLR on tropical cyclone-induced coastal flooding along a low-gradient coastal landscape (northern Gulf of Mexico [NGOM]). The backbone of the SoS framework is a high-resolution, physics-based, tide, wind-wave, and hurricane storm surge model [Bilskie et al., 2016a] that includes systems of SLR scenarios [Parris et al., 2012], shoreline morphology [Passeri et al., 2016; Plant et al., 2016], marsh evolution [Alizad et al., 2016], and population dynamics driven by carbon emission scenarios [Bilskie et al., 2016b]. Prior to considering future conditions, the storm surge model was comprehensively validated for present-day conditions [Bilskie et al., 2016a]. The present-day model was then modified to represent the potential future landscape based on four SLR scenarios prescribed by Parris et al. [2012] linked to carbon emissions scenarios for the year 2100. Numerical simulations forced by hundreds of synthetic tropical cyclones were performed and the results facilitate the development of return period inundation maps across the NGOM that reflect changes to the coastal landscape. The SoS approach allows new patterns and properties to emerge (i.e. nonlinear and dynamic effects of SLR) that would otherwise be unobserved using a static SLR model.

  11. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargett, Charles William; Doty, Joseph P; Hauck, Jennifer N; Webb, Allison MB; Cook, Steven H; Tsipis, Nicholas E; Neumann, Julie A; Andolsek, Kathryn M; Taylor, Dean C

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group’s ideas) to identify stakeholders’ mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies. Methods Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare. Results A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were “Acting with Personal Integrity”, “Communicating Effectively”, “Acting with Professional Ethical Values”, “Pursuing Excellence”, “Building and Maintaining Relationships”, and “Thinking Critically”. Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient Centeredness and the core competencies of Integrity, Teamwork, Critical Thinking, Emotional Intelligence, and Selfless Service. Conclusion Using a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach, we developed a graphical representation of a shared leadership model derived in the healthcare setting. This model may enhance learning, teaching, and patient care in this important area, as well as guide future research. PMID:29355249

  12. 3D mapping of airway wall thickening in asthma with MSCT: a level set approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Hartley, Ruth; Grenier, Philippe A.; Brightling, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Assessing the airway wall thickness in multi slice computed tomography (MSCT) as image marker for airway disease phenotyping such asthma and COPD is a current trend and challenge for the scientific community working in lung imaging. This paper addresses the same problem from a different point of view: considering the expected wall thickness-to-lumen-radius ratio for a normal subject as known and constant throughout the whole airway tree, the aim is to build up a 3D map of airway wall regions of larger thickness and to define an overall score able to highlight a pathological status. In this respect, the local dimension (caliber) of the previously segmented airway lumen is obtained on each point by exploiting the granulometry morphological operator. A level set function is defined based on this caliber information and on the expected wall thickness ratio, which allows obtaining a good estimate of the airway wall throughout all segmented lumen generations. Next, the vascular (or mediastinal dense tissue) contact regions are automatically detected and excluded from analysis. For the remaining airway wall border points, the real wall thickness is estimated based on the tissue density analysis in the airway radial direction; thick wall points are highlighted on a 3D representation of the airways and several quantification scores are defined. The proposed approach is fully automatic and was evaluated (proof of concept) on a patient selection coming from different databases including mild, severe asthmatics and normal cases. This preliminary evaluation confirms the discriminative power of the proposed approach regarding different phenotypes and is currently extending to larger cohorts.

  13. A hybrid model for mapping simplified seismic response via a GIS-metamodel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelle, G.; Bonito, L.; Revellino, P.; Guerriero, L.; Guadagno, F. M.

    2014-07-01

    In earthquake-prone areas, site seismic response due to lithostratigraphic sequence plays a key role in seismic hazard assessment. A hybrid model, consisting of GIS and metamodel (model of model) procedures, was introduced aimed at estimating the 1-D spatial seismic site response in accordance with spatial variability of sediment parameters. Inputs and outputs are provided and processed by means of an appropriate GIS model, named GIS Cubic Model (GCM). This consists of a block-layered parametric structure aimed at resolving a predicted metamodel by means of pixel to pixel vertical computing. The metamodel, opportunely calibrated, is able to emulate the classic shape of the spectral acceleration response in relation to the main physical parameters that characterize the spectrum itself. Therefore, via the GCM structure and the metamodel, the hybrid model provides maps of normalized acceleration response spectra. The hybrid model was applied and tested on the built-up area of the San Giorgio del Sannio village, located in a high-risk seismic zone of southern Italy. Efficiency tests showed a good correspondence between the spectral values resulting from the proposed approach and the 1-D physical computational models. Supported by lithology and geophysical data and corresponding accurate interpretation regarding modelling, the hybrid model can be an efficient tool in assessing urban planning seismic hazard/risk.

  14. Multimodality approach to optical early detection and mapping of oral neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-07-01

    Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins.

  15. A new map of global ecological land units—An ecophysiographic stratification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Roger; Dangermond, Jack; Frye, Charlie; Vaughan, Randy; Aniello, Peter; Breyer, Sean; Cribbs, Douglas; Hopkins, Dabney; Nauman, Richard; Derrenbacher, William; Wright, Dawn; Brown, Clint; Convis, Charles; Smith, Jonathan H.; Benson, Laurence; Van Sistine, Darren; Warner, Harumi; Cress, Jill Janene; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Hamann, Sharon L.; Cecere, Thomas; Reddy, Ashwan D.; Burton, Devon; Grosse, Andrea; True, Diane; Metzger, Marc; Hartmann, Jens; Moosdorf, Nils; Durr, Hans; Paganini, Marc; Defourny, Pierre; Arino, Olivier; Maynard, Simone; Anderson, Mark; Comer, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In response to the need and an intergovernmental commission for a high resolution and data-derived global ecosystem map, land surface elements of global ecological pattern were characterized in an ecophysiographic stratification of the planet. The stratification produced 3,923 terrestrial ecological land units (ELUs) at a base resolution of 250 meters. The ELUs were derived from data on land surface features in a three step approach. The first step involved acquiring or developing four global raster datalayers representing the primary components of ecosystem structure: bioclimate, landform, lithology, and land cover. These datasets generally represent the most accurate, current, globally comprehensive, and finest spatial and thematic resolution data available for each of the four inputs. The second step involved a spatial combination of the four inputs into a single, new integrated raster dataset where every cell represents a combination of values from the bioclimate, landforms, lithology, and land cover datalayers. This foundational global raster datalayer, called ecological facets (EFs), contains 47,650 unique combinations of the four inputs. The third step involved an aggregation of the EFs into the 3,923 ELUs. This subdivision of the Earth’s surface into relatively fine, ecological land areas is designed to be useful for various types of ecosystem research and management applications, including assessments of climate change impacts to ecosystems, economic and non-economic valuation of ecosystem services, and conservation planning.

  16. KASPTM genotyping technology and its use in gene­tic-breeding programs (a study of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review publications relating to the key point of the genotyping technology that is competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (which is called now Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR, KASPTM and its use in various genetic-breeding researching (a study of maize. Results. The essence of KASP-genotyping, its advantages are highlighted. The requirements for matrix DNA are presented, since the success of the KASP-analysis depends on its qua­lity and quantity. Examples of global projects of plant breeding for increasing crop yields using the KASP genoty­ping technology are given. The results of KASP genotyping and their introduction into breeding and seed production, in particular, for determining genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, marker-assisted selection, etc. are presented using maize as an example. It is demonstrated how geno­mic selection according to KASP genotyping technology can lead to rapid genetic enhancement of drought resistance in maize. Comparison of the effectiveness of creating lines with certain traits (for example, combination of high grain yield and drought resistance using traditional breeding approaches (phenotype selection and molecular genetic methods (selection by markers was proved that it takes four seasons (two years in case of greenhouses in order to unlock the potential of the plant genotype using traditional self-pollination, test-crossing and definitions, while using markers, the population was enriched with target alleles during one season. At the same time, there was no need for a stress factor. Conclusions. KASP genotyping technology is a high-precision and effective tool for modern genetics and breeding, which is successfully used to study genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, gene­tic identity, genetic purity, origin check, quantitative locus mapping, allele mapping, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted breeding. It is expedient and timely to

  17. Concepts and Strategies of Organic Plant Breeding in Light of Novel Breeding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Nuijten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the development of a set of guiding principles for the evaluation of breeding techniques by the organic sector over time. The worldwide standards of organic agriculture (OA do not allow genetic engineering (GE or any products derived from genetic engineering. The standards in OA are an expression of the underlying principles of health, ecology, fairness and care. The derived norms are process and not product oriented. As breeding is considered part of the process in agriculture, GE is not a neutral tool for the organic sector. The incompatibility between OA and GE is analyzed, including the “novel breeding techniques”. Instead, alternative breeding approaches are pursued based on the norms and values of organic agriculture not only on the technical level but also on the social and organizational level by including other value chain players and consumers. The status and future perspectives of the alternative directions for organic breeding are described and discussed.

  18. An Effective NoSQL-Based Vector Map Tile Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Wan; Zhou Huang; Xia Peng

    2016-01-01

    Within a digital map service environment, the rapid growth of Spatial Big-Data is driving new requirements for effective mechanisms for massive online vector map tile processing. The emergence of Not Only SQL (NoSQL) databases has resulted in a new data storage and management model for scalable spatial data deployments and fast tracking. They better suit the scenario of high-volume, low-latency network map services than traditional standalone high-performance computer (HPC) or relational data...

  19. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayman Nagi; Safwan Altarazi

    2017-01-01

    .... Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings...

  20. INTEGRATED GEOREFERENCING OF STEREO IMAGE SEQUENCES CAPTURED WITH A STEREOVISION MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM – APPROACHES AND PRACTICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Eugster

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stereovision based mobile mapping systems enable the efficient capturing of directly georeferenced stereo pairs. With today's camera and onboard storage technologies imagery can be captured at high data rates resulting in dense stereo sequences. These georeferenced stereo sequences provide a highly detailed and accurate digital representation of the roadside environment which builds the foundation for a wide range of 3d mapping applications and image-based geo web-services. Georeferenced stereo images are ideally suited for the 3d mapping of street furniture and visible infrastructure objects, pavement inspection, asset management tasks or image based change detection. As in most mobile mapping systems, the georeferencing of the mapping sensors and observations – in our case of the imaging sensors – normally relies on direct georeferencing based on INS/GNSS navigation sensors. However, in urban canyons the achievable direct georeferencing accuracy of the dynamically captured stereo image sequences is often insufficient or at least degraded. Furthermore, many of the mentioned application scenarios require homogeneous georeferencing accuracy within a local reference frame over the entire mapping perimeter. To achieve these demands georeferencing approaches are presented and cost efficient workflows are discussed which allows validating and updating the INS/GNSS based trajectory with independently estimated positions in cases of prolonged GNSS signal outages in order to increase the georeferencing accuracy up to the project requirements.

  1. Integrated Georeferencing of Stereo Image Sequences Captured with a Stereovision Mobile Mapping System - Approaches and Practical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, H.; Huber, F.; Nebiker, S.; Gisi, A.

    2012-07-01

    Stereovision based mobile mapping systems enable the efficient capturing of directly georeferenced stereo pairs. With today's camera and onboard storage technologies imagery can be captured at high data rates resulting in dense stereo sequences. These georeferenced stereo sequences provide a highly detailed and accurate digital representation of the roadside environment which builds the foundation for a wide range of 3d mapping applications and image-based geo web-services. Georeferenced stereo images are ideally suited for the 3d mapping of street furniture and visible infrastructure objects, pavement inspection, asset management tasks or image based change detection. As in most mobile mapping systems, the georeferencing of the mapping sensors and observations - in our case of the imaging sensors - normally relies on direct georeferencing based on INS/GNSS navigation sensors. However, in urban canyons the achievable direct georeferencing accuracy of the dynamically captured stereo image sequences is often insufficient or at least degraded. Furthermore, many of the mentioned application scenarios require homogeneous georeferencing accuracy within a local reference frame over the entire mapping perimeter. To achieve these demands georeferencing approaches are presented and cost efficient workflows are discussed which allows validating and updating the INS/GNSS based trajectory with independently estimated positions in cases of prolonged GNSS signal outages in order to increase the georeferencing accuracy up to the project requirements.

  2. Wallpaper May Breed Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166850.html Wallpaper May Breed Toxins: Study Fungus on the walls might ... 2017 FRIDAY, June 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wallpaper may contribute to "sick building syndrome," a new study ...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  5. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  6. Using an intervention mapping approach to develop a discharge protocol for intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo; Nijkamp, Marjan; Markham, Christine; Ista, Erwin

    2017-12-19

    Admission into an intensive care unit (ICU) may result in long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional consequences for patients and their relatives. The care of the critically ill patient does not end upon ICU discharge; therefore, integrated and ongoing care during and after transition to the follow-up ward is pivotal. This study described the development of an intervention that responds to this need. Intervention Mapping (IM), a six-step theory- and evidence-based approach, was used to guide intervention development. The first step, a problem analysis, comprised a literature review, six semi-structured telephone interviews with former ICU-patients and their relatives, and seven qualitative roundtable meetings for all eligible nurses (i.e., 135 specialized and 105 general ward nurses). Performance and change objectives were formulated in step two. In step three, theory-based methods and practical applications were selected and directed at the desired behaviors and the identified barriers. Step four designed a revised discharge protocol taking into account existing interventions. Adoption, implementation and evaluation of the new discharge protocol (IM steps five and six) are in progress and were not included in this study. Four former ICU patients and two relatives underlined the importance of the need for effective discharge information and supportive written material. They also reported a lack of knowledge regarding the consequences of ICU admission. 42 ICU and 19 general ward nurses identified benefits and barriers regarding discharge procedures using three vignettes framed by literature. Some discrepancies were found. For example, ICU nurses were skeptical about the impact of writing a lay summary despite extensive evidence of the known benefits for the patients. ICU nurses anticipated having insufficient skills, not knowing the patient well enough, and fearing legal consequences of their writings. The intervention was designed to target the knowledge

  7. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses revealed highly

  8. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Nardi

    Full Text Available This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17 during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69 in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476 during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178 of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482 and France (12%, N = 336. These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014 was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  9. Mapping Urban Green Infrastructure: A Novel Landscape-Based Approach to Incorporating Land Use and Land Cover in the Mapping of Human-Dominated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dennis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Common approaches to mapping green infrastructure in urbanised landscapes invariably focus on measures of land use or land cover and associated functional or physical traits. However, such one-dimensional perspectives do not accurately capture the character and complexity of the landscapes in which urban inhabitants live. The new approach presented in this paper demonstrates how open-source, high spatial and temporal resolution data with global coverage can be used to measure and represent the landscape qualities of urban environments. Through going beyond simple metrics of quantity, such as percentage green and blue cover, it is now possible to explore the extent to which landscape quality helps to unpick the mixed evidence presented in the literature on the benefits of urban nature to human well-being. Here we present a landscape approach, employing remote sensing, GIS and data reduction techniques to map urban green infrastructure elements in a large U.K. city region. Comparison with existing urban datasets demonstrates considerable improvement in terms of coverage and thematic detail. The characterisation of landscapes, using census tracts as spatial units, and subsequent exploration of associations with social–ecological attributes highlights the further detail that can be uncovered by the approach. For example, eight urban landscape types identified for the case study city exhibited associations with distinct socioeconomic conditions accountable not only to quantities but also qualities of green and blue space. The identification of individual landscape features through simultaneous measures of land use and land cover demonstrated unique and significant associations between the former and indicators of human health and ecological condition. The approach may therefore provide a promising basis for developing further insight into processes and characteristics that affect human health and well-being in urban areas, both in the United

  10. Educational Approach to Seismic Risk Mitigation in Indian Himalayas -Hazard Map Making Workshops at High Schools-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Oki, S.; Kimura, M.; Chadha, R. K.; Davuluri, S.

