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Sample records for breath condensate ph

  1. Exhaled breath condensate pH and hydrogen peroxide as non-invasive markers for asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaidy, Amina H.; Al-Samarai, Abdul-Gahni M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to estimate the predictive value of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and pH as non-invasive markers in asthma. Fifty patients with unstable, steroid naive atopic asthma were included in this study, 25 with persistent asthma. Asthma diagnosis was according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by computerized spirometry. The EBC H2O2 assay was carried out using the colorimetric assay. The study was conducted from January to December 2005 in the Asthma and Allergy Center, Tikrit, Iraq. The EBC H2O2 concentration was higher in the asthmatic group (0.91mol) as compared with the control (0.23 mol). There was inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and FEV1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. The mean EBC pH was lower in the asthmatic than the control group. There was a positive correlation between EBC pH and FEV 1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. There was an inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and pH for all asthmatic patients, intermittent, and persistent asthmatic group. Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH was a good non-invasive marker for asthma, whether it was with a persistent or intermittent course. (author)

  2. Variability of breath condensate pH may contribute to the better understanding of non-allergic seasonal respiratory diseases

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    Kullmann, Tamás; Szipőcs, Annamária

    2017-09-01

    The seasonal variability of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases is not clearly understood. Analysis of the breath condensate, the liquid that can be collected by breathing into a cold tube, has been proposed to bring closer to the understanding of airway pathologies. It has been assumed, that (1) airway lining fluid was a stable body liquid and (2) the breath condensate samples were representative of the airway lining fluid. Research was focussed on the identification of biomarkers indicative of respiratory pathologies. Despite 30 years of extended investigations breath condensate analysis has not gained any clinical implementation so far. The pH of the condensate is the characteristic that can be determined with the highest reproducibility. The present paper shows, that contrary to the initial assumptions, breath condensate is not a representative of the airway lining fluid, and the airway lining fluid is not a stable body liquid. Condensate pH shows baseline variability and it is influenced by drinking and by the ambient temperature. The changes in condensate pH are linked to changes in airway lining fluid pH. The variability of airway lining fluid pH may explain seasonal incidence of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases such as the catching of a common cold and the increased incidence of COPD exacerbations and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in cold periods.

  3. Reduced breath condensate pH in asymptomatic children with prior wheezing as a risk factor for asthma.

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    von Jagwitz, Marie; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas; Li, Jialiang; Range, Ursula; Vogelberg, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Early noninvasive detection of increased risk of asthma with exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurement has not been applied to preschool children. We sought to evaluate the ability of EBC pH measurement to identify young asymptomatic children at risk of asthma using the combination of recurrent wheezing and atopic sensitization as a proxy for a high risk of asthma. pH values were measured in deaerated EBC from 191 children (median age, 4.4 years [interquartile range, 2.2 years]). Children were divided into one of 5 groups: asymptomatic children with recurrent wheezy bronchitis with (group 1, n = 34) or without (group 2, n = 64) allergic sensitization, acute wheezy bronchitis (group 3, n = 18), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis without recurrent wheezy bronchitis (group 4, n = 15), and healthy control subjects (group 5, n = 60). The Asthma Predictive Index score was calculated for groups 1 and 2. Statistical significance was evaluated with the appropriate nonparametric tests, and the discriminatory accuracy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Deaerated EBC pH values were significantly lower in groups 1 and 3 than in groups 2, 4, and 5 (median, 7.49 [interquartile range, 0.94] and 7.44 [interquartile range, 0.70] vs 7.93 [interquartile range, 0.23], 8.02 [interquartile range, 0.17], and 7.96 [interquartile range, 0.25], respectively; P < .001 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ≥0.80 in all comparisons). The area under the curve for the differentiation between groups 1 and 2 improved from 0.80 to 0.94 (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.84; positive predictive value, 0.76) when breath condensate pH values and Asthma Predictive Index scores were combined. A reduced deaerated EBC pH value might help identify young asymptomatic children at high risk of asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exhaled breath condensate pH and cysteinyl leukotriens in patients with chronic cough secondary to acid gastroesophageal reflux.

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    Heffler, Enrico; Crimi, Claudia; Brussino, Luisa; Nicola, Stefania; Sichili, Stefania; Dughera, Luca; Rolla, Giovanni; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-12-22

    Chronic cough is one of the most common clinical problems and it may be secondary to different stimuli and diseases, including low-level physical and chemical stimulation of the esophageal-bronchial reflex, suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness, in patients with gastroesophageal reflux; however, it is still debated whether gastroesophageal reflux could induce airway inflammation and acidification. The aim of this study was to investigate airway pH and cysteynil-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) concentration (a marker of airway inflammation) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Patients with chronic cough and for which all known causes, excluding gastroesophageal reflux, had been investigated and ruled out, were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 24 h pH monitoring, and EBC was collected to assess pH and Cys-LTs concentration. Forty-five patients were included in the study and those with gastroesophageal reflux had significantly lower EBC-pH and higher concentration of EBC-Cys-LTs. There was a linear inverse correlation between EBC-pH values and EBC-Cys-LTs logarithmically transformed, and a multivariate analysis confirmed that the only significant determinat variable of EBC-Cys-LTs was the presence of gastroesophageal reflux. This study adds knowledge on possible mechanisms related to chronic cough associated with gastroesophageal reflux, which seems to be strictly dependent on airway acidification and the production of Cys-LTs, therefore suggesting an underlying neurogenic inflammation with tachykinins involvement.

  5. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

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    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  6. Exhaled breath condensate pH does not discriminate asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or the response to lansoprazole treatment in children with poorly controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Holbrook, Janet T; Wei, Christine Y; Brown, Meredith S; Wise, Robert A; Teague, W Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Although exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH has been identified as an "emerging" biomarker of interest for asthma clinical trials, the clinical determinants of EBC pH remain poorly understood. Other studies have associated acid reflux-induced respiratory symptoms, for example, cough, with transient acidification of EBC. We sought to determine the clinical and physiologic correlates of EBC acidification in a highly characterized sample of children with poorly controlled asthma. We hypothesized that (1) children with asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux determined by 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring would have a lower EBC pH than children without gastroesophageal reflux, (2) treatment with lansoprazole would alter EBC pH in those children, and (3) EBC acidification would be associated with increased asthma symptoms, poorer asthma control and quality of life, and increased formation of breath nitrogen oxides (NOx). A total of 110 children, age range 6 to 17 years, with poor asthma control and esophageal pH data enrolled in the Study of Acid Reflux in Children with Asthma (NCT00442013) were included. Children submitted EBC samples for pH and NOx measurement at randomization and at study weeks 8, 16, and 24. Serial EBC pH measurements failed to distinguish asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux and was not associated with breath NOx formation. EBC pH also did not discriminate asthma characteristics such as medication and health care utilization, pulmonary function, and asthma control and quality of life both at baseline and across the study period. Despite the relative ease of EBC collection, EBC pH as a biomarker does not provide useful information of children with asthma who were enrolled in asthma clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic Role of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fraction Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Systemic Sclerosis Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen-Del Castillo, Alfredo; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Simeón-Aznar, Carmen P; Cruz, María J; Fonollosa-Pla, Vicente; Muñoz, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the major causes of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study investigated exhaled breath (EB) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers in patients with SSc and analyzed their role as a prognostic tool in SSc-related ILD. Fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measured in EB, together with pH, nitrite, nitrate and interleukin-6 levels measured in EBC were prospectively analyzed in 35 patients with SSc. Twelve patients had established ILD by chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and 23 patients showed no evidence of ILD. EB and EBC biomarkers were determined at inclusion, and pulmonary function tests were annually performed during 4 years of follow-up. No differences at baseline biomarkers levels were found between groups. In all patients studied, low EBC pH levels were associated with a decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) during follow-up. Low FeNO levels were correlated with lower forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline, 4years of follow-up and with a decrease in FVC and DLCO during monitoring. Among ILD patients, high eCO levels were correlated with lower baseline FVC. In the global cohort, a worse progression-free survival was identified in patients with EBC pH values lower than 7.88 and FeNO levels lower than 10.75ppb (Log Rank P=.03 and P<.01, respectively). EB and EBC could help to detect patients likely to present a deterioration on lung function during follow up. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  9. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  10. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

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    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  11. Exhaled breath condensate metabolome clusters for endotype discovery in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Anirban; Desiraju, Koundinya; Aggarwal, Kunal; Kutum, Rintu; Roy, Siddhartha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S. K.; Ghosh, Balaram; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Agrawal, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with similar presenting symptoms but with varying underlying pathologies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively unexplored matrix which reflects the signatures of respiratory epithelium, but is difficult to normalize for dilution. Here we

  12. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

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    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  13. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

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    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  14. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into

  15. New perspectives in monitoring lung inflammation: analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montuschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    ... diseases might be relevant to differential diagnosis. Given its noninvasiveness, this method might be suitable for longitudinal studies in patients with lung disease, including children. This book provides an introduction to the analysis of exhaled breath condensate. To provide an overview of lung inflammation, basic and clinical pharmacology of leukotrie...

  16. Oxidative lung injury correlates with one-lung ventilation time during pulmonary lobectomy: a study of exhaled breath condensate and blood.

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    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-del-Olmo, Eva; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Martí, Francisco; Galan, Genaro; Morcillo, Alfonso; Wins, Richard; Guijarro, Ricardo; Arnau, Antonio; Sarriá, Benjamín; García-Raimundo, Miguel; Belda, Javier

    2015-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung is collapsed and hypoperfused; oxygen deprivation is accompanied by reactive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. After lung lobectomy, ischaemia present in the collapsed state is followed by expansion-reperfusion and lung injury attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the time course of several markers of oxidative stress simultaneously in exhaled breath condensate and blood and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and one-lung ventilation time in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. This single-centre, observational, prospective study included 28 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung lobectomy. We measured the levels of hydrogen peroxide, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrites plus nitrates and pH in exhaled breath condensate (n = 25). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and nitrites plus nitrates were also measured in blood (n = 28). Blood samples and exhaled breath condensate samples were collected from all patients at five time points: preoperatively; during one-lung ventilation, immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation; immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation; 60 min after resuming two-lung ventilation and 180 min after resuming two-lung ventilation. Both exhaled breath condensate and blood exhibited significant and simultaneous increases in oxidative-stress markers immediately before two-lung ventilation was resumed. However, all these values underwent larger increases immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. In both exhaled breath condensate and blood, marker levels significantly and directly correlated with the duration of one-lung ventilation immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation and immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. Although pH significantly decreased in exhaled breath condensate immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation, these pH values were inversely correlated with the

  17. Exhaled breath condensate nitrates, but not nitrites or FENO, relate to asthma control.

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    Malinovschi, Andrei; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Sciascia, Savino; Heffler, Enrico; Badiu, Iuliana; Rolla, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease, characterised by airways inflammation, obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Asthma control is the goal of asthma treatment, but many patients have sub-optimal control. Exhaled NO and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) NO metabolites (nitrites and nitrates) measurements are non-invasive tools to assess airways inflammation. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between asthma control and the above-named biomarkers of airways inflammation. Thirty-nine non-smoking asthmatic patients (19 women) aged 50 (21-80) years performed measurements of exhaled NO (FENO), EBC nitrates, nitrites and pH, and answered Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Control Test (ACT)-questionnaire. The ACT and ACQ score were strongly interrelated (ρ = -0.84, p 0.05). EBC nitrates were negatively related to ACT score (ρ = -0.34, p = 0.03) and positively related to ACQ score (ρ = 0.41, p = 0.001) while no relation of EBC nitrites to either ACQ or ACT score was found (p>0.05). EBC nitrates were the only biomarker that was significantly related to asthma control. This suggests that nitrates, but not nitrites or FENO, reflect an aspect of airways inflammation that is closer related to asthma symptoms. Therefore there is a potential role for EBC nitrates in objective assessment of asthma control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic value of a pattern of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in asthmatic children.

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    Maloča Vuljanko, I; Turkalj, M; Nogalo, B; Bulat Lokas, S; Plavec, D

    Diagnosing asthma in children is a challenge and using a single biomarker from exhaled breath condensate (EBC) showed the lack of improvement in it. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic potential of a pattern of simple chemical biomarkers from EBC in diagnosing asthma in children in a real-life setting, its association with lung function and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In 75 consecutive children aged 5-7 years with asthma-like symptoms the following tests were performed: skin prick tests, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO (F E NO), 24-hour oesophageal pH monitoring and EBC collection with subsequent analysis of pH, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen tension, and concentrations of magnesium, calcium, iron and urates. No significant differences were found for individual EBC biomarkers between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (p>0.05 for all). A pattern of six EBC biomarkers showed a statistically significant (p=0.046) predictive model for asthma (AUC=0.698, PPV=84.2%, NPV=38.9%). None to moderate association (R 2 up to 0.43) between EBC biomarkers and lung function measures and F E NO was found, with IOS parameters showing the best association with EBC biomarkers. A significantly higher EBC Fe was found in children with asthma and GERD compared to asthmatics without GERD (p=0.049). An approach that involves a pattern of EBC biomarkers had a better diagnostic accuracy for asthma in children in real-life settings compared to a single one. Poor to moderate association of EBC biomarkers with lung function suggests a complementary value of EBC analysis for asthma diagnosis in children. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Palladino, Grazia Pia; Logrieco, Giuseppe; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Susca, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2014-02-18

    Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  20. Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

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    Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de muestras de aire espirado condensado ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años como método no invasivo de estudio de la fisiología y las enfermedades de origen pulmonar. En el presente trabajo se describe un equipo para tomar muestras de aire espirado condensado de bajo costo, fácil de fabricar, de transportar al terreno y que permite tomar muestras en forma simultánea. La concentración de metabolitos relativos a procesos inflamatorios y al daño oxidativo (pH, peróxido de hidrógeno y nitrito de muestras de aire espirado condensado obtenido con este equipo son comparables a los reportados con otros previamente.In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, peroxide oxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.

  1. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing.

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    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A

    2016-05-01

    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P pH decreased slowly over the hours of sleep in all participants. When sleeping with forced mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nitrites and nitrates in exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis: relation to clinical parameters.

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    Fila, L; Chladek, J; Maly, M; Musil, J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate correlation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) nitrite and nitrate concentrations with disease severity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Nitrites and nitrates are products of oxidative metabolism of nitric oxide. Impaired metabolism of nitric oxide plays a role in pathogenesis of CF. EBC was collected from 46 stable CF patients and from 21 healthy controls. EBC concentrations of nitrites and nitrates were correlated with parameters of lung disease and nutritional status and with systemic inflammatory markers. EBC nitrates concentrations in CF patients were lower than in healthy subjects (5.8 vs 14.3 μmol/l, pnitrates concentrations correlate with disease severity in CF patients and are lower than in healthy subjects (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 48).

  3. Exploring Airway Diseases by NMR-Based Metabonomics: A Review of Application to Exhaled Breath Condensate

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    Matteo Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that biomarkers of exhaled gases or exhaled breath condensate (EBC may help in detecting abnormalities in respiratory diseases mirroring increased, oxidative stress, airways inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Beside the traditional techniques to investigate biomarker profiles, “omics” sciences have raised interest in the clinical field as potentially improving disease phenotyping. In particular, metabonomics appears to be an important tool to gain qualitative and quantitative information on low-molecular weight metabolites present in cells, tissues, and fluids. Here, we review the potential use of EBC as a suitable matrix for metabonomic studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. By using this approach in airway diseases, it is now possible to separate specific EBC profiles, with implication in disease phenotyping and personalized therapy.

  4. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  5. Determination of cysteinyl leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate: Method combining immunoseparation with LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syslová, K.; Kačer, P.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Lipovová, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Lebedová, J.; Pelclová, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 879, č. 23 (2011), s. 2220-2228 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS10298 Keywords : Cysteinyl leukotriene * Exhaled breath condensate * Immunoseparation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.888, year: 2011

  6. Oxidative Stress Markers Are Elevated in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Workers Exposed to Nanoparticles during Iron Oxide Pigment Production.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Kačer, P.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Barošová, H.; Turci, F.; Komarc, M.; Pelcl, T.; Běláček, J.; Kukutschová, J.; Zakharov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 016004 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * exhaled breath condensate * oxidative stress * urine * occupational exposure * Fe2O3 * Fe3O4 Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2016

  7. Leukotrienes in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Workers Exposed to TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Kačer, P.; Felclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Komarc, M.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Makeš, Otakar; Syslová, K.; Běláček, J.; Zakharov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2016), s. 036004 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanoparticles * TiO2 * exhaled breath condensate Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CG - Electrochemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2016

  8. Exercise in cold air and hydrogen peroxide release in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Volke, J; Mückenhoff, K; Platen, P; Marek, W

    2013-01-01

    Athletes have changes in the lung epithelial cells caused by inhalation of cold and dry air. The exhaled breath condensate contains a number of mediators from the respiratory system and H(2)O(2) is described as a marker of airways inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exercise combined with cold air on the H(2)O(2) release in the exhaled breath. Twelve males (23.1 ± 1.5 years) were randomly assigned at 2 different days (1 day rest) to perform a 50 min run (75-80% of their max. heart rate) under normal (N) laboratory (18.1 ± 1.1°C) or cold (C) field condition (-15.2 ± 3.1°C). Before and immediately after each run, the EBC was collected under laboratory conditions and was analyzed amperometrically. Prior to the two runs, H(2)O(2) concentrations were 145.0 ± 31.0 (N) and 160.0 ± 49.1 nmol/L (C) and theoretical release was 70.3 ± 37.1 (N) and 82.6 ± 27.1 pmol/min (C) (p > 0.05). After each run, H(2)O(2) concentration increased significantly to 388.0 ± 22.8 nmol/L (N) and 622.1 ± 44.2 nmol/L (C) (p release: 249.2 ± 35.7 pmol/min (N) and 400.9 ± 35.7 pmol/min (C) (p release of H(2)O(2) into the EBC takes place under both resting conditions and after exercise. The concentration and release of H(2)O(2) increased after exercise in cold air compared to resting and laboratory conditions, which points to an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress.

  9. Determining urea levels in exhaled breath condensate with minimal preparation steps and classic LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiranggon, Masha; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Kinney, Patrick L; Xu, Dongqun; Chillrud, Steven N; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-10-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a relatively easy, non-invasive method for measuring biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. However, the levels of these biomarkers in EBC are influenced, not only by their levels in lung lining fluid but also by the volume of water vapor that also condenses during EBC collection. For this reason, the use of a biomarker of dilution has been recommended. Urea has been proposed and utilized as a promising dilution biomarker due to its even distribution throughout the body and relatively low volatility. Current EBC urea analytical methods either are not sensitive enough, necessitating large volumes of EBC, or are labor intensive, requiring a derivatization step or other pretreatment. We report here a straightforward and reliable LC-MS approach that we developed that does not require derivatization or large sample volume (∼36 µL). An Acclaim mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was selected because it can produce good peak symmetry and efficiently separate urea from other polar and nonpolar compounds. To achieve a high recovery rate, a slow and incomplete evaporation method was used followed by a solvent-phase exchange. Among EBC samples collected from 28 children, urea levels were found to be highly variable, with a relative standard deviation of 234%, suggesting high variability in dilution of the lung lining fluid component of EBC. The limit of detection was found to be 0.036 µg/mL. Published by Oxford University Press [2013]. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Manganese in exhaled breath condensate: a new marker of exposure to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Nathalie; Howsam, Mike; Crucq, Sébastien; de Broucker, Virginie; Sobaszek, Annie; Edme, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-07

    To evaluate manganese in exhaled breath condensate (Mn-EBC) as an indicator of exposure to fumes from metal inert gas welding process. We collected EBC and urine from 17 welders and 16 unexposed control subjects after 5 days exposure. Concentrations of manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr) were measured in EBC and urine samples and correlated with cumulative exposure indices for the working week (CIW) and for the total welding years (WY), based on duration of welding activity and atmospheric metal measurements. Concentrations of Mn and Ni in EBC were significantly higher among welders than controls whereas this difference was not significant for Mn in urine. Levels of Mn and Ni in EBC were not correlated with their respective levels in urine. The linear regressions found significant positive coefficients between Mn-EBC, Ni-EBC, Ni-U and Cr-U concentrations and the cumulative exposure indices. Taking into account tobacco use, statistical analysis showed the same trends except for the relationship between Mn-U and CIW. This pilot study showed that Mn-EBC, as well as Ni-EBC, can serve as reliable indices of occupational exposure to welding fumes and provide complimentary toxicokinetic information to that provided by urine analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LC-MS/MS Estimation of Propranolol level in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Hamidi 1, Maryam Amini 2, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari 3, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki 4,5, Hossein Sate 6, Abolghasem Jouyban 5,7 *

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC could be used as a non-invasive and alternative specimen to urine and blood for monitoring propranolol levels. A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS method is employed for the determination of propranolol in EBC samples. Methods: Samples directly injected to a C18 analytical column and isocratically separated using a mobile phase composed of methanol + acetic acid (99:1 v/v. Detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring and selected ion recording modes. Results: The chromatographic separation was obtained within 6.0 min and was linear over the concentration range of 5.6–224.0 ng/mL (R2 = 0.999. The accuracy and precision of the method were within 15% according to FDA guideline. The found concentrations of propranolol in EBC of two patients receiving 80 mg/day were 30 and 40 ng/mL. Conclusion: Developed method was applied to determine propranolol levels in three patients receiving propranolol in their medication. The obtained propranolol levels in EBC could be used to develop simpler, cheaper and more feasible analytical methods to be used in routine analysis of propranolol in biomedical analytical laboratories.

  12. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  13. Analysis of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates by in-tube SPME-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuLing; Hu, Sheng; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, polypyrrole/graphene (PPy/G) composite coating was prepared by a facile electrochemical polymerization strategy on the inner surface of a stainless steel (SS) tube. Based on the coating tube, a novel online in-tube solid-phase microextraction -high performance liquid chromatography (IT-SPME-HPLC) was developed and applied for the extraction of aldehydes in the human exhaled breath condensates (EBC). The hybrid PPy/G nanocomposite exhibits remarkable chemical and mechanical stability, high selectivity, and satisfactory extraction performance toward aldehyde compounds. Moreover, the proposed online IT-SPME-HPLC method possesses numerous superiorities, such as time and cost saving, process simplicity, high precision and sensitivity. Some parameters related to extraction efficiency were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of the aldehyde compounds at three spiked concentration levels varied in the range of 85%-117%. Good linearity was obtained with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)) being larger than 0.994. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) of the method ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% and the limits of detection were between 2.3 and 3.3 nmol L(-1). The successful application of the proposed method in human EBC indicated that it is a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehyde metabolites in complex EBC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exhaled breath condensate cysteinyl leukotrienes and airway remodeling in childhood asthma: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonov Sergei A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs play an important role in airway remodeling. Previous reports have indicated that cysLTs augment human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recently, cysLTs have been measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cysLTs in EBC and another marker of airway remodeling, reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening, in endobronchial biopsies in children. Methods 29 children, aged 4–15 years, with moderate to severe persistent asthma, who underwent bronchoscopy as part of their clinical assessment, were included. Subjects underwent spirometry and EBC collection for cysLTs analysis, followed by bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy within 24 hours. Results EBC cysLTs were significantly lower in asthmatic children who were treated with montelukast than in those who were not (median (interquartile range 36.62 (22.60–101.05 versus 249.1 (74.21–526.36 pg/ml, p = 0.004. There was a significant relationship between EBC cysLTs and RBM thickness in the subgroup of children who were not treated with montelukast (n = 13, r = 0.75, p = 0.003. Conclusion EBC cysLTs appear to be associated with RBM thickening in asthma.