    2014-12-01

    How can we encourage people to take preventive measures against damage risks and empower them to take the right actions in emergencies to save their lives? The conventional approach taken by scientists had been disseminating intelligible information on up-to-date seismological knowledge. However, it has been proven that knowledge alone does not have enough impact to modify people's behaviors in emergencies (Oki and Nakayachi, 2012). On the other hand, the conventional approach taken by practitioners had been to conduct emergency drills at schools or workplaces. The loss of many lives from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has proven that these emergency drills were not enough to save people's lives, unless they were empowered to assess the given situation on their own and react flexibly. Our challenge is to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. With reference to best practices observed in Tohoku, such as The Miracles of Kamaishi, our endeavor is to design an effective Disaster Preparedness Education Program that is applicable to other disaster-prone regions in the world, even with different geological, socio-economical and cultural backgrounds. The key concepts for this new approach are 1) empowering individuals to take preventive actions to save their lives, 2) granting community-based understanding of disaster risks and 3) building a sense of reality and relevancy to disasters. With these in mind, we held workshops at some high schools in the Lesser Himalayan Region, combining lectures with an activity called "Hazard Map Making" where students proactively identify and assess the hazards around their living areas and learn practical strategies on how to manage risks. We observed the change of awareness of the students by conducting a preliminary questionnaire survey and interviews after each session. Results strongly implied that the significant change of students' attitudes towards disaster preparedness occurred not by the lectures of scientific knowledge, but

  11. Digital soil mapping at pilot sites in the northwest coast of Egypt: A multinomial logistic regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy Hassan Abdel-Kader

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a digital soil mapping approach for the production of soil maps by using multinomial logistic regression on soil and terrain information at pilot sites in the Northwestern Coastal region of Egypt. The aim is to reproduce the original map and predict soil distribution in the adherent landscape. Reference soil maps produced by conventional methods at Omayed and Nagamish areas were used. Spectral and terrain parameters were calculated and logit models of the soil classes were developed. Predicted soil classes’ maps were produced. Software’s IDRISI/SAGA/SATISTCA/SPSS were used. The terrain and spectral parameters were found to be significantly influential and the selection of the land surfaces predictors was satisfactory. The McFadden pseudo R-squares ranged from 0.473 to 0.496. The most significant terrain parameters influencing the spatial distribution of the soil classes were elevation, valley depth, multiresolution ridgetop flatness index, multiresolution valley-bottom flatness index, and SAGA wetness index. However, the most influential spectral parameters are the first two principal components of the six Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper bands. The overall accuracy of the predicted soil maps ranged from 72% to 74% with a Kappa Index ranging from 0.62 to 0.64. The developed probability models were successfully used to predict the spatial distribution of the soil mapping units at pixel resolutions of 28.5 m × 28.5 m and 90 m × 90 m at adjacent unvisited areas at Matrouh and Alamin. The developed methodology could contribute to the allocation and to the soil digital mapping and management of new expansion sites in remote desert areas of Egypt.

  12. A Remote Sensing Approach for Regional-Scale Mapping of Agricultural Land-Use Systems Based on NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bellón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for generic remote sensing tools to support large-scale agricultural monitoring, we present a new approach for regional-scale mapping of agricultural land-use systems (ALUS based on object-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series analysis. The approach consists of two main steps. First, to obtain relatively homogeneous land units in terms of phenological patterns, a principal component analysis (PCA is applied to an annual MODIS NDVI time series, and an automatic segmentation is performed on the resulting high-order principal component images. Second, the resulting land units are classified into the crop agriculture domain or the livestock domain based on their land-cover characteristics. The crop agriculture domain land units are further classified into different cropping systems based on the correspondence of their NDVI temporal profiles with the phenological patterns associated with the cropping systems of the study area. A map of the main ALUS of the Brazilian state of Tocantins was produced for the 2013–2014 growing season with the new approach, and a significant coherence was observed between the spatial distribution of the cropping systems in the final ALUS map and in a reference map extracted from the official agricultural statistics of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. This study shows the potential of remote sensing techniques to provide valuable baseline spatial information for supporting agricultural monitoring and for large-scale land-use systems analysis.

  13. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  14. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  15. Ontology Mapping Neural Network: An Approach to Learning and Inferring Correspondences among Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yefei

    2010-01-01

    An ontology mapping neural network (OMNN) is proposed in order to learn and infer correspondences among ontologies. It extends the Identical Elements Neural Network (IENN)'s ability to represent and map complex relationships. The learning dynamics of simultaneous (interlaced) training of similar tasks interact at the shared connections of the…

  16. The Use of Concept Maps to Assess Preservice Teacher Understanding: A Formative Approach in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakoniecki, Aaron; Shah, Fahmil

    2017-01-01

    The research reported in this article explored the methods by which concept maps served as formative assessment by capturing changes in the ways preservice mathematics teachers represented their understanding of algebra. The participants were enrolled in a course on high school algebra for teachers and created the maps on the first and last day of…

  17. Concept Mapping: An Approach for Evaluating a Public Alternative School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Calvin L.; Franklin, Cynthia; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how concept mapping techniques were applied to evaluate the development of a solution-focused, public alternative school program. Concept Systems software was used to create 15 cluster maps based on statements generated from students, teachers, and school staff. In addition, pattern matches were analyzed to examine the…

  18. A Different Approach to Preparing Novakian Concept Maps: The Indexing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan Oluk, Nurcan; Ekmekci, Güler

    2016-01-01

    People who claim that applying Novakian concept maps in Turkish is problematic base their arguments largely upon the structural differences between the English and Turkish languages. This study aims to introduce the indexing method to eliminate problems encountered in Turkish applications of Novakian maps and to share the preliminary results of…

  19. Predicting Childhood Sexual or Physical Abuse: A Logistic Regression Geo-mapping Approach to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tadoum, Roland K.; Smolij, Kamila; Michelle A. Lyn; Johnson, Craig W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geo-mapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  20. A two-stage approach for improved prediction of residue contact maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollastri Gianluca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein topology representations such as residue contact maps are an important intermediate step towards ab initio prediction of protein structure. Although improvements have occurred over the last years, the problem of accurately predicting residue contact maps from primary sequences is still largely unsolved. Among the reasons for this are the unbalanced nature of the problem (with far fewer examples of contacts than non-contacts, the formidable challenge of capturing long-range interactions in the maps, the intrinsic difficulty of mapping one-dimensional input sequences into two-dimensional output maps. In order to alleviate these problems and achieve improved contact map predictions, in this paper we split the task into two stages: the prediction of a map's principal eigenvector (PE from the primary sequence; the reconstruction of the contact map from the PE and primary sequence. Predicting the PE from the primary sequence consists in mapping a vector into a vector. This task is less complex than mapping vectors directly into two-dimensional matrices since the size of the problem is drastically reduced and so is the scale length of interactions that need to be learned. Results We develop architectures composed of ensembles of two-layered bidirectional recurrent neural networks to classify the components of the PE in 2, 3 and 4 classes from protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity interaction scales. Our predictor, tested on a non redundant set of 2171 proteins, achieves classification performances of up to 72.6%, 16% above a base-line statistical predictor. We design a system for the prediction of contact maps from the predicted PE. Our results show that predicting maps through the PE yields sizeable gains especially for long-range contacts which are particularly critical for accurate protein 3D reconstruction. The final predictor's accuracy on a non-redundant set of 327 targets is 35

  1. Self-organizing maps of document collections: A new approach to interactive exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, K.; Honkela, T.; Kaski, S.; Kohonen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Powerful methods for interactive exploration and search from collections of free-form textual documents axe needed to manage the ever-increasing flood of digital information. In this article we present a method, WEBSOM, for automatic organization of full-text document collections using the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. The document collection is ordered onto a map in an unsupervised manner utilizing statistical information of short word contexts. The resulting ordered map where similar documents lie near each other thus presents a general view of the document space. With the aid of a suitable (WWW-based) interface, documents in interesting areas of the map can be browsed. The browsing can also be interactively extended to related topics, which appear in nearby areas on the map. Along with the method we present a case study of its use.

  2. An integrated approach to flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans using numerical modeling, field mapping, and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J.D.; Mayer, L.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Demsey, K.A.; Klawon, J.K.; Vincent, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of people in the western United States live near the dynamic, distributary channel networks of alluvial fans where flood behavior is complex and poorly constrained. Here we test a new comprehensive approach to alluvial-fan flood hazard assessment that uses four complementary methods: two-dimensional raster-based hydraulic modeling, satellite-image change detection, fieldbased mapping of recent flood inundation, and surficial geologic mapping. Each of these methods provides spatial detail lacking in the standard method and each provides critical information for a comprehensive assessment. Our numerical model simultaneously solves the continuity equation and Manning's equation (Chow, 1959) using an implicit numerical method. It provides a robust numerical tool for predicting flood flows using the large, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) necessary to resolve the numerous small channels on the typical alluvial fan. Inundation extents and flow depths of historic floods can be reconstructed with the numerical model and validated against field- and satellite-based flood maps. A probabilistic flood hazard map can also be constructed by modeling multiple flood events with a range of specified discharges. This map can be used in conjunction with a surficial geologic map to further refine floodplain delineation on fans. To test the accuracy of the numerical model, we compared model predictions of flood inundation and flow depths against field- and satellite-based flood maps for two recent extreme events on the southern Tortolita and Harquahala piedmonts in Arizona. Model predictions match the field- and satellite-based maps closely. Probabilistic flood hazard maps based on the 10 yr, 100 yr, and maximum floods were also constructed for the study areas using stream gage records and paleoflood deposits. The resulting maps predict spatially complex flood hazards that strongly reflect small-scale topography and are consistent with surficial geology. In

  3. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... been added to this transcript map and the updated map has. 1,328 gene-based marker loci (Hiremath et al. unpublished). In the case of pigeonpea, ..... ing; in Biology and breeding of food legumes (eds) A Pratap and. J Kumar (CABI International) pp 296–313. Cuc LM, Mace ES, Crouch JH, Quang VD, ...

  4. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  5. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  6. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  7. Water-sanitation-hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; de Palencia, Alejandro Jiménez-Fernández; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-10-01

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District-Kenya-; Kibondo District-Tanzania-; and Municipality of Manhiça-Mozambique-) are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coastal system mapping: a new approach to formalising and conceptualising the connectivity of large-scale coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.; Whitehouse, R.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of the coastal sediment cell has proved invaluable as a basis for estimating sediment budgets and as a framework for coastal management. However, whilst coastal sediment cells are readily identified on compartmentalised coastlines dominated by beach-grade material, the cell concept is less suited to handling broader linkages between estuarine, coastal and offshore systems, and for incorporating longer-range suspended sediment transport. We present a new approach to the conceptualisation of large-scale coastal geomorphic systems based on a hierarchical classification of component landforms and management interventions and mapping of the interactions between them. Coastal system mapping is founded on a classification that identifies high-level landform features, low-level landform elements and engineering interventions. Geomorphic features define the large-scale organisation of a system and include landforms that define gross coastal configuration (e.g. headland, bay) as well as fluvial, estuarine and offshore sub-systems that exchange sediment with and influence the open coast. Detailed system structure is mapped out with reference to a larger set of geomorphic elements (e.g. cliff, dune, beach ridge). Element-element interactions define cross-shore linkages (conceptualised as hinterland, backshore and foreshore zones) and alongshore system structure. Both structural and non-structural engineering interventions are also represented at this level. Element-level mapping is rationalised to represent alongshore variation using as few elements as possible. System linkages include both sediment transfer pathways and influences not associated with direct mass transfer (e.g. effect of a jetty at an inlet). A formal procedure for capturing and graphically representing coastal system structure has been developed around free concept mapping software, CmapTools (http://cmap.ihmc.us). Appended meta-data allow geographic coordinates, data, images and literature

  9. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargett CW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles William Hargett,1 Joseph P Doty,2 Jennifer N Hauck,3 Allison MB Webb,4 Steven H Cook,5 Nicholas E Tsipis,4 Julie A Neumann,6 Kathryn M Andolsek,7 Dean C Taylor6 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Feagin Leadership Program, 3Department of Anesthesiology, 4School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurosurgery, 6Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 7Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Purpose: Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group’s ideas to identify stakeholders’ mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies.Methods: Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare.Results: A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were “Acting with Personal Integrity”, “Communicating Effectively”, “Acting with Professional Ethical Values”, “Pursuing Excellence”, “Building and Maintaining Relationships”, and “Thinking Critically”. Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient

  10. Relation of project managers' personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bevilacqua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work investigates the influence of project managers’ personality on the success of a project in a Multinational Corporation. The methodology proposed for analyzing the project managers’ personality is based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.Design/methodology/approach: Forty projects carried out in 2012 by multinational corporation, concerning new product development (NPD, have been analyzed, comparing the profile of project managers with results obtained in terms of traditional performance indexes (time delay and over-budget of projects and performance indexes usually used in “Lean Production” sector (waste time and type of “wastes”. A detailed analysis of the most important “wastes” during the project development is carried out using the Value Stream Mapping (VSM technique.Findings and Originality/value: Relying on the Myers–Briggs personality instrument, results show that extroverted managers (as opposed to introverted managers carry out projects that show lower delay and lower waste time. Introverted managers often make “Over-processing” and “Defect” types of waste. Moreover, lower delay and over-budget have been shown by perceiving managers.Research limitations: Regarding the limitations of this work it is necessary to highlight that we collected data from project managers in a retrospective way. While we believe that several aspects of our data collection effort helped enhance the accuracy of the results, future research could conduct real-time case study research to get more detailed insights into the proposed relationships and avoid retrospective bias. Moreover we focused on a single respondent, the project manager. This helped us ensure that their interpretations played an important role in product development. But, we cannot examined the opinion of team members that could be different from project managers opinion regarding some questions.Originality/value: This research provides insight useful

  11. A new approach to analyze strategy map using an integrated BSC and FUZZY DEMATEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Heydariyeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, with ever-increasing competition in global economic conditions, the necessity of effective implementation of strategy map has become an inevitable and necessary. The strategy map represents a general and structured framework for strategic objectives and plays an important role in forming competitive advantages for organizations. It is important to find important factors influencing strategy map and prioritize them based on suitable factors. In this paper, we propose an integration of BSC and Fuzzy DEMATEL technique to rank different items influencing strategy of a production plan. The proposed technique is implemented for real-world case study of glass production.

  12. A concept mapping approach to guide and understand dissemination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2012-10-01

    Many efforts to implement evidence-based programs do not reach their full potential or fail due to the variety of challenges inherent in dissemination and implementation. This article describes the use of concept mapping-a mixed method strategy-to study implementation of behavioral health innovations and evidence-based practice (EBP). The application of concept mapping to implementation research represents a practical and concise way to identify and quantify factors affecting implementation, develop conceptual models of implementation, target areas to address as part of implementation readiness and active implementation, and foster communication among stakeholders. Concept mapping is described and a case example is provided to illustrate its use in an implementation study. Implications for the use of concept mapping methods in both research and applied settings towards the dissemination and implementation of behavioral health services are discussed.

  13. First level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city – a GIS approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganapathy, G. P

    2011-01-01

    ...) to Moderate Seismic Hazard (Zone III)-(BIS: 1893 (2001)). In this connection, a first level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city has been produced with a GIS platform using the themes, viz, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA...

  14. A Systematic Approach to Modified BCJR MAP Algorithms for Convolutional Codes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Sichun; Patenaude, François

    2006-01-01

    .... The existence of a relatively large number of similar but different modified BCJR MAP algorithms, derived using the Markov chain properties of convolutional codes, naturally leads to the following questions...

  15. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wave propagation properties in oscillatory chains with cubic nonlinearities via nonlinear map approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: francesco.romeo@uniromal.it; Rega, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: giuseppe.rega@uniromal.it

    2006-02-01

    Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration.

  17. The syntax-phonology mapping of intonational phrases in complex sentences: A flexible approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Hamlaoui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend to complex sentences the proposal that the notion of 'clause 'in ALIGN/MATCH constraints related to the syntax-prosody mapping of the intonational phrase should be determined in each language (and each construction by making reference to the highest syntactic phrase whose head is overtly filled by the verb (or verbal material (Hamlaoui & Szendrői 2015. We propose that while root-clauses have a privileged status from the syntax-to- prosody mapping perspective, all clauses are equal in the prosody-to-syntax mapping. In the spirit of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 2005, we bring in extragrammatical motivation for the proposed mapping principles from parsing and learnability. This allows us to account for the fact that, whereas in many languages like Bàsàá (Bantu and Hungarian (Finno-Ugric, only root clauses normally map onto intonational phrases, additional intonational phrase edges can be found under the pressure of high-ranked prosodic, processing or information-structural requirements. This is the case with Hungarian embedded foci and Bàsàá embedded topics where, we argue, embedded 'ι 'edges are meant to satisfy STRESSFOCUS and ALIGNTOPIC, respectively. In languages where embedded clauses seem to map onto their own intonational phrases more generally, such as Japanese or Luganda, further independent constraints should be evoked.   This article is part of the special collection: Prosody and Constituent Structure

  18. Similarity and accuracy of mental models formed during nursing handovers: A concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Broyer, Chaya; Dagan, Efrat

    2017-09-01

    Shared mental models are crucial for constructing mutual understanding of the patient's condition during a clinical handover. Yet, scant research, if any, has empirically explored mental models of the parties involved in a clinical handover. This study aimed to examine the similarities among mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses, and to test their accuracy by comparing them with mental models of expert nurses. A cross-sectional study, exploring nurses' mental models via the concept mapping technique. 40 clinical handovers. Data were collected via concept mapping of the incoming, outgoing, and expert nurses' mental models (total of 120 concept maps). Similarity and accuracy for concepts and associations indexes were calculated to compare the different maps. About one fifth of the concepts emerged in both outgoing and incoming nurses' concept maps (concept similarity=23%±10.6). Concept accuracy indexes were 35%±18.8 for incoming and 62%±19.6 for outgoing nurses' maps. Although incoming nurses absorbed fewer number of concepts and associations (23% and 12%, respectively), they partially closed the gap (35% and 22%, respectively) relative to expert nurses' maps. The correlations between concept similarities, and incoming as well as outgoing nurses' concept accuracy, were significant (r=0.43, pmaps, outgoing nurses added information concerning the processes enacted during the shift, beyond the expert nurses' gold standard. Two seemingly contradicting processes in the handover were identified. "Information loss", captured by the low similarity indexes among the mental models of incoming and outgoing nurses; and "information restoration", based on accuracy measures indexes among the mental models of the incoming nurses. Based on mental model theory, we propose possible explanations for these processes and derive implications for how to improve a clinical handover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visualizing the topical structure of the medical sciences: a self-organizing map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin, André; Biberstine, Joseph R; Börner, Katy

    2013-01-01

    We implement a high-resolution visualization of the medical knowledge domain using the self-organizing map (SOM) method, based on a corpus of over two million publications. While self-organizing maps have been used for document visualization for some time, (1) little is known about how to deal with truly large document collections in conjunction with a large number of SOM neurons, (2) post-training geometric and semiotic transformations of the SOM tend to be limited, and (3) no user studies have been conducted with domain experts to validate the utility and readability of the resulting visualizations. Our study makes key contributions to all of these issues. Documents extracted from Medline and Scopus are analyzed on the basis of indexer-assigned MeSH terms. Initial dimensionality is reduced to include only the top 10% most frequent terms and the resulting document vectors are then used to train a large SOM consisting of over 75,000 neurons. The resulting two-dimensional model of the high-dimensional input space is then transformed into a large-format map by using geographic information system (GIS) techniques and cartographic design principles. This map is then annotated and evaluated by ten experts stemming from the biomedical and other domains. Study results demonstrate that it is possible to transform a very large document corpus into a map that is visually engaging and conceptually stimulating to subject experts from both inside and outside of the particular knowledge domain. The challenges of dealing with a truly large corpus come to the fore and require embracing parallelization and use of supercomputing resources to solve otherwise intractable computational tasks. Among the envisaged future efforts are the creation of a highly interactive interface and the elaboration of the notion of this map of medicine acting as a base map, onto which other knowledge artifacts could be overlaid.

  20. Visualizing the topical structure of the medical sciences: a self-organizing map approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Skupin

    Full Text Available We implement a high-resolution visualization of the medical knowledge domain using the self-organizing map (SOM method, based on a corpus of over two million publications. While self-organizing maps have been used for document visualization for some time, (1 little is known about how to deal with truly large document collections in conjunction with a large number of SOM neurons, (2 post-training geometric and semiotic transformations of the SOM tend to be limited, and (3 no user studies have been conducted with domain experts to validate the utility and readability of the resulting visualizations. Our study makes key contributions to all of these issues.Documents extracted from Medline and Scopus are analyzed on the basis of indexer-assigned MeSH terms. Initial dimensionality is reduced to include only the top 10% most frequent terms and the resulting document vectors are then used to train a large SOM consisting of over 75,000 neurons. The resulting two-dimensional model of the high-dimensional input space is then transformed into a large-format map by using geographic information system (GIS techniques and cartographic design principles. This map is then annotated and evaluated by ten experts stemming from the biomedical and other domains.Study results demonstrate that it is possible to transform a very large document corpus into a map that is visually engaging and conceptually stimulating to subject experts from both inside and outside of the particular knowledge domain. The challenges of dealing with a truly large corpus come to the fore and require embracing parallelization and use of supercomputing resources to solve otherwise intractable computational tasks. Among the envisaged future efforts are the creation of a highly interactive interface and the elaboration of the notion of this map of medicine acting as a base map, onto which other knowledge artifacts could be overlaid.

  1. Topographic mapping on large-scale tidal flats with an iterative approach on the waterline method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanyan; Ding, Xianrong; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Changkuan; Ge, Xiaoping

    2017-05-01

    Tidal flats, which are both a natural ecosystem and a type of landscape, are of significant importance to ecosystem function and land resource potential. Morphologic monitoring of tidal flats has become increasingly important with respect to achieving sustainable development targets. Remote sensing is an established technique for the measurement of topography over tidal flats; of the available methods, the waterline method is particularly effective for constructing a digital elevation model (DEM) of intertidal areas. However, application of the waterline method is more limited in large-scale, shifting tidal flats areas, where the tides are not synchronized and the waterline is not a quasi-contour line. For this study, a topographical map of the intertidal regions within the Radial Sand Ridges (RSR) along the Jiangsu Coast, China, was generated using an iterative approach on the waterline method. A series of 21 multi-temporal satellite images (18 HJ-1A/B CCD and three Landsat TM/OLI) of the RSR area collected at different water levels within a five month period (31 December 2013-28 May 2014) was used to extract waterlines based on feature extraction techniques and artificial further modification. These 'remotely-sensed waterlines' were combined with the corresponding water levels from the 'model waterlines' simulated by a hydrodynamic model with an initial generalized DEM of exposed tidal flats. Based on the 21 heighted 'remotely-sensed waterlines', a DEM was constructed using the ANUDEM interpolation method. Using this new DEM as the input data, it was re-entered into the hydrodynamic model, and a new round of water level assignment of waterlines was performed. A third and final output DEM was generated covering an area of approximately 1900 km2 of tidal flats in the RSR. The water level simulation accuracy of the hydrodynamic model was within 0.15 m based on five real-time tide stations, and the height accuracy (root mean square error) of the final DEM was 0.182 m

  2. A Multi - Disciplinary Approach Combining Geological, Geomorphological and Geophysical Data for Mapping the Susceptibility to Sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio; Quarta, Tatiana A. M.; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Salento region of southern Italy has a great number of active sinkholes, related to both natural and anthropogenic cavities. The presence of sinkholes is at the origin of several problems to the built-up environment, due to the increasing population growth and development pressures. In such a context, the detection of cavities, and therefore the assessment of the sinkhole hazard presents numerous difficulties. Multidisciplinary - approach, comprising geological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses, is therefore necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge of the complex phenomena in karstic areas. Geophysical methods can also be of great help to identify and map the areas at higher risk of collapse. In this case it is important to identify the features related to the underground voids, likely evolving to sinkholes, by contrasts in physical properties such as density, electrical resistivity, and so on, with the surrounding sediments. At the same time, identification of the presence of sinkholes by geophysical methods has to adapt to the different geological conditions, so that there is not the possibility to use the same techniques everywhere. At this aim, the present paper illustrates the advantages of integrating geological and geomorphological surveys with surface geophysical techniques such as seismic, geoelectrical and ground penetrating radar methods for the identification of sinkhole-prone areas. The present work illustrates the results concerning a sinkhole system at Nociglia (inland Salento, southeastern Italy) where the shallow phreatic speleogenesis operates close to the water table level with formation of karst conduits and proto-caves whose evolution occurs through successive roof collapse, formation of wide caverns and sinkhole development at the surface. All of this creates serious problems to the nearby infrastructures, including a province road that has often been threatened by the sinkhole development. Geological and geomorphological

  3. Fine mapping for Weaver Syndrome in the Brown Swiss breed with the identification of possible casual mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8, and CTTNBP2 and Developement of a diagnostic SNP haplotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age,...