  15. MicroRNA7 expression in exhaled breath condensate of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A potential biomarker?

    OpenAIRE

    Nevine Abd Elfattah; R. Ali-Labib

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: The global burden of lung cancer is attributed to its poor outcome as it is usually discovered in an advanced stage therefore the constant search for screening protocols among the high risk groups like smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker testing in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples is a simple inexpensive non invasive method. Many previous researches linked the dys-Regulation of microRNAs to the development of lung carcinogenesis. Consequently ...

  16. Markers of Lipid Oxidative Damage in the Exhaled Breath Condensate of Nano TiO2 Production Workers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Kačer, P.; Zíková, Naděžda; Komarc, M.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makeš, Otakar; Syslová, K.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Turci, F.; Corazzari, I.; Zakharov, S.; Bello, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2017), s. 52-63 ISSN 1743-5390 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : exhaled breath condensate * aldehydes * oxidative stress * occupational exposure * monitoring Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 6.428, year: 2016

  17. Leukotrienes B4, C4, D4 and E4 in the Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC), Blood and Urine in Patients with Pneumoconiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Lebedová, J.; Syslová, K.; Pecha, O.; Běláček, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 299-306 ISSN 0019-8366 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : leukotrienes * Lung fibrosis * exhaled breath condensate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.870, year: 2012

  18. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers.Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively.The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC.Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI).

  19. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  20. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, Matteo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Caglieri, Andrea [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Poli, Diana [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Vettori, Maria Vittoria [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Corradi, Massimo [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention, Research Centre at University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Apostoli, Pietro [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Department of Experimental and Applied Medicine, University of Brescia (Italy); Mutti, Antonio [Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.mutti@unipr.it

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  1. Analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, J K; Schelegle, Edward S; Davis, Cristina E; Walby, William F; Zhao, Weixiang; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Figueroa, Jennifer; Allen, Roblee

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) diagnosis and treatment is early detection of occult pulmonary vascular pathology. Symptoms are frequently confused with other disease entities that lead to inappropriate interventions and allow for progression to advanced states of disease. There is a significant need to develop new markers for early disease detection and management of PAH. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples were compared from 30 age-matched normal healthy individuals and 27 New York Heart Association functional class III and IV idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertenion (IPAH) patients, a subgroup of PAH. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) in EBC samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Individual peaks in GC profiles were identified in both groups and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic and clinical endpoints in the IPAH group. Additionally, GC/MS data were analyzed using autoregression followed by partial least squares regression (AR/PLSR) analysis to discriminate between the IPAH and control groups. After correcting for medicaitons, there were 62 unique compounds in the control group, 32 unique compounds in the IPAH group, and 14 in-common compounds between groups. Peak-by-peak analysis of GC profiles of IPAH group EBC samples identified 6 compounds significantly correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic variables important in IPAH diagnosis. AR/PLSR analysis of GC/MS data resulted in a distinct and identifiable metabolic signature for IPAH patients. These findings indicate the utility of EBC VOC analysis to discriminate between severe IPAH and a healthy population; additionally, we identified potential novel biomarkers that correlated with IPAH pulmonary hemodynamic variables that may be important in screening for less severe forms IPAH.

  2. Analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J K Mansoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important challenge to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH diagnosis and treatment is early detection of occult pulmonary vascular pathology. Symptoms are frequently confused with other disease entities that lead to inappropriate interventions and allow for progression to advanced states of disease. There is a significant need to develop new markers for early disease detection and management of PAH. METHODOLGY AND FINDINGS: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples were compared from 30 age-matched normal healthy individuals and 27 New York Heart Association functional class III and IV idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertenion (IPAH patients, a subgroup of PAH. Volatile organic compounds (VOC in EBC samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Individual peaks in GC profiles were identified in both groups and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic and clinical endpoints in the IPAH group. Additionally, GC/MS data were analyzed using autoregression followed by partial least squares regression (AR/PLSR analysis to discriminate between the IPAH and control groups. After correcting for medicaitons, there were 62 unique compounds in the control group, 32 unique compounds in the IPAH group, and 14 in-common compounds between groups. Peak-by-peak analysis of GC profiles of IPAH group EBC samples identified 6 compounds significantly correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic variables important in IPAH diagnosis. AR/PLSR analysis of GC/MS data resulted in a distinct and identifiable metabolic signature for IPAH patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the utility of EBC VOC analysis to discriminate between severe IPAH and a healthy population; additionally, we identified potential novel biomarkers that correlated with IPAH pulmonary hemodynamic variables that may be important in screening for less severe forms IPAH.

  3. Condensation of rye chromatin in somatic interphase nuclei of Ph1 and ph1b wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Allen, D.C.; Duchoslav, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lukaszewski, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 119, 3-4 (2007), s. 263-267 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : hexaploid wheat * Ph1 and ph1b * rye chromatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2007

  4. Aluminum gallium nitride (GaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistor-based sensors for glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Byung Hwan; Kang, Byoung Sam; Hung, Sheng Chun; Chen, Ke Hung; Ren, Fan; Sciullo, Andrew; Gila, Brent P; Pearton, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Immobilized aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have shown great potential in the areas of pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). HEMT sensors can be integrated into a wireless data transmission system that allows for remote monitoring. This technology offers the possibility of using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for extended investigations of airway pathology of detecting glucose in EBC without the need for clinical visits. HEMT structures, consisting of a 3-microm-thick undoped GaN buffer, 30-A-thick Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N spacer, and 220-A-thick silicon-doped Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)N cap layer, were used for fabricating the HEMT sensors. The gate area of the pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection was immobilized with scandium oxide (Sc(2)O(3)), silver chloride (AgCl) thin film, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, respectively. The Sc(2)O(3)-gated sensor could detect the pH of solutions ranging from 3 to 10 with a resolution of approximately 0.1 pH. A chloride ion detection limit of 10(-8) M was achieved with a HEMT sensor immobilized with the AgCl thin film. The drain-source current of the ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor immobilized with glucose oxidase showed a rapid response of less than 5 seconds when the sensor was exposed to the target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4. The sensor could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5 nM to 125 microM. There is great promise for using HEMT-based sensors to enhance the detection sensitivity for glucose detection in EBC. Depending on the immobilized material, HEMT-based sensors can be used for sensing different materials. These electronic detection approaches with rapid response and good repeatability show potential for the investigation of airway pathology. The devices can also be integrated into a wireless data transmission system for remote monitoring applications. This sensor technology could use the exhaled breath condensate to measure the

  5. Breath condensate levels of 8-isoprostane and leukotriene B4 after ozone inhalation are greater in sensitive versus nonsensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mario F; Walby, William F; Adams, William C; Schelegle, Edward S

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (O3) inhalation induces pulmonary function decrements and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between O3 induced pulmonary function changes and the presence of inflammatory markers as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) obtained from O3-sensitive and nonsensitive human subjects. Eight healthy adult volunteers (4 males/4 females, age 18 to 30 years) were studied, characterized as to their ozone sensitivity and placed into 2 groups (sensitive and nonsensitive) with each group having 2 males and 2 females. Subjects completed a 20-minute EBC collection and pulmonary function test (PFT) prior to a single 60-minute bout of cycle ergometer exercise (V(E) = 50-55 L/min) while breathing filtered air (FA) or 0.35 ppm O3. Subjective symptom scores (SSSs) were collected at 6, 20, 40, and 60 minutes during exposure. An immediate postexposure PFT was performed followed by an EBC collection. Subjective symptom scores, EBCs, and PFTs were collected at 1, 4 and 8 hours post exposure. EBCs were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 8-isoprostane, and total nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrate + nitrite content). Sensitive subjects, breathing O3, had significantly greater functional decrements in PFTs, increased SSSs, and increased rapid shallow breathing as well as elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and LTB4 in EBCs compared to those breathing FA. In addition, there were significant increases in nitrate + nitrite content in both sensitive and nonsensitive subjects breathing O3 compared to FA. These results indicate that sensitive subjects have elevated arachidonic acid metabolites in EBCs compared to nonsensitive subjects after O3 inhalation.

  6. Condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristics of the condenser cooling waters of various French 900 MW nuclear power plants. Design and description of various types of condensers: condensers feeded directly with river water, condensers feeded by cooling towers, condensers feeded with sea water of brackish water. Presentation of the main problems encountered with the brass bundles (ammoniacal corrosion, erosion of the peripheral tubes, vibrations of the tubes), with the titanium bundles, with the tubular plates, the tubes-tubular plates assemblies, the coatings of the condenser water chamber (sea water), the vapor by-pass and with the air inlet. Analysis of the in service performances such as condensation pressure, oxygen content and availability [fr

  7. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Jim K; Morrissey, Brian M; Walby, William F; Yoneda, Ken Y; Juarez, Maya; Kajekar, Radhika; Severinghaus, John W; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schelegle, Edward S

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with L-arginine on breath condensate VEGF, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), plasma erythropoietin, symptoms of acute mountain sickness, and respiratory related sensations at 4,342 m through the course of 24 h in seven healthy male subjects. Serum L-arginine levels increased in treated subjects at time 0, 8, and 24 h compared with placebo, indicating the effectiveness of our treatment. L-arginine had no significant effect on overall Lake Louise scores compared with placebo. However, there was a significant increase in headache within the L-arginine treatment group at 12 h compared with time 0, a change not seen in the placebo condition between these two time points. There was a trend (p = 0.087) toward greater exhaled NO and significant increases in breath condensate VEGF with L-arginine treatment, but no L-arginine effect on serum EPO. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation increases HIF-1 stabilization in the lung, possibly through a NO-dependent pathway. In total, our observations indicate that L-arginine supplementation is not beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of AMS.

  8. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  9. Occupational asthma follow-up - which markers are elevated in exhaled breath condensate and plasma?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.; Syslová, K.; Běláček, J.; Kuzma, Marek; Navrátil, Tomáš; Zakharov, S.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2014), s. 206-215 ISSN 1232-1087 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : occupational asthma * exhalted breath condesate * leukotrienes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.695, year: 2014

  10. The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-07-01

    Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, noninvasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only noninvasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath (EB) and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in EB and EBC in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which nine contained original data on VOCs in EB and 84 on biomarkers in EBC. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practice. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation to reveal whether EB and EBC analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of Ambient and Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources for Cystic Fibrosis Exhaled Breath Condensate Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoling; Pérez, José J.; Jones, Christina M.; Monge, María Eugenia; McCarty, Nael A.; Stecenko, Arlene A.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The vast majority of the mortality is due to progressive lung disease. Targeted and untargeted CF breath metabolomics investigations via exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyses have the potential to expose metabolic alterations associated with CF pathology and aid in assessing the effectiveness of CF therapies. Here, transmission-mode direct analysis in real time traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS) was tested as a high-throughput alternative to conventional direct infusion (DI) electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods, and a critical comparison of the three ionization methods was conducted. EBC was chosen as the noninvasive surrogate for airway sampling over expectorated sputum as EBC can be collected in all CF subjects regardless of age and lung disease severity. When using pooled EBC collected from a healthy control, ESI detected the most metabolites, APCI a log order less, and TM-DART the least. TM-DART-TWIMS-TOF MS was used to profile metabolites in EBC samples from five healthy controls and four CF patients, finding that a panel of three discriminant EBC metabolites, some of which had been previously detected by other methods, differentiated these two classes with excellent cross-validated accuracy.

  12. Bioanalysis of underivatized amino acids in non-invasive exhaled breath condensate samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Pyszka, Magdalena; Okońska, Magdalena; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2018-03-23

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is receiving increased attention as a novel, entirely non-invasive technique for collecting biomarker samples. This increased attention is due to the fact that EBC is simple, effort independent, rapid, can be repeated frequently, and can be performed on young children and patients suffering from a variety of diseases. By having a subject breathe tidally through a cooling system for 15-20 min, a sufficient amount of condensate is collected for analysis of biomarkers in clinical studies. However, bioanalysis of EBC involves an unavoidable sample preparation step due to the low concentration of its components. Thus, there is a need for a new and more sensitive analytical method of assessing EBC samples. While researchers have considered analyses of single and small quantities of amino acids - for example, those connected with leukemia - no one has previously attempted to simultaneously analyze a panel of 23 amino acids. Moreover, the present study is well-justified, as prior studies focusing on single amino acids and leukemia at the moment of diagnosis and during chemotherapy (33 days of treatment) are inconsistent. In the present study, amino acids were separated using an XBridge Amide column (3 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM of ammonium buffer in water with a pH of 3 (Phase A) and 10 mM ammonium buffer in acetonitrile (Phase B) under gradient program elution. The analytes were detected in electrospray positive ionization mode. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method exhibited limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 0.05-0.5 ng/mL, and good linearity, with the determination coefficient (R 2 ) falling between 0.9904 and 0.9998. The accuracy in human exhaled breath condensate samples ranged between 93.3-113.3% for the 23 studied amino acids, with intra- and inter-day coefficient of variation (CVs) of 0.13-9.92% and 0.17-10.53%, respectively. To demonstrate the liquid

  13. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Platen, P; Volke, J; Mückenhoff, K; Marek, W

    2009-12-07

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 +/- 1 years). EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin). The rate of H(2)O(2) release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO(2) in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO(2) in O(2)). The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) (pK = 6.1). H(2)O(2) concentration in EBC was 190 +/- 109 nmol/l, and H (2)O(2) release at rest was 31.0 +/- 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H(2)O(2) concentration in EBC increased to 250 +/- 120 nmol/l, and H(2)O(2) release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 +/- 39.9 pmol/min (Pexercise, pH 6.18 +/- 0.17 and [HCO(3)(-)] 1.23 +/- 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. The rate of H(2)O(2) release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt) by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H(2)O(2) release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  15. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  16. Biomarkers of exposure to stainless steel tungsten inert gas welding fumes and the effect of exposure on exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccelli, Maria Grazia; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Pinelli, Silvana; Alinovi, Rossella; Selis, Luisella; Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo

    2018-08-01

    The respiratory tract is the main target organ of the inhaled hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) and nickel (Ni) contained in stainless steel (SS) welding fumes (WFs). The aim of this study was to investigate the Cr and Ni content of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of SS tungsten inert gas (TIG) welders, and relate their concentrations with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. EBC and urine from 100 SS TIG welders were collected pre-(T 0 ) and post-shift (T 1 ) on a Friday, and pre-shift (T 2 ) on the following Monday morning. Both EBC and urinary Cr concentrations were higher at T 1 (0.08 μg/L and 0.71 μg/g creatinine) and T 0 (0.06 μg/L and 0.74 μg/g creatinine) than at T 2 (below the limit of detection [LOD] and 0.59 μg/g creatinine), and EBC Ni concentrations generally remained welding also play a role in generating lung oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Specific Metabolome Profile of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Shock and Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Fermier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shock includes different pathophysiological mechanisms not fully understood and remains a challenge to manage. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC may contain relevant biomarkers that could help us make an early diagnosis or better understand the metabolic perturbations resulting from this pathological situation. Objective: we aimed to establish the metabolomics signature of EBC from patients in shock with acute respiratory failure in a pilot study. Material and methods: We explored the metabolic signature of EBC in 12 patients with shock compared to 14 controls using LC-HRMS. We used a non-targeted approach, and we performed a multivariate analysis based on Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA to differentiate between the two groups of patients. Results: We optimized the procedure of EBC collection and LC-HRMS detected more than 1000 ions in this fluid. The optimization of multivariate models led to an excellent model of differentiation for both groups (Q2 > 0.4 after inclusion of only 6 ions. Discussion and conclusion: We validated the procedure of EBC collection and we showed that the metabolome profile of EBC may be relevant in characterizing patients with shock. We performed well in distinguishing these patients from controls, and the identification of relevant compounds may be promising for ICC patients.

  18. Study of exhaled breath condensate sample preparation for metabolomics analysis by LC-MS/MS in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Calderón Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) requires an unavoidable sample preparation step because of the low concentration of its components, and potential cleanup for possible interferents. Sample preparation based on protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SPE) by hydrophilic and lipophilic sorbents or lyophilization has demonstrated that the analytical sample from the last is largely the best because lyophilization allows reconstitution in a volume as small as required (preconcentration factors up to 80-times with respect to the original sample), thus doubling the number of detected compounds as compared with the other alternatives (47 versus 25). In addition, PP and/or SPE cleanup are unnecessary as no effect from the EBC components removed by these steps appears in the chromatograms. The total 49 EBC compounds tentatively identified and confirmed by MS/MS in this research include amino acids, fatty acids, fatty amides, fatty aldehydes, sphingoid bases, oxoanionic compounds, imidazoles, hydroxy acids and aliphatic acyclic acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CEA, SCC and NSE levels in exhaled breath condensate--possible markers for early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingchang; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Cong; Hu, Yanjie; Xu, Shan; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xing

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The sensitive and non-invasive diagnostic tools in the early stage are still poor. We present a pilot study on the early diagnosis of LC by detecting markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC samples were collected from 105 patients with LC and 56 healthy controls. We applied chemiluminescence immunoassay to detect CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen and NSE (neuron specific enolase) in EBC and serum. Concentrations of markers were compared between independent groups and subgroups. A significantly higher concentration level of each marker was found in patients with LC than healthy controls. The areas under curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.800, 0.771, 0.659, 0.679, 0.636 and 0.626 for EBC-CEA, serum-CEA, EBC-SCC, serum-SCC, EBC-NSE and serum-NSE, respectively. Markers in EBC had a higher positive rate (PR) and were more specific to histologic types than markers in serum. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association of presenting markers with the stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC-CEA showed the best predictive characteristic (p tumor markers in EBC may have a better diagnostic performance for LC than those in serum. With further investigation on the combination of markers in EBC, detection of EBC could probably be a novel and non-invasive method to detect NSCLC earlier.

  20. Exhaled Breath Condensate Detects Baseline Reductions in Chloride and Increases in Response to Albuterol in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Wheatley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired ion regulation and dehydration is the primary pathophysiology in cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease. A potential application of exhaled breath condensate (EBC collection is to assess airway surface liquid ionic composition at baseline and in response to pharmacological therapy in CF. Our aims were to determine if EBC could detect differences in ion regulation between CF and healthy and measure the effect of the albuterol on EBC ions in these populations. Baseline EBC Cl − , DLCO and SpO 2 were lower in CF (n = 16 compared to healthy participants (n = 16. EBC Cl − increased in CF subjects, while there was no change in DLCO or membrane conductance, but a decrease in pulmonary-capillary blood volume in both groups following albuterol. This resulted in an improvement in diffusion at the alveolar-capillary unit, and removal of the baseline difference in SpO 2 by 90-minutes in CF subjects. These results demonstrate that EBC detects differences in ion regulation between healthy and CF individuals, and that albuterol mediates increases in Cl − in CF, suggesting that the benefits of albuterol extend beyond simple bronchodilation.

  1. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  3. Mechanical ventilation with heated humidifiers: measurements of condensed water mass within the breathing circuit according to ventilatory settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Cappelli, S; Silvestri, S

    2013-01-01

    Heated wire humidifiers (HWHs) are widely used to heat and humidify gases during mechanical ventilation. The control strategy implemented on commercial HWHs, based on maintaining constant gas temperature at the chamber outlet, shows weaknesses: humidifying performances depend on environmental temperature and ventilatory settings, and often condensation occurs. Herein, we analyzed in vitro HWH performances focusing on the condensation amount according to ventilatory settings. We used a physical model to define the parameters which mainly influence the HWH performances. In order to investigate the influence of minute volume (MV) and frequency rate (f r ) on condensation, the other influencing parameters were kept constant during experiments, and we introduced a novel approach to estimate the condensation. The method, based on measuring the condensed vapor mass (Δm), provided more objective information than the visual-based scale used in previous studies. Thanks to both the control of other influencing factors and the accurate Δm measures, the investigation showed the Δm increase with MV and f r . Substantial condensation after 7 h of ventilation and the influence of MV and f r on Δm (i.e., Δm = 3 g at MV = 1.5 L min −1 and f r = 8 bpm and Δm = 9.4 g at MV = 8 L min −1 and f r = 20 bpm) confirm the weaknesses of 'single-point temperature' control strategies. (paper)

  4. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  5. Text condensation in consecutive interpreting - summary of a Ph.d.-dissertation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen er et resumé af en Ph.d.-afhandling med titlen 'Tekstkondensering i foredragstolkning', som blev indleveret ved Det Erhvervssproglige Fakultet, Handelshøjskolen i Århus, i oktober 1995. I artiklen skitseres den valgte interdisciplinære tilgang til det fænomen, der undersøges i afhandling...

  6. Text condensation in consecutive interpreting - summary of a Ph.d.-dissertation

    OpenAIRE

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen er et resumé af en Ph.d.-afhandling med titlen 'Tekstkondensering i foredragstolkning', som blev indleveret ved Det Erhvervssproglige Fakultet, Handelshøjskolen i Århus, i oktober 1995. I artiklen skitseres den valgte interdisciplinære tilgang til det fænomen, der undersøges i afhandlingen, ligesom de anvendte metoder og analysemodeller præsenteres.