  4. Comparing Pixel and Object-Based Approaches to Map an Understorey Invasive Shrub in Tropical Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhura Niphadkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition. However, these methods have not been tested adequately in dense tropical mixed forests where invasion occurs in the understorey. This study compares a pixel-based and object-based classification method for mapping the understorey invasive shrub Lantana camara (Lantana in a tropical mixed forest habitat in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. Overall, a hierarchical approach of mapping top canopy at first, and then further processing for the understorey shrub, using measures such as texture and vegetation indices proved effective in separating out Lantana from other cover types. In the first method, we implement a simple parametric supervised classification for mapping cover types, and then process within these types for Lantana delineation. In the second method, we use an object-based segmentation algorithm to map cover types, and then perform further processing for separating Lantana. The improved ability of the object-based approach to delineate structurally distinct objects with characteristic spectral and spatial characteristics of their own, as well as with reference to their surroundings, allows for much flexibility in identifying invasive understorey shrubs among the complex vegetation of the tropical forest than that provided by the parametric classifier. Conservation practices

  5. Comparing Pixel and Object-Based Approaches to Map an Understorey Invasive Shrub in Tropical Mixed Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagendra, Harini; Tarantino, Cristina; Adamo, Maria; Blonda, Palma

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition. However, these methods have not been tested adequately in dense tropical mixed forests where invasion occurs in the understorey. This study compares a pixel-based and object-based classification method for mapping the understorey invasive shrub Lantana camara (Lantana) in a tropical mixed forest habitat in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. Overall, a hierarchical approach of mapping top canopy at first, and then further processing for the understorey shrub, using measures such as texture and vegetation indices proved effective in separating out Lantana from other cover types. In the first method, we implement a simple parametric supervised classification for mapping cover types, and then process within these types for Lantana delineation. In the second method, we use an object-based segmentation algorithm to map cover types, and then perform further processing for separating Lantana. The improved ability of the object-based approach to delineate structurally distinct objects with characteristic spectral and spatial characteristics of their own, as well as with reference to their surroundings, allows for much flexibility in identifying invasive understorey shrubs among the complex vegetation of the tropical forest than that provided by the parametric classifier. Conservation practices in tropical mixed

  6. A novel approach for monitoring writing interferences during navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mappings of writing related cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić Vidaković, Maja; Gabelica, Dragan; Vujović, Igor; Šoda, Joško; Batarelo, Nikolina; Džimbeg, Andrija; Zmajević Schönwald, Marina; Rotim, Krešimir; Đogaš, Zoran

    2015-11-30

    It has recently been shown that navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is useful in preoperative neurosurgical mapping of motor and language brain areas. In TMS mapping of motor cortices the evoked responses can be quantitatively monitored by electromyographic (EMG) recordings. No such setup exists for monitoring of writing during nTMS mappings of writing related cortical areas. We present a novel approach for monitoring writing during nTMS mappings of motor writing related cortical areas. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of quantitative monitoring of motor evoked responses from hand by EMG, and of pen related activity during writing with our custom made pen, together with the application of chronometric TMS design and patterned protocol of rTMS. The method was applied in four healthy subjects participating in writing during nTMS mapping of the premotor cortical area corresponding to BA 6 and close to the superior frontal sulcus. The results showed that stimulation impaired writing in all subjects. The corresponding spectra of measured signal related to writing movements was observed in the frequency band 0-20 Hz. Magnetic stimulation affected writing by suppressing normal writing frequency band. The proposed setup for monitoring of writing provides additional quantitative data for monitoring and the analysis of rTMS induced writing response modifications. The setup can be useful for investigation of neurophysiologic mechanisms of writing, for therapeutic effects of nTMS, and in preoperative mapping of language cortical areas in patients undergoing brain surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of visual impairment on the lives of young adults in the Netherlands: a concept-mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen Bernadette Maria; van Rens, Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus; van Nispen, Ruth Marie Antoinette

    2017-12-01

    While the impact of visual impairments on specific aspects of young adults' lives is well recognised, a systematic understanding of its impact on all life aspects is lacking. This study aims to provide an overview of life aspects affected by visual impairment in young adults (aged 18-25 years) using a concept-mapping approach. Visually impaired young adults (n = 22) and rehabilitation professionals (n = 16) participated in online concept-mapping workshops (brainstorm procedure), to explore how having a visual impairment influences the lives of young adults. Statements were categorised based on similarity and importance. Using multidimensional scaling, concept maps were produced and interpreted. A total of 59 and 260 statements were generated by young adults and professionals, respectively, resulting in 99 individual statements after checking and deduplication. The combined concept map revealed 11 clusters: work, study, information and regulations, social skills, living independently, computer, social relationships, sport and activities, mobility, leisure time, and hobby. The concept maps provided useful insight into activities influenced by visual impairments in young adults, which can be used by rehabilitation centres to improve their services. This might help in goal setting, rehabilitation referral and successful transition to adult life, ultimately increasing participation and quality of life. Implications for rehabilitation Having a visual impairment affects various life-aspects related to participation, including activities related to work, study, social skills and relationships, activities of daily living, leisure time and mobility. Concept-mapping helped to identify the life aspects affected by low vision, and quantify these aspects in terms of importance according to young adults and low vision rehabilitation professionals. Low vision rehabilitation centres should focus on all life aspects found in this study when identifying the needs of young

  8. Microzonation Mapping Of The Yanbu Industrial City, Western Saudi Arabia: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Sayed, Sr.; Alarifi, Nassir S.; Lashin, Aref A.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas along the western coast of Saudi Arabia are susceptible to natural disasters and environmental damages due to lack of planning. To produce a site-specific microzonation map of the rapidly growing Yanbu industrial city, spatial distribution of different hazard entities are assessed using the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP) together with Geographical Information System (GIS). For this purpose six hazard parameter layers are considered, namely; fundamental frequency, site amplification, soil strength in terms of effective shear-wave velocity, overburden sediment thickness, seismic vulnerability index and peak ground acceleration. The weight and rank values are determined during AHP and are assigned to each layer and its corresponding classes, respectively. An integrated seismic microzonation map was derived using GIS platform. Based on the derived map, the study area is classified into five hazard categories: very low, low, moderate high, and very high. The western and central parts of the study area, as indicated from the derived microzonation map, are categorized as a high hazard zone as compared to other surrounding places. The produced microzonation map of the current study is envisaged as a first-level assessment of the site specific hazards in the Yanbu city area, which can be used as a platform by different stakeholders in any future land-use planning and environmental hazard management.

  9. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  10. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  11. A SPREADSHEET MAPPING APPROACH FOR ERROR CHECKING AND SHARING COLLECTION POINT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Foley

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ready availability of online maps of plant and animal collection locations has drawn attention to the need for georeference accuracy. Many obvious georeference errors, for example, that map land animals over sea, the wrong hemisphere, or the wrong country, may be avoided if collectors and data providers could easily map their data points prior to publication. Various tools are available for quality control of georeference data, but many involve an investment of time to learn the software involved. This paper presents a method for the rapid map display of longitude and latitude data using the chart function in Microsoft Office Excel®, arguably the most ubiquitous spreadsheet software. Advantages of this method include: immediate visual feedback to assess data point accuracy; and results that can be easily shared with others. Methods for making custom Excel chart maps are given, and we provide free charts for the world and a selection of countries at http://www.vectormap.org/resources.htm.

  12. Impact of a concept map teaching approach on nursing students' critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Van-Dyke, Olga; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Nurses confront complex problems and decisions that require critical thinking in order to identify patient needs and implement best practices. An active strategy for teaching students the skills to think critically is the concept map. This study explores the development of critical thinking among nursing students in a required pathophysiology and pharmacology course during the first year of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in response to concept mapping as an interventional strategy, using the Health Education Systems, Incorporated critical thinking test. A two-group experimental study with a pretest and posttest design was used. Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 42) taught by traditional didactic lecturing alone, and an intervention group (n = 41), taught by traditional didactic lecturing with concept mapping. Students in the concept mapping group performed much better on the Health Education Systems, Incorporated than students in the control group. It is recommended that deans, program directors, and nursing faculties evaluate their curricula to integrate concept map teaching strategies in courses in order to develop critical thinking abilities in their students. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Mapping Speech Spectra from Throat Microphone to Close-Speaking Microphone: A Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegnanarayana B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.

  14. Fuzzy outranking approach: A knowledge-driven method for mineral prospectivity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Fathianpour, Nader

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a new multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called fuzzy outranking to map prospectivity for porphyry Cusbnd Mo deposits. Various raster-based evidential layers involving geological, geophysical, and geochemical geo-data sets are integrated for mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM). In a case study, 13 layers of the Now Chun deposit located in the Kerman province of Iran are used to explore the region of interest. The outputs are validated using 21 boreholes drilled in this area. Comparison of the output prospectivity map with concentrations of Cu and Mo in the boreholes indicates that the fuzzy outranking MCDM is a useful tool for MPM. The proposed method shows a high performance for MPM thereby reducing the cost of exploratory drilling in the study area.

  15. Acoustical source mapping based on deconvolution approaches for circular microphone arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the aeroacoustic community has examined various methods based on deconvolution to improve the visualization of acoustic fields scanned with planar arrays of microphones. These methods are based on the assumption that the beamforming map in an observation plane parallel to the array can...... be approximated by a convolution of the actual sources and the beamformer’s point spread-function, i.e., the beamformer’s response to a point source. By deconvolving the resulting map, the resolution is improved and the side-lobes effect is reduced or even eliminated compared to conventional beamforming. Even...... though these methods are originally designed for planar sparse arrays, they can be adapted to uniform circular arrays for mapping the sound over 360º. Such geometry has the advantage that the beamforming response has always the same shape around the focusing direction, or in other words...

  16. Identifying patients with chronic conditions using pharmacy data in Switzerland: an updated mapping approach to the classification of medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Szucs, Thomas D; Rapold, Roland; Reich, Oliver

    2013-10-30

    Quantifying population health is important for public health policy. Since national disease registers recording clinical diagnoses are often not available, pharmacy data were frequently used to identify chronic conditions (CCs) in populations. However, most approaches mapping prescribed drugs to CCs are outdated and unambiguous. The aim of this study was to provide an improved and updated mapping approach to the classification of medications. Furthermore, we aimed to give an overview of the proportions of patients with CCs in Switzerland using this new mapping approach. The database included medical and pharmacy claims data (2011) from patients aged 18 years or older. Based on prescription drug data and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, patients with CCs were identified by a medical expert review. Proportions of patients with CCs were calculated by sex and age groups. We constructed multiple logistic regression models to assess the association between patient characteristics and having a CC, as well as between risk factors (diabetes, hyperlipidemia) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD as one of the most prevalent CCs. A total of 22 CCs were identified. In 2011, 62% of the 932'612 subjects enrolled have been prescribed a drug for the treatment of at least one CC. Rheumatologic conditions, CVD and pain were the most frequent CCs. 29% of the persons had CVD, 10% both CVD and hyperlipidemia, 4% CVD and diabetes, and 2% suffered from all of the three conditions. The regression model showed that diabetes and hyperlipidemia were strongly associated with CVD. Using pharmacy claims data, we developed an updated and improved approach for a feasible and efficient measure of patients' chronic disease status. Pharmacy drug data may be a valuable source for measuring population's burden of disease, when clinical data are missing. This approach may contribute to health policy debates about health services sources and risk adjustment

  17. Understanding Users' Meaning Constructions of IS Adoption and Use - A Cognitive Mapping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette

    adoptive use behavior. We study the post-adoption process of a larger Electronic Patient Record (EPR) project, focusing specifically on how two different professional groups, doctors and nurses, make sense of the technology as it becomes integrated into their work processes. We use cognitive mapping...... to represent the users' perceptions of the information system in order to study their sensemaking. In continuation of present findings, we aim to develop the use of cognitive mapping further in order to move from using it as a static snapshot understanding of the users' perceptions to a dynamic tool...

  18. Mapping the electrical properties of semiconductor junctions - the electron holographic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Midgley, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The need to determine the electrical properties of semiconductor junctions with high spatial resolution Is as pressing now as ever. One technique that offers the possibility of quantitative high-resolution mapping of two- and three-dimensional electrostatic potential distributions is off-axis ele......The need to determine the electrical properties of semiconductor junctions with high spatial resolution Is as pressing now as ever. One technique that offers the possibility of quantitative high-resolution mapping of two- and three-dimensional electrostatic potential distributions is off...

  19. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  20. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a

  1. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  2. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  3. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  4. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  5. Mapping of rock types using a joint approach by combining the multivariate statistics, self-organizing map and Bayesian neural networks: an example from IODP 323 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mampi; Maiti, Saumen; Singh, Amrita; Ojha, Maheswar; Maity, Bhabani Sankar

    2017-07-01

    Modeling and classification of the subsurface lithology is very important to understand the evolution of the earth system. However, precise classification and mapping of lithology using a single framework are difficult due to the complexity and the nonlinearity of the problem driven by limited core sample information. Here, we implement a joint approach by combining the unsupervised and the supervised methods in a single framework for better classification and mapping of rock types. In the unsupervised method, we use the principal component analysis (PCA), K-means cluster analysis (K-means), dendrogram analysis, Fuzzy C-means (FCM) cluster analysis and self-organizing map (SOM). In the supervised method, we use the Bayesian neural networks (BNN) optimized by the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) (BNN-HMC) and the scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) (BNN-SCG) techniques. We use P-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, resistivity and gamma ray logs of the well U1343E of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea slope region. While the SOM algorithm allows us to visualize the clustering results in spatial domain, the combined classification schemes (supervised and unsupervised) uncover the different patterns of lithology such of as clayey-silt, diatom-silt and silty-clay from an un-cored section of the drilled hole. In addition, the BNN approach is capable of estimating uncertainty in the predictive modeling of three types of rocks over the entire lithology section at site U1343. Alternate succession of clayey-silt, diatom-silt and silty-clay may be representative of crustal inhomogeneity in general and thus could be a basis for detail study related to the productivity of methane gas in the oceans worldwide. Moreover, at the 530 m depth down below seafloor (DSF), the transition from Pliocene to Pleistocene could be linked to lithological alternation between the clayey-silt and the diatom-silt. The present results could provide the basis for

  6. Approaching multidimensional forms of knowledge through Personal Meaning Mapping in science integrating teaching outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bolling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and technology lessons in the classroom, and again after experiencing teaching outside the classroom. Maps and interviews were analysed drawing on Bloom’s revised taxonomy of educational objectives. Our findings show that PMM is highly useful for identifying and activating factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge...

  7. A Multi-Objective Approach to Visualize Proportions and Similarities Between Individuals by Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing the proportions and the similarities attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one individual, th...

  8. Pathways to bridge the biophysical realism gap in ecosystem services mapping approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavorel, Sandra; Bayer, Anita; Bondeau, Alberte; Lautenbach, Sven; Ruiz-Frau, Ana; Schulp, Nynke; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, P.H.; Teeffelen, Astrid van; Vannier, Clémence; Arneth, Almut; Cramer, Wolfgang; Marba, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The mapping of ecosystem service supply has become quite common in ecosystem service assessment practice for terrestrial ecosystems, but land cover remains the most common indicator for ecosystems ability to deliver ecosystem services. For marine ecosystems, practice is even less advanced, with a

  9. An Educational Data Mining Approach to Concept Map Construction for Web based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anal ACHARYA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this article is to study the use of Educational Data Mining (EDM techniques in constructing concept maps for organizing knowledge in web based learning systems whereby studying their synergistic effects in enhancing learning. This article first provides a tutorial based introduction to EDM. The applicability of web based learning systems in enhancing the efficiency of EDM techniques in real time environment is investigated. Web based learning systems often use a tool for organizing knowledge. This article explores the use of one such tool called concept map for this purpose. The pioneering works by various researchers who proposed web based learning systems in personalized and collaborative environment in this arena are next presented. A set of parameters are proposed based on which personalized and collaborative learning applications may be generalized and their performances compared. It is found that personalized learning environment uses EDM techniques more exhaustively compared to collaborative learning for concept map construction in web based environment. This article can be used as a starting point for freshers who would like to use EDM techniques for concept map construction for web based learning purposes.