  7. [pH values in the pharynx of the patients presenting with compromised nasal breathing of inflammatory and non-inflammatory genesis concomitant with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, M V; Temnikova, I V; Onuchina, E V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the pH values in the pharynx and nose. It included 87 patients at the age varying from 18 to 81 years admitted to the Irkutsk-based Railway Clinical Hospital and allocated to four groups. Group 1 was comprised of 25 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), group 2 consisted of 29 patients with CRS in the absence of GERD, group 3 included 22 patients with nasal septum deformations (NSD) and GERD, group 4 included 11 patients with NSD and motor rhinitis without GERD. The control group was formed from 10 volunteers. pH was measured by the contact method with the use ofEkokhim indicator paper. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed following the recommendations of the Montreal consensus. It was shown that pH values in the pharynx of the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any origin in combination with GERD were lower than in the absence of GERD and in the healthy volunteers. The study groups did not differ in terms of pH values in the nasal cavity. It is concluded that pH values 4 or lower may serve as the criterion for pharyngo-laryngeal reflux (PLR) concomitant with HERD while pH 5 occurs more frequently in the patients with compromised nasal breathing of any etiology, regardless of the presence or absence of GERD.Disordered nasal breathing of any genesis in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with the feeling of the lump in the throat, congestion of the respiratory tract and the nose, pain in the ears, cardialgia, and irregular heartbeat. It isrecommended to use pH measurements as a criterion for diagnostics of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  8. Measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α, leukotriene B4, and interleukin 8 in the exhaled breath condensate in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny WS Ko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fanny WS Ko1, Ting-Fan Leung2, Gary WK Wong2, Jenny Ngai1, Kin W To1, Susanna Ng1, David SC Hui11Department of Medicine and Therapeutics; 2Department of Pediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong KongBackground: Assessment of airway inflammation in the clinical course of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD may advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment.Objectives: To assess airway inflammation in patients during the course of AECOPD by serial analyses of their exhaled breath condensates (EBC.Methods: Twenty-six patients with AECOPD (22 males, mean[SD] percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 44.8 [14.3], 11 with stable COPD, and 14 age and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. Patients with AECOPD were treated with systemic steroid and antibiotic for 7 days. EBC was collected from each patient with AECOPD on Day 5, 14, 30, and 60 post-hospitalization using EcoScreen (VIASYS Healthcare, USA during tidal breathing over 10 minutes. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The median (IQR of TNF-α level on Day 5 was 5.08 (3.80–6 .32 pg/ml, which was lower than on Day 14 (5.84 [4.91–9.14] pg/ml, p = 0.017, Day 30 (6.14 [3.82–7.67] pg/ml, p = 0.045, and Day 60 (5.60 [4.53–8.80] pg/ml, p = 0.009. On Day 60, subjects receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS had a lower level of TNF-α than those who were not (4.82 [4.06–5.65] vs 7.66 [5.48–10.9] pg/ml, p = 0.02. EBC LTB4 level did not change significantly during recovery from AECOPD whereas IL-8 was mostly undetectable.Conclusions: EBC TNF-α level was low in patients receiving systemic steroid and antibiotic therapy for AECOPD. These findings suggest a potential role for serial EBC TNF-α for noninvasive monitoring of disease activity.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, exhaled breath

  9. Evolution of clinical and environmental health applications of exhaled breath research: Review of methods and instrumentation for gas-phase, condensate, and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical healt...

  10. Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots as a biocompatible and non-toxic nanocomposite: Layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and non-invasive malondialdehyde sensory application in exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: hasanzadehm@tbzmed.ac.ir [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, Fozieh [Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin [Department of Nanochemistry, Nano Technology Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Technology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 57154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eftekhari, Aziz [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 51664-14766 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Vahid [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, International Campus, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboob, Soltanali [Department of Biochemistry, Higher Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible polymer with entitle poly arginine-graphene quantum dots (PARG-GQDs) as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) surface and preparation a new interface for biomedical application. The fabrication of PARG-GQDs on GCE was performed using Layer-by-layer regime. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was confirmed dispersion of GQDs on the surface of PARG which lead to increase of surface coverage of PARG. The redox behavior of prepared sensor was then characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometry (CHA), square wave voltammetry (SWV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electroactivity of PARG-GQDs coating towards detection and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) as one of the most common biomarkers of oxidative stress, was then studied. Then, application of prepared sensor for the detection of MDA in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is described. Electrochemical based sensor shows the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.329 nanomolar. This work is the first report on the integration of GQDs to poly amino acids. Further development can lead to monitoring of MDA or other exhaled breath biomarkers by GQDs functionalized poly amino acids in EBC using electrochemical methods. - Highlights: • Simple and one pot electropolymerization was used to preparation of Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots. • PARG-GQDs-GCE shows an excellent electroactivity towards malondialdehyde. • High sensitivity and efficiency is achieved through a simple method of modification. • MDA electrochemical sensor for a direct evaluation of oxidative stress in EBC media is possible.

  11. Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots as a biocompatible and non-toxic nanocomposite: Layer-by-layer electrochemical preparation, characterization and non-invasive malondialdehyde sensory application in exhaled breath condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Fozieh; Shadjou, Nasrin; Eftekhari, Aziz; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Vahid; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible polymer with entitle poly arginine-graphene quantum dots (PARG-GQDs) as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) surface and preparation a new interface for biomedical application. The fabrication of PARG-GQDs on GCE was performed using Layer-by-layer regime. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was confirmed dispersion of GQDs on the surface of PARG which lead to increase of surface coverage of PARG. The redox behavior of prepared sensor was then characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometry (CHA), square wave voltammetry (SWV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electroactivity of PARG-GQDs coating towards detection and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) as one of the most common biomarkers of oxidative stress, was then studied. Then, application of prepared sensor for the detection of MDA in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is described. Electrochemical based sensor shows the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.329 nanomolar. This work is the first report on the integration of GQDs to poly amino acids. Further development can lead to monitoring of MDA or other exhaled breath biomarkers by GQDs functionalized poly amino acids in EBC using electrochemical methods. - Highlights: • Simple and one pot electropolymerization was used to preparation of Poly arginine-graphene quantum dots. • PARG-GQDs-GCE shows an excellent electroactivity towards malondialdehyde. • High sensitivity and efficiency is achieved through a simple method of modification. • MDA electrochemical sensor for a direct evaluation of oxidative stress in EBC media is possible.

  12. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  13. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  14. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  15. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  16. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  17. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of “arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle” biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Pirillo, Paola; Carraro, Silvia; Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro; Baraldi, Eugenio; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous quantification of “arginine-ADMA cycle” metabolites developed in EBC. ► EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. ► Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. ► Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC–MS/MS method. ► EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC–MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to “Arginine-ADMA cycle”, using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r 2 ) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was −1 ), measured in EBC samples of asthmatic adolescents are significantly increased (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls (0.0040 ± 0.0021 vs. 0.0012 ± 0.0005 and 0.0020 ± 0.0015 vs. 0.0002 ± 0.0001, respectively), as well the ADMA/Tyr (0.34 ± 0.09 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02, p < 0.0001) and the SDMA/Tyr ratio (0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.015 ± 0.004, p < 0.0001). Conclusions

  18. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  19. Nitrite exhaled breath condensate study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery Estudo do nitrito do condensado do exalado pulmonar em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca com CEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos Santos Augusto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a relative lack of studies on postoperative changes in nitrite (NO2 - concentrations, a marker of injury, following cardiac surgery. In this context, investigations on how exhaled NO concentrations vary in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery will certainly contribute to new clinical findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the EBC NO levels in both the pre and postoperative (24 hours periods of cardiac surgery. METHODS: Twenty - eight individuals were divided into three groups: 1 control, 2 coronary artery bypass grafting, and 3 valve surgery. The nitrite (NO2 - levels were measured by chemiluminescence in blood samples and exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Data were analyzed by the Mann - Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: 1 Preoperatively, the EBC NO2 - levels from groups 2 and 3 patients were higher than control individuals; 2 The postoperative (24 hours NO2 - levels in the EBC from group 3 patients were lower compared with preoperative values; 3 The NO2 - levels in the plasma from group 2 patients were lower in the preoperative compared with the postoperative (24h values and; 4 Preoperatively, there was no difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of plasma NO2 - concentrations. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NO measurement in EBC is feasible in cardiac surgery patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostrando alterações das concentrações de nitrito (NO2 - exalado, com biomarcador de lesão, são raros em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Nesse contexto, o seu estudo no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgias cardíacas poderá contribuir para novos dados clínicos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi comparar os níveis de nitrito (NO2 - do condensado do exalado pulmonar (CEP no pré e pós - operatório de cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito indivíduos foram alocados em três grupos: 1 controle, 2 revascularização do miocárdio e 3 corre

  20. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  1. Effect of pH in a Pd-based ethanol membraneless air breathing nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rico, C. A.; Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Arjona, N.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic fuel cell (NFC) in which streams flow through electrodes was used to investigate the role of pH in the cell performance using ethanol as fuel and two Pd nanoparticles as electrocatalysts: one commercially available (Pd/C from ETEK) and other synthesized using ionic liquids (Pd/C IL). The cell performances for both electrocatalysts in acid/acid (anodic/cathodic) streams were of 18.05 and 9.55 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. In alkaline/alkaline streams, decrease to 15.94 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and increase to 15.37 mW cm-2 for Pd/C IL. In alkaline/acidic streams both electrocatalysts showed similar cell voltages (up to 1 V); meanwhile power densities were of 87.6 and 99.4 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. The raise in cell performance can be related to a decrease in activation losses, the combined used of alkaline and acidic streams and these high values compared with flow-over fuel cells can be related to the enhancement of the cathodic mass transport by using three dimensional porous electrodes and two sources of oxygen: from air and from a saturated solution.

  2. Effect of pH in a Pd-based ethanol membraneless air breathing nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rico, C A; Arriaga, L G; Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J; Ledesma-García, J; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arjona, N

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic fuel cell (NFC) in which streams flow through electrodes was used to investigate the role of pH in the cell performance using ethanol as fuel and two Pd nanoparticles as electrocatalysts: one commercially available (Pd/C from ETEK) and other synthesized using ionic liquids (Pd/C IL). The cell performances for both electrocatalysts in acid/acid (anodic/cathodic) streams were of 18.05 and 9.55 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. In alkaline/alkaline streams, decrease to 15.94 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and increase to 15.37 mW cm -2 for Pd/C IL. In alkaline/acidic streams both electrocatalysts showed similar cell voltages (up to 1 V); meanwhile power densities were of 87.6 and 99.4 mW cm -2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. The raise in cell performance can be related to a decrease in activation losses, the combined used of alkaline and acidic streams and these high values compared with flow-over fuel cells can be related to the enhancement of the cathodic mass transport by using three dimensional porous electrodes and two sources of oxygen: from air and from a saturated solution. (paper)

  3. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  4. Comparative analysis of selected exhaled breath biomarkers obtained with two different temperature-controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüning Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a suitable and non-invasive method for evaluation of airway inflammation. Several studies indicate that the composition of the condensate and the recovery of biomarkers are affected by physical characteristics of the condensing device and collecting circumstances. Additionally, there is an apparent influence of the condensing temperature, and often the level of detection of the assay is a limiting factor. The ECoScreen2 device is a new, partly single-use disposable system designed for studying different lung compartments. Methods EBC samples were collected from 16 healthy non-smokers by using the two commercially available devices ECoScreen2 and ECoScreen at a controlled temperature of -20°C. EBC volume, pH, NOx, LTB4, PGE2, 8-isoprostane and cys-LTs were determined. Results EBC collected with ECoScreen2 was less acidic compared to ECoScreen. ECoScreen2 was superior concerning condensate volume and detection of biomarkers, as more samples were above the detection limit (LTB4 and PGE2 or showed higher concentrations (8-isoprostane. However, NOx was detected only in EBC sampled by ECoScreen. Conclusion ECoScreen2 in combination with mediator specific enzyme immunoassays may be suitable for measurement of different biomarkers. Using this equipment, patterns of markers can be assessed that are likely to reflect the complex pathophysiological processes in inflammatory respiratory disease.

  5. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  6. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  8. Electret filter collects more exhaled albumin than glass condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ziru; Liu, Hongying; Li, Wang; Xie, Dandan; Cheng, Ke; Pi, Xitian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, noninvasive diagnosis based on biomarkers in exhaled breath has been extensively studied. The procedure of biomarker collection is a key step. However, the traditional condenser method has low efficacy in collecting nonvolatile compounds especially the protein biomarkers in breath. To solve this deficiency, here we propose an electret filter method. Exhaled breath of 6 volunteers was collected with a glass condenser and an electret filter. The amount of albumin was analyzed. Furthermore, the difference of exhaled albumin between smokers and nonsmokers was evaluated. The electret filter method collected more albumin than the glass condenser method at the same breath volume level (P albumin than nonsmokers were also observed (P albumin than nonsmokers. PMID:29384875

  9. Polariton condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoke, David; Littlewood, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Most students of physics know about the special properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) as demonstrated in the two best-known examples: superfluid helium-4, first reported in 1938, and condensates of trapped atomic gases, first observed in 1995. (See the article by Wolfgang Ketterle in PHYSICS TODAY, December 1999, page 30.) Many also know that superfluid 3 He and superconducting metals contain BECs of fermion pairs. An underlying principle of all those condensed-matter systems, known as quantum fluids, is that an even number of fermions with half-integer spin can be combined to make a composite boson with integer spin. Such composite bosons, like all bosons, have the property that below some critical temperature--roughly the temperature at which the thermal de Broglie wavelength becomes comparable to the distance between the bosons--the total free energy is minimized by having a macroscopic number of bosons enter a single quantum state and form a macroscopic, coherent matter wave. Remarkably, the effect of interparticle repulsion is to lead to quantum mechanical exchange interactions that make that state robust, since the exchange interactions add coherently.

  10. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  11. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  12. Toward a hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a chip-integrated amperometric sensor for the detection of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is reported. The electrode chip is characterized, and detection of H2O2 in an aqueous phase is shown by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Variation of conditions

  13. Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed

  14. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  15. Visual Investigation of Retrograde Phenomena and Gas Condensate Flow in Porous Media Étude visuelle des phénomènes rétrogrades et de l'écoulement des gaz de condensat en milieux poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of retrograde condensation and the flow of gas-condensate in horizontal porous media under simulated reservoir conditions were visually studied. Two-dimensional glass micromodels with homogeneous pore structures, as well as heterogeneous patterns, reproduced from real rock micrographs were employed in this study. Depletion tests were carried out using synthetic multicomponent hydrocarbon gas mixtures and also a North Sea gas condensate. The multiphase flow behaviour of the tested systems, as observed and recorded on video, is presented here along with the measured data. In water-wet pores, condensate was observed to be formed as a continuous thin film on connate water, which was the preferred site for condensation. Pressure reduction below the system cricondenbar resulted in the growth of the condensate almost exclusively on water rings at pore throats and dead end pores. The condensate was observed to flow through thin films even at low saturations, with little contribution to the condensate recovery. The rate of pressure depletion influenced the gas flow shear and was found to strongly affect the condensate propagation. Local instabilities could promote significant condensate movement in pore sections which would only be retarded further downstream by capillary effects diminishing the condensate recovery. Relative permeability-saturation relation-ships for gas-condensate flow should not be expected to take the same form as the oil-gas relative permeability for solution gas or external gas drive. Le mécanisme de la condensation rétrograde et l'écoulement des gaz de condensat en milieu poreux horizontal dans une simulation des conditions naturelles ont fait l'objet d'études visuelles. Des micromodèles en verre bi-dimensionnels à structure poreuse homogène, et des éléments hétérogènes reproduisant des micrographies de roches réelles, ont été utilisés pour cette étude. Des essais d'épuisement ont été effectu

  16. Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John Winston

    The paper gives some personal observations on various aspects of enhanced condensation heat transfer. The topics discussed are external condensation (horizontal low-finned tubes and wire-wrapped tubes), internal condensation (microfin tubes and microchannels) and Marangoni condensation of binary mixtures.

  17. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  18. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    However, the effect of corticosteroids on production of ... H2O2 concentration compared to values in normal subjects( p<0.0001). Bad housing ... Allergic background (food allergy was ... expiration as fast as possible, complete the cycle by.

  19. Assessment of hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 concentration compared to values in normal subjects( p<0.0001). Bad housing showed significant correlation to asthma severity and to number of acute asthmatic attacks. Basal spirometric pulmonary function tests, mean values showed no ...

  20. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  1. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  2. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  3. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  4. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  5. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  6. Performance of evaporative condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettouney, Hisham M.; El-Dessouky, Hisham T.; Bouhamra, Walid; Al-Azmi, Bader

    2001-07-01

    Experimental investigation is conducted to study the performance of evaporative condensers/coolers. The analysis includes development of correlations for the external heat transfer coefficient and the system efficiency. The evaporative condenser includes two finned-tube heat exchangers. The system is designed to allow for operation of a single condenser, two condensers in parallel, and two condensers in series. The analysis is performed as a function of the water-to-air mass flow rate ratio (L/G) and the steam temperature. Also, comparison is made between the performance of the evaporative condenser and same device as an air-cooled condenser. Analysis of the collected data shows that the system efficiency increases at lower L/G ratios and higher steam temperatures. The system efficiency for various configurations for the evaporative condenser varies between 97% and 99%. Lower efficiencies are obtained for the air-cooled condenser, with values between 88% and 92%. The highest efficiency is found for the two condensers in series, followed by two condensers in parallel and then the single condenser. The parallel condenser configuration can handle a larger amount of inlet steam and can provide the required system efficiency and degree of subcooling. The correlation for the system efficiency gives a simple tool for preliminary system design. The correlation developed for the external heat transfer coefficient is found to be consistent with the available literature data. (Author)

  7. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  8. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  9. Condensation of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhniuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An equation for nucleation kinetics in steam condensation has been derived, the equation taking into account the concurrent and independent functioning of two nucleation mechanisms: the homogeneous one and the heterogeneous one. The equation is a most general-purpose one and includes all the previously known condensation models as special cases. It is shown how the equation can be used in analyzing the process of steam condensation in the condenser of an industrial steam-turbine plant, and in working out new ways of raising the efficiency of the condenser, as well as of the steam-turbine plant as a whole. (orig.)

  10. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  11. Modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Won Pyo

    1996-07-01

    Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  12. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  13. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  14. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  15. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings: Condenser technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, J.L.; Mussalli, Y.G.

    1991-08-01

    Seam surface condenser and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in nuclear and fossil power plants. Thirty-six papers presented at a 1990 conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of condenser problems and solutions. This report contains papers on life extension, performance improvement, corrosion and failure analysis, fouling prevention, and recommendation for future R ampersand D. The information represents recent work on condenser problems and solutions to improve the procurement, operation, and maintenance functions of power plant personnel. Several key points follow: A nuclear and a fossil power plant report show that replacing titanium tube bundles improves condenser availability and performance. One paper reports 10 years of experience with enhanced heat transfer tubes in utility condensers. The newly developed enhanced condenser tubes could further improve condensing heat transfer. A new resistance summation method improves the accuracy of condenser performance prediction, especially for stainless steel and titanium tubed condensers. Several papers describe improved condenser fouling monitoring techniques, including a review of zebra mussel issues

  17. Condensate cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Oosumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the frequency for the backwash and regeneration operations due to the increase in the differential pressure resulted from claddings captured in a mixed floor type desalter, and decrease the amount of radioactive liquid wastes of claddings from the condensate systems by removing claddings with electromagnetic filters. Constitution: In an existent plant, a valves is disposed between a condensate pump and a mixed floor type desalter. A pipeway is branched from a condensate pipe between the condensate pipe and the valve, through which condensates are transferred by a pump to an electromagnetic filter such as of a high gradient type electromagntic filter to remove claddings, then returned to a condensate pipe between the valve and the mixed floor type desalter and, thereafter, are removed with ionic components in the mixed floor type desalter and fed to the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Purification method for condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Akiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Condensates generated in secondary coolant circuits of a PWR type reactor are filtered using a hollow thread separation membranes comprising aromatic polyether ketone. Preferably, condensates after passing through a turbine are filtered at a place between a condensator and a steam generator at high temperature as close as a temperature of the steam generator. As the hollow thread membrane, partially crystalline membrane comprising aromatic polyether ketone is used. When it is used at high temperature, the crystallinity is preferably not less than 15wt%. Since a hollow thread membrane comprising the aromatic polyether ketone of excellent heat resistance is used, it can filter and purify the condensates at not lower than 70degC. Accordingly, impurities such as colloidal iron can be removed from the condensates, and the precipitation of cruds in the condensates to a steam generator and a turbine can be suppressed. (I.N.)

  19. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  20. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  2. Assessing the efficacy of immunotherapy with a glutaraldehyde-modified house dust mite extract in children by monitoring changes in clinical parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Jaime; Cruz, María-Jesús; Piquer, Mónica; Giner, Maria-Teresa; Plaza, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of specific immunotherapy (SIT) management with allergoids in children with allergic asthma by monitoring changes in clinical parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. The study population included 43 patients (24 males) of 6-14 years of age, who had allergic asthma and were sensitized to mites. Twenty-three individuals were treated with subcutaneous SIT (PURETHAL® Mites, HAL Allergy) for 8 months, i.e. the SIT group, and 20 were given medication to treat symptoms only, i.e. the control group. Before treatment and after 4 and 8 months, several clinical parameters, the levels of exhaled nitric oxide and the pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were determined. The SIT group presented with an improvement in asthma classification, a reduction in maintenance drug therapy and improved scores on the quality-of-life questionnaire. These changes were not observed in the control group. Both groups presented significant decreases in EBC pH values at 4 and 8 months after treatment compared to at baseline. However, analysis of the variable 'ratio' showed an increase in the EBC pH values after 8 months of treatment in the SIT group compared with the values at 4 months. SIT with standardized mite extract reduces asthma symptoms in children. A decrease in EBC pH values was observed in both groups, although the SIT group presented a tendency of recovered values after 8 months. Future studies of EBC pH monitoring in the longer term are needed to determine the effectiveness of this marker. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. PH sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Artero, C.; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a marine instrument for the measurement of pH in seawater. The measurement system consists of a pH electrode connected to the underwater observatory OBSEA. The extracted data are useful for scientists researching ocean acidification. Peer Reviewed

  4. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  5. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  6. Condensation in complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauro, F.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical evaluation of the condensation exchange coefficient can only succeds for well specified cases: small upright or inclined plates, horizontal tubes, small height vertical tubes. Among the main hypotheses accounted for this mathematical development in the case of the condensate, a laminar flow and uniform surface temperature are always considered. In practice certain shapes of surfaces significantly increase the heat transfer during the vapor condensation on a surface wet by the condensate. Such surfaces are rough surfaces such as the condensate is submitted to surface tension effects, negligeable for plane or large curvature surfaces, and the nature of the material may play an important role (temperature gradients). Results from tests on tubes with special shapes, performed in France or out of France, are given [fr

  7. Sedimentary condensation and authigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Most marine authigenic minerals form in sediments, which are subjected to condensation. Condensation processes lead to the formation of well individualized, extremely thin ( 100ky), and which experienced authigenesis and the precipitation of glaucony, verdine, phosphate, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron sulfide, carbonate and/or silica. They usually show complex internal stratigraphies, which result from an interplay of sediment accumulation, halts in sedimentation, sediment winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass. They may include amalgamated faunas of different origin and age. Hardgrounds may be part of condensed beds and may embody strongly condensed beds by themselves. Sedimentary condensation is the result of a hydrodynamically active depositional regime, in which sediment accumulation, winnowing, erosion, reworking and bypass are processes, which alternate as a function of changes in the location and intensity of currents, and/or as the result of episodic high-energy events engendered by storms and gravity flow. Sedimentary condensation has been and still is a widespread phenomenon in past and present-day oceans. The present-day distribution of glaucony and verdine-rich sediments on shelves and upper slopes, phosphate-rich sediments and phosphorite on outer shelves and upper slopes, ferromanganese crusts on slopes, seamounts and submarine plateaus, and ferromanganese nodules on abyssal seafloors is a good indication of the importance of condensation processes today. In the past, we may add the occurrence of oolitic ironstone, carbonate hardgrounds, and eventually also silica layers in banded iron formations as indicators of the importance of condensation processes. Besides their economic value, condensed sediments are useful both as a carrier of geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change, as well as the product of episodes of paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental change themselves.