  10. A collaborative approach to mapping value of fisheries resources in the North Sea (Part 1: Methodology)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Coers, A.; Hamon, K.

    2013-01-01

    IMARES and LEI are both contracted on occasion to perform VMS-analyses to produce maps of fishing activity or economic value of fisheries in particular area(s) in the North Sea. Until present, IMARES and LEI use their own methodology which is inspired mostly on their own unique data availabilities

  11. Prototype of interactive Web Maps: an approach based on open sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Philips

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the potentialities available in the World Wide Web (WWW, a prototype with interactive Web map was elaborated using standardized codes and open sources, such as eXtensible Markup Language (XML, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG, Document Object Model (DOM , script languages ECMAScript/JavaScript and “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”, and PostgreSQL and its extension, the PostGIS, to disseminate information related to the urban real estate register. Data from the City Hall of São José - Santa Catarina, were used, referring to Campinas district. Using Client/Server model, a prototype of a Web map with standardized codes and open sources was implemented, allowing a user to visualize Web maps using only the Adobe’s plug-in Viewer 3.0 in his/her browser. Aiming a good cartographic project for the Web, it was obeyed rules of graphical translation and was implemented different functionalities of interaction, like interactive legends, symbolization and dynamic scale. From the results, it can be recommended the use of using standardized codes and open sources in interactive Web mapping projects. It is understood that, with the use of Open Source code, in the public and private administration, the possibility of technological development is amplified, and consequently, a reduction with expenses in the acquisition of computer’s program. Besides, it stimulates the development of computer applications targeting specific demands and requirements.

  12. New approaches to forest planning: inventorying and mapping place values in the Pacific Northwest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy E. Hall; Jennifer O. Farnum; Terry C. Slider; Kathy Ludlow

    2009-01-01

    This report chronicles a large-scale effort to map place values across the Pacific Northwest Region (Washington and Oregon) of the U.S. Forest Service. Through workshops held with Forest Service staff, 485 socioculturally meaningful places were identified. Staff also generated corresponding descriptions of the places’ unique social and biophysical elements—in other...

  13. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  14. Mapping and Quantifying Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Related to Terrestrial Vertebrates: A National Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  15. Systematic approach for deriving feasible mappings of parallel algorithms to parallel computing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkin, Ethem; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Imre, Kayhan M.

    2017-01-01

    The need for high-performance computing together with the increasing trend from single processor to parallel computer architectures has leveraged the adoption of parallel computing. To benefit from parallel computing power, usually parallel algorithms are defined that can be mapped and executed

  16. Towards Exploring Vast MPSoC Mapping Design Spaces using a Bias-Elitist Evolutionary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quan, W.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of optimally mapping a set of tasks onto a set of given heterogeneous processors for maximal throughput has been known, in general, to be NP-complete. Previous research has shown that Genetic Algorithms (GA) typically are a good choice to solve this problem when the solution space is

  17. Mapping a Mutation in "Caenorhabditis elegans" Using a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Edith M.

    2014-01-01

    Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified within the "Caenorhabditis elegans" genome. SNPs present in the genomes of two isogenic "C. elegans" strains have been routinely used as a tool in forward genetics to map a mutation to a particular chromosome. This article describes a laboratory exercise in which…

  18. Towards local implementation of Dutch health policy guidelines: a concept-mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuunders, Theo J M; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van de Goor, Ien A M; Paulussen, Theo G W M; van Oers, Hans A M

    2017-02-22

    To develop a targeted implementation strategy for a municipal health policy guideline, implementation targets of two guideline users [Regional Health Services (RHSs)] and guideline developers of leading national health institutes were made explicit. Therefore, characteristics of successful implementation of the guideline were identified. Differences and similarities in perceptions of these characteristics between RHSs and developers were explored. Separate concept mapping procedures were executed in two RHSs, one with representatives from partner local health organizations and municipalities, the second with RHS members only. A third map was conducted with the developers of the guideline. All mapping procedures followed the same design of generating statements up to interpretation of results with participants. Concept mapping, as a practical implementation tool, will be discussed in the context of international research literature on guideline implementation in public health. Guideline developers consider implementation successful when substantive components (health issues) of the guidelines, content are visible in local policy practice. RHSs, local organizations and municipalities view the implementation process itself within and between organizations as more relevant, and state that usability of the guideline for municipal policy and commitment by officials and municipal managers are critical targets for successful implementation. Between the RHSs, differences in implementation targets were smaller than between RHSs and guideline developers. For successful implementation, RHSs tend to focus on process targets while developers focus more on the thematic contents of the guideline. Implications of these different orientations for implementation strategies are dealt with in the discussion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Integrated GIS Based Approach in Mapping Groundwater Potential Zones in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulherry Isnain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.111-120The shortage of clean water occurs almost everywhere around the world. The demand for water supply increases from time to time due to various problems such as development, population growth, pollution, global warming, agricultural activities, logging, and so on. This study was conducted in the vicinity of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, by using the Geographic Information System (GIS for mapping the groundwater potential zones. The main objective of this study was to generate the predictive map of groundwater potential zones in the studied area through the integration of various thematic maps by using the GIS. This study includes five stages, namely collection and preparation of basic data, data analyses, development of space database, spatial analyses, and space integration. There are eleven parameters used in this study, namely rainfall, drainage, soil type, landuse, lithology, lineament density, topography, slope steepness, the ratio of sand and clay, major fault zones, and syncline zones. By using the Heuristic method, the final map of groundwater potential zones in the studied area is divided into five classes, which are very low, low, moderate, high, and very high.

  20. Beyond the single species climate envelope: A multifaceted approach to mapping climate change vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Balzotti; Stanley G. Kitchen; Clinton McCarthy

    2016-01-01

    Federal land management agencies and conservation organizations have begun incorporating climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) as an important component in the management and conservation of landscapes. It is often a challenge to translate that knowledge into management plans and actions, even when research infers species risk. Predictive maps can...

  1. A National Approach to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity within an Ecosystem Services Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  2. Predicting childhood sexual or physical abuse: a logistic regression geo-mapping approach to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadoum, Roland K; Smolij, Kamila; Lyn, Michelle A; Johnson, Craig W

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geomapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  3. A new approach for deriving Flood hazard maps from SAR data and global hydrodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matgen, P.; Hostache, R.; Chini, M.; Giustarini, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Bally, P.

    2014-12-01

    With the flood consequences likely to amplify because of the growing population and ongoing accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, global flood hazard and risk maps are needed for improving flood preparedness at large scale. At the same time, with the rapidly growing archives of SAR images of floods, there is a high potential of making use of these images for global and regional flood management. In this framework, an original method that integrates global flood inundation modeling and microwave remote sensing is presented. It takes advantage of the combination of the time and space continuity of a global inundation model with the high spatial resolution of satellite observations. The availability of model simulations over a long time period offers opportunities for estimating flood non-exceedance probabilities in a robust way. These probabilities can be attributed to historical satellite observations. Time series of SAR-derived flood extent maps and associated non-exceedance probabilities can then be combined generate flood hazard maps with a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is most of the time higher than that of a global inundation model. In principle, this can be done for any area of interest in the world, provided that a sufficient number of relevant remote sensing images are available. As a test case we applied the method on the Severn River (UK) and the Zambezi River (Mozambique), where large archives of Envisat flood images can be exploited. The global ECMWF flood inundation model is considered for computing the statistics of extreme events. A comparison with flood hazard maps estimated with in situ measured discharge is carried out. The first results confirm the potentiality of the method. However, further developments on two aspects are required to improve the quality of the hazard map and to ensure the acceptability of the product by potential end user organizations. On the one hand, it is of paramount importance to

  4. An improved data-driven fuzzy mineral prospectivity mapping procedure; cosine amplitude-based similarity approach to delineate exploration targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-06-01

    Weighting and synthesizing exploration evidence criteria for mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) are affected by complexity and ambiguity of ore mineralization processes. In this regard, fuzziness could facilitate the modeling of such vague processes for MPM. Furthermore, imprecise selection of the exploration criteria to be used in MPM has negative influence on the efficiency of the generated prospectivity models. In this paper, of various exploration criteria, a coherent set of exploration features were recognized by using the distance distribution analysis. Then, the application of cosine amplitude-based similarity procedure was adapted as a data-driven fuzzy logic approach for predictive mapping of porphyry-Cu prospectivity in Arasbaran metallogenic zone, NW Iran. In addition, a conventional data-driven fuzzy prospectivity model was generated for comparison purpose. Comparison of the two models demonstrated the superiority of the cosine amplitude-based fuzzy procedure for MPM.

  5. Gaussian Multiple Instance Learning Approach for Mapping the Slums of the World Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient algo- rithm based on multiple instance learning for mapping infor- mal settlements (slums) using very high-resolution remote sensing imagery. From remote sensing perspective, infor- mal settlements share unique spatial characteristics that dis- tinguish them from other urban structures like industrial, commercial, and formal residential settlements. However, regular pattern recognition and machine learning methods, which are predominantly single-instance or per-pixel classi- fiers, often fail to accurately map the informal settlements as they do not capture the complex spatial patterns. To overcome these limitations we employed a multiple instance based machine learning approach, where groups of contigu- ous pixels (image patches) are modeled as generated by a Gaussian distribution. We have conducted several experi- ments on very high-resolution satellite imagery, represent- ing four unique geographic regions across the world. Our method showed consistent improvement in accurately iden- tifying informal settlements.

  6. Identification and mapping the high nature value farmland by the comparison of a combined and species approaches in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity farming systems play a crucial role in nature conservation by preserving 50% of habitats, flora and fauna occurring in Europe. For this reason the identification, classification and mapping of high nature value farmlands (HNVfs is becoming an overriding concern. In this study, two different approaches, namely combined approach and species-based approach, were used to spatially identify HNVfs (type 1, 2 and 3 across Tuscany region (Italy. The first approach calculated different indicators (extensive practices indicator, crop diversity indicator, landscape element indicator at 1×1 km grid cell spatial resolution using pre-existent spatial datasets integrated within a global information system environment. Whilst, the speciesbased approach relied on a pre-existent regional naturalistic inventory. All indicators and the resulting HNVfs derived from the two approaches were aggregated at municipality level. Despite some difference, the two adopted approaches intercepted spatially the same HNVfs areas, accounting for 35% of the total utilised agricultural area of the region. Just 16% of HNVfs resulted located inside protected areas, thus under current conservation and protection management actions. Finally, HNVfs of the Tuscany region were spatially aggregated in four relevant agro-ecosystems by taking into consideration the cropping systems and the landscape elements’ characteristics peculiar in the region.

  7. Prediction of the indoor temperatures of an urban area with an in-time regression mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Fournier, Michel; Griot, Chloé; Baudouin, Yves; Kosatsky, Tom

    2008-05-01

    Excess mortality has been noted during high ambient temperature episodes. During such episodes, individuals are not likely to be uniformly exposed to temperatures within cities. Exposure of individuals to high temperatures is likely to fluctuate with the micro-urban variation of outdoor temperatures (heat island effect) and with factors linked to building properties. In this paper, a GIS-based regression mapping approach is proposed to model urban spatial patterns of indoor temperatures in time, for all residential buildings of an urban area. In July 2005, the hourly indoor temperature was measured with data loggers for 31 consecutive days, concurrently in 75 dwellings in Montreal. The general estimating equation model (GEE) developed to predict indoor temperatures integrates temporal variability of outdoor temperatures (and their 24 h moving average), with geo-referenced determinants available for the entire city, such as surface temperatures at each site (from a satellite image) and building characteristics (from the Montreal Property Assessment database). The proportion of the variability of the indoor temperatures explained increases from 20%, using only outdoor temperatures, to 54% with the full model. Using this model, high-resolution maps of indoor temperatures can be provided across an entire urban area. The model developed adds a temporal dimension to similar regression mapping approaches used to estimate exposure for population health studies, based on spatial predictors, and can thus be used to predict exposure to indoor temperatures under various outdoor temperature scenarios. It is thus concluded that such a model might be used as a means of mapping indoor temperatures either to inform urban planning and housing strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change, to orient public health interventions, or as a basis for assessing exposure as part of epidemiological studies.

  8. Development of a dynamic web mapping service for vegetation productivity using earth observation and in situ sensors in a sensor web based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Bergsma, A.R.; Chuma, B.; Bruin, de S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the

  9. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jim?nez, Laura; V?squez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; L?on, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; L?pez, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving it...

  10. Mapping Aquatic Vegetation in a Large, Shallow Eutrophic Lake: A Frequency-Based Approach Using Multiple Years of MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vegetation serves many important ecological and socioeconomic functions in lake ecosystems. The presence of floating algae poses difficulties for accurately estimating the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic lakes. We present an approach to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in Lake Taihu (a large, shallow eutrophic lake in China and reduce the influence of floating algae on aquatic vegetation mapping. Our approach involved a frequency analysis over a 2003–2013 time series of the floating algal index (FAI based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data. Three phenological periods were defined based on the vegetation presence frequency (VPF and the growth of algae and aquatic vegetation: December and January composed the period of wintering aquatic vegetation; February and March composed the period of prolonged coexistence of algal blooms and wintering aquatic vegetation; and June to October was the peak period of the coexistence of algal blooms and aquatic vegetation. By comparing and analyzing the satellite-derived aquatic vegetation distribution and 244 in situ measurements made in 2013, we established a FAI threshold of −0.025 and VPF thresholds of 0.55, 0.45 and 0.85 for the three phenological periods. We validated the accuracy of our approach by comparing the results between the satellite-derived maps and the in situ results obtained from 2008–2012. The overall classification accuracy was 87%, 81%, 77%, 88% and 73% in the five years from 2008–2012, respectively. We then applied the approach to the MODIS images from 2003–2013 and obtained the total area of the aquatic vegetation, which varied from 265.94 km2 in 2007 to 503.38 km2 in 2008, with an average area of 359.62 ± 69.20 km2 over the 11 years. Our findings suggest that (1 the proposed approach can be used to map the distribution of aquatic vegetation in eutrophic algae-rich waters and (2 dramatic changes occurred in the

  11. An Automated Approach to Map Winter Cropped Area of Smallholder Farms across Large Scales Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale agricultural statistics are an important tool for understanding trends in food production and their associated drivers, yet these data are rarely collected in smallholder systems. These statistics are particularly important for smallholder systems given the large amount of fine-scale heterogeneity in production that occurs in these regions. To overcome the lack of ground data, satellite data are often used to map fine-scale agricultural statistics. However, doing so is challenging for smallholder systems because of (1 complex sub-pixel heterogeneity; (2 little to no available calibration data; and (3 high amounts of cloud cover as most smallholder systems occur in the tropics. We develop an automated method termed the MODIS Scaling Approach (MSA to map smallholder cropped area across large spatial and temporal scales using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI satellite data. We use this method to map winter cropped area, a key measure of cropping intensity, across the Indian subcontinent annually from 2000–2001 to 2015–2016. The MSA defines a pixel as cropped based on winter growing season phenology and scales the percent of cropped area within a single MODIS pixel based on observed EVI values at peak phenology. We validated the result with eleven high-resolution scenes (spatial scale of 5 × 5 m2 or finer that we classified into cropped versus non-cropped maps using training data collected by visual inspection of the high-resolution imagery. The MSA had moderate to high accuracies when validated using these eleven scenes across India (R2 ranging between 0.19 and 0.89 with an overall R2 of 0.71 across all sites. This method requires no calibration data, making it easy to implement across large spatial and temporal scales, with 100% spatial coverage due to the compositing of EVI to generate cloud-free data sets. The accuracies found in this study are similar to those of other studies that map crop production using automated methods

  12. Using a conceptual approach with concept mapping to promote critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Jenny E

    2009-01-01

    Promoting the development of critical thinking is crucial to nursing education for two reasons. First, the National League for Nursing and the American Association of Colleges of Nurses consider critical thinking an outcome criterion for baccalaureate nursing education. Second, and significantly more important, professional nursing practice requires critical thinking skills and problem solving abilities. Too often, teaching is not directed at specifically designed activities that foster critical thinking. Various teaching strategies have been proposed that promote critical thinking, including service learning, role playing, reflective learning, the critical incidence conference, videotaped vignettes, preceptorship, and concept mapping. This article focuses on the use of assimilation theory and concept maps to facilitate critical thinking experiences in nursing education.

  13. Mouse whole-body organ mapping by non-rigid registration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Green, Heather; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Salvado, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Automatic small animal whole-body organ registration is challenging because of subject's joint structure, posture and position difference and loss of reference features. In this paper, an improved 3D shape context based non-rigid registration method is applied for mouse whole-body skeleton registration and lung registration. A geodesic path based non-rigid registration method is proposed for mouse torso skin registration. Based on the above registration methods, a novel non-rigid registration framework is proposed for mouse whole-body organ mapping from an atlas to new scanned CT data. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the method on lung and skin registration. A whole-body organ mapping was performed on three target data and the selected organs were compared with the manual outlining results. The robust of the method has been demonstrated.

  14. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data. PMID:21730251

  15. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention--an Intervention Mapping approach to planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data.

  16. A Machine Learning Approach to Mapping Agricultural Fields Across Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Fuchs, T. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Estes, L. D.; Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Food production in sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholder agriculture. Rainfed farming practices and the prevailing dryland conditions render crop yields vulnerable to increasing climatic variability. As a result, smallholder farmers are among the poorest and most food insecure groups among the region's population. Quantifying the distribution of smallholder agriculture across sub-Saharan Africa would greatly assist efforts to boost food security. Existing agricultural land cover data sets are limited to estimating the percentage of cropland within a coarse grid cell. The goal of this research is to develop a statistical machine learning algorithm to map individual agricultural fields, mirroring the accuracy of hand-digitization. For the algorithm, a random forest pixel-wise classifier learns by example from training data to distinguish between fields and non-fields. The algorithm then applies this training to classify previously unseen data. These classifications can then be smoothed into coherent regions corresponding to agricultural fields. Our training data set consists of hand-digitized boundaries of agricultural fields in South Africa, commissioned by its government in 2008. Working with 1 km x 1 km scenes across South Africa, the hand-digitized field boundaries are matched with satellite images extracted from Google Maps. To highlight different information contained within the images, several image processing filters are applied. The inclusion of Landsat images for additional training information is also explored. After training and testing the algorithm in South Africa, we aim to expand our mapping efforts across sub-Saharan Africa. Through Princeton's Mapping Africa project, crowdsourcing will produce additional training data sets of hand-digitized field boundaries in new areas of interest. This algorithm and the resulting data sets will provide previously unavailable information at an unprecedented level of detail on the largest and most

  17. Effective stakeholder participation in setting research priorities using a Global Evidence Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavisi, Ornella; Bragge, Peter; Tavender, Emma; Turner, Tari; Gruen, Russell L

    2013-05-01

    We present a multistep process for identifying priority research areas in rehabilitation and long-term care of traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients. In particular, we aimed to (1) identify which stakeholders should be involved; (2) identify what methods are appropriate; (3) examine different criteria for the generation of research priority areas; and (4) test the feasibility of linkage and exchange among researchers, decision makers, and other potential users of the research. Potential research questions were identified and developed using an initial scoping meeting and preliminary literature search, followed by a facilitated mapping workshop and an online survey. Identified research questions were then prioritized against specific criteria (clinical importance, novelty, and controversy). Existing evidence was then mapped to the high-priority questions using usual processes for search, screening, and selection. A broad range of stakeholders were then brought together at a forum to identify priority research themes for future research investment. Using clinical and research leaders, smaller targeted planning workshops prioritized specific research projects for each of the identified themes. Twenty-six specific questions about TBI rehabilitation were generated, 14 of which were high priority. No one method identified all high-priority questions. Methods that relied solely on the views of clinicians and researchers identified fewer high-priority questions compared with methods that used broader stakeholder engagement. Evidence maps of these high-priority questions yielded a number of evidence gaps. Priority questions and evidence maps were then used to inform a research forum, which identified 12 priority themes for future research. Our research demonstrates the value of a multistep and multimethod process involving many different types of stakeholders for prioritizing research to improve the rehabilitation outcomes of people who have suffered TBI. Enhancing

  18. Transfer map approach to an optical effects of energy degraders on the perfomance of fragment separators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdelyi, B.; Bandura, L.; Nolen, J.; Physics

    2009-01-01

    A second order analytical and an arbitrary order numerical procedure is developed for the computation of transfer maps of energy degraders. The incorporation of the wedges into the optics of fragment separators for next-generation exotic beam facilities, their optical effects, and the optimization of their performance is studied in detail. It is shown how to place and shape the degraders in the system such that aberrations are minimized and resolving powers are maximized.

  19. Transfer map approach to and optical effects of energy degraders in fragment separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Erdelyi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A second order analytical and an arbitrary order numerical procedure is developed for the computation of transfer maps of energy degraders. The incorporation of the wedges into the optics of fragment separators for next-generation exotic beam facilities, their optical effects, and the optimization of their performance is studied in detail. It is shown how to place and shape the degraders in the system such that aberrations are minimized and resolving powers are maximized.

  20. Transfer map approach to and optical effects of energy degraders in fragment separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, B.; Bandura, L.; Nolen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A second order analytical and an arbitrary order numerical procedure is developed for the computation of transfer maps of energy degraders. The incorporation of the wedges into the optics of fragment separators for next-generation exotic beam facilities, their optical effects, and the optimization of their performance is studied in detail. It is shown how to place and shape the degraders in the system such that aberrations are minimized and resolving powers are maximized.

  1. Depth-Resolved Mapping of Tissue Mechanical Properties Using a Novel Optical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantni K.

    2011-01-01

    Progression of most diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative disease and osteoarthritis is accompanied with drastic changes in biomechanics of tissue. Hence, non-contact and non-invasive technologies for 3-dimensional mapping of tissue biomechanics are invaluable for diagnostic purposes. Laser speckle Microrheology (LSM) is developed in our lab to enable high resolution mechanical evaluation of tissue. To this end, the tissue sample is illuminated by a coherent and focused...

  2. Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, J. A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all of the spectrochemical studies involving Carboniferous foliage of seed-ferns are based on a limited number of pinnules, mainly compressions. In contrast, in this paper we illustrate working with a larger pinnate segment, i.e., a 22-cm long neuropteroid specimen, compression-preserved with cuticle, the compression map. The objective is to study preservation variability on a larger scale, where observation of transparency/opacity of constituent pinnules is used as a first approximation for assessing the degree of pinnule coalification/fossilization. Spectrochemical methods by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry furnish semi-quantitative data for principal component analysis.The compression map shows a high degree of preservation variability, which ranges from comparatively more coalified pinnules to less coalified pinnules that resemble fossilized-cuticles, noting that the pinnule midveins are preserved more like fossilized-cuticles. A general overall trend of coalified pinnules towards fossilized-cuticles, i.e., variable chemistry, is inferred from the semi-quantitative FTIR data as higher contents of aromatic compounds occur in the visually more opaque upper location of the compression map. The latter also shows a higher condensation of the aromatic nuclei along with some variation in both ring size and degree of aromatic substitution. From principal component analysis we infer correspondence between transparency/opacity observation and chemical information which correlate with varying degree to fossilization/coalification among pinnules. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A new approach to concordance in mid-infrared spectromicroscopy mapping of malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kaiser; Reichert, Todd; Gomez, Daniel; Lu, Yanjie; Jan, Alexander; Christensen, Colleen

    2010-10-01

    Mid-infrared spectromicroscopy studies on biological tissue sections require accurate identification of tumor-bearing areas in histology-stained and infrared-unstained tissue sections. Concordance was achieved as follows: paired stained and unstained thin (5 microm) human brain tumor cryosections mounted on slides were scanned with a Nikon Coolscan 4000 film scanner at 4000 dpi, edited with Adobe Photoshop CS2 software, and both digital images saved. A digital tractile grid, developed in our laboratory, was overlaid onto both images. Boundaries of tumor-containing areas in stained sections were identified by light microscopy, and a digital boundary map constructed. The map was transferred onto the unstained spectromicroscopy tissue image, and finally layered onto the gridded, equisized, spectromicroscope-generated overview image prior to Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy. Accurate identification of tumor-bearing areas, normal brain tissue and transitional zones allowed for meaningful interpretation of respective spectral patterns in detecting subtle differences within biochemical profiles. This is the first reported method of a standardized technique for ensuring concordance in mapping of malignant tumors by mid-infrared spectromicroscopy. This technique is applicable to all biological thin tissue sections, and serves to enhance accuracy of concordance between globar- and synchrotron-light generated infrared data with that obtained by conventional light microscopy.

  4. a Virtual Hub Brokering Approach for Integration of Historical and Modern Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N.; Previtali, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Brumana, R.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data are today more and more widespread. Many different institutions, such as Geographical Institutes, Public Administrations, collaborative communities (e.g., OSM) and web companies, make available nowadays a large number of maps. Besides this cartography, projects of digitizing, georeferencing and web publication of historical maps have increasingly spread in the recent years. In spite of these variety and availability of data, information overload makes difficult their discovery and management: without knowing the specific repository where the data are stored, it is difficult to find the information required and problems of interconnection between different data sources and their restricted interoperability limit a wide utilization of available geo-data. This paper aims to describe some actions performed to assure interoperability between data, in particular spatial and geographic data, gathered from different data providers, with different features and referring to different historical periods. The article summarizes and exemplifies how, starting from projects of historical map digitizing and Historical GIS implementation, respectively for the Lombardy and for the city of Parma, the interoperability is possible in the framework of the ENERGIC OD project. The European project ENERGIC OD, thanks to a specific component - the virtual hub - based on a brokering framework, copes with the previous listed problems and allows the interoperability between different data sources.

  5. A 21st century approach to tackling dengue: Crowdsourced surveillance, predictive mapping and tailored communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Cheong, Siew Ann; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Theng, Yin-Leng; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Foo, Schubert

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a social media system to prevent dengue in Sri Lanka and potentially in the rest of the South and Southeast Asia regions. The system integrates three concepts of public health prevention that have thus far been implemented only in silos. First, the predictive surveillance component uses a computer simulation to forewarn health authorities and the general public about impending disease outbreaks. The civic engagement component allows the general public to use social media tools to interact and engage with health authorities by aiding them in surveillance efforts by reporting symptoms, mosquito bites and breeding sites using smartphone technologies. The health communication component utilizes citizen data gathered from the first two components to disseminate customized health awareness messages to enhance knowledge and increase preventive behaviors among citizens. The system, known as "Mo-Buzz," will be made available on a host of digital platforms like simple mobile phones, smart phones and a website. We present challenges and lessons learnt including content validation, stakeholder collaborations and applied trans-disciplinary research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy production in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil

    Full Text Available In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of "dairy breeds." This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1, whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep.

  7. Application of Selection Mapping to Identify Genomic Regions Associated with Dairy Production in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; García-Gámez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i) identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii) identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity) in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs) by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses) were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1), whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A) were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep. PMID:24788864

  8. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  9. Approach of automatic 3D geological mapping: the case of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex, NW Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, A O; Ivanyuk, G Yu; Mikhailova, J A; Sokharev, V A

    2017-07-31

    We have developed an approach for automatic 3D geological mapping based on conversion of chemical composition of rocks to mineral composition by logical computation. It allows to calculate mineral composition based on bulk rock chemistry, interpolate the mineral composition in the same way as chemical composition, and, finally, build a 3D geological model. The approach was developed for the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex containing the Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit. We used 4 bulk rock chemistry analyses - Fe magn , P 2 O 5 , CO 2 and SiO 2 . We used four techniques for prediction of rock types - calculation of normative mineral compositions (norms), multiple regression, artificial neural network and developed by logical evaluation. The two latter became the best. As a result, we distinguished 14 types of phoscorites (forsterite-apatite-magnetite-carbonate rock), carbonatite and host rocks. The results show good convergence with our petrographical studies of the deposit, and recent manually built maps. The proposed approach can be used as a tool of a deposit genesis reconstruction and preliminary geometallurgical modelling.