  8. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  9. Condensation in Microchannels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ameel, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    .... Evaporators and condensers for meso-scale energy systems will most likely be constructed of microchannels due to the microfabrication constraints that limit most structures to two-dimensional planar geometries...

  10. Study on corrosion of thermal power plant condenser tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza Rashidi; Zhaam, Ali Akbar [Niroo Research Institute, end of Poonak Bakhtari blvd., Shahrak Ghods, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study kinds of corrosion mechanisms in thermal power plant condenser tubes. Condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water flows through its tubes. While the steam from low pressure turbine passes within condenser tubes, it is condensed by cooling water. The exhausted steam from low pressure turbine is condensed on external surface of condenser tubes and heat is transferred to cooling water which flow into tubes. Tubes composition is usually copper-based alloys, stainless steel or titanium. Annual damages due to corrosion cause much cost for replacement and repairing metallic equipment and installations in electric power industry. Because of existence of different contaminants in water and steam cycle, condenser tubes surfaces are exposed to corrosion. Contaminants like oxygen, carbon dioxide, chloride ion and ammonia in water and steam cycle originate several damages such as pitting and crevice corrosion, erosion, galvanic attack, SCC, condensed corrosion, de-alloying in thermal power plant condenser. The paper first states how corrosion damage takes place in condensers and then introduces types of usual alloys used in condensers and also their corrosion behavior. In continuation, a brief explanation is presented about kinds of condenser failures due to corrosion. Then, causes and locations of different mechanisms of corrosion events on condenser tubes and effects of different parameters such as composition, temperature, chloride and sulfide ion concentration, pH, water velocity and biological precipitation are examined and finally protection methods are indicated. Also some photos of tubes specimens related to power plants are studied and described in each case of mentioned mechanisms. (authors)

  11. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  12. Molecular equilibrium with condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.M.; Huebner, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated. 18 refs

  13. SLAC synchronous condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvin, C.

    1995-06-01

    A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90 degrees in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC's utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser's 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ''scrubbing'' the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations

  14. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  15. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  16. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  18. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  19. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  20. Association of Lung Inflammatory Cells with Small Airways Function and Exhaled Breath Markers in Smokers - Is There a Specific Role for Mast Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nussbaumer-Ochsner

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the airways. We evaluated whether airway inflammation in smokers is related to lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath.Thirty-seven smokers undergoing lung resection for primary lung cancer were assessed pre-operatively by lung function testing including single-breath-nitrogen washout test (sb-N2-test, measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO and pH/8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC. Lung tissue sections containing cancer-free large (LA and small airways (SA were stained for inflammatory cells. Mucosal (MCT respectively connective tissue mast cells (MCTC and interleukin-17A (IL-17A expression by mast cells was analysed using a double-staining protocol.The median number of neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells infiltrating the lamina propria and adventitia of SA was higher than in LA. Both MCTC and MCT were higher in the lamina propria of SA compared to LA (MCTC: 49 vs. 27.4 cells/mm2; MCT: 162.5 vs. 35.4 cells/mm2; P<0.005 for both instances. IL-17A expression was predominantly detected in MCTC of LA. Significant correlations were found for the slope of phase III % pred. of the sb-N2-test (rs= -0.39, for the FEV1% pred. (rs= 0.37 and for FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=0.38 with MCT in SA (P<0.05 for all instances. 8-isoprostane concentration correlated with the mast cells in the SA (rs=0.44, there was no correlation for pH or FeNO with cellular distribution in SA.Neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells are more prominent in the SA indicating that these cells are involved in the development of small airway dysfunction in smokers. Among these cell types, the best correlation was found for mast cells with lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Furthermore, the observed predominant expression of IL-17A in mast cells warrants further investigation to elucidate their role in smoking-induced lung injury, despite the

  1. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  2. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  3. Containment condensing heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained

  4. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  5. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  6. Excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental observations of collective excitations of Bose condensed atomic vapours have stimulated interest in the microscopic description of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an external potential. We present a finite temperature field theory for collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and use a finite-temperature linear response formalism, which goes beyond the simple mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect of the non-condensed thermal atoms we include using perturbation theory in a quasiparticle basis. This presents a simple scheme to understand the interaction between condensate and non-condensed atoms and enables us to include the effect the condensate has on collision dynamics. At first we limit our treatment to the case of a spatially homogeneous Bose gas. We include the effect of pair and triplet anomalous averages and thus obtain a gapless theory for the excitations of a weakly interacting system, which we can link to well known results for Landau and Beliaev damping rates. A gapless theory for trapped systems with a static thermal component follows straightforwardly. We then investigate finite temperature excitations of a condensate in a spherically symmetric harmonic trap. We avoid approximations to the density of states and thus emphasise finite size aspects of the problem. We show that excitations couple strongly to a restricted number of modes, giving rise to resonance structure in their frequency spectra. Where possible we derive energy shifts and lifetimes of excitations. For one particular mode, the breathing mode, the effects of the discreteness of the system are sufficiently pronounced that the simple picture of an energy shift and width fails. Experiments in spherical traps have recently become feasible and should be able to test our detailed quantitative predictions. (author)

  7. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  8. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  9. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  10. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absolute zero. These ideas had ... Everybody is talking about Bose-Einstein condensation. This discovery ... needed if we want to find the probability distribution of the x- ... Boltzmann took two approaches to the problem, both of them deep and ...

  11. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred

  13. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  14. The application of condensate water as an additional cooling media intermittently in condenser of a split air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardita, I. N.; Subagia, I. W. A.

    2018-01-01

    The condensate water produced by indoor a split air conditioning is usually not utilized and thrown away into the environment. The result of measurement shows that the temperature of condensate water produced by split air conditioning is quite low, that is 19-22 °C at the rate of 16-20 mL / min and it has PH balance. Under such conditions, Air Condensate produced by split air conditioning should still be recovered as an additional cooling medium on the condenser. This research will re-investigate the use of condensate water as an intermittent additional cooling of the condenser to increase the cooling capacity and performance of the air conditioning system. This research is done by experimental method whose implementation includes; designing and manufacturing of experimental equipment, mounting measuring tools, experimental data retrieval, data processing and yield analysis. The experimental results show that the use of condensate water as an intermittent additional cooling medium on split air conditioning condenser can increase the refrigeration effect about 2%, cooling capacity about 4% and 7% of COP system. Experimental results also show a decrease in power consumption in the system compressor about 3%

  15. Bose Condensate in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Condensate Saga, now halfway through its fifth decade, is reviewed. The recent neutron-scattering work which has at last convincingly established that there is indeed a Bose Condensate in He II is described

  16. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  17. Continuous condensation in nanogrooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2018-05-01

    We consider condensation in a capillary groove of width L and depth D , formed by walls that are completely wet (contact angle θ =0 ), which is in a contact with a gas reservoir of the chemical potential μ . On a mesoscopic level, the condensation process can be described in terms of the midpoint height ℓ of a meniscus formed at the liquid-gas interface. For macroscopically deep grooves (D →∞ ), and in the presence of long-range (dispersion) forces, the condensation corresponds to a second-order phase transition, such that ℓ ˜(μcc-μ ) -1 /4 as μ →μcc - where μc c is the chemical potential pertinent to capillary condensation in a slit pore of width L . For finite values of D , the transition becomes rounded and the groove becomes filled with liquid at a chemical potential higher than μc c with a difference of the order of D-3. For sufficiently deep grooves, the meniscus growth initially follows the power law ℓ ˜(μcc-μ ) -1 /4 , but this behavior eventually crosses over to ℓ ˜D -(μ-μc c) -1 /3 above μc c, with a gap between the two regimes shown to be δ ¯μ ˜D-3 . Right at μ =μc c , when the groove is only partially filled with liquid, the height of the meniscus scales as ℓ*˜(D3L) 1 /4 . Moreover, the chemical potential (or pressure) at which the groove is half-filled with liquid exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on D with a maximum at D ≈3 L /2 and coincides with μc c when L ≈D . Finally, we show that condensation in finite grooves can be mapped on the condensation in capillary slits formed by two asymmetric (competing) walls a distance D apart with potential strengths depending on L . All these predictions, based on mesoscopic arguments, are confirmed by fully microscopic Rosenfeld's density functional theory with a reasonable agreement down to surprisingly small values of both L and D .

  18. Keeping condensers clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  19. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  20. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  1. BWR condensate filtration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.A.; Pasricha, A.; Rekart, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Poor removal of particulate corrosion products (especially iron) from condensate is one of the major problems in BWR systems. The presence of activated corrosion products creates ''hot spots'' and increases piping dose rates. Also, fuel efficiency is reduced and the risk of fuel failure is increased by the deposit of corrosion products on the fuel. Because of these concerns, current EPRI guidelines call for a maximum of 2 ppb of iron in the reactor feedwater with a level of 0.5 ppb being especially desirable. It has become clear that conventional deep bed resins are incapable of meeting these levels. While installation of prefilter systems is an option, it would be more economical for plants with naked deep beds to find an improved bead resin for use in existing systems. BWR condensate filtration technologies are being tested on a condensate side stream at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station. After two years of testing, hollow fiber filters (HFF) and fiber matrix filters (FMF), and low crosslink cation resin, all provide acceptable results. The results are presented for pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and water quality measurements. The costs are compared for backwashable non-precoat HFF and FMF. Results are also presented for full deep bed vessel tests of the low crosslink cation resin

  2. Condensation of exciton polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, J.

    2006-10-01

    Because of their unique property of bringing pure quantum effects into the real world scale, phase transitions towards condensed phases - like Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), superfluidity, and superconductivity - have always fascinated scientists. The BEC, appearing upon cooling a gas of bosons below a critical temperature, has been given a striking demonstration in dilute atomic gases of rubidium atoms at temperatures below 200 nK. By confining photons in a semiconductor micro-cavity, and strongly coupling them to electronic excitations, one may create polaritons. These bosonic quasi-particles are 10 9 times lighter than rubidium atoms, thus theoretically allowing a BEC at standard cryogenic temperatures. Here we detail a comprehensive set of experiments giving compelling evidence for a BEC of polaritons. Above a critical density, we observe massive occupation of the ground state, developing from a thermalized and saturated distribution of the polariton population at (16-20) K. We demonstrate as well the existence of a critical temperature for this transition. The spontaneous onset of a coherent state is manifested by the increase of temporal coherence, the build-up of long-range spatial coherence and the reduction of the thermal noise observed in second order coherence experiments. The marked linear polarization of the emission from the condensate is also measured. All of these findings indicate the spontaneous onset of a macroscopic quantum phase. (author)

  3. Polymorphism of Lysozyme Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad S; Byington, Michael C; Conrad, Jacinta C; Vekilov, Peter G

    2017-10-05

    Protein condensates play essential roles in physiological processes and pathological conditions. Recently discovered mesoscopic protein-rich clusters may act as crucial precursors for the nucleation of ordered protein solids, such as crystals, sickle hemoglobin polymers, and amyloid fibrils. These clusters challenge settled paradigms of protein condensation as the constituent protein molecules present features characteristic of both partially misfolded and native proteins. Here we employ the antimicrobial enzyme lysozyme and examine the similarities between mesoscopic clusters, amyloid structures, and disordered aggregates consisting of chemically modified protein. We show that the mesoscopic clusters are distinct from the other two classes of aggregates. Whereas cluster formation and amyloid oligomerization are both reversible, aggregation triggered by reduction of the intramolecular S-S bonds is permanent. In contrast to the amyloid structures, protein molecules in the clusters retain their enzymatic activity. Furthermore, an essential feature of the mesoscopic clusters is their constant radius of less than 50 nm. The amyloid and disordered aggregates are significantly larger and rapidly grow. These findings demonstrate that the clusters are a product of limited protein structural flexibility. In view of the role of the clusters in the nucleation of ordered protein solids, our results suggest that fine-tuning the degree of protein conformational stability is a powerful tool to control and direct the pathways of protein condensation.

  4. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  5. Condenser performance monitoring and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The main condenser at Ginna Station was retubed from admiralty brass to 316 stainless steel. A condenser performance monitoring spreadsheet was developed using EPRI guidelines after fouling was discovered. PEPSE computer models were used to determine the power loss and confirm the spreadsheet results. Cleaning of the condenser was performed using plastic scrubbers. Condenser performance improved dramatically following the cleaning. PEPSE, condenser spreadsheet performance, and actual observed plant data correlated well together. The fouling mechanism was determined to be a common lake bacteria and fungus growth which was combined with silt. Chlorination of the circulating water system at the allowable limits is keeping the biofouling under control

  6. Acid-base regulation in intensively farmed air-breathing fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Damsgaard, Christian; Thomsen, Mikkel

    Hypercapnia in slow moving organically loaded tropical waters is a natural occurrence with several records of pCO2 at 60 mm Hg. Despite this, studies on South American air-breathing fish have revealed a low capacity for extracellular pH (pHe) regulation. The two underlying reasons proposed are; 1......) an osmorespiratory compromise with reduced branchial surface area and reduced branchial ventilation 2) low ion concentrations in the very soft amazon waters limiting the capacity for branchial pH regulation. The Mekong delta region houses extremely intensive aquaculture of a large number of air-breathing species...

  7. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  8. Localized nonlinear waves and dynamical stability in spinor Bose–Einstein condensates with time–space modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu-Qin; Han, Wei; Li, Ji; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinearity is one of the most remarkable characteristics of Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Much work has been done on one- and two-component BECs with time- or space-modulated nonlinearities, while there is little work on spinor BECs with space–time-modulated nonlinearities. In the present paper we investigate localized nonlinear waves and dynamical stability in spinor Bose–Einstein condensates with nonlinearities dependent on time and space. We solve the three coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations by similarity transformation and obtain two families of exact matter wave solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions and the Mathieu equation. The localized states of the spinor matter wave describe the dynamics of vector breathing solitons, moving breathing solitons, quasi-breathing solitons and resonant solitons. The results show that one-order vector breathing solitons, quasi-breathing solitons, resonant solitons and the moving breathing solitons ψ ±1 are all stable, but the moving breathing soliton ψ 0 is unstable. We also present the experimental parameters to realize these phenomena in future experiments.

  9. Potential of Mass Spectrometry in Developing Clinical Laboratory Biomarkers of Nonvolatiles in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Olin, Anna-Carin; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath contains nonvolatile substances that are part of aerosol particles of submicrometer size. These particles are formed and exhaled as a result of normal breathing and contain material from distal airways of the respiratory system. Exhaled breath can be used to monitor biomarkers of both endogenous and exogenous origin and constitutes an attractive specimen for medical investigations. This review summarizes the present status regarding potential biomarkers of nonvolatile compounds in exhaled breath. The field of exhaled breath condensate is briefly reviewed, together with more recent work on more selective collection procedures for exhaled particles. The relation of these particles to the surfactant in the terminal parts of the respiratory system is described. The literature on potential endogenous low molecular weight compounds as well as protein biomarkers is reviewed. The possibility to measure exposure to therapeutic and abused drugs is demonstrated. Finally, the potential future role and importance of mass spectrometry is discussed. Nonvolatile compounds exit the lung as aerosol particles that can be sampled easily and selectively. The clinical applications of potential biomarkers in exhaled breath comprise diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progress, monitoring of drug therapy, and toxicological investigations. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  11. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  12. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  13. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr

  14. Topology in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, M I

    2006-01-01

    This book reports new results in condensed matter physics for which topological methods and ideas are important. It considers, on the one hand, recently discovered systems such as carbon nanocrystals and, on the other hand, new topological methods used to describe more traditional systems such as the Fermi surfaces of normal metals, liquid crystals and quasicrystals. The authors of the book are renowned specialists in their fields and present the results of ongoing research, some of it obtained only very recently and not yet published in monograph form.

  15. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  16. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  17. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  18. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  19. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  20. Ice condenser experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannberg, L.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Owczarski, P.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental plan is being developed to validate the computer code ICEDF. The code was developed to estimate the extent of aerosol retention in the ice compartments of pressurized water reactor ice condenser containment systems during severe accidents. The development of the experimental plan began with review of available information on the conditions under which the code will be applied. Computer-generated estimates of thermohydraulic and aerosol conditions entering the ice condenser were evaluated and along with other information, used to generate design criteria. The design criteria have been used for preliminary test assembly design and for generation of statistical test designs. Consideration of the phenomena to be evaluated in the testing program, as well as equipment and measurement limitations, have led to changes in the design criteria and to subsequent changes in the test assembly design and statistical test design. The overall strategy in developing the experimental plan includes iterative generation and evaluation of candidate test designs using computer codes for statistical test design and ICEDF for estimation of experimental results. Estimates of experimental variability made prior to actual testing will be verified by replicate testing at preselected design points

  1. Optimal design of condenser weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The condenser is an important component in nuclear power plants, which dimension and weight will effect the economical performance and the arrangement of the nuclear power plants. In this paper, the calculation model is established according to the design experience. The corresponding codes are also developed, and the sensitivity of design parameters which influence the condenser weight is analyzed. The present design optimization of the condenser, taking the weight minimization as the objective, is carried out with the self-developed complex-genetic algorithm. The results show that the reference condenser design is far from the best scheme, and also verify the feasibility of the complex-genetic algorithm. (authors)

  2. Modified Qigong Breathing Exercise for Reducing the Sense of Hunger on an Empty Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Alexander P.; Wang, Zhixin; Marchenko, Elena V.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to determine whether a modified Qigong breathing exercise can reduce the sense of hunger and identify possible mechanisms. Methods. The results from the test group, which performed the exercise, are compared with the control group, which performed deep breathing. Intestinal pressure measurements, stomach pH monitoring, and participant surveys were used for assessment. Results. Stomach pH was increased by 3 (0.2) and intestinal pressure was reduced by 12 (0.5) mm Hg in the experimental group and did not change significantly in the control group. The study provides strong evidence that the exercise can significantly reduce, or even suppress the sense of hunger on an empty stomach. Conclusion. This breathing exercise provides comfort in different circumstances, such as lack of regular meals, limited volume or caloric diet, and even during temporary complete absence of food in therapeutic fasting. PMID:28497701

  3. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksch, D

    2003-01-01

    The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is

  4. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  5. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Condensed matter physics in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornyshev, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Some topics in electrochemistry are considered from the condensed matter physics viewpoint in relation to the problems discussed in this book. Examples of the successful application of condensed matter physics to electrochemistry are discussed together with prospective problems and pressing questions. (author). 127 refs, 4 figs

  7. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  8. Off gas condenser performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cains, P.W.; Hills, K.M.; Waring, S.; Pratchett, A.G.

    1989-12-01

    A suite of three programmes has been developed to model the ruthenium decontamination performance of a vitrification plant off-gas condenser. The stages of the model are: condensation of water vapour, NO x absorption in the condensate, RuO 4 absorption in the condensate. Juxtaposition of these stages gives a package that may be run on an IBM-compatible desktop PC. Experimental work indicates that the criterion [HNO 2 ] > 10 [RuO 4 ] used to determine RuO 4 destruction in solution is probably realistic under condenser conditions. Vapour pressures of RuO 4 over aqueous solutions at 70 o -90 o C are slightly lower than the values given by extrapolating the ln K p vs. T -1 relation derived from lower temperature data. (author)

  9. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  10. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  11. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  12. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  13. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  15. Models of coherent exciton condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, P B; Eastham, P R; Keeling, J M J; Marchetti, F M; Simons, B D; Szymanska, M H

    2004-01-01

    That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers

  16. Models of coherent exciton condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Keeling, J M J [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Marchetti, F M [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Simons, B D [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Szymanska, M H [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-08

    That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers.

  17. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  18. Noninvasive Ph-telemetric Measurement of Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain experience with and validate the Heidelberg pH-telemetric methodology in order to determine if the pH-telemetric methodology would be a useful noninvasive measure of gastrointestinal transit time for future ground-based and in-flight drug evaluation studies. The Heidelberg pH metering system is a noninvasive, nonradioactive telemetric system that, following oral ingestion, continuously measures intraluminal pH of the stomach, duodenum, small bowel, ileocecal junction, and large bowel. Gastrointestinal motility profiles were obtained in normal volunteers using the lactulose breath-hydrogen and Heidelberg pH metering techniques. All profiles were obtained in the morning after an overnight fast. Heidelberg pH profiles were obtained in the fasting and fed states; lactulose breath-hydrogen profiles were obtained after a standard breakfast. Mouth-to-cecum transit time was measured as the interval from administration of lactulose (30 ml; 20 g) to a sustained increase in breath-hydrogen of 10 ppm or more. Gastric emptying time was measured as the interval from the administration of the Heidelberg capsule to a sustained increase in pH of three units or more.

  19. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  20. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  1. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  2. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  3. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  4. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  5. Solar engineering - a condensed course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars

    2011-11-15

    The document represents the material covered in a condensed two-week course focusing on the most important thermal and PV solar energy engineering topics, while also providing some theoretical background.

  6. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    OpenAIRE

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  7. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  8. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  9. Dual approaches for defects condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, Romulo; Grigorio, Leonardo de Souza; Wotzasek, Clovis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Marcelo Santos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

  10. Condensation: the new deal; Condensation: la nouvelle donne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The principle of condensation boilers is based on the recovery of the latent heat of the steam generated by the combustion of natural gas. This technology was introduced in France at the end of the 80's but failed in its promise because of the complexity of the equipments available at that time. Today, constructors' offer is more mature and reliable and the context has changed. This technology can conciliate three goals: a mastery of energy consumptions, the comfort of the user and the respect of environment. This meeting organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat), was a good opportunity to makes a status of the market of individual condensation systems in France and in Europe, to present the situation of this technology today and the 10 golden rules for the fitting and maintenance of individual condensation boilers, and to present some technical references, examples and results of today's offer. (J.S.)

  11. Research progress of control of condensate depression for condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liang, Run; Li, Fengyu

    2017-08-01

    It is introduced that significance and structure of the condensate depression control system. In accordance with controller devised procedure, we analyze and elaborate how to construct the lumped parameter and dynamic mathematical model which possesses distinct physics significance. Neural network model being called black-box model is also introduced. We analyze and contrast the control technique of condensate depression as conventional PI control, fuzzy PI control and fuzzy control. It is indicated that if the controller of condensate depression were devised inappropriate, while the steam discharged of turbine varying by a large margin, would result in the rotation rate of cooling water circulating pump accelerating at a great lick even to trigger the galloping danger which is less impressive for the units operating safely.

  12. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    The breath figure method is a versatile and facile approach of generating ordered micro and nanoporous structures in polymeric materials. When a polymer solution (dissolved in a high vapor pressure organic solvent) is evaporated out in the presence of a moist air stream, the evaporative cooling effect causes the condensation and nucleation of water droplets onto the polymer solution surface. This leads to the formation of an imprinted porous structure upon removal of the residual solvent and water. The facile removal of the water droplet template leaving its structural imprint is a specifically appealing aspect of the breath figure film technology. The first part of the dissertation work involves the fabrication of drug loaded breath figure thin films and its utilization as a controlled drug release carrier and biomaterial scaffold. In a single fabrication step, single layer/multilayer porous thin films were designed and developed by combining the breath figure process and a modified spin or dip coating technique. Using biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG), drug loaded films were fabricated onto FDA approved medical devices (the Glaucoma drainage device and the Surgical hernia mesh). The porosity of the films is in the range of 2-4 microm as characterized by scanning electron microscope. The drug coated medical implants were characterized for their surface and bulk morphology, the degradation rate of the film, drug release rate and cell cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the use of breath figure morphologies in biodegradable polymer films adds an additional level of control to drug release. In comparison to non-porous films, the breath figure films showed an increased degradation and enhanced drug release. Furthermore, the porous nature of the film was investigated as a biomaterial scaffold to construct three dimensional in vitro tissue model systems. The breath figure film with interconnected

  13. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  14. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  15. Effects of condensate in the exhalation limb of neonatal circuits on airway pressure during bubble CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Tiffany M; Richardson, C Peter; Diblasi, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Bubble CPAP is frequently used in spontaneously breathing infants with lung disease. Often bubble CPAP systems lack pressure alarms and pressure-release valves. We observed a large volume of condensate in the exhalation limb of a patient circuit and conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that accumulated condensate could affect delivered pressures. An anatomically accurate nasal airway model of a preterm infant was attached to a spontaneously breathing lung model. A bubble CPAP system was attached to the nasal airway with bi-nasal short prongs, and the rate of fluid condensation was measured. Next, tracheal pressures were monitored digitally to detect changes in airway pressure related to condensate accumulation. Measurements were obtained with volumes of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mL of water in the exhalation limb, at flows of 4, 6, 8, and 10 L/min. Measurements with 20 mL in the exhalation limb were recorded with and without a pressure-relief valve in the circuit. The rate of condensate accumulation was 3.8 mL/h. At volumes of ≥ 10 mL, noticeable alterations in the airway pressure waveforms and significant increases in mean tracheal pressure were observed. The pressure-relief valve effectively attenuated peak tracheal pressure, but only decreased mean pressure by 0.5-1.5 cm H2O. Condensate in the exhalation limb of the patient circuit during bubble CPAP can significantly increase pressure delivered to the patient. The back and forth movement of this fluid causes oscillations in airway pressure that are much greater than the oscillations created by gas bubbling out the exhalation tube into the water bath. We recommend continuously monitoring pressure at the nasal airway interface, placing an adjustable pressure-relief valve in the circuit, set to 5 cm H2O above the desired mean pressure, and emptying fluid from the exhalation limb every 2-3 hours.

  16. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  17. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.; Nefiodov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  18. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  19. Dynamics of inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Juan Pablo; Krein, Gastão; Kroff, Daniel; Peixoto, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the formation of inhomogeneous chirally broken phases in the final stages of a heavy-ion collision, with particular interest on the time scales involved in the formation process. The study is conducted within the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau time evolution, driven by a free energy functional motivated by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Expansion of the medium is modeled by one-dimensional Bjorken flow and its effect on the formation of inhomogeneous condensates is investigated. We also use a free energy functional from a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which predicts metastable phases that lead to long-lived inhomogeneous condensates before reaching an equilibrium phase with homogeneous condensates.

  20. Condensation mechanisms of tetravalent technetium in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poineau, F.

    2004-10-01

    In deep storage technetium can exist in degree IV or III. Recent studies on Tc(IV) have shown that Tc n O y (4n-2y)+ , Tc IV (μ-O) 2 Tc IV structure, is a precursor for precipitation of TcO 2 . Few data are available on Tc n O y (4n-2y)+ Subject of this thesis is the mechanism of condensation of Tc(IV) leading to this form. Kinetic studies have shown that the condensation of Tc IV Cl 5 (H 2 O) - in chloride media leads to a dimer. XAS studies resulted in a linear structure Tc IV -O-Tc IV . This compound, formulated as Tc 2 OCl 10 4- , is stable at pH = 0.3, it undergoes cyclization to Tc n O y (4n-2y)+ at pH =1.5 and is oxidized to TcO 4 - under α radiation. In 3 M chloride media, TcO 2 lead to formation Tc 2 OCl 10 4- at pH = 0.3 and to Tc n O y (4n-2y)+ at pH = 1.5. An electrochemical cell permitting 'in situ' XAS measurement was developed. XANES studies have shown that the reduction of Tc(VII) lead to a Tc(IV)/Tc(III) mixture. (author)

  1. Scrutinizing the pion condensed phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carignano, Stefano; Mammarella, Andrea; Mannarelli, Massimo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Lepori, Luca [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito-L' Aquila (Italy); Pagliaroli, Giulia [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    When the isospin chemical potential exceeds the pion mass, charged pions condense in the zero-momentum state forming a superfluid. Chiral perturbation theory provides a very powerful tool for studying this phase. However, the formalism that is usually employed in this context does not clarify various aspects of the condensation mechanism and makes the identification of the soft modes problematic. We re-examine the pion condensed phase using different approaches within the chiral perturbation theory framework. As a first step, we perform a low-density expansion of the chiral Lagrangian valid close to the onset of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We obtain an effective theory that can be mapped to a Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian in which, remarkably, all the coefficients depend on the isospin chemical potential. The low-density expansion becomes unreliable deep in the pion condensed phase. For this reason, we develop an alternative field expansion deriving a low-energy Lagrangian analog to that of quantum magnets. By integrating out the ''radial'' fluctuations we obtain a soft Lagrangian in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone bosons arising from the breaking of the pion number symmetry. Finally, we test the robustness of the second-order transition between the normal and the pion condensed phase when next-to-leading-order chiral corrections are included. We determine the range of parameters for turning the second-order phase transition into a first-order one, finding that the currently accepted values of these corrections are unlikely to change the order of the phase transition. (orig.)

  2. Minimum Leakage Condenser Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results and analysis of tests performed on four critical areas of large surface condensers: the tubes, tubesheets, tube/tubesheet joints and the water chambers. Significant changes in operation, service duty and the reliability considerations require that certain existing design criteria be verified and that improved design features be developed. The four critical areas were treated analytically and experimentally. The ANSYS finite element computer program was the basic analytical method and strain gages were used for obtaining experimental data. The results of test and analytical data are compared and recommendations made regarding potential improvement in condenser design features and analytical techniques

  3. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  4. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  5. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  6. Leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate in bronchoprovocation tests with occupational allergens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Brabec, Marek; Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, 4-5 (2008), s. 281-292 ISSN 0952-3278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : occupational allergens * leukotrienes * 8-isoprostane Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2008

  7. Markers in breath condensate in patients with occupational asthma and rhinitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, M.; Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Fenclová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2005), 346S ISSN 0012-3692. [CHEST 2005. 29.10.-3.11. 2005, Montréal] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : asthma * rhinitis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry of exhaled breath condensate headspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáp, P.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Pehal, F.; Španěl, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 18 (2008), s. 2844-2850 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : EBC * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2008

  9. 8-Isoprostane and leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate in czech subjects with silicosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2007), s. 766-774 ISSN 0019-8366 Grant - others:GA MZd NR8107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silica * silicosis * 8-isoprostane * leukotrienes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2007

  10. Arachidonic Acid Derivatives in the Exhaled Breath Condensate in Pneumoconioses and their Correlation with Individual Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Lebedová, J.; Klusáčková, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, s (2007), s144-s146 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silica * asbestos * leukotrienes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  12. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  13. From cation to oxide: hydroxylation and condensation of aqueous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxylation, condensation and precipitation of metal cations in aqueous solution are briefly reviewed. Hydroxylation of aqueous complexes essentially depends on the format charge (oxidation state), the size and the pH of the medium. It is the step allowing the condensation reaction. Depending on the nature of complexes (aqua-hydroxo, oxo-hydroxo), the. mechanism of condensation is different, olation or ox-olation respectively. The first one leads to poly-cations or hydroxides more or less stable against dehydration. The second one leads to poly-anions or oxides. Oligomeric species (poly-cations, poly-anions) are form from charged monomer complexes while the formation of solid phases requires non-charged precursors. Because of their high lability, charged oligomers are never the precursors of solids phases. The main routes for the formation of solid phases from solution are studied with two important and representative elements, Al and Si. For Al 3+ ions, different methods (base addition in solution, thermo-hydrolysis, hydrothermal synthesis) are discussed in relation to the crystal structure of the solid phase obtained. For silicic species condensing by ox-olation, the role of acid or base catalysis on the morphology of gels is studied. The influence of complexing ligands on the processes and on the characteristics of solids (morphology of particles, basic salts and polymetallic oxides formation) is studied. (author)

  14. On condensation-induced waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Luo, X.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Complex wave patterns caused by unsteady heat release due to cloud formation in confined compressible flows are discussed. Two detailed numerical studies of condensation-induced waves are carried out. First, the response of a flow of nitrogen in a slender Laval nozzle to a sudden addition of water

  15. KAON CONDENSATION IN NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMOS, A.; SCHAFFNER-BIELICH, J.; WAMBACH, J.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the kaon-nucleon interaction and its consequences for the change of the properties of the kaon in the medium. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron stars under various scenarios as well its effects for neutron star properties are reviewed

  16. Thermodynamic entanglement of magnonic condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Yung, Man-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the spins is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely long distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase-transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.

  17. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  18. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  19. Modeling of Kerena Emergency Condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Rafał; Schmidt, Holger; Mull, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; Ganzmann, Ingo; Herbst, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    KERENA is an innovative boiling water reactor concept equipped with several passive safety systems. For the experimental verification of performance of the systems and for codes validation, the Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA) was built in Karlstein, Germany. The emergency condenser (EC) system transfers heat from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) to the core flooding pool in case of water level decrease in the RPV. EC is composed of a large number of slightly inclined tubes. During accident conditions, steam enters into the tubes and condenses due to the contact of the tubes with cold water at the secondary side. The condensed water flows then back to the RPV due to gravity. In this paper two approaches for modeling of condensation in slightly inclined tubes are compared and verified against experiments. The first approach is based on the flow regime map. Depending on the regime, heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to specific semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully-empirical correlation. The models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented Modelica language and the open-source OpenModelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating loss of coolant accident performed at Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA). The comparison shows a good agreement.Due to the modularity of models, both of them may be used in the future in systems incorporating condensation in horizontal or slightly inclined tubes. Depending on his preferences, the modeller may choose one-equation based approach or more sophisticated model composed of several exchangeable semi-empirical correlations.

  20. Modeling of Kerena Emergency Condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryk Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available KERENA is an innovative boiling water reactor concept equipped with several passive safety systems. For the experimental verification of performance of the systems and for codes validation, the Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA was built in Karlstein, Germany. The emergency condenser (EC system transfers heat from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV to the core flooding pool in case of water level decrease in the RPV. EC is composed of a large number of slightly inclined tubes. During accident conditions, steam enters into the tubes and condenses due to the contact of the tubes with cold water at the secondary side. The condensed water flows then back to the RPV due to gravity. In this paper two approaches for modeling of condensation in slightly inclined tubes are compared and verified against experiments. The first approach is based on the flow regime map. Depending on the regime, heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to specific semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully-empirical correlation. The models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented Modelica language and the open-source OpenModelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating loss of coolant accident performed at Integral Test Stand Karlstein (INKA. The comparison shows a good agreement.Due to the modularity of models, both of them may be used in the future in systems incorporating condensation in horizontal or slightly inclined tubes. Depending on his preferences, the modeller may choose one-equation based approach or more sophisticated model composed of several exchangeable semi-empirical correlations.

  1. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  3. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  4. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  5. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  6. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  8. Coherence and chaos in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs

  9. Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics which have emerged from a recent rigorous statistical mechanical treatment of condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics (S.A. Adelman, Adv. Chem. Phys.53:61 (1983)) are discussed in simple physical terms

  10. Pion condensation and neutron star dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    1983-01-01

    The question of formation of pion condensate via a phase transition in nuclear matter, especially in the core of neutron stars is reviewed. The possible mechanisms and the theoretical restrictions of pion condensation are summarized. The effects of ultradense equation of state and density jumps on the possible condensation phase transition are investigated. The possibilities of observation of condensation process are described. (D.Gy.)

  11. Condensation and Wetting Dynamics on Micro/Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olceroglu, Emre

    Because of their adjustable wetting characteristics, micro/nanostructured surfaces are attractive for the enhancement of phase-change heat transfer where liquid-solid-vapor interactions are important. Condensation, evaporation, and boiling processes are traditionally used in a variety of applications including water harvesting, desalination, industrial power generation, HVAC, and thermal management systems. Although they have been studied by numerous researchers, there is currently a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which structured surfaces improve heat transfer during phase-change. This PhD dissertation focuses on condensation onto engineered surfaces including fabrication aspect, the physics of phase-change, and the operational limitations of engineered surfaces. While superhydrophobic condensation has been shown to produce high heat transfer rates, several critical issues remain in the field. These include surface manufacturability, heat transfer coefficient measurement limitations at low heat fluxes, failure due to surface flooding at high supersaturations, insufficient modeling of droplet growth rates, and the inherent issues associated with maintenance of non-wetted surface structures. Each of these issues is investigated in this thesis, leading to several contributions to the field of condensation on engineered surfaces. A variety of engineered surfaces have been fabricated and characterized, including nanostructured and hierarchically-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used here as a biological template for the fabrication of nickel nanostructures, which are subsequently functionalized to achieve superhydrophobicity. This technique is simple and sustainable, and requires no applied heat or external power, thus making it easily extendable to a variety of common heat transfer materials and complex geometries. To measure heat transfer rates during superhydrophobic condensation in the presence of non-condensable

  12. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  13. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  14. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  15. Some issues in the ghost condensation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the recently proposed 'ghost condensation' scenario a model of consistent infrared modification of gravity was suggested. We first review the basic ideas of this scenario. We discuss various phenomenological aspects of the ghost condensation, such as stability of the condensate, bounds on the UV cut-off scale of the corresponding effective field theory and other issues. (author)

  16. Computations for a condenser. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    Computations for condensers are presented with experimental results. The computations are concerned with the steam flux at the condenser input, and inside the tube bundle. Experimental results are given for the flux inside the condenser sleeve and the flow passing through the tube bundle [fr

  17. CO2 capture by Condensed Rotational Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthum, van R.J.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brouwers, J.J.H.; Golombok, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condensed Rotational Separation (CRS) technology is a patented method to upgrade gas mixtures. A novel application is thecapture of CO2 from coal-combustion fired power stations: Condensed Contaminant Centrifugal Separation in Coal Combustion(C5sep). CRS involves partial condensation of a gas

  18. Modelling of film condensation in presence of non condensable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevieve Geffraye; Dominique Bestion; Vladimir Kalitvianski

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents recent developments in the modelling of the condensation due to heat removal from a wall with a possible presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, or air. This work is mainly concerned with nuclear reactor safety with particular reference to situations related to new reactor design, cold shutdown state and severe accident analysis. Film condensation of steam in presence of nitrogen and helium in a tube has been investigated in the COTURNE experiment in a rather large range of parameters, pressure (from 0.1 to 7 Mpa), heat flux (0.1 to 6 W/cm 2 ), mass fraction of noncondensable gas (0 to 1) and also in presence of superheated steam. The experiment represents a Steam Generator tube of a Pressurised Water Reactor and can simulate both co-current or countercurrent flow of steam and water.The models are implemented in the CATHARE code used for nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics. The code uses two mass balance equations for liquid and gas, two momentum balance equations for liquid and gas and two energy balance equations for liquid and gas. Additional mass transport equations can be added for each non condensable gas. Heat transfers from wall to liquid film, from liquid to interface and gas to interface are modelled. The liquid film heat transfer coefficient is first investigated in pure saturated steam conditions in the pressure range from 0.1 to 7 Mpa. The CATHARE film condensation model in pure steam conditions is derived from Chen's correlation. Chen proposes a general correlation for the film condensation, covering the wavy-laminar and the turbulent film regimes and taking into account the interfacial friction effect. A large data base of laminar film regime was used including COTURNE data other available data found in the literature. The analysis of these data base suggests an influence of the liquid Reynolds number, according to the Nusselt theory, and also of the Eoetvoes number, with surface tension effects. A

  19. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  20. Supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    We briefly review the status and some of the recent work on supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation effects in the context of superstring theories. This issue is intimately related to the structure of the effective potential coming from superstrings. Minimization of this not only allows to find the scale of supersymmetry breaking, but also to determine dynamically other fundamental parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. In a multiple condensate scenario these get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. Some directions for future work are examined too. (author). 23 refs

  1. Measuring condensate fraction in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip; Kee, Hae-Young

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of off-diagonal long-range order in superconductors shows that the spin-spin correlation function is significantly influenced by the order if the order parameter is anisotropic on a microscopic scale. Thus, magnetic neutron scattering can provide a direct measurement of the condensate fraction of a superconductor. It is also argued that recent measurements in high-temperature superconductors come very close to achieving this goal. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Atomistic modeling of dropwise condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikarwar, B. S., E-mail: bssikarwar@amity.edu; Singh, P. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida (India); Muralidhar, K.; Khandekar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2016-05-23

    The basic aim of the atomistic modeling of condensation of water is to determine the size of the stable cluster and connect phenomena occurring at atomic scale to the macroscale. In this paper, a population balance model is described in terms of the rate equations to obtain the number density distribution of the resulting clusters. The residence time is taken to be large enough so that sufficient time is available for all the adatoms existing in vapor-phase to loose their latent heat and get condensed. The simulation assumes clusters of a given size to be formed from clusters of smaller sizes, but not by the disintegration of the larger clusters. The largest stable cluster size in the number density distribution is taken to be representative of the minimum drop radius formed in a dropwise condensation process. A numerical confirmation of this result against predictions based on a thermodynamic model has been obtained. Results show that the number density distribution is sensitive to the surface diffusion coefficient and the rate of vapor flux impinging on the substrate. The minimum drop radius increases with the diffusion coefficient and the impinging vapor flux; however, the dependence is weak. The minimum drop radius predicted from thermodynamic considerations matches the prediction of the cluster model, though the former does not take into account the effect of the surface properties on the nucleation phenomena. For a chemically passive surface, the diffusion coefficient and the residence time are dependent on the surface texture via the coefficient of friction. Thus, physical texturing provides a means of changing, within limits, the minimum drop radius. The study reveals that surface texturing at the scale of the minimum drop radius does not provide controllability of the macro-scale dropwise condensation at large timescales when a dynamic steady-state is reached.

  3. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  4. LOFCON-LOFT condenser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, E.C.; MacKay, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    LOFCON is a program developed for the LOFT air condenser system contained in the secondary coolant system. Although the basic theory described herein is general, the program given is not--it is specifically for the LOFT configuration. LOFCON is presented in subroutine form so that it may be easily incorporated into a larger program describing the complete secondary side. Specifically LOFCON was written to be incorporated into the detailed CSMP model of the LOFT secondary coolant system simulation

  5. Theory of laminar film condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Tetsu

    1991-01-01

    Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar­ ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con­ densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con­ denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo­ retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with som...

  6. Scandinavian experience of titanium condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multer, I.; Hedstroem, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Albrass condenser tubing in Sweden and Finnish nuclear power plants has caused much concern. After the appearance of the first tube leak, the deterioration has been very rapid. A typical development is represented by the Ringhals unit 2 eddy current (EC) measurements. They are, despite the difference in salinity, almost identical with Forsmark units 1 and 2 and units 1 and 2 of the TVO power company at Olkiluoto, Finland. For instance, in summer 1984, 3000 tubes were plugged in TVO 2 after four years of operation. The cause was pitting and/or erosion-corrosion. The failure rate, although the plugging criteria have been different from the EPRI concept, has exceeded that reported in the US and UK; and it has been necessary, especially with the strict feed water chemistry requirements in the PWR's, to arrange for retubing after a very short time, approximately 3 years after the first leak. The history of the nuclear plant condensers is shown; the average condenser life span has been approximately 6.5 years

  7. Accelerators for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for high energy, high luminosity beams has stimulated the science and engineering of accelerators to a point where they open up opportunities for new areas of scientific application to benefit from the advances driven by particle physics. One area of great importance is the use of electron or positron storage rings as a source of intense VUV or X-ray synchrotron radiation. An accelerator application that has grown in prominence over the last 10 years has been spallation neutron sources. Neutrons offer an advantage over X-rays as a condensed matter probe because the neutron energy is usually of the same order as the room temperature thermal energy fluctuations in the sample being studied. Another area in which accelerators are playing an increasingly important role in condensed matter research concerns the use of Mu mesons, Muons, as a probe. This paper also presents a description of the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. The design and status of the facility are described, and examples are given of its application to the study of condensed matter. (N.K.)

  8. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Controlling dropwise condensation by designing surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and be shed as quickly as possible is fundamental to water harvesting systems, thermal power generation, distillation towers, etc. However, cutting-edge approaches based on micro/nanoscale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants that synergistically couples both aspects of condensation and outperforms other synthetic surfaces. Inspired by an unconventional interpretation of the role of the beetle's bump geometry in promoting condensation, we show how to maximize vapor diffusion flux at the apex of convex millimetric bumps by optimizing curvature and shape. Integrating this apex geometry with a widening slope analogous to cactus spines couples rapid drop growth with fast directional transport, by creating a free energy profile that drives the drop down the slope. This coupling is further enhanced by a slippery, pitcher plant-inspired coating that facilitates feedback between coalescence-driven growth and capillary-driven motion. We further observe an unprecedented six-fold higher exponent in growth rate and much faster shedding time compared to other surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and rational design strategy can be applied to a wide range of phase change applications.

  9. Condensation During Nuclear Reactor Loca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, Y.; Teamah, M.; Sorour, M.; Soliman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two-phase channel flow with condensation is a common phenomenon occurs in a number of nuclear reactor accident scenarios. It also plays an important role during the operation of the safety coolant injection systems in advanced nuclear reactors. Semiempirical correlations and simple models based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer processes have been previously applied. Rigorous models, compatible with the state-of-the-art numerical algorithms used in thermal-hydraulic computer codes, are scare, and are of great interest. The objective of this research is to develop a method for modeling condensation, with noncondensable gases, compatible with the state-of-the-art numerical methods for the solution of multi-phase field equations. A methodology for modeling condensation, based on the stagnant film theory, and compatible with the reviewed numerical algorithms, is developed. The model treats the coupling between the heat and mass transfer processes, and allows for an implicit treatment of the mass and momentum exchange terms as the gas-liquid interphase, without iterations. The developed model was used in the application of loss of coolant in pressurized water reactor accidents

  10. Multiple spectator condensates from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the development of spectator (light test) field condensates due to their quantum fluctuations in a de Sitter inflationary background, making use of the stochastic formalism to describe the system. In this context, a condensate refers to the typical field value found after a coarse-graining using the Hubble scale H, which can be essential to seed the initial conditions required by various post-inflationary processes. We study models with multiple coupled spectators and for the first time we demonstrate that new forms of stationary solution exist (distinct from the standard exponential form) when the potential is asymmetric. Furthermore, we find a critical value for the inter-field coupling as a function of the number of fields above which the formation of stationary condensates collapses to H. Considering some simple two-field example potentials, we are also able to derive a lower limit on the coupling, below which the fluctuations are effectively decoupled, and the standard stationary variance formulae for each field separately can be trusted. These results are all numerically verified by a new publicly available python class (nfield) to solve the coupled Langevin equations over a large number of fields, realisations and timescales. Further applications of this new tool are also discussed.

  11. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  12. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gruenig, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84±1.28 in the right and 2.1±0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54±1.18 and 2.8±1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53±4.06 and 3.46±2.21 at inspiration and 4.45±4.23 and 4.76±3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Gruenig, Ekkehard [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine III, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84{+-}1.28 in the right and 2.1{+-}0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54{+-}1.18 and 2.8{+-}1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53{+-}4.06 and 3.46{+-}2.21 at inspiration and 4.45{+-}4.23 and 4.76{+-}3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  14. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  15. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: A SUMMARY OF KEY IDEAS AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENUGOPALAN,R.

    2004-03-28

    We summarize the theory and phenomenology of the Color Glass Condensate reviewed previously by E. Iancu and the author in hep-ph/0303204. In addition, we discuss some of the subsequent developments in the past year both in theory and in phenomenological applications.

  16. Ghost condensate and generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Dubovsky and Sibiryakov recently proposed a scenario in which particles of different species propagate with different speeds due to their direct couplings to ghost condensate. It was argued that this extended version of ghost condensate allows a gedanken experiment leading to violation of the generalized second law. However, in the original ghost condensate scenario, difference in propagation speeds is suppressed by M 2 /M Pl 2 , where M is the order parameter of spontaneous Lorentz breaking and M Pl is the Planck scale. In this case the energy transfer necessary for the gedanken experiment is so slow that the timescale of decrease of entropy, if any, is always longer than the Jeans timescale of ghost condensate. Hence the generalized second law is not violated by the gedanken experiment in the original ghost condensate scenario. This conclusion trivially extends to gauged ghost condensation by taking into account accretion of gauged ghost condensate into a black hole.

  17. Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2017-04-01

    Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose

  18. Black holes in the ghost condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u μ =-g μν ∂ ν φ. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter

  19. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensate collapse and dynamical squeezing of vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.A.; Hu, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the phenomena of condensate collapse, as described by Donley et al. [Nature 412, 295 (2001)] and N. Claussen [Ph. D thesis, University of Colorado, 2003 (unpublished)] by focusing on the behavior of excitations or fluctuations above the condensate, as driven by the dynamics of the condensate, rather than the dynamics of the condensate alone or the kinetics of the atoms. The dynamics of the condensate squeezes and amplifies the quantum excitations, mixing the positive and negative frequency components of their wave functions thereby creating particles that appear as bursts and jets. By analyzing the changing amplitude and particle content of these excitations, our simple physical picture explains well the overall features of the collapse phenomena and provides excellent quantitative fits with experimental data on several aspects, such as the scaling behavior of the collapse time and the number of particles in the jet. The prediction of the bursts at this level of approximation is less than satisfactory but may be improved by including the backreaction of the excitations on the condensate. The mechanism behind the dominant effect--parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations and freezing of modes outside of horizon--is similar to that of cosmological particle creation and structure formation in a rapid quench (which is fundamentally different from Hawking radiation in black holes). This shows that Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics is a promising venue for doing 'laboratory cosmology'

  1. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  2. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  3. Landau damping of transverse quadrupole oscillations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilleumas, M.; Pitaevskii, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the interaction between the low-lying transverse collective oscillations and the thermal excitations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate by means of perturbation theory. We consider a cylindrical trapped condensate and calculate the transverse elementary excitations at zero temperature by solving the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equations in two dimensions (2D). We use them to calculate the matrix elements between the thermal excited states and the quasi-2D collective modes. The Landau damping of transverse collective modes is studied as a function of temperature. At low temperatures, the corresponding damping rate is in agreement with the experimental data for the decay of the transverse quadrupole mode, but it is too small to explain the observed slow decay of the transverse breathing mode. The reason for this discrepancy is discussed

  4. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  5. Method of continuously cleaning condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Akira; Takahashi, Sankichi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent marine livings from depositing to the inside of ball recycling pipeways. Method: Copper electrodes are provided to the downstream of a sponge ball collector in a sponge ball recycling pipeways for cleaning through the cooling pipes of a condenser. Electrical current is supplied by way of a variable resister to the electrodes and copper ions resulted from the dissolution of the electrodes are fed in the pipes to kill the marine livings such as barnacles and prevent the marine livings from depositing to the inside of the sponge ball recycling pipeways. (Seki, T.)

  6. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Air breathing and aquatic gas exchange during hypoxia in armoured catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Matey, Victoria; Mendoza, Julie-Anne; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-01-01

    Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O 2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O 2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O 2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O 2 supply and utilization. Fish were instrumented with opercular catheters to measure the O 2 tension (PO 2 ) of expired water, and air breathing and aquatic respiration were measured during progressive stepwise hypoxia in the water. Armoured catfish exhibited relatively low rates of O 2 consumption and gill ventilation, and gill ventilation increased in hypoxia due primarily to increases in ventilatory stroke volume. Armoured catfish began air breathing at a water PO 2 of 2.5 kPa, and both air-breathing frequency and hypoxia tolerance (as reflected by PO 2 at loss of equilibrium, LOE) was greater in individuals with a larger body mass. Branchial O 2 loss, as reflected by higher PO 2 in expired than in inspired water, was observed in a minority (4/11) of individuals as water PO 2 approached that at LOE. Armoured catfish also exhibited a gill morphology characterized by short filaments bearing short fused lamellae, large interlamellar cell masses, low surface area, and a thick epithelium that increased water-to-blood diffusion distance. Armoured catfish had a relatively low blood-O 2 binding affinity when sampled in normoxia (P 50 of 3.1 kPa at pH 7.4), but were able to rapidly increase binding affinity during progressive hypoxia exposure (to a P 50 of 1.8 kPa). Armoured catfish also had low activities of several metabolic enzymes in white muscle, liver, and brain. Therefore, low rates of metabolism and gill ventilation, and a reduction in branchial gas

  8. PH og modernismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus.......Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus....

  9. Anoxia and Acidosis Tolerance of the Heart in an Air-Breathing Fish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Air breathing has evolved repeatedly in fishes and may protect the heart during stress. We investigated myocardial performance in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a species that can withstand prolonged exposure to severe hypoxia and acidosis. Isometric ventricular preparations were exposed to anoxia, lactic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis, and combinations of these treatments. Ventricular preparations were remarkably tolerant to anoxia, exhibiting an inotropic reduction of only 40%, which fully recovered during reoxygenation. Myocardial anoxia tolerance was unaffected by physiologically relevant elevations of bicarbonate concentration, in contrast to previous results in other fishes. Both lactic acidosis (5 mM; pH 7.10) and hypercapnic acidosis (10% CO2; pH 6.70) elicited a biphasic response, with an initial and transient decrease in force followed by overcompensation above control values. Spongy myocardial preparations were significantly more tolerant to hypercapnic acidosis than compact myocardial preparations. While ventricular preparations were tolerant to the isolated effects of anoxia and acidosis, their combination severely impaired myocardial performance and contraction kinetics. This suggests that air breathing may be a particularly important myocardial oxygen source during combined anoxia and acidosis, which may occur during exercise or environmental stress.

  10. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  11. On scalar condensate baryogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriloval, D.P.; Valchanov, T.V.

    2004-09-01

    We discuss the scalar field condensate baryogenesis model, which is among the baryogenesis scenarios preferred today, compatible with inflation. According to that model a complex scalar field φ, carrying baryon charge B≠0 is generated at inflation. The baryon excess in the Universe results from the φ decay at later stages of Universe evolution (T 15 GeV). We updated the model's parameters range according to the current observational cosmological constraints and analyzed numerically φ evolution after the inflationary stage till its decay φ → qq-barlγ. During that period oscillated with a decreasing amplitude due to Universe expansion and particle production processes due to the coupling of the field to fermions gφf 1 f 2 . It was shown that particle creation processes play an essential role for evolution and its final value. It may lead to a considerable decrease of the field's amplitude for large g and/or large H values, which reflects finally into strong damping of the baryon charge carried by the condensate. The analysis suggests that for a natural range of the model's parameters the observed value of the baryon asymmetry can be obtained and the model can serve as a successful baryogenesis model, compatible with inflation. (author)

  12. Magnon condensation and spin superfluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkov, Yury M.; Safonov, Vladimir L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of quasi-equilibrium magnons which leads to spin superfluidity, the coherent quantum transfer of magnetization in magnetic material. The critical conditions for excited magnon density in ferro- and antiferromagnets, bulk and thin films, are estimated and discussed. It was demonstrated that only the highly populated region of the spectrum is responsible for the emergence of any BEC. This finding substantially simplifies the BEC theoretical analysis and is surely to be used for simulations. It is shown that the conditions of magnon BEC in the perpendicular magnetized YIG thin film is fulfillied at small angle, when signals are treated as excited spin waves. We also predict that the magnon BEC should occur in the antiferromagnetic hematite at room temperature at much lower excited magnon density compared to that of ferromagnetic YIG. Bogoliubov's theory of Bose-Einstein condensate is generalized to the case of multi-particle interactions. The six-magnon repulsive interaction may be responsible for the BEC stability in ferro- and antiferromagnets where the four-magnon interaction is attractive.

  13. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  14. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer

  15. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  16. Evaluation of oxidative status with exhaled breath 8-isoprostane levels in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Emrah; Tasliyurt, Turker; Kutluturk, Faruk; Sahin, Safak; Yilmaz, Ayse; Sivgin, Hakan; Yelken, Berna Murat; Ozturk, Banu; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Sahin, Semsettin

    2013-12-01

    Studies conducted so far on the effect of hyperthyroidism on oxidative stress (OS) have employed blood and urine samples. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive technique used to take sample from lungs to determine many biological indications. The aim of the present study was determine the possibility of using 8- isoprostane levels in EBC as an indicator of OS in hyperthyroid patients. The present study was performed on 42 patients with hyperthyroidism and 42 healthy control subjects. Hyperthyroid patients included patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from patients in each group using a condensing device. 8- isoprostane levels as an indicator of OS in EBC were detected via immunoassay method. Hyperthyroid patients and control groups had 8-isoprostane levels of 6.08±6.31 and 1.56±0.88 pg/ml, respectively. The difference between patient and control groups was statistically significant (phyperthyroid patients, eleven had Graves', 21 multinodular goiter, and 10 toxic adenoma diagnosis. There were no significant differences among patients of different diagnoses for 8-isoprostane levels (p=0.541). No significant correlations were found between 8-isoprostane and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the present study, 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of hyperthyroid patients were found to be significantly higher than that in healthy control group. This study is important in that it is the first to evaluate the effects on respiratory system of elevated OS of hyperthyroidism in EBC.

  17. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  18. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  19. The physics of exciton-polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Lagoudakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In 2006 researchers created the first polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at 19K in the solid state. Being inherently open quantum systems, polariton condensates open a window into the unpredictable world of physics beyond the “fifth state of matter”: the limited lifetime of polaritons renders polariton condensates out-of-equilibrium and provides a fertile test-bed for non-equilibrium physics. This book presents an experimental investigation into exciting features arising from this non-equilibrium behavior. Through careful experimentation, the author demonstrates the ability of polaritons to synchronize and create a single energy delocalized condensate. Under certain disorder and excitation conditions the complete opposite case of coexisting spatially overlapping condensates may be observed. The author provides the first demonstration of quantized vortices in polariton condensates and the first observation of fractional vortices with full phase and amplitude characterization. Finally, this book investigate...

  20. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2000-01-01

    Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...... that the organic compounds and the inhibition effect are very low even before treatment with activated carbon. The moderate inhibition effect relates to a high content of ammonia in the condensate. The nitrifiers become tolerant to the condensate after a few weeks of exposure. The level of organic compounds...... and the level of inhibition are so low that condensate from the optimised two-stage gasifier can be led to the public sewer....

  1. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  2. The Dynamics of Aerosols in Condensational Scrubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jens Tue; Christensen, Jan A.; Simonsen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the dynamics of aerosol change in condensational scrubbers and scrubbing condensers is proposed. The model is applicable for packed column gas/liquid contact when plug flow can be assumed. The model is compared with experimental data for particle removal...... for their estimation is proposed. The behaviour of scrubbers and condensers for some important technical applications is demonstrated by model simulations. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  3. Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate

  4. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Dou, Nicholas; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism [1]. In this work, we investigated a scalable synthesis technique to produce oxide nanostructures on copper surfaces capable of sustaining superhydrophobic condensation and characterized the growth an...

  5. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  6. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  7. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  8. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  9. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  10. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  11. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  12. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  13. Strangeness condensation and ''clearing'' of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Rho, M.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook

    1987-01-01

    We show that a substantial amount of strange quark-antiquark pair condensates in the nucleon required by the πN sigma term implies that kaons could condense in nuclear matter at a density about three times that of normal nuclear matter. This phenomenon can be understood as the ''cleansing'' of qanti q condensates from the QCD vacuum by a dense nuclear matter, resulting in a (partial) restoration of the chiral symmetry explicitly broken in the vacuum. It is suggested that the condensation signals a new phase distinct from that of quark plasma and that of ordinary dense hadronic matter. (orig.)

  14. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  15. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-01-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described

  16. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  17. An efficient mathematical model for air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.S.; Ingham, D.B.; Hughes, K.J.; Ma, L.; Pourkashanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the ambient humidity on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells become more pronounced as the ambient temperature increases. The polarisation curves have been generated using the in-house developed MATLAB® application, Polarisation Curve Generator, which is available in the supplementary data. - Highlights: • An efficient mathematical model has been developed for an air-breathing PEM fuel cell. • The fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if the Joule and entropic heats are neglected. • The fuel cell performance is highly sensitive to the state of water at the thermodynamic equilibrium. • The cell potential dictates the favourable ambient conditions for the fuel cell. - Abstract: A simple and efficient mathematical model for air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells has been built. One of the major objectives of this study is to investigate the effects of the Joule and entropic heat sources, which are often neglected, on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells. It is found that the fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if one or both of these heat sources is not incorporated into the model. Also, it is found that the performance of the fuel cell is highly sensitive to the state of the water at the thermodynamic equilibrium magnitude as both the entropic heat and the Nernst potential considerably increase if water is assumed to be produced in liquid form rather than in vapour form. Further, the heat of condensation is shown to be small and therefore, under single-phase modelling, has a negligible effect on the performance of the fuel cell. Finally, the favourable ambient conditions depend on the operating cell potential. At intermediate cell potentials, a mild ambient temperature and low humidity are favoured to maintain high membrane conductivity and mitigate water flooding. At low cell potentials, low ambient temperature and high humidity are favoured to

  18. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  19. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  20. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  4. Condensate subcooling near tube exit during horizontal in-tube condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, K.; Abe, N.; Ozeki, T.

    1992-01-01

    In-tube condensation is encountered in various applications for heat exchangers, such as domestic air-conditioning equipment, industrial air-cooled condensers, and moisture separator reheaters (MSRs) for nuclear power pants. Numerous research work has been conducted to predict the condensation heat transfer coefficient, and we have now enough information for thermal design of heat exchangers with horizontal in-tube condensation. Most of the research is analytical and/or experimental work in the annular or stratified flow regime, or experimental work on bulk condensation, i.e., from saturated vapor to complete condensation. On the other hand, there exist few data about the heat transfer phenomena in the very lower-quality region near the tube exit. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the condensation heat transfer phenomena near the tube exit experimentally and analytically, and to predict the degree of condensate subcooling

  5. Carbogen Breathing Differentially Enhances Blood Plasma Volume and 5-Fluorouracil Uptake in Two Murine Colon Tumor Models with a Distinct Vascular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer, 5-fluorouracil (FU-based chemotherapy is the standard. However, only a subset of patients responds to chemotherapy. Breathing of carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2 may increase the uptake of FU through changes in tumor physiology. This study aims to monitor in animal models in vivo the effects of carbogen breathing on tumor blood plasma volume, pH, and energy status, and on FU uptake and metabolism in two colon tumor models C38 and C26a, which differ in their vascular structure and hypoxic status. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS was used to assess tumor pH and energy status, and fluorine-19 MRS was used to follow FU uptake and metabolism. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide were performed to assess blood plasma volume. The results showed that carbogen breathing significantly decreased extracellular pH and increased tumor blood plasma volume and FU uptake in tumors. These effects were most significant in the C38 tumor line, which has the largest relative vascular area. In the C26a tumor line, carbogen breathing increased tumor growth delay by FU. In this study, carbogen breathing also enhanced systemic toxicity by FU.

  6. Possibility of removing condensate and scattered oil from gas-condensate field during bed flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, N.A.; Yagubov, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is set of evaluating the possible removal from the bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed. For this purpose, an experimental study was made of the displacement by water from the porous medium of the oil and condensate saturating it. The obtained experimental results permit evaluation of the possible removal from the gas-condensate bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed.

  7. Gas manufacture, processes for: condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1876-11-29

    In the production of illuminating gas from coal, shale, hydrocarbon oil, or other substance used in the production of gas, the volatile products inside the retort are agitated by means of moving pistons or jets of compressed gas, steam, or vapor in order to decompose them into permanent gases, and in some cases to increase the volume of gas by the decomposition of the injected gas, etc. or by blending or carburetting this gas with the decomposition products of the volatile matters. To separate the condensible hydrocarbons from the crude gas it is passed through heated narrow tortuous passages or is caused to impinge on surfaces. If the crude gases are cold these surfaces are heated and vice versa.

  8. Quasiparticles in condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review, the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed. The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes. A new concept of critical quasiparticles near a quantum critical point is introduced, and applied to quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion metals. Fractional quasiparticles in systems of restricted dimensionality are reviewed. Dirac quasiparticles emerging in so-called Dirac materials are discussed. The more recent discoveries of topologically protected chiral quasiparticles in topological matter and Majorana quasiparticles in topological superconductors are briefly reviewed.

  9. Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Tamagaki, Ryozo; Tatsumi, Toshitaka.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristic aspects of pion-condensed phases are described in a simple model, for the system involving only nucleons and pions which interact through the π-N P-wave interaction. We consider one typical version in each of three kinds of pion condensation; the one of neutral pions (π 0 ), the one of charged pions (π C ) and the combined one in which both the π 0 and π C condensations are coexistent. Emphasis is put on the description to clarify the novel structures of the nucleon system which are realized in the pion-condensed phases. At first, it is shown that the π 0 condensation is equivalent to the particular nucleonic phase realized by a structure change of the nucleon system, where the attractive first-order effect of the one-pion-exchange (OPE) tensor force is brought about coherently. The aspects of this phase are characterized by the layered structure with a specific spin-isospin order with one-dimensional localization (named the ALS structure in short), which provides the source function for the condensed π 0 field. We utilize both descriptions with use of fields and potentials for the π 0 condensation. Next, the π C condensation realized in neutron-rich matter is described by adopting a version of the traveling condensed wave. In this phase, the nucleonic structure becomes the Fermi gas consisting of quasi-neutrons described by a superposition of neutron and proton. In this sense the structure change of the nucleon system for the π C condensation is moderate, and the field description is suitable. Finally, we describe a coexistent pion condensation, in which both the π 0 and π C condensations coexist without interference in such a manner that the π C condensation develops in the ALS structure. The model adopted here provides us with the characteristic aspects of the pion-condensed phases persisting in the realistic situation, where other ingredients affecting the pion condensation are taken into account. (author)

  10. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  11. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding has

  12. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  13. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to chemosensitivity of breathing-related neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Rafiq; Pollema-Mays, Sarah L; Chang, Zheng; Alheid, George F; McCrimmon, Donald R; Martina, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Cellular mechanisms of central pH chemosensitivity remain largely unknown. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) integrates peripheral afferents with central pathways controlling breathing; NTS neurons function as central chemosensors, but only limited information exists concerning the ionic mechanisms involved. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) mediate chemosensitivity in nociceptive terminals, where pH values ∼6.5 are not uncommon in inflammation, but are also abundantly expressed throughout the brain where pHi s tightly regulated and their role is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that ASICs are expressed in NTS neurons and contribute to intrinsic chemosensitivity and control of breathing. In electrophysiological recordings from acute rat NTS slices, ∼40% of NTS neurons responded to physiological acidification (pH 7.0) with a transient depolarization. This response was also present in dissociated neurons suggesting an intrinsic mechanism. In voltage clamp recordings in slices, a pH drop from 7.4 to 7.0 induced ASIC-like inward currents (blocked by 100 μM amiloride) in ∼40% of NTS neurons, while at pH ≤ 6.5 these currents were detected in all neurons tested; RT-PCR revealed expression of ASIC1 and, less abundantly, ASIC2 in the NTS. Anatomical analysis of dye-filled neurons showed that ASIC-dependent chemosensitive cells (cells responding to pH 7.0) cluster dorsally in the NTS. Using in vivo retrograde labelling from the ventral respiratory column, 90% (9/10) of the labelled neurons showed an ASIC-like response to pH 7.0, suggesting that ASIC currents contribute to control of breathing. Accordingly, amiloride injection into the NTS reduced phrenic nerve activity of anaesthetized rats with an elevated arterial P(CO(2)) .

  14. Comparison of Heat Transfer Coefficients of Silver Coated and Chromium Coated Copper Tubes of Condenser in Dropwise Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Shivesh Kumar; Dr. Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Since centuries steam is being used in power generating system. The steam leaving the power unit is reconverted into water in a condenser designed to transfer heat from the steam to the cooling water as rapidly and as efficiently as possible. The efficiency of condenser depends on rate of condensation and mode of condensation of steam in the condenser. The increase in efficiency of the condenser enhances the heat transfer co-efficient which in turn results in economic design of condenser and ...

  15. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  16. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate fromation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field efects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  17. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate formation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field effects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  18. Bosonization with inclusion of the gluon condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the gluon condensate on the quark condensate and on masses and coupling constants of composite mesons are discussed within a QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for zero temperature as well as for the case of finite temperature and baryon number density. (orig.)

  19. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  20. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  1. Born-Kothari Condensation for Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of Bose–Einstein condensation, we present a detailed account of the statistical description of the condensation phenomena for a Fermi–Dirac gas following the works of Born and Kothari. For bosons, while the condensed phase below a certain critical temperature, permits macroscopic occupation at the lowest energy single particle state, for fermions, due to Pauli exclusion principle, the condensed phase occurs only in the form of a single occupancy dense modes at the highest energy state. In spite of these rudimentary differences, our recent findings [Ghosh and Ray, 2017] identify the foregoing phenomenon as condensation-like coherence among fermions in an analogous way to Bose–Einstein condensate which is collectively described by a coherent matter wave. To reach the above conclusion, we employ the close relationship between the statistical methods of bosonic and fermionic fields pioneered by Cahill and Glauber. In addition to our previous results, we described in this mini-review that the highest momentum (energy for individual fermions, prerequisite for the condensation process, can be specified in terms of the natural length and energy scales of the problem. The existence of such condensed phases, which are of obvious significance in the context of elementary particles, have also been scrutinized.

  2. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  3. Titanium application to power plant condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, the growth of operating performance and construction plan of titanium-tubed condensers in thermal and unclear power plants has been very impressive. High-quality, thinner welded titanium tubes used for cooling tubes, matching design specifications of condensers, have been stably supplied through mass production. It now can be said that various technical problems for titanium-tubed condensers have been solved, but data on operating performance in large-scale commercial plants are still scarce, and site-by-site information needs be exchanged more frequently and on a larger scale. Projects to replace existing condenser cooling tubes with those of corrosion-resistant titanium have been actively furthered, with the only remaining barrier to full employment being cost effectiveness. It is hoped that condenser and tube manufacturers will conduct more joint value analyses

  4. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  5. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  6. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  7. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  8. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  9. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  10. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  11. Measurement of liquid-liquid equilibria for condensate + glycol and condensate + glycol + water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    ,2-ethanediol (MEG) + condensate and MEG + water + condensate systems at temperatures from (275 to 323) K at atmospheric pressure. The condensate used in this work is a stabilized natural gas condensate from an offshore field in the North Sea. Compositional analysis of the natural gas condensate was carried out...... by gas chromatography, and detailed separation of individual condensate's components has been carried out. Approximately 85 peaks eluting before nonane were identified by their retention time. Peak areas were converted to mass fraction using 1-heptene as an internal standard. The components were divided...... into boiling range groups from hexane to nonane. Paraffinic (P), naphthenic (N), and aromatic (A) distributions were obtained for the boiling point fractions up to nonane. The average molar mass and the overall density of the condensate were measured experimentally. For the mutual solubility of MEG...

  12. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  13. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  14. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  15. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  16. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  17. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  18. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  19. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  20. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  2. Topology and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field.  The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...

  3. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between ∼0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Condensing embryology teaching: alternative perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Hasan, Syed Maaz Tariq, Syed Ali Haider Department of MBBS, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, PakistanWe read the article “Condensing embryology teaching for medical students: can it be taught in 2 hours?” by Kazzazi and Bartlett quite attentively. The authors were successful in mentioning an effective mode of teaching embryology. Embryology is indeed an important subject that forms the base for appreciating anatomy and has immense practical implementations in different parts of medicine, for example, in pediatrics and ENT surgery. However, it is often neglected and is only taught in preclinical years.1 The authors proposed a method for teaching embryology splendidly from their perspective; therefore, we felt the need to expand the discussion from the perspective of third-year medical students who have just completed their preclinical years. Hence, we would like to mention few limitations to this study as well.Authors’ replyFawz Kazzazi, Jonathan Bartlett School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKWe read with interest the response letter by Hasan et al. We must first commend the editor and journal on their great ability to unify the medical community and extend topics for debate internationally.View the original paper by Kazzazi and Bartlett.

  5. Emergency condensator for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubakai, Yoichi; Narumi, Yuichi; Sakata, Yuji.

    1992-01-01

    An emergency condensator is constituted with heat transfer pipes, a steam chamber, an upper pipe plate, a lower pipe plate and a condensate chamber. The upper pipe plate is secured by supports, and a steam pipe is connected to the upper pipe plate. A condensate pipeline and a incondensible gas vent pipe are disposed to the condensate chamber. Taking thermal expansion of the steam pipes and thermal expansion of the heat transfer pipes into consideration, the heat transfer pipe is made as an L-shaped pipe having a vertical portion and a horizontal portion so as to absorb each of the thermal expansion smoothly. The L-shaped heat transfer pipes are constituted as a bundle of pipes having the end portions thereof secured to the upper pipe plate and the lower pipe plate. The emergency condensator is disposed in a emergency condensator pool chamber. Cooling water in contact with the outer side of the L-shaped heat transfer pipes is the pool water in the pool chamber, and the condensator chamber is disposed in concrete walls of the pool chamber. With such a constitution, stress due to thermal expansion of the heat transfer pipes is mitigated, and heat transfer performance, earth quake resistance and maintenancability are improved. (I.N.)

  6. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  7. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  8. Enhanced Evaporation and Condensation in Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi

    A state-of-the-art review of enhanced evaporation and condensation in horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels that are used for air-conditioning and refrigeration applications is presented. The review covers the effects of flow pattern and geometrical parameters of the tubes on the heat transfer performance. Attention is paid to the effect of surface tension which leads to enhanced evaporation and condensation in the microfin tubes and micro-channels. A review of prior efforts to develop empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficient and theoretical models for evaporation and condensation in the horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels is also presented.

  9. Open string decoupling and tachyon condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, G.

    2001-01-01

    The amplitudes in perturbative open string theory are examined as functions of the tachyon condensate parameter. The boundary state formalism demonstrates the decoupling of the open string modes at the non-perturbative minima of the tachyon potential via a degeneration of open world-sheets and identifies an independence of the coupling constants g s and g YM at general values of the tachyon condensate. The closed sector is generated at the quantum level; it is also generated at the classical level through the condensation of the propagating open string modes on the D-brane degrees of freedom.

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  12. Biomolecular condensates: organizers of cellular biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Salman F; Lee, Hyun O; Hyman, Anthony A; Rosen, Michael K

    2017-05-01

    Biomolecular condensates are micron-scale compartments in eukaryotic cells that lack surrounding membranes but function to concentrate proteins and nucleic acids. These condensates are involved in diverse processes, including RNA metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, the DNA damage response and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown that liquid-liquid phase separation driven by multivalent macromolecular interactions is an important organizing principle for biomolecular condensates. With this physical framework, it is now possible to explain how the assembly, composition, physical properties and biochemical and cellular functions of these important structures are regulated.

  13. Model of a chromomagnetic condensate in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirsky, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The simplest form of the effective Lagrangian of a gluon field leads to a deep degeneracy of a magnetic condensate that arises when the stability of the standard perturbative vacuum is violated by quantum effects. The inclusion of terms in the effective Lagrangian that conserve color and Lorentz invariance enables the possible types of Abelian and non-Abelian condensate fields to be classified. The degeneracy is partially removed. One of the four types of the condensate permits the emergence of closed vortex lines that correspond to cyclic permutations of colors upon circumventions around stringlike singularities

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation in real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.J.; Llano, M. de; Solis, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show how Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) occurs not only in momentum space but also in coordinate (or real) space. Analogies between the isotherms of a van der Waals classical gas of extended (or finite-diameter) identical atoms and the point (or zero-diameter) particles of an ideal BE gas allow concluding that, in contrast with the classical case, the volume per particle vanishes in the pure BE condensate phase precisely because the boson diameters are zero. Thus a BE condensate forms in real space without exhibiting a liquid branch as does the classical gas. (Author)

  15. Landau-Migdal parameters and pion condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The possibility of pion condensation, one of the long-standing issues in nuclear physics, is reexamined in the light of the recent experimental data on the giant Gamow-Teller resonance. The experimental result tells that the coupling of nucleon particle-hole states with {delta} isobar-hole states in the spin-isospin channel should be weaker than that previously believed. It, in turn, implies that nuclear matter has the making of pion condensation at low densities. The possibility and implications of pion condensation in the heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars should be seriously reconsidered. (author)

  16. Vortices in a rotating dark matter condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Rotha P; Morgan, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    We examine vortices in a self-gravitating dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of ultra-low mass scalar bosons that arise during a late-time cosmological phase transition. Rotation of the dark matter BEC imprints a background phase gradient on the condensate, which establishes a harmonic trap potential for vortices. A numerical simulation of vortex dynamics shows that the vortex number density, n v ∝ r -1 , resulting in a flat velocity profile for the dark matter condensate. (letter to the editor)

  17. Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions

  18. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  19. Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2011-11-14

    Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  1. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  2. Efficient, Long-Life Biocidal Condenser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental control systems for manned lunar and planetary bases will require condensing heat exchangers to control humidity. Condensing surfaces must be...

  3. Phase Transitions of the Polariton Condensate in 2D Dirac Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Lee, Changhee; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum

    2018-04-13

    For the quantum well in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon (e-ph) coupling can lead to the hybridizations of the exciton and the cavity photon known as polaritons, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics due to the nontrivial Berry phase comes into play when the quantum well consists of the gapped two-dimensional Dirac material such as the transition metal dichalcogenide MoS_{2} or WSe_{2}. Specifically, in forming the polariton, the e-ph coupling from the optical selection rule due to the Berry phase can compete against the Coulomb electron-electron (e-e) interaction. We find that this competition gives rise to a rich phase diagram for the polariton condensate involving both topological and symmetry breaking phase transitions, with the former giving rise to the quantum anomalous Hall and the quantum spin Hall phases.

  4. Phase Transitions of the Polariton Condensate in 2D Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Lee, Changhee; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum

    2018-04-01

    For the quantum well in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon (e -ph) coupling can lead to the hybridizations of the exciton and the cavity photon known as polaritons, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics due to the nontrivial Berry phase comes into play when the quantum well consists of the gapped two-dimensional Dirac material such as the transition metal dichalcogenide MoS2 or WSe2 . Specifically, in forming the polariton, the e -ph coupling from the optical selection rule due to the Berry phase can compete against the Coulomb electron-electron (e -e ) interaction. We find that this competition gives rise to a rich phase diagram for the polariton condensate involving both topological and symmetry breaking phase transitions, with the former giving rise to the quantum anomalous Hall and the quantum spin Hall phases.

  5. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    dynamics and density functional theory. Exchange-correlation functionals from the identical-particle Ornstein-Zernike equation: Basic formulation and numerical algorithms / R. Cuevas-Saavedra and P. W. Ayers. Features and catalytic properties of RhCu: A review / S. Gonzalez, C. Sousa and F. Illas. Kinetic energy functionals: Exact ones from analytic model wave functions and approximate ones in orbital-free molecular dynamics / V. V. Karasiev ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of hydrogen storage in carbon nanopores / C. Wexler ... [et al.] -- pt. F. Superconductivity. Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in superconductivity / M. de Llano. Kohn anomaly energy in conventional superconductors equals twice the energy of the superconducting gap: How and why? / R. Chaudhury and M. P. Das. Collective excitations in superconductors and semiconductors in the presence of a condensed phase / Z. Koinov. Thermal expansion of ferromagnetic superconductors: Possible application to UGe[symbol] / N. Hatayama and R. Konno. Generalized superconducting gap in a Boson-Fermion model / T. A. Mamedov and M. de Llano. Influence of domain walls in the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect / E. J. Patino. Spin singlet and triplet superconductivity induced by correlated hopping interactions / L. A. Perez, J. S. Millan and C. Wang -- pt. G. Statistical mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics. Boltzmann's ergodic hypothesis: A meeting place for two cultures / M. H. Lee. Electron-electron interaction in the non-relativistic limit / F. B. Malik.

  6. Holography, Gravity and Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnoll, Sean [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-12-20

    Over the five years of funding from this grant, I produced 26 publications. These include a book-long monograph on "Holographic Quantum Matter" that is currently in press with MIT press. The remainder were mostly published in Physical Review Letters, the Journal of High Energy Physics, Nature Physics, Classical and Quantum Gravity and Physical Review B. Over this period, the field of holography applied to condensed matter physics developed from a promising theoretical approach to a mature conceptual and practical edifice, whose ideas were realized in experiments. My own work played a central role in this development. In particular, in the final year of this grant, I co-authored two experimental papers in which ideas that I had developed in earlier years were shown to usefully describe transport in strongly correlated materials — these papers were published in Science and in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (obviously my contribution to these papers was theoretical). My theoretical work in this period developed several new directions of research that have proven to be influential. These include (i) The construction of highly inhomogeneous black hole event horizons, realizing disordered fixed points and describing new regimes of classical gravity, (ii) The conjecture of a bound on diffusivities that could underpin transport in strongly interacting media — an idea which may be proven in the near future and has turned out to be intimately connected to studies of quantum chaos in black holes and strongly correlated media, (iii) The characterization of new forms of hydrodynamic transport, e.g. with phase-disordered order parameters. These studies pertain to key open questions in our understanding of how non-quasiparticle, intrinsically strongly interacting systems can behave. In addition to the interface between holography and strongly interacting condensed matter systems, I made several advances on understanding the role of entanglement in quantum

  7. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  8. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  9. Fundamentals of evaporation and condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental relationships governing evaporation and condensation processes are reviewed. The terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model is discussed in terms of atomic steps comprising growth and evaporation of crystals. Recent results in the field are described

  10. Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik

    2004-01-01

    We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation and crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetoe, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes history and state of art theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and crystallization as cases of breaking continuous symmetries. Emphasizes that these problems have not been solved exactly. (TRA)

  12. The condensation of water on adsorbed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José María; Tatti, Francesco; Chuvilin, Andrey; Mam, Keriya; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-26

    The wetting and dewetting behavior of biological nanostructures and to a greater degree single molecules is not well-known even though their contact with water is the basis for all biology. Here, we show that environmental electron microscopy (EM) can be applied as a means of imaging the condensation of water onto viruses. We captured the formation of submicrometer water droplets and filaments on single viral particles by environmental EM and by environmental transmission EM. The condensate structures are compatible with capillary condensation between adsorbed virus particles and with known droplet shapes on patterned surfaces. Our results confirm that such droplets exist down to condensation/evaporation cycle as expected from their stability in air and water. Moreover we developed procedures that overcome problems of beam damage and of resolving structures with a low atomic number.

  13. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  14. Droplet condensation in rapidly decaying pressure fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Bai, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E.; Hijikata, K.

    1992-01-01

    Certain promising schemes for cooling inertial confinement fusion reactors call for highly transient condensation in a rapidly decaying pressure field. After an initial period of condensation on a subcooled droplet, undesirable evaporation begins to occur. Recirculation within the droplet strongly impacts the character of this condensation-evaporation cycle, particularly when the recirculation time constant is of the order of the pressure decay time constant. Recirculation can augment the heat transfer, delay the onset of evaporation, and increase the maximum superheat inside the drop by as much as an order of magnitude. This numerical investigation identifies the most important parameters and physics characterizing transient, high heat flux droplet condensation. The results can be applied to conceptual designs of inertial confinement fusion reactors, where initial temperature differences on the order of 1,500 K decay to zero over time spans the order of tens of milliseconds

  15. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  16. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations

  17. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  18. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  19. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.

    1969-02-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  20. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Fermion condensation and gapped domain walls in topological orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yidun [Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093 (China); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Chenjie [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-31

    We study fermion condensation in bosonic topological orders in two spatial dimensions. Fermion condensation may be realized as gapped domain walls between bosonic and fermionic topological orders, which may be thought of as real-space phase transitions from bosonic to fermionic topological orders. This picture generalizes the previous idea of understanding boson condensation as gapped domain walls between bosonic topological orders. While simple-current fermion condensation was considered before, we systematically study general fermion condensation and show that it obeys a Hierarchy Principle: a general fermion condensation can always be decomposed into a boson condensation followed by a minimal fermion condensation. The latter involves only a single self-fermion that is its own anti-particle and that has unit quantum dimension. We develop the rules of minimal fermion condensation, which together with the known rules of boson condensation, provides a full set of rules for general fermion condensation.

  2. Biofouling and its prevention in condenser tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, K; Minamoto, K; Kyohara, S [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Central Research and Development Lab.

    1979-04-01

    In this paper, biofouling in condenser tubes and methods of prevention are described. Biofouling has a tendency to occur in tubes under lower velocity of sea water, and fouling organisms, if allowed to build up, cannot be removed by ordinary nylon brush cleaning. As the results of our investigation, it was concluded that sponge ball cleaning should be employed when the condenser is operated under lower velocity of sea water in the bacteria breeding season.

  3. Chiral Lagrangians and quark condensate in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.; Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.

    1996-03-01

    The evolution of density of quark condensate in nuclear medium with interacting nucleons, including the short range correlations is examined. Two chiral models are used, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. It is shown that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. The non-linear models restricted to pure s-wave pion-nucleon scattering are examined. (author)

  4. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  5. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs

  6. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.

  7. Vector condensate model of electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cynolter, G.; Pocsik, G.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the Higgs is not seen, a new version of the standard model is proposed where the scalar doublet is replaced by a vector doublet and its neutral member forms a nonvanishing condensate. Gauge fields are coupled to the new vector fields B in a gauge invariant way leading to mass terms for the gauge fields by condensation. The model is presented and some implications are discussed. (K.A.)

  8. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  9. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  10. PhD Dissertations

    OpenAIRE

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di)

    2010-01-01

    Report of PhD Dissertations.Anna Airò La scrittura delle regole. Politica e istituzioni a Taranto nel Quattrocento, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Pasquale Arfé La Clavis Physicae II (316-529) di Honorius Augustodunensis. Studio ed edizione critica, Tesi di dottorato in Storia della filosofia medievale, Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", 2005 Alessandro Azzimonti Scrittura agiografica e strutture di potere nell'Italia c...

  11. The Effect of Capillary Number on a Condensate Blockage in Gas Condensate Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Saifon DAUNGKAEW; Alain C GRINGARTEN

    2004-01-01

    In the petroleum industry, gas condensate reservoirs are becoming more common as exploration targets. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the reservoir behaviour mainly due to its complexity in the near wellbore region, where two phases, i.e. reservoir gas and condensate coexist when the wellbore pressure drops below the dew point pressure. The condensation process causes a reduction of the gas productivity (1). It has been reported in the literature that there is an increasing gas mobil...

  12. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  13. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  14. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  15. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  16. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  17. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  18. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  19. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  20. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  1. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  2. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  3. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  4. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  5. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.; Frepoli, C. [LOCA Integrated Services I, Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model is conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)

  6. Esophageal pH monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  7. Hypercarbic cardiorespiratory reflexes in the facultative air-breathing fish jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus): the role of branchial CO2 chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Boijink, Cheila; Florindo, Luiz Henrique; Leite, Cleo A Costa; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia; Milsom, William K; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2010-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the roles that externally versus internally oriented CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive chemoreceptors might play in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the air-breathing fish, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju). Fish were exposed to graded hypercarbia (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and also to graded levels of environmental acidosis (pH approximately 7.0, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, 5.3 and 4.7) equal to the pH levels of the hypercarbic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO(2) versus H(+). We also injected boluses of CO(2)-equilibrated solutions (5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and acid solutions equilibrated to the same pH as the CO(2) boluses into the caudal vein (internal) and buccal cavity (external) to distinguish between internal and external stimuli. The putative location of the chemoreceptors was determined by bilateral denervation of branches of cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) to the gills. The data indicate that the chemoreceptors eliciting bradycardia, hypertension and gill ventilatory responses (increased frequency and amplitude) to hypercarbia are exclusively branchial, externally oriented and respond specifically to changes in CO(2) and not H(+). Those involved in producing the cardiovascular responses appeared to be distributed across all gill arches while those involved in the gill ventilatory responses were located primarily on the first gill arch. Higher levels of aquatic CO(2) depressed gill ventilation and stimulated air breathing. The chemoreceptors involved in producing air breathing in response to hypercarbia also appeared to be branchial, distributed across all gill arches and responded specifically to changes in aquatic CO(2). This would suggest that chemoreceptor groups with different orientations (blood versus water) are involved in eliciting air-breathing responses to hypercarbia in jeju.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying facility condensate collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) condensate collection system (CCS). The function of the CCS is to collect cooling coil condensate from air-handling units in the CVDF and to isolate the condensate in collection tanks until the condensate is determined to be acceptable to drain to the effluent drain collection basin

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be mechanically... suction from the condenser and a discharge to the feed tank, it may be accepted as an independent...

  10. Vortices in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, B.

    2000-09-01

    In this thesis we solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically in order to model the response of trapped Bose-Einstein condensed gases to perturbations by electromagnetic fields. First, we simulate output coupling of pulses from the condensate and compare our results to experiments. The excitation and separation of eigenmodes on flow through a constriction is also studied. We then move on to the main theme of this thesis: the important subject of quantised vortices in Bose condensates, and the relation between Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity. We propose methods of producing vortex pairs and rings by controlled motion of objects. Full three-dimensional simulations under realistic experimental conditions are performed in order to test the validity of these ideas. We link vortex formation to drag forces on the object, which in turn is connected with energy transfer to the condensate. We therefore argue that vortex formation by moving objects is intimately related to the onset of dissipation in superfluids. We discuss this idea in the context of a recent experiment, using simulations to provide evidence of vortex formation in the experimental scenario. Superfluidity is also manifest in the property of persistent currents, which is linked to vortex stability and dynamics. We simulate vortex line and ring motion, and find in both cases precessional motion and thermodynamic instability to dissipation. Strictly speaking, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is valid only for temperatures far below the BEC transition. We end the thesis by describing a simple finite-temperature model to describe mean-field coupling between condensed and non-condensed components of the gas. We show that our hybrid Monte-Carlo/FFT technique can describe damping of the lowest energy excitations of the system. Extensions to this model and future research directions are discussed in the conclusion. (author)

  11. Deepak Condenser Model (DeCoM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Development of the DeCoM comes from the requirement of analyzing the performance of a condenser. A component of a loop heat pipe (LHP), the condenser, is interfaced with the radiator in order to reject heat. DeCoM simulates the condenser, with certain input parameters. Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA), a thermal analysis software, calculates the adjoining component temperatures, based on the DeCoM parameters and interface temperatures to the radiator. Application of DeCoM is (at the time of this reporting) restricted to small-scale analysis, without the need for in-depth LHP component integrations. To efficiently develop a model to simulate the LHP condenser, DeCoM was developed to meet this purpose with least complexity. DeCoM is a single-condenser, single-pass simulator for analyzing its behavior. The analysis is done based on the interactions between condenser fluid, the wall, and the interface between the wall and the radiator. DeCoM is based on conservation of energy, two-phase equations, and flow equations. For two-phase, the Lockhart- Martinelli correlation has been used in order to calculate the convection value between fluid and wall. Software such as SINDA (for thermal analysis analysis) and Thermal Desktop (for modeling) are required. DeCoM also includes the ability to implement a condenser into a thermal model with the capability of understanding the code process and being edited to user-specific needs. DeCoM requires no license, and is an open-source code. Advantages to DeCoM include time dependency, reliability, and the ability for the user to view the code process and edit to their needs.

  12. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  13. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  14. A study on passive containment cooling condensers in SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuran, S.; Soekmen; C. N.

    2001-01-01

    The passive containment cooling condensers (PCCC) are the crucial part of several new reactor designs, like European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) and the SBWR. In a hypothetical accident, the pressurised steam non-condensable mixture from drywell is condensed in PCCCs, and condensate is returned to reactor vessel while non-condensable is vented through wet well. In this study, in order to examine the performance of PCCCs, condensation with presence of noncondensable is investigated. Condensation with different noncondensable types and conditions is studied on a PCCC model, which is developed by using RELAP5 Mod3.2 computer code

  15. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Improved condenser design and condenser-fan operation for air-cooled chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Air-cooled chillers traditionally operate under head pressure control via staging constant-speed condenser fans. This causes a significant drop in their coefficient of performance (COP) at part load or low outdoor temperatures. This paper describes how the COP of these chillers can be improved by a new condenser design, using evaporative pre-coolers and variable-speed fans. A thermodynamic model for an air-cooled screw-chiller was developed, within which the condenser component considers empirical equations showing the effectiveness of an evaporative pre-cooler in lowering the outdoor temperature in the heat-rejection process. The condenser component also contains an algorithm to determine the number and speed of the condenser fans staged at any given set point of condensing temperature. It is found that the chiller's COP can be maximized by adjusting the set point based on any given chiller load and wet-bulb temperature of the outdoor air. A 5.6-113.4% increase in chiller COP can be achieved from the new condenser design and condenser fan operation. This provides important insights into how to develop more energy-efficient air-cooled chillers

  18. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  19. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  20. Condensed images for evaluating gastric motility patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Schroettle, W.; Kirsch, C.-M. (Munich Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    A condensed imaging technique was applied to gastric emptying studies to investigate (a) whether different types of motility disorders may be distinguished by characteristic image patterns and (b) whether the findings obtained provide additional information compared to standard quantitative measurements. Condensed images and quantitative data of gastric emptying were evaluated in 75 consecutive patients with normal function and various disorders such as peptic ulcer, postvagotomy, pyloric obstruction, dumping syndrome, gastoparesis etc. Condensed images were generated from a gastric region of interest. They display the distribution and behaviour of a radioactive test meal in a space-time matrix, whose horizontal and vertical dimensions are temporal and spatial, respectively. As shown in a series of representative examples condensed images disclose a variety of well-defined image patterns reflecting different pathophysiological mechanisms. This qualitative characterization of gastric emptying patterns provided in 34 of the 75 patients (45%) important new information compared to quantitative data. The application of condensed imaging techniques to gastric emptying studies (complementary to quantitative measurements) may, therefore, enhance the diagnostic value of scintigraphic techniques. (author).

  1. Dropwise condensation on hydrophobic bumps and dimples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuehan; Aizenberg, Joanna; Park, Kyoo-Chul

    2018-04-01

    Surface topography plays an important role in promoting or suppressing localized condensation. In this work, we study the growth of water droplets on hydrophobic convex surface textures such as bumps and concave surface textures such as dimples with a millimeter scale radius of curvature. We analyze the spatio-temporal droplet size distribution under a supersaturation condition created by keeping the uniform surface temperature below the dew point and show its relationship with the sign and magnitude of the surface curvature. In particular, in contrast to the well-known capillary condensation effect, we report an unexpectedly less favorable condensation on smaller, millimeter-scale dimples where the capillary condensation effect is negligible. To explain these experimental results, we numerically calculated the diffusion flux of water vapor around the surface textures, showing that its magnitude is higher on bumps and lower on dimples compared to a flat surface. We envision that our understanding of millimetric surface topography can be applied to improve the energy efficiency of condensation in applications such as water harvesting, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems for buildings and transportation, heat exchangers, thermal desalination plants, and fuel processing systems.

  2. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  3. Condensation on a cooled plane upright wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    The vapor condensation along a cooled upright plane wall was studied. The theoretical and experimental results obtained in the simple case, give the essential characteristics of the phenomenon of condensation along a cold wall that keeps the vapor apart from the coolant inside a surface condenser. The phenomenon presents two different appearances according as the wall is wetted or not by the liquid. In the first case a continuous liquid film runs down the wall and a conventional Nusselt calculation gives the film thickness and the heat exchange coefficient between a pure saturated vapor and the cold wall. The calculation is developed in detail and the effect of a vapor flow along the film is discussed as well as that of the presence of a noncondensable gas inside the vapor. In the second case, separated liquid drops are formed on the wall, the phenomenon is called ''dropwise condensation'' and the heat exchange coefficients obtained are much higher than with film condensation. The theoretical aspects of the problem are discussed with some experimental results [fr

  4. Condensate cosmology: Dark energy from dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a scenario in which the dark energy forms via the condensation of dark matter at some low redshift. The Compton wavelength therefore changes from small to very large at the transition, unlike quintessence or metamorphosis. We study cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure, supernova and radio galaxy constraints on condensation by performing a four parameter likelihood analysis over the Hubble constant and the three parameters associated with Q, the condensate field: Ω Q , w f and z t (energy density and equation of state today, and redshift of transition). Condensation roughly interpolates between ΛCDM (for large z t ) and SCDM (low z t ) and provides a slightly better fit to the data than ΛCDM. We confirm that there is no degeneracy in the CMB between H and z t and discuss the implications of late-time transitions for the Lyman-α forest. Finally we discuss the nonlinear phase of both condensation and metamorphosis, which is much more interesting than in standard quintessence models

  5. Steam condensation modelling in aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this study is the modelling of the condensation of steam into and evaporation of water from aerosol particles. These processes introduce a new type of term into the equation for the development of the aerosol particle size distribution. This new term faces the code developer with three major problems: the physical modelling of the condensation/evaporation process, the discretisation of the new term and the separate accounting for the masses of the water and of the other components. This study has considered four codes which model the condensation of steam into and its evaporation from aerosol particles: AEROSYM-M (UK), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), NAUA (Federal Republic of Germany) and CONTAIN (USA). The modelling in the codes has been addressed under three headings. These are the physical modelling of condensation, the mathematics of the discretisation of the equations, and the methods for modelling the separate behaviour of different chemical components of the aerosol. The codes are least advanced in area of solute effect modelling. At present only AEROSOLS/B1 includes the effect. The effect is greater for more concentrated solutions. Codes without the effect will be more in error (underestimating the total airborne mass) the less condensation they predict. Data are needed on the water vapour pressure above concentrated solutions of the substances of interest (especially CsOH and CsI) if the extent to which aerosols retain water under superheated conditions is to be modelled. 15 refs

  6. Bose condensates make quantum leaps and bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, Y.; Dum, R.; Sinatra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first observation in 1995 of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases, atomic physicists have made extraordinary progress in understanding this unusual quantum state of matter. BOSE-EINSTEIN condensation is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that was first predicted by Albert Einstein in the 1920s, at a time when quantum theory was still developing and was being applied to microscopic systems, such as individual particles and atoms. Einstein applied the new concept of Bose statistics to an ideal gas of identical atoms that were at thermal equilibrium and trapped in a box. He predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would accumulate in the lowest quantum state in the box, giving rise to a new state of matter with many unusual properties. The crucial point of Einstein's model is the absence of interactions between the particles in the box. However, this makes his prediction difficult to test in practice. In most real systems the complicating effect of particle interactions causes the gas to solidify well before the temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached. But techniques developed in the past four years have allowed physicists to form Bose-Einstein condensates for a wide range of elements. In this article the authors describe the latest advances in Bose-Einstein condensation. (UK)

  7. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  8. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  9. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  10. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  11. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  12. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  13. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  14. Systematic Study of Separators in Air-Breathing Flat-Plate Microbial Fuel Cells—Part 2: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The separator plays a key role on the performance of passive air-breathing flat-plate MFCs (FPMFC as it isolates the anaerobic anode from the air-breathing cathode. The goal of the present work was to study the separator characteristics and its effect on the performance of passive air-breathing FPMFCs. This was performed partially through characterization of structure, properties, and performance correlations of eight separators presented in Part 1. Current work (Part 2 presents a numerical model developed based on the mixed potential theory to investigate the sensitivity of the electrode potentials and the power output to the separator characteristics. According to this numerical model, the decreased peak power results from an increase in the mass transfer coefficients of oxygen and ethanol, but mainly increasing mixed potentials at the anode by oxygen crossover. The model also indicates that the peak power is affected by the proton transport number of the separator, which affects the cathode pH. Anode pH, on the other hand, remains constant due to application of phosphate buffer solution as the electrolyte. Also according to this model, the peak power is not sensitive to the resistivity of the separator because of the overshadowing effect of the oxygen crossover.

  15. Assessment of horizontal in-tube condensation models using MARS code. Part I: Stratified flow condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.

  16. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  17. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  18. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, E; Yardley, L; Kirby, S; Thomas, M; Bruton, A

    2017-01-01

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retr...

  19. Fermion masses through four-fermion condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyar, Venkitesh [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Chandrasekharan, Shailesh [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2016-10-12

    Fermion masses can be generated through four-fermion condensates when symmetries prevent fermion bilinear condensates from forming. This less explored mechanism of fermion mass generation is responsible for making four reduced staggered lattice fermions massive at strong couplings in a lattice model with a local four-fermion coupling. The model has a massless fermion phase at weak couplings and a massive fermion phase at strong couplings. In particular there is no spontaneous symmetry breaking of any lattice symmetries in both these phases. Recently it was discovered that in three space-time dimensions there is a direct second order phase transition between the two phases. Here we study the same model in four space-time dimensions and find results consistent with the existence of a narrow intermediate phase with fermion bilinear condensates, that separates the two asymptotic phases by continuous phase transitions.

  20. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  1. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.

    2003-01-01

    The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)

  2. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  3. Condensate recovery by cycling at declining pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlena, Z G; Griffith, J D; Pot, R; Kiel, O G

    1967-06-05

    Cycling condensate reservoirs under conditions of declining pressure, rather than constant pressure, is advantageous from both a recovery and an economic standpoint. Wet gas displaced from the swept areas is recovered concurrently with wet gas recovered by gas expansion from the unswept portions of the reservoir. Any liquid condensed in the swept areas is revaporized by dry injection gas and recovered as an enriched gas. By this mode of operation, high condensate recovery is obtained, gas sales may be possible at an earlier stage of depletion, more flexibility in field and plant operations is feasible and reduction of 15% in investment and operating costs is achieved. Injection gas requirements are reduced by 40%. The Windfall reservoir in Canada has been successfully produced in this manner, starting in 1962. It is a typical retrograde type reservoir which in 1965 represented 15% of reservoirs exploited in North America.

  4. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  5. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  6. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  7. Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-03-19

    We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.

  8. Aspects of hyperspherical adiabaticity in an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushibe, Daisuke; Mutou, Masaki; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Excitation of an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the zeroth-order ground-state channel is studied with the hyperspherical adiabatic method of Bohn et al. [Bohn et al., Phys. Rev. A 58, 584 (1998)] suitably generalized to accommodate the anisotropic trapping potential. The method exploits the system's size as an adiabatic parameter so that the explicit size dependence is immediately conducive to the virial theorem. The oscillation frequencies associated with the monopole (breathing) and quadrupole modes thus emerge naturally and converge to the well-known Thomas-Fermi limits. Analysis of the single-particle density and the projected excitation wave function shows that the excitation in the single hyperspherical ground-state channel merely represents a progressive increase in occupancy of the first excited single-particle state. The work paves the way for applying the adiabatic picture to other BEC phenomena

  9. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  10. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  11. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  12. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  14. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2003-01-01

    We systematically study the properties of lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions. This is done, by exactly solving the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a periodic potential. We find new families of lattice soliton solutions that are characterized by the position of the energy eigenvalue within the associated band structure. These include lattice solitons in condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions that exist in finite or semi-infinite gaps, as well as nonlinear modes that exhibit atomic population cutoffs

  16. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaschke David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 Mʘ.

  17. Resonances for coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroutyunyan, H.L.; Nienhuis, G.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a two-well potential can be manipulated by periodic modulation of the potential parameters. We study the effects arising from modulating the barrier height and the difference in well depth. At certain modulation frequencies the system exhibits resonances, which may show up in an enhancement of the tunneling rate between the wells. Resonances can be used to control the particle distribution over the wells. Some of the effects occurring in the two-well system also arise for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

  18. Quark Condensate in the Strange Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chang-Fang; LU" Xiao-Fu

    2003-01-01

    In a nonlinear chiral SU(3) framework, we investigate the quark condensate in the strange matter including N, Σ, Ξ, and Λ, making use of chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking Lagrangian and mean-field approximation. The results show that the chiral symmetry is restored partially when the strange matter density increases and that 〈π→2〉 plays a very important role in the strange matter which may approach the constituents of the neutron stars. In addition, we can find that the strange matter density where the π-condensate emerges leads to the ratio of the nucleon number to baryon number.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Flow Condensation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungsoon; Park, Ilchung; Konishi, Christopher; Mudawar, Issam; May, Rochelle I.; Juergens, Jeffery R.; Wagner, James D.; Hall, Nancy R.; Nahra, Henry K.; Hasan, Mohammed M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Future manned missions to Mars are expected to greatly increase the space vehicle's size, weight, and heat dissipation requirements. An effective means to reducing both size and weight is to replace single-phase thermal management systems with two-phase counterparts that capitalize upon both latent and sensible heat of the coolant rather than sensible heat alone. This shift is expected to yield orders of magnitude enhancements in flow boiling and condensation heat transfer coefficients. A major challenge to this shift is a lack of reliable tools for accurate prediction of two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient in reduced gravity. Developing such tools will require a sophisticated experimental facility to enable investigators to perform both flow boiling and condensation experiments in microgravity in pursuit of reliable databases. This study will discuss the development of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station (ISS), which was initiated in 2012 in collaboration between Purdue University and NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility was recently tested in parabolic flight to acquire condensation data for FC-72 in microgravity, aided by high-speed video analysis of interfacial structure of the condensation film. The condensation is achieved by rejecting heat to a counter flow of water, and experiments were performed at different mass velocities of FC-72 and water and different FC-72 inlet qualities. It is shown that the film flow varies from smooth-laminar to wavy-laminar and ultimately turbulent with increasing FC-72 mass velocity. The heat transfer coefficient is highest near the inlet of the condensation tube, where the film is thinnest, and decreases monotonically along the tube, except for high FC-72 mass velocities, where the heat transfer coefficient is enhanced downstream. This enhancement is attributed to both turbulence and increased interfacial waviness. One-ge correlations are shown to

  20. Millstone 3 condensate dissolved gas monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.F.; Grondahl, E.E.; Snyder, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    Condensate dissolved oxygen problems at Millstone Point Unit 3 (MP3) were investigated using the Dissolved Gas Monitoring System developed by Radiological and Chemical Technology, Inc. under EPRI sponsorship. Argon was injected into the turbine exhaust basket tips to perform a dissolved gas transport analysis and determine steam jet air ejector gas removal efficiency. The operating configuration of the steam jet air ejector system was varied to determine the effect on gas removal efficiency. Following circulating water chlorination, the gas removal efficiency was determined to evaluate the effect of condenser tube fouling on steam jet air ejector performance

  1. Hysteretic capillary condensation in a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Hallock, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the behavior of hysteresis subloops in the capillary condensation of 4 He in the porous material Nuclepore. For hysteretic systems composed of many independent elements, the Preisach model may be used to predict the behavior of the resulting hysteresis. One prediction is that subloops with common chemical potential endpoints will be congruent. The observations of such subloops show that the prediction of congruence fails for this capillary condensation system. To understand deviations from Preisach behavior the authors modify the model to account for intersections among the pores. The modified model is in close agreement with the experimental results

  2. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  3. Bose-condensation through resonance decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornik, U.; Pluemer, M.; Strottman, D.

    1993-04-01

    We show that a system described by an equation of state which contains a high number of degrees of freedom (resonances) can create a considerable amount of superfluid (condensed) pions through the decay of short-lived resonances, if baryon number and entropy are large and the dense matter decouples from chemical equilibrium earlier than from thermal equilibrium. The system cools down faster in the presence of a condensate, an effect that may partially compensate the enhancement of the lifetime expected in the case of quark-gluon-plasma formation. (orig.). 3 figs

  4. Intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders S.; Kromann, Jimmy Charnley; Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy...... and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need...

  5. Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)

  6. The relationship between fetal biophysical profile and cord blood PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadan M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Biophysical Profile (BPP is a noninvasive test that predicts the presence or absence of fetal asphyxia and, ultimately, the risk of fetal death in the antenatal period. Intervention on the basis of an abnormal biophysical profile result has been reported to yield a significant reduction in prenatal mortality, and an association exists between biophysical profile scoring and a decreased cerebral palsy rate in a given population. The BPP evaluates five characteristics: fetal movement, tone, breathing, heart reactivity, and amniotic fluid (AF volume estimation. The purpose of study was to determine whether there are different degree of acidosis at which the biophysical activity (acute marker are affected. "nMethods: In a prospective study of 140 patients undergoing cesarean section before onset of labor, the fetal biophysical profile was performed 24h before the time of cesarean and was matched with cord arterial PH that was obtained from a cord segment (10-20cm that was double clamped after delivery of newborn. (using cord arterial PH less than 7.20 for the diagnosis of acidosis. "nResults: The fetal biophysical profile was found to have a significant relationship with umbilical blood PH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of fetal biophysical profile score were: 88.9%, 88.6%, 50%, 98.1%. "nConclusion: The first manifestations of fetal acidosis are nonreactive nonstress testing and fetal breathing loss; in advanced acidemia fetal movements and fetal tone are compromised. A protocol of antepartum fetal evaluation is suggested based upon the individual biophysical components rather than the score alone.

  7. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  8. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  9. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  10. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  11. Gravitationally Driven Wicking for Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J; Wilke, Kyle L; Lu, Zhengmao; Cruz, Samuel S; Zhao, Yajing; Becerra, Laura L; Wang, Evelyn N

    2018-04-17

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat or separating fluids. Filmwise condensation is prevalent in typical industrial-scale systems, where the condensed fluid forms a thin liquid film due to the high surface energy associated with many industrial materials. Conversely, dropwise condensation, where the condensate forms discrete liquid droplets which grow, coalesce, and shed, results in an improvement in heat transfer performance of an order of magnitude compared to filmwise condensation. However, current state-of-the-art dropwise technology relies on functional hydrophobic coatings, for example, long chain fatty acids or polymers, which are often not robust and therefore undesirable in industrial conditions. In addition, low surface tension fluid condensates, such as hydrocarbons, pose a unique challenge because common hydrophobic condenser coatings used to shed water (with a surface tension of 73 mN/m) often do not repel fluids with lower surface tensions (condensation heat transfer using gravitationally driven flow through a porous metal wick, which takes advantage of the condensate's affinity to wet the surface and also eliminates the need for condensate-phobic coatings. The condensate-filled wick has a lower thermal resistance than the fluid film observed during filmwise condensation, resulting in an improved heat transfer coefficient of up to an order of magnitude and comparable to that observed during dropwise condensation. The improved heat transfer realized by this design presents the opportunity for significant energy savings in natural gas processing, thermal management, heating and cooling, and power generation.

  12. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  13. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Chi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics.

  14. Oxidative Stress Markers in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Lung Fibroses Are Not Significantly Affected by Systemic Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Syslová, K.; Vlčková, Š.; Lebedová, J.; Pecha, O.; Běláček, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2011), s. 746-754 ISSN 0019-8366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha * 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenale * Malondialdehyde Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2011

  15. Increased 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate in subjects with asbestos exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, Marek; Navrátil, Tomáš; Lebedová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2008), s. 484-489 ISSN 0019-8366 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : asbestos * asbestosis * pleural hyalinosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2008

  16. Sensitive determination of malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and biological fluids by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lačná, J.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 169, JUL (2017), s. 85-90 ISSN 0039-9140 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21919S Keywords : malondialdehyde * capillary electrophoresis * laser induced fluorescence * blood plasma * saliva Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  17. Condensation Enhancement by Surface Porosity: Three-Stage Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2015-08-18

    Surface defects, such as pores, cracks, and scratches, are naturally occurring and commonly found on solid surfaces. However, the mechanism by which such imperfections promote condensation has not been fully explored. In the current paper we thermodynamically analyze the ability of surface porosity to enhance condensation on a hydrophilic solid. We show that the presence of a surface-embedded pore brings about three distinct stages of condensation. The first is capillary condensation inside the pore until it is full. This provides an ideal hydrophilic surface for continuing the condensation. As a result, spontaneous condensation and wetting can be achieved at lower vapor pressure than on a smooth surface.

  18. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  19. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  20. Condensate fraction in superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinto, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a relationship between the chemical potential and the condensate fraction η o (T) has been derived for all temperatures in the superfluid region. An analysis of liquid 4 He chemical potential data yields η o (T=0) = 0.062 and η o (T) is in excellent with the empirical results of Svensson, Sears, and Griffin. (Autor) [pt