  10. Accelerating plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Balancing habitat delivery for breeding marsh birds and nonbreeding waterfowl: An integrated waterbird management and monitoring approach at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Brian W.; Lyons, James E.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2017-08-23

    The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) in the Mississippi River flood plain of eastern Missouri provides high quality emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat benefitting both nesting marsh birds and migrating waterfowl. Staff of CCNWR manipulate water levels and vegetation in the 17 units of the CCNWR to provide conditions favorable to these two important guilds. Although both guilds include focal species at multiple planning levels and complement objectives to provide a diversity of wetland community types and water regimes, additional decision support is needed for choosing how much emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat should be provided through annual management actions.To develop decision guidance for balanced delivery of high-energy waterfowl habitat and breeding marsh bird habitat, two measureable management objectives were identified: nonbreeding Anas Linnaeus (dabbling duck) use-days and Rallus elegans (king rail) occupancy of managed units. Three different composite management actions were identified to achieve these objectives. Each composite management action is a unique combination of growing season water regime and soil disturbance. The three composite management actions are intense moist-soil management (moist-soil), intermediate moist-soil (intermediate), and perennial management, which idles soils disturbance (perennial). The two management objectives and three management options were used in a multi-criteria decision analysis to indicate resource allocations and inform annual decision making. Outcomes of the composite management actions were predicted in two ways and multi-criteria decision analysis was used with each set of predictions. First, outcomes were predicted using expert-elicitation techniques and a panel of subject matter experts. Second, empirical data from the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative collected between 2010 and 2013 were used; where data were lacking, expert judgment was used. Also, a

  12. A Spatiotemporal Indexing Approach for Efficient Processing of Big Array-Based Climate Data with MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlong; Hu, Fei; Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; Lee, Tsengdar; Bowen, Michael K.; Yang, Chaowei

    2016-01-01

    Climate observations and model simulations are producing vast amounts of array-based spatiotemporal data. Efficient processing of these data is essential for assessing global challenges such as climate change, natural disasters, and diseases. This is challenging not only because of the large data volume, but also because of the intrinsic high-dimensional nature of geoscience data. To tackle this challenge, we propose a spatiotemporal indexing approach to efficiently manage and process big climate data with MapReduce in a highly scalable environment. Using this approach, big climate data are directly stored in a Hadoop Distributed File System in its original, native file format. A spatiotemporal index is built to bridge the logical array-based data model and the physical data layout, which enables fast data retrieval when performing spatiotemporal queries. Based on the index, a data-partitioning algorithm is applied to enable MapReduce to achieve high data locality, as well as balancing the workload. The proposed indexing approach is evaluated using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate reanalysis dataset. The experimental results show that the index can significantly accelerate querying and processing (10 speedup compared to the baseline test using the same computing cluster), while keeping the index-to-data ratio small (0.0328). The applicability of the indexing approach is demonstrated by a climate anomaly detection deployed on a NASA Hadoop cluster. This approach is also able to support efficient processing of general array-based spatiotemporal data in various geoscience domains without special configuration on a Hadoop cluster.

  13. Modeling eye movements in visual agnosia with a saliency map approach: bottom-up guidance or top-down strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Barton, Jason J S; Kingstone, Alan; Dewhurst, Richard; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2011-08-01

    Two recent papers (Foulsham, Barton, Kingstone, Dewhurst, & Underwood, 2009; Mannan, Kennard, & Husain, 2009) report that neuropsychological patients with a profound object recognition problem (visual agnosic subjects) show differences from healthy observers in the way their eye movements are controlled when looking at images. The interpretation of these papers is that eye movements can be modeled as the selection of points on a saliency map, and that agnosic subjects show an increased reliance on visual saliency, i.e., brightness and contrast in low-level stimulus features. Here we review this approach and present new data from our own experiments with an agnosic patient that quantifies the relationship between saliency and fixation location. In addition, we consider whether the perceptual difficulties of individual patients might be modeled by selectively weighting the different features involved in a saliency map. Our data indicate that saliency is not always a good predictor of fixation in agnosia: even for our agnosic subject, as for normal observers, the saliency-fixation relationship varied as a function of the task. This means that top-down processes still have a significant effect on the earliest stages of scanning in the setting of visual agnosia, indicating severe limitations for the saliency map model. Top-down, active strategies-which are the hallmark of our human visual system-play a vital role in eye movement control, whether we know what we are looking at or not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. A New Perspective on Formation of Haze-Fog: The Fuzzy Cognitive Map and Its Approaches to Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Haze-fog has seriously hindered the sustainable development of the ecological environment and caused great harm to the physical and mental health of residents in China. Therefore, it is important to probe the formation of haze-fog for its early warning and prevention. The formation of haze-fog is, in fact, a fuzzy nonlinear process. The formation of haze-fog is such a complex process that it is difficult to simulate its dynamic evolution using traditional methods, mainly because of the lack of their consideration of the nonlinear relationships. It is, therefore, essential to explore new perspectives on the formation of haze-fog. In this work, previous research on haze-fog formation is summarized first. Second, a new perspective is proposed on the application of fuzzy cognitive map to the formation of haze-fog. Third, a data mining method based on the genetic algorithm is used to discover the causality values of a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM for hazefog formation. Finally, simulation results are obtained through an experiment using the fuzzy cognitive map and its data mining method for the formation of haze-fog. The validity of this approach is determined by definition of a simple rule and the Kappa values. Thus, this research not only provides a new idea using FCM modeling the formation of haze-fog, but also uses an effective method of FCM for solving the nonlinear dynamics of the haze-fog formation.

  16. Mapping suitability of rice production systems for mitigation: Strategic approach for prioritizing improved irrigation management across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2016-04-01

    After the successful conclusion of the COP21 in Paris, many developing countries are now embracing the task of reducing emissions with much vigor than previously. In many countries of South and South-East Asia, the agriculture sector constitutes a vast share of the national GHG budget which can mainly be attributed to methane emissions from flooded rice production. Thus, rice growing countries are now looking for tangible and easily accessible information as to how to reduce emissions from rice production in an efficient manner. Given present and future food demand, mitigation options will have to comply with aim of increasing productivity. At the same time, limited financial resources demand for strategic planning of potential mitigation projects based on cost-benefit ratios. At this point, the most promising approach for mitigating methane emissions from rice is an irrigation technique called Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD). AWD was initially developed for saving water and subsequently, represents an adaptation strategy in its own right by coping with less rainfall. Moreover, AWD also reduces methane emissions in a range from 30-70%. However, AWD is not universally suitable. It is attractive to farmers who have to pump water and may save fuel under AWD, but renders limited incentives in situations where there is no real pressing water scarcity. Thus, planning for AWD adoption at larger scale, e.g. for country-wide programs, should be based on a systematic prioritization of target environments. This presentation encompasses a new methodology for mapping suitability of water-saving in rice production - as a means for planning adaptation and mitigation programs - alongside with preliminary results. The latter comprises three new GIS maps on climate-driven suitability of AWD in major rice growing countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh). These maps have been derived from high-resolution data of the areal and temporal extent of rice production that are now

  17. Comparing Kriging and Regression Approaches for Mapping Soil Clay Content in a diverse Danish Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2013-01-01

    Information on the spatial variability of soil texture including soil clay content in a landscape is very important for agricultural and environmental use. Different prediction techniques are available to assess and map spatial variability of soil properties, but selecting the most suitable......, and residual prediction deviation (RPD) for comparison. Among all the prediction methods, the highest R2 (i.e., 0.74) and lowest RMSE (i.e., 0.28) were associated with the RKrr model, which also had an RPD value of 2.2, confirming RKrr as the best prediction method. Stratification of samples slightly improved...

  18. Hyperspectral VNIR and photogrammetric data fusion approach for urban luminance map generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pipia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a methodology for the generation of high resolution luminance maps from simultaneous hyperspectral VNIR and photogrammetric imagery. The integration of hyperspectral radiance at ground level, properly weighted by the photopic-based coefficients, plus a sensor fusion strategy, provides for the first time a quantitative description of the luminous flux at high spatial resolution and with multi-angle geometry. Accordingly, this methodology allows following up any strategic policy aimed to improve urban illumination management and quantifying its effects in terms of energetic efficiency.

  19. Designing a workplace return-to-work program for occupational low back pain: an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendolia, Carlo; Cassidy, David; Steensta, Ivan; Soklaridis, Sophie; Boyle, Eleanor; Eng, Stephanie; Howard, Hamer; Bhupinder, Bains; Côté, Pierre

    2009-06-09

    Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP) and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW) coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting.

  20. Designing a workplace return-to-work program for occupational low back pain: an intervention mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammendolia Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. Methods We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. Results A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Conclusion Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting.

  1. Progress in national-scale landslide susceptibility mapping in Romania using a combined statistical-heuristical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălteanu, Dan; Micu, Mihai; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Jurchescu, Marta; Sima, Mihaela; Kucsicsa, Gheorghe; Dumitrică, Cristina; Petrea, Dănuţ; Mărgărint, Ciprian; Bilaşco, Ştefan; Văcăreanu, Radu; Georgescu, Sever; Senzaconi, Francisc

    2017-04-01

    Landslide processes represent a very widespread geohazard in Romania, affecting mainly the hilly and plateau regions as well as the mountain sectors developed on flysch formations. Two main projects provided the framework for improving the existing national landslide susceptibility map (Bălteanu et al. 2010): the ELSUS (Pan-European and nation-wide landslide susceptibility assessment, EC-CERG) and the RO-RISK (Disaster Risk Evaluation at National Level, ESF-POCA) projects. The latter one, a flagship project aiming at strengthening risk prevention and management in Romania, focused on a national-level evaluation of the main risks in the country including landslides. The strategy for modeling landslide susceptibility was designed based on the experience gained from continental and national level assessments conducted in the frame of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL) project IPL-162, the European Landslides Expert Group - JRC and the ELSUS project. The newly proposed landslide susceptibility model used as input a reduced set of landslide conditioning factor maps available at scales of 1:100,000 - 1:200,000 and consisting of lithology, slope angle and land cover. The input data was further differentiated for specific natural environments, defined here as morpho-structural units in order to incorporate differences induced by elevation (vertical climatic zonation), morpho-structure as well as neotectonic features. In order to best discern the specific landslide conditioning elements, the analysis has been carried out for one single process category, namely slides. The existence of a landslide inventory covering the whole country's territory ( 30,000 records, Micu et al. 2014), although affected by incompleteness and lack of homogeneity, allowed for the application of a semi-quantitative, mixed statistical-heuristical approach having the advantage of combining the objectivity of statistics with expert-knowledge in calibrating class and factor weights. The

  2. Assessment of the presumed mapping function approach for the stationary laminar flamelet modelling of reacting double scalar mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Ahmad; Mortensen, Mikael; Wen, John Z.

    2014-09-01

    This paper assesses the Presumed Mapping Function (PMF) approach in the context of the Stationary Laminar Flamelet Modelling (SLFM) of a reacting Double Scalar Mixing Layer (DSML). Starting from a prescribed Gaussian reference field, the PMF approach provides a presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) for the mixture fraction that is subsequently employed to close the Conditional Scalar Dissipation Rate (CSDR) upon doubly-integrating the homogeneous PDF transport equation. The PMF approach is unique in its ability to yield PDF and CSDR distributions that capture the effect of multiple fuel injections of different composition. This distinct feature overcomes the shortcomings of the classical SLFM closures (the β-distribution for the PDF and the counterflow solution for the CSDR). The current study analyses the impact of the binary (two-stream) and trinary (three-stream) PMF approaches on the structure of laminar flamelets in a DSML formed by the mixing of a fuel stream and an oxidiser stream separated by a pilot. The conditions of a partially-premixed methane/air piloted jet flame are considered. A parametric assessment is performed by varying the local mixing statistics and the findings are compared to those of the classical SLFM approach. Further, the influence of the PMF approach on flamelet extinction and transport by means of differential diffusion is thoroughly investigated. It is shown that the trinary PMF approach captures the influence of the pilot stream as it is capable of yielding bimodal CSDR and trimodal PDF distributions. It is further demonstrated that, when the influence of the pilot is significant, flamelets generated using the trinary CSDR closure extinguish at higher strain levels compared to flamelets generated using the binary and counterflow closures. Lastly, it is shown that the trinary PMF approach can be critical for accurate SLFM computations of DSMLs when differential diffusion effects are important.

  3. Deriving pathway maps from automated text analysis using a grammar-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Björn; Gawronska, Barbara; Erlendsson, Björn

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate how automated text analysis can be used to support the large-scale analysis of metabolic and regulatory pathways by deriving pathway maps from textual descriptions found in the scientific literature. The main assumption is that correct syntactic analysis combined with domain-specific heuristics provides a good basis for relation extraction. Our method uses an algorithm that searches through the syntactic trees produced by a parser based on a Referent Grammar formalism, identifies relations mentioned in the sentence, and classifies them with respect to their semantic class and epistemic status (facts, counterfactuals, hypotheses). The semantic categories used in the classification are based on the relation set used in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), so that pathway maps using KEGG notation can be automatically generated. We present the current version of the relation extraction algorithm and an evaluation based on a corpus of abstracts obtained from PubMed. The results indicate that the method is able to combine a reasonable coverage with high accuracy. We found that 61% of all sentences were parsed, and 97% of the parse trees were judged to be correct. The extraction algorithm was tested on a sample of 300 parse trees and was found to produce correct extractions in 90.5% of the cases.

  4. Evolutionary Feature Selection for Big Data Classification: A MapReduce Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peralta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many disciplines have to deal with big datasets that additionally involve a high number of features. Feature selection methods aim at eliminating noisy, redundant, or irrelevant features that may deteriorate the classification performance. However, traditional methods lack enough scalability to cope with datasets of millions of instances and extract successful results in a delimited time. This paper presents a feature selection algorithm based on evolutionary computation that uses the MapReduce paradigm to obtain subsets of features from big datasets. The algorithm decomposes the original dataset in blocks of instances to learn from them in the map phase; then, the reduce phase merges the obtained partial results into a final vector of feature weights, which allows a flexible application of the feature selection procedure using a threshold to determine the selected subset of features. The feature selection method is evaluated by using three well-known classifiers (SVM, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes implemented within the Spark framework to address big data problems. In the experiments, datasets up to 67 millions of instances and up to 2000 attributes have been managed, showing that this is a suitable framework to perform evolutionary feature selection, improving both the classification accuracy and its runtime when dealing with big data problems.

  5. A population genetic approach to mapping neurological disorder genes using deep resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Myers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep resequencing of functional regions in human genomes is key to identifying potentially causal rare variants for complex disorders. Here, we present the results from a large-sample resequencing (n  =  285 patients study of candidate genes coupled with population genetics and statistical methods to identify rare variants associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia. Three genes, MAP1A, GRIN2B, and CACNA1F, were consistently identified by different methods as having significant excess of rare missense mutations in either one or both disease cohorts. In a broader context, we also found that the overall site frequency spectrum of variation in these cases is best explained by population models of both selection and complex demography rather than neutral models or models accounting for complex demography alone. Mutations in the three disease-associated genes explained much of the difference in the overall site frequency spectrum among the cases versus controls. This study demonstrates that genes associated with complex disorders can be mapped using resequencing and analytical methods with sample sizes far smaller than those required by genome-wide association studies. Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis that rare mutations account for a proportion of the phenotypic variance of these complex disorders.

  6. Variation in susceptibility of different breeds of sheep to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D J; Purdie, A C; de Silva, K; Dhand, N K; Plain, K M; Whittington, R J

    2017-06-17

    Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) does not always lead to Johne's disease. Understanding differences in disease susceptibility of individual animals is a key aspect to controlling mycobacterial diseases. This study was designed to examine the susceptibility or resistance of various breeds of sheep to MAP infection. Merino, Suffolk first cross Merino, Border Leicester, and Poll Dorset sheep were orally inoculated with MAP and monitored for 14 months. Clinical disease occurred more frequently in the Merino (42%) and Suffolk first cross Merino (36%) compared to the Border Leicester (12%) and Poll Dorset (11%) breeds. Infection risk, as determined by culture of gut and associated lymphoid tissues, ranged from 75% for the Suffolk first cross Merino to 47% for the Poll Dorset sheep. Significant differences were identified in the site in the intestines of the most severe histopathological lesions and the immune responses to infection between the breeds. However, there was no difference in faecal MAP shedding by clinical cases between breeds. All breeds tested were susceptible to MAP infection, as determined by infection and clinical disease development, although there were differences in the proportions of diseased animals between the breeds. Poll Dorset and Border Leicester sheep were more resilient to MAP infection but there was evidence that more animals could have developed disease if given more time. These findings provide evidence of potential differential disease susceptibility between breeds, further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and risks of disease spread, and may have an influence on control programs for paratuberculosis.

  7. Language mapping in children using resting-state functional connectivity: comparison with a task-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Tremblay, Julie; Vannasing, Phetsamone

    2016-12-01

    Patients with brain tumor or refractory epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery. Presurgical evaluation often includes language investigation to prevent or reduce the risk of postsurgical language deficits. Current techniques involve significant limitations with pediatric populations. Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been shown to be a valuable neuroimaging technique for language localization in children. However, it typically requires the child to perform a task (task-based NIRS), which may constitute a significant limitation. Resting-state functional connectivity NIRS (fcNIRS) is an approach that can be used to identify language networks at rest. This study aims to assess the utility of fcNIRS in children by comparing fcNIRS to more conventional task-based NIRS for language mapping in 33 healthy participants: 25 children (ages 3 to 16) and 8 adults. Data were acquired at rest and during a language task. Results show very good concordance between both approaches for language localization (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.81 ± 0.13 ) and hemispheric language dominance ( kappa = 0.86 , p < 0.006 ). The fcNIRS technique may be a valuable tool for language mapping in clinical populations, including children and patients with cognitive and behavioral impairments.

  8. Using the Hadoop/MapReduce approach for monitoring the CERN storage system and improving the ATLAS computing model

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Stefano Alberto; Lamanna, M

    The processing of huge amounts of data, an already fundamental task for the research in the elementary particle physics field, is becoming more and more important also for companies operating in the Information Technology (IT) industry. In this context, if conventional approaches are adopted several problems arise, starting from the congestion of the communication channels. In the IT sector, one of the approaches designed to minimize this congestion on is to exploit the data locality, or in other words, to bring the computation as closer as possible to where the data resides. The most common implementation of this concept is the Hadoop/MapReduce framework. In this thesis work I evaluate the usage of Hadoop/MapReduce in two areas: a standard one similar to typical IT analyses, and an innovative one related to high energy physics analyses. The first consists in monitoring the history of the storage cluster which stores the data generated by the LHC experiments, the second in the physics analysis of the latter, ...

  9. A Novel Approach for Constructing One-Way Hash Function Based on a Message Block Controlled 8D Hyperchaotic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Lü, Jinhu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for constructing one-way hash function based on 8D hyperchaotic map is presented. First, two nominal matrices both with constant and variable parameters are adopted for designing 8D discrete-time hyperchaotic systems, respectively. Then each input plaintext message block is transformed into 8 × 8 matrix following the order of left to right and top to bottom, which is used as a control matrix for the switch of the nominal matrix elements both with the constant parameters and with the variable parameters. Through this switching control, a new nominal matrix mixed with the constant and variable parameters is obtained for the 8D hyperchaotic map. Finally, the hash function is constructed with the multiple low 8-bit hyperchaotic system iterative outputs after being rounded down, and its secure analysis results are also given, validating the feasibility and reliability of the proposed approach. Compared with the existing schemes, the main feature of the proposed method is that it has a large number of key parameters with avalanche effect, resulting in the difficulty for estimating or predicting key parameters via various attacks.

  10. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayman Nagi; Safwan Altarazi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process...

  11. Mapping Latin America: Using the Five-Pronged Approach to Teach Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Bert

    1984-01-01

    Five approaches--self discovery, reading, writing, oral presentation, and visual literacy--were used to teach high school students about the physiographic landmarks of Latin America. The course is described. (RM)

  12. Scaling Watershed Models: Modern Approaches to Science Computation with MapReduce, Parallelization, and Cloud Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental models are products of the computer architecture and software tools available at the time of development. Scientifically sound algorithms may persist in their original state even as system architectures and software development approaches evolve and progress. Dating...

  13. Creating groups with similar expected behavioural response in randomized controlled trials: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Crutzen, Rik

    2014-12-12

    Controlling bias is key to successful randomized controlled trials for behaviour change. Bias can be generated at multiple points during a study, for example, when participants are allocated to different groups. Several methods of allocations exist to randomly distribute participants over the groups such that their prognostic factors (e.g., socio-demographic variables) are similar, in an effort to keep participants' outcomes comparable at baseline. Since it is challenging to create such groups when all prognostic factors are taken together, these factors are often balanced in isolation or only the ones deemed most relevant are balanced. However, the complex interactions among prognostic factors may lead to a poor estimate of behaviour, causing unbalanced groups at baseline, which may introduce accidental bias. We present a novel computational approach for allocating participants to different groups. Our approach automatically uses participants' experiences to model (the interactions among) their prognostic factors and infer how their behaviour is expected to change under a given intervention. Participants are then allocated based on their inferred behaviour rather than on selected prognostic factors. In order to assess the potential of our approach, we collected two datasets regarding the behaviour of participants (n = 430 and n = 187). The potential of the approach on larger sample sizes was examined using synthetic data. All three datasets highlighted that our approach could lead to groups with similar expected behavioural changes. The computational approach proposed here can complement existing statistical approaches when behaviours involve numerous complex relationships, and quantitative data is not readily available to model these relationships. The software implementing our approach and commonly used alternatives is provided at no charge to assist practitioners in the design of their own studies and to compare participants' allocations.

  14. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  15. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-08-23

    The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the

  16. Planning for influenza vaccination in health care workers: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; van Essen, Gerrit A; Wicker, Sabine; Llupià, Anna; Mena, Guillermo; Correia, Raquel; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2011-11-03

    Influenza vaccination uptake by health care workers (HCWs) decreases the transmission of influenza to vulnerable patients and prevents influenza-related absenteeism. Vaccination is effective, easy, and generally without serious side-effects. However, vaccination rates of HCWs are too low. This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping (IM), a planning process for the systematic theory- and evidence-based development of health promotion interventions, to the development of voluntary educational interventions to promote influenza vaccination in HCWs. IM consists of the following six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the (influenza) vaccination field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A structured and qualitative systems approach to analysing hydrogen transitions: Key changes and actor mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh, Michael J.; Yetano Roche, Maria [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (IDMEC), Pav. De Mecanica 1-2, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bennett, Simon J. [Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICCEPT), Imperial College London, Fourth Floor RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    A number of 'roadmapping' activities are being carried out internationally with the aim of planning and facilitating transitions to hydrogen energy systems. However, there is an evident discrepancy between the treatment of quantitative and qualitative information in the majority of roadmapping efforts. Whilst quantitative information is frequently analysed in numerical and computational models, conversely qualitative information tends to be incorporated on a significantly more ad hoc basis. Previous attempts at incorporating qualitative considerations have not usually been systematised. In this paper we present a methodology aimed at increasing the rigour with which qualitative information is treated in hydrogen roadmapping activities. The key changes and actor mapping (KCAM) methodology was developed as the primary qualitative component of the European Hydrogen Energy Roadmap project 'HyWays'. KCAM, developed from a well known general systems development model, constitutes a means of qualitatively analysing variable hydrogen supply chains that is structured, systematic and flexible. (author)

  18. Mapping the Energy Cascade in the North Atlantic Ocean: The Coarse-Graining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluie, Hussein; Hecht, Matthew; Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2018-02-01

    A coarse-graining framework is implemented to analyze nonlinear processes, measure energy transfer rates and map out the energy pathways from simulated global ocean data. Traditional tools to measure the energy cascade from turbulence theory, such as spectral flux or spectral transfer rely on the assumption of statistical homogeneity, or at least a large separation between the scales of motion and the scales of statistical inhomogeneity. The coarse-graining framework allows for probing the fully nonlinear dynamics simultaneously in scale and in space, and is not restricted by those assumptions. This paper describes how the framework can be applied to ocean flows. Energy transfer between scales is not unique due to a gauge freedom. Here, it is argued that a Galilean invariant subfilter scale (SFS) flux is a suitable quantity to properly measure energy scale-transfer in the Ocean. It is shown that the SFS definition can yield answers that are qualitatively different from traditional measures that conflate spatial transport with the scale-transfer of energy. The paper presents geographic maps of the energy scale-transfer that are both local in space and allow quasi-spectral, or scale-by-scale, dynamics to be diagnosed. Utilizing a strongly eddying simulation of flow in the North Atlantic Ocean, it is found that an upscale energy transfer does not hold everywhere. Indeed certain regions, near the Gulf Stream and in the Equatorial Counter Current have a marked downscale transfer. Nevertheless, on average an upscale transfer is a reasonable mean description of the extra-tropical energy scale-transfer over regions of O(10^3) kilometers in size.

  19. A robotic approach to mapping post-eruptive volcanic fissure conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Pavlov, Catherine A.; Wiltsie, Nicholas; Carpenter, Kalind C.; Nash, Jeremy; Parness, Aaron; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-06-01

    VolcanoBot was developed to map volcanic vents and their underlying conduit systems, which are rarely preserved and generally inaccessible to human exploration. It uses a PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 sensor for mapping and carries an IR temperature sensor, analog distance sensor, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside a protective shell. The first field test succeeded in collecting valuable scientific data but revealed several needed improvements, including more rugged cable connections and mechanical couplers, increased ground clearance, and higher-torque motors for uphill mobility. The second field test significantly improved on all of these aspects but it traded electrical ruggedness for reduced data collection speed. Data collected by the VolcanoBots, while intermittent, yield the first insights into the cm-scale geometry of volcanic fissures at depths of up to 25 m. VolcanoBot was deployed at the 1969 Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kīlauea volcano in Hawai'i. It collected first-of-its-kind data from inside the fissure system. We hypothesized that 1) fissure sinuosity should decrease with depth, 2) irregularity should be persistent with depth, 3) any blockages in the conduit should occur at the narrowest points, and 4) the fissure should narrow with depth until it is too narrow for VolcanoBot to pass or is plugged with solidified lava. Our field campaigns did not span enough lateral or vertical area to test sinuosity. The preliminary data indicate that 1) there were many irregularities along fissures at depth, 2) blockages occurred, but not at obviously narrow locations, and 3) the conduit width remained a consistent 0.4-0.5 m for most of the upper 10 m that we analyzed.

  20. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  1. Mapping the Demographic Landscape of Characters in Recent Dutch Prose : A Quantitative Approach to Literary Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deijl, Lucas; Pieterse, S.A.; Prinse, Marion; Smeets, Roel

    2016-01-01

    The lack of ethnic and gender diversity in the Dutch literary domain has recently been subject to discussions in the public debate. In the academic context, questions regarding diversity are studied either on a literary-sociological level (institutional approaches) or on the level of the individual

  2. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GIS IN FLOOD MAPPING: TWO APPROACHES USING OPEN SOURCE GRASS GIS SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marzocchi

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a comparison between the two models mentioned above. We analyse the possibility of integrating these two approaches. We intend to use the 1D model, GIS embedded if possible, to calculate the water surface profile along the river axis and the 2D numerical one to analyse inundation beside the river levees.

  3. Breeding for bean anthracnose resistance: Matching breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 365 new bean lines were generated and 54 of these were introduced to 10 farming communities in four different ecological zones for evaluation using the participatory variety selection approach. Farmers were able to select eight promising lines, which were earmarked for new variety release. Out of the eight lines, ...

  4. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean,