WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast technical progress

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  2. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-12-30

    This report presents the progress made during the first quarter of phase 2 for the project entitled ''Development and Validation of Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws from Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs.'' (B204) THIS IS NOT A FINAL REPORT

  3. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  4. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation

  5. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  6. [Fluorine-18 labeled androgens and progestins; imaging agents for tumors of prostate and breast]: Technical progress report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops fluorine-18 labeled steroids that possess high binding affinity and selectivity for androgen and progesterone receptors and can be used as positron-emission tomographic imaging agents for prostate tumors and breast tumors, respectively. These novel diagnostic agents may enable an accurate estimation of tumor dissemination, such as metastasis of prostate cancer and lymph node involvement of breast cancer, and an in vivo determination of the endocrine responsiveness of these tumors. They will provide essential information for the selection of alternative therapies thereby improving the management of prostate and breast cancer patients. 14 refs., 1 tab

  7. Is human cytomegalovirus associated with breast cancer progression?

    OpenAIRE

    Utrera-Barillas, Dolores; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda-Alicia; Gómez-Rangel, David; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Aguilera, Penélope; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Ruiz-Tachiquin, Martha-Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may be associated with breast cancer progression. However, the role of HCMV infection in breast cancer remains controversial. We aimed to assess whether HCMV genes (UL122 and UL83) could be detected in breast carcinomas and reinvestigated their possible association with breast cancer progression. DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. We investigated 20 fibroadenomas and 27 primary breast carcinom...

  8. Progress report : Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development work carried out in the Technical Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, is reported. Some of the achievements are: (1) fabrication of mass spectrometers for heavy water analysis and lithium 6/7 isotope ratio measurement, (2) fabrication of electronic components for mass spectrometers, (3) growing of sodium iodide crystals for radiation detectors, (4) development of sandwich detectors comprising of NaI(Tl) and CaI(Na), (5) fabrication of mass spectrometer type leak detectors and (6) fabrication of the high vacuum components of the vacuum system of the variable energy cyclotron based at Calcutta. (M.G.B.)

  9. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  10. Technical Progress and New Logistics Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, I.; Szekely, I.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study new developments in logistics technologies as a prerequisite and as a consequence of technical progress in the case of the United States. Logistics is used here to denote all systematic actions aimed at bringing materials form primary producers through all intermediate steps to the end user, i.e. logistics includes transportation, handling, storage, as well as all related information processing. The rapid growth of transport and communication outpu...

  11. Technical progress and its strategic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of energy during recent decades has shown that technical progress can have consequences for the organisation of markets, company strategies and the economy in general, confounding all forecasts and going beyond simple technical change. As a consequence for example, improvements in the techniques concerning the exploration and production of hydrocarbons have led to the petrol 'counter-crisis', the reduction in the power of OPEC and undreamed of gains in wealth for certain countries. The progress in gas turbines has led to the reversal of the age-old tendency towards increases in the size of electricity production units and encouraged the liberation of this sector. When looking at the future it is therefore judicious to try and understand the forces at work, and the major trends which result. This is the aim of the articles in this edition of the Revue de l'Energie, published on the occasion of the European colloquium on 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' organised by the Association of Energy Economists. (authors)

  12. Bedtime misalignment and progression of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Bong-Jin; Jo, Booil; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Palesh, Oxana; Aldridge-Gerry, Arianna; Bajestan, Sepideh N.; Neri, Eric; Nouriani, Bita; Spiegel, David; Zeitzer, Jamie M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, which frequently occurs during night shift work, may be associated with cancer progression. The effect of chronotype (preference for behaviors such as sleep, work, or exercise to occur at particular times of day, with an associated difference in circadian physiology) and alignment of bedtime (preferred vs. habitual), however, have not yet been studied in the context of cancer progression in women with breast cancer. Chronotype and alignment of actual bedtime with preferred chronotype were examined using the Morningness–Eveningness Scale (MEQ) and sleep-wake log among 85 women with metastatic breast cancer. Their association with disease-free interval (DFI) was retrospectively examined using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI was 81.9 months for women with aligned bedtimes (“going to bed at preferred bedtime”) (n=72), and 46.9 months for women with misaligned bedtimes (“going to bed later or earlier than the preferred bedtime”) (n=13) (log rank p=0.001). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, after controlling for other significant predictors of DFI, including chronotype (morning type/longer DFI; HR=0.539, 95% CI=0.320–0.906, p=0.021), estrogen receptor (ER) status at initial diagnosis (negative/shorter DFI; HR=2.169, 95% CI=1.124–4.187, p=0.028) and level of natural-killer cell count (lower levels/shorter DFI; HR=1.641, 95% CI=1.000–2.695, p=0.050), misaligned bedtimes was associated with shorter DFI, compared to aligned bedtimes (HR=3.180, 95% CI=1.327–7.616, p=0.018). Our data indicate that a misalignment of bedtime on a daily basis, an indication of circadian disruption, is associated with more rapid breast cancer progression as measured by DFI. Considering the limitations of small sample size and study design, a prospective study with a larger sample is necessary to explore their causal relationship and underlying mechanisms. PMID:24156520

  13. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  14. Genomics and premalignant breast lesions: clues to the development and progression of lobular breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Boulos, Fouad I; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lam, Wan L.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in genomic technology have improved our understanding of the genetic events that parallel breast cancer development. Because almost all mammary carcinomas develop in the terminal duct lobular units of the breast, understanding the events involved in mammary gland development make it possible to recognize those events that, when altered, contribute to breast neoplasia. In this review we focus on lobular carcinomas, discussing the pathology, development, and progression of premalignant...

  15. Parameter estimates for invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipour, S.; Banjevic, D; Miller, A.B.; Montgomery, N; A K S Jardine; Harvey, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of screening is to detect a cancer in the preclinical state. However, a false-positive or a false-negative test result is a real possibility. Methods: We describe invasive breast cancer progression in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study and construct progression models with and without covariates. The effect of risk factors on transition intensities and false-negative probability is investigated. We estimate the transition rates, the sojourn time and sensitivity o...

  16. Works Technical Department progress report, August 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-09-17

    This document details the activities of the Savannah River Works Technical Department during the month of August 1965. Topics discussed are: Reactor Technology, Separations Technology, Engineering Assistance, Health Physics, Laboratories Overview, and Technical Papers Issued.

  17. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  18. CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression

  19. CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-Hong [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ma, Qin [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Ye-Hui [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Shu-Fen [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Tong, Zhong-Sheng, E-mail: 83352162@qq.com [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression.

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  1. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.

    2013-04-08

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  3. Solar lease grant program. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Progress on a lease program for the installation of a solar water heater with no installation charge is reported. Information on the announcement of the program, the selection of participants, the contractural agreement, progress on installation of equipment, monitoring, and evaluation is summarized. The status of the budget concerned with the program is announced. Forms used for applications for the program and an announcement from Resource Alternatives for Cilco customers are presented.

  4. In situ quantification of genomic instability in breast cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Chin, Koei; Gray, Joe W.; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2003-05-15

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast and other solid cancers. Presumably caused by critical telomere reduction, GI is responsible for providing the genetic diversity required in the multi-step progression of the disease. We have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and 3D image analysis to quantify genomic instability cell-by-cell in thick, intact tissue sections of normal breast epithelium, preneoplastic lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia), ductal carcinona is situ or invasive carcinoma of the breast. Our in situ-cell by cell-analysis of genomic instability shows an important increase of genomic instability in the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma, followed by a reduction of instability in invasive carcinoma. This pattern suggests that the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma corresponds to telomere crisis and invasive carcinoma is a consequence of telomerase reactivation afertelomere crisis.

  5. Technical progress and its factors in Russia’s economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper long-term growth in Russia’s economy is viewed in the context of technical progress, based on both neoclassical and endogenous theories. The dynamics of economic growth with some aspects of catch-up development are examined, as well as capital deepening. TFP is quantified in terms of both output and productivity increases to reveal the leading role of embodied technical progress in productivity growth. An endogenous growth model helped to discern three complex factors of technical progress in the Russian economy, to which at the macro level a factor related to natural wealth (oil and gas resources was added. This enabled the author to conclude that the most important macroeconomic factor of Russia’s technical progress in the half century from the early 1960s to the late 2000s was its immobile component. At the manufacturing level the situation was more complicated, as the initial leadership of creative technical progress was superseded by the dominance of the mobile factor. The collapse of the Soviet Union made the Russian economy more service-oriented and radically changed the conditions of economic modernization, in which technology transfer ensured by FDI began to play a more prominent part, particularly after the default of 1998.

  6. Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, Anton; Clemens, Christiane; Greiner, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a growth model that includes environmental and economic variables as well as technological progress under different informational constraints on the behavior of economic agents. To simulate the informationally constrained economy, we make use of the non-linear model predictive control technique. We compare models with exogenous and endogenous technical change as well as directed and undirected endogenous technical change under different informational structures. We sh...

  7. Cyr61 promotes breast tumorigenesis and cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Bogart, Daphne F.; Castaneda, Jessica M.; Li, Patricia; Lupu, Ruth

    2002-01-16

    Cyr61, a member of the CCN family of genes, is an angiogenic factor. We have shown that it is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells and tissues. Here, we investigated whether Cyr61 is necessary and/or sufficient to bypass the ''normal'' estrogen (E2) requirements for breast cancer cell growth. Our results demonstrate that under E2-depleted condition, Cyr61 is sufficient to induce MCF-7 cells grow in the absence of E2. MCF-7 cells transfected with Cyr61 (MCF-7/Cyr61) became E2-independent but still E2-responsive. On the other hand, MCF-7/vector cells remain E2-dependent. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells acquire an antiestrogen-resistant phenotype, one of the most common clinical occurrences during breast cancer progression. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are anchorage-independent and capable of forming Matrigel outgrowth patterns in the absence of E2. ERa expression in MCF-7/Cyr61 cells is decreased although still functional. Additionally, MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are tumorigenic in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The tumors resemble human invasive carcinomas with increased vascularization and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results demonstrate that Cyr61 is a tumor-promoting factor and a key regulator of breast cancer progression. This study provides evidence that Cyr61 is sufficient to induce E2-independence and anti-E2 resistance, and to promote invasiveness in vitro, and to induce tumorigenesis in vivo, all of which are characteristics of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  8. Progress report [of] Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Technical Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, over the last few years are reported. This division is engaged in developing various technologies supporting the development of nuclear technology. The various fields in which development is actively being carried out are : (i) vacuum technology, (ii) mass spectrometry, (iii) crystal technology, (iv) cryogenics, and (v) magnet technology. For surface studies, the field emission microscope and the Auger electron spectrometer and other types of spectrometers have been devised and perfected. Electromagnets of requisite strength to be used in MHD programme and NMR instruments are being fabricated. Various crystals such as NaI(Tl), Ge, Fluorides, etc. required as windows and prisms in X and gamma-ray spectroscopy, have been grown. In the cryogenics field, expansion engines required for air liquefaction plants, vacuum insulated dewars, helium gas thermometers etc. have been constructed. In addition to the above, the Division provides consultancy and training to personnel from various institutions and laboratories. Equipment and systems perfected are transferred to commercial organizations for regular production. (A.K.)

  9. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2011-06-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  10. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2012-02-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  11. Plan and Design Meticulously and Promoting Technical Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1994-01-01

    @@ Plan and design is the key link in captial construction, and the soul of engineering construction. China Petroleum Planning & Engineering Institute (CPPEI) is one of the main undertakers for planning and designing of petroleum industry,the only leading multi-functional institute with the first class design certificate. Now it has been an organization under the China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC)for making development strategy planning, project evaluations and technical consulting, drawing up project development plan and providing technical recommendations. It can complete plan and design for the oil and gas field facilities, pipeline construction,petroleum relinery and petro-chemical industry engineering at home and abroad. It is also a center of servicing for new technical development and scientific research. Since CPPEI was established in 1978,it has meticulously conducted on planning and designing for the technical progress of petroleum engineering.

  12. Progress in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anampa, Jesus; Makower, Della; Sparano, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer and cancer death worldwide. Although most patients present with localized breast cancer and may be rendered disease-free with local therapy, distant recurrence is common and is the primary cause of death from the disease. Adjuvant systemic therapies are effective in reducing the risk of distant and local recurrence, including endocrine therapy, anti-HER2 therapy, and chemotherapy, even in patients at low risk of recurrence. The widespread use of adjuvant systemic therapy has contributed to reduced breast cancer mortality rates. Adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens have evolved from single alkylating agents to polychemotherapy regimens incorporating anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This review summarizes key milestones in the evolution of adjuvant systemic therapy in general, and adjuvant chemotherapy in particular. Although adjuvant treatments are routinely guided by predictive factors for endocrine therapy (hormone receptor expression) and anti-HER2 therapy (HER2 overexpression), predicting benefit from chemotherapy has been more challenging. Randomized studies are now in progress utilizing multiparameter gene expression assays that may more accurately select patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles. The...... not associated with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab......PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS...

  14. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  15. Technical quality assessment of breast ultrasound according to American College of Radiology (ACR) Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA University, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate the technical quality of breast ultrasound based on American College of Radiology(ACR) standards. Between March 2002 and July 2002, ninety three breast sonograms obtained from 73 institutions were evaluated based on ACR standards for the hardware, technical settings, labeling of the images and identification. Of 93 breast sonograms, a satisfactory compliance with all ACR standards in the performance of breast US examinations was documented in 31% while the remaining 69% did not fully meet all ACR standards. 4.3% of breast US examinations were performed with a convex transducers, and the focal zone was inappropriately positioned in 14.2%. Gray-scale gain was subjectively characterized as inappropriate in 26.9%, and the size of lesion was not measured in 7.5%. Anatomic location of lesions was inappropriately described in 9.3%. The orientation of an US transducer was not properly labeled on any images in 33.3%. Inadequate recording of patient's information was noted in 43.3%. 50% of sonograms at University medical centers and larger general hospitals fully met all ACR standards while 36.8% at radiologic clinics and 12.1% at other private clinics met all ACR standards. Overall, 69% of breast sonograms failed to meet the quality criteria of the ACR standards. Therefore, it is essential to educate the basic technical details in performing breast US for the quality control.

  16. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  17. International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, Eckhard; /DESY; Harrison, Mike; /Brookhaven; Hesla, Leah; /Fermilab; Ross, Marc; /Fermilab; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; /Paris, IN2P3; Takahashi, Rika; /KEK, Tsukuba; Walker, Nicholas; /DESY; Warmbein, Barbara; /DESY; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Yokoya, Kaoru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zhang, Min; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2011-11-04

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  18. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  19. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter

  20. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  1. Molecular markers′ progress of breast cancer treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Jingwei Xu; Guang Shi; Guanghao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a famous malignant tumor which is caused by varieties of mutation in multiple genes. In order to detect breast cancer in an earlier time and take appropriate treatment which includes  predicting treatment efficacy, we need a more accurate method of discovering the occurrence of breast cancer. With the development of molecular biology and biological detection technologies continue to emerge, molecular markers of breast cancer have gaining more and more widespread attention, an...

  2. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Methods Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Po...

  3. OTEC support services. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, 15 May 1982-14 August 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-08-01

    Progress relative to accomplishments and relative to meetings, conferences, etc. are reported in the areas of OTEC commercialization support, program technical engineering and instrumentation analysis, technical and management services, OTEC system integration, and transmission subsystem considerations. (LEW)

  4. OTEC support services. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, 15 November 1980-14 February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    Technical engineering and management support services for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program are listed along with their objectives. Progress is reported on the following: technical assessments, OTEC system integration, environment and siting considerations, and transmission subsystem considerations. (MHR)

  5. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  6. Technical, Psychological, and Economic Aspects of DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.C. Damen (Tim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world the incidence of breast cancer (BC) is high. In the Netherlands the lifetime risk for women to develop BC is around 13%, making it the most common form of cancer among women with approximately 12.000 women being diagnosed annually. Also, increasing numbers of women a

  7. Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.

  8. Theoretical particle physics: Technical progress report, May 1987-May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Technical Progress Report outlines the research of the Task B High Energy Theory Group at Indiana University during 1987-88. We have been active in a variety of areas/emdash/superstrings, lattice gauge theory, quarkonium and neutrino physics. The following pages provide brief summaries of the progress we were able to make in these areas during the past year. In superstring theory, rules were developed for calculating string amplitudes to the one loop level for a wide variety of topologies; the stability of the string vacuum was investiagted for bosonic strings. We continued our mathematical studies of supergroups. In lattice gauge theory, we have been particularly interested in calculating, from first principles, QCD effects on weak interaction processes (of special interest here is the search for a better understanding of the mysterious /DELTA/I = /1/2/ rule). At the same time, we have been trying to develop more efficient algorithms to reduce the amount of computing necessary in lattice calculations. In more phenomenological work, we have been studying various aspects of bound quark-antiquark systems, including a new wave equation which incorporates relativitic kinematics. We have also been trying to find ways of experimentally distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos

  9. A role for ADAM12 in breast tumor progression and stromal cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Frohlich, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar;

    2005-01-01

    of stromal fibroblasts in tumor initiation and progression has been elucidated. Here, we show that stromal cell apoptosis occurs in human breast carcinoma but is only rarely seen in nonmalignant breast lesions. Furthermore, we show that ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease up-regulated in human breast...... cancer, accelerates tumor progression in a mouse breast cancer model. ADAM12 does not influence tumor cell proliferation but rather confers both decreased tumor cell apoptosis and increased stromal cell apoptosis. This dual role of ADAM12 in governing cell survival is underscored by the finding that ADAM......12 increases the apoptotic sensitivity of nonneoplastic cells in vitro while rendering tumor cells more resistant to apoptosis. Together, these results show that the ability of ADAM12 to influence apoptosis may contribute to tumor progression....

  10. High-throughput genomic technology in research and clinical management of breast cancer. Molecular signatures of progression from benign epithelium to metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rennstam, Karin; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that early detection of breast cancer has great impact on patient survival, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. In a widely recognized model of breast cancer development, tumor cells progress through chronological and well defined stages. However, the molecular basis of disease progression in breast cancer remains poorly understood. High-throughput molecular profiling techniques are excellent tools for the study of complex molecular alterations. By accurate...

  11. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2011-06-15

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.

  12. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  13. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis by regulating collagen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased collagen deposition provides physical and biochemical signals to support tumor growth and invasion during breast cancer development. Therefore, inhibition of collagen synthesis and deposition has been considered a strategy to suppress breast cancer progression. Collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 (P4HA2), an enzyme hydroxylating proline residues in -X-Pro-Gly- sequences, is a potential therapeutic target for the disorders associated with increased collagen deposition. However, expression and function of P4HA2 in breast cancer progression are not well investigated. Gene co-expression analysis was performed in the published microarray datasets to identify potential regulators of collagen I, III, and IV in human breast cancer tissue. Expression of P4HA2 was silenced by shRNAs, and its activity was inhibited by 1, 4-DPCA, a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor. Three-dimensional culture assay was used to analyze roles of P4HA2 in regulating malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells. Reduced deposition of collagen I and IV was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Control and P4HA2-silenced breast cancer cells were injected into fat pad and tail vein of SCID mice to examine effect of P4HA2 on tumor growth and lung metastasis. Using gene co-expression analysis, we showed that P4HA2 was associated with expression of Col1A1, Col3A1, and Col4A1 during breast cancer development and progression. P4HA2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue. Increased mRNA levels of P4HA2 correlated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, which is independent of estrogen receptor status. Silencing P4HA2 expression or treatment with the P4HA inhibitor significantly inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer cells in 3D culture, accompanied by reduced deposition of collagen I and IV. We also found that knockdown of P4HA2 inhibited mammary tumor growth and

  14. FY 1992 work plan and technical progress reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-11-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is a division of the University of Nevada System devoted to multidisciplinary scientific research. For more than 25 years, DRI has conducted research for the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV) in support of operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). During that time, the research program has grown from an early focus on hydrologic studies to include the areas of geology, archaeology, environmental compliance and monitoring, statistics, database management, public education, and community relations. The range of DRI`s activities has also expanded to include a considerable amount of management and administrative support in addition to scientific investigations. DRI`s work plan for FY 1992 reflects a changing emphasis in DOE/NV activities from nuclear weapons testing to environmental restoration and monitoring. Most of the environmental projects from FY 1991 are continuing, and several new projects have been added to the Environmental Compliance Program. The Office of Technology Development Program, created during FY 1991, also includes a number of environmental projects. This document contains the FY 1992 work plan and quarterly technical progress reports for each DRI project.

  15. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  16. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  17. The multifaceted mechanism of Leptin signaling within tumor microenvironment in driving breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano eAndò

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines represent likely candidates to mediate the increased breast cancer risk and the enhanced progression associated with obesity. Other contributors to obesity-related cancer progression are insulin/IGF-1 pathways and hormones. Among these, the adipokine leptin is the most intensively studied in both metabolism in general and in cancer due to the fact that leptin levels increase in proportion of fat mass. Leptin is primarily synthesized from adipocytes, but it is also produced by other cells including fibroblasts. In this latter case, it has been well demonstrated how cancer-associated fibroblasts express leptin receptor and secrete leptin which sustains a short autocrine loop and is able to target tumor epithelial cells enhancing breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness. In addition, it has been reported that leptin may induce breast cancer to undergo a transition from epithelial to spindle-like mesenchymal morphology, activating the signaling pathways devoted to the EMT. Thus, it emerges how leptin may play a crucial role in mediating malignant cell and tumor microenvironment interactions. Here, we present an overview of the role of leptin in breast cancer, covering the following topics: 1 leptin as an amplifier of estrogen signaling in tumor epithelial cells contributing to the promotion of carcinogenesis; 2 leptin as a crucial player in mediating tumor-stroma interaction and influencing EMT-linked mechanisms, that may sustain breast cancer growth and progression; 3 leptin and leptin receptor targeting as novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer treatment.

  18. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  19. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  20. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  1. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  2. [Research progress of relationship between exosomes and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Tao-Ling; Sun, Jin-Jian; Tian, Yu-Zi; Zhou, Ye-Fang

    2016-06-25

    Exosomes are nanosized small membrane microvesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types. Exosomes, through its carrying protein or RNA from derived cells, affect gene regulation networks or epigenetic reorganization of receptor cell, and then modulate the physiological processes of cells. Studies have shown that external exosomes secreted by breast cancer cells or other cells play an important role in the development of tumor, including cell migration, cell differentiation and the immune response, etc. In this article, the latest studies were summarized to provide an overview of current understanding of exosomes in breast cancer. PMID:27350208

  3. miR-340 and ZEB1 negative feedback loop regulates TGF-β- mediated breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ye-Gong; Wang, Jie; Mao, Jie-Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs act as key regulators in carcinogenesis and progression in various cancers. In present study, we explored the role of miR-340 in the breast cancer progression. Our results showed that overexpression of miR-340 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas depletion of miR-340 promotes breast cancer progression. Molecularly, ZEB1 was identified as a target gene of miR-340 and miR-340 suppressed the expression of ZEB1 by directly binding to the 3′-UTR of ZEB1. Furthermore, ZEB1 transcriptionally suppresses miR-340 expression. The negative feedback loop regulated TGF-β-mediated breast cancer progression. In conclusion, our data suggested that miR-340 acted as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer progression. PMID:27036021

  4. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  5. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, based on the fact that TGF-ß1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-ß1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12...... synthesis, and growth of these cells in vivo induced a >200-fold increase in ADAM12 expression. Our observation that ADAM12 expression is significantly higher in the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) adjacent to human breast carcinoma compared with TDLUs found in normal breast tissue supports our......Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...

  6. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  7. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, December 22, 1993--March 21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-06-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery. This report summarizes technical progress for the following tasks: advanced copolymer synthesis; and characterization of molecular structure of copolymers.

  8. The microenvironment in breast cancer progression: biology and implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Place, Andrew Elliott; Polyak, Kornelia; Huh, Sung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from the ductal epithelium. The microenvironment of these cancers is now recognized as a critical participant in tumor progression and therapeutic responses. Recent data demonstrate significant gene expression and epigenetic alterations in cells composing the microenvironment during disease progression, which can be explored as biomarkers and targets for therapy. Indeed, gene expression signatures derived from tumor stroma ...

  9. FGFR1 amplification and the progression of non-invasive to invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gru, Alejandro A.; Allred, D. Craig

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of invasive breast cancer (IBC) can be dramatically reduced by improving our abilities to detect and treat ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Progress will be based on a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor progression. An interesting study by Jang and colleagues evaluated and compared the frequency of amplification of four oncogenes (HER2, c-MYC, CCND1 and FGFR1) in large cohorts of pure DCIS, in the DCIS component of IBC, and in corresponding IBC....

  10. FYN promotes breast cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ye-Gong; Yu, Yue; Hou, Li-Kun; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    FYN, one of the members of the Src family of kinases (SFKs), has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancers and correlated with cell motility and proliferation. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we found that FYN was overexpressed in breast cancer and overexpression of FYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MCF10A cells, whereas depletion of FYN suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FYN upregulated the expression of mesenchymal markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors, and downregulated the expression of epithelial markers, suggesting that FYN induces EMT in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, FYN was transcriptionally regulated by FOXO1 and mediated FGF2-induced EMT through both the PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK pathways. PMID:27349276

  11. Research Progress in the Use of Drugs for Breast Cancer Targeted Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun'e Yang; Bing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,many significant advances have been made on molecular target therapy to aim directly at epidermal growth factor receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancers.Clinical studies of such agents as trastuzumab,lapatinib,erlotinib and bevacituzumab have been widely conducted.This paper will review the recent research progress related to targeted therapy.

  12. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  13. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  14. Network analysis of breast cancer progression and reversal using a tree-evolving network algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur P Parikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The HMT3522 progression series of human breast cells have been used to discover how tissue architecture, microenvironment and signaling molecules affect breast cell growth and behaviors. However, much remains to be elucidated about malignant and phenotypic reversion behaviors of the HMT3522-T4-2 cells of this series. We employed a "pan-cell-state" strategy, and analyzed jointly microarray profiles obtained from different state-specific cell populations from this progression and reversion model of the breast cells using a tree-lineage multi-network inference algorithm, Treegl. We found that different breast cell states contain distinct gene networks. The network specific to non-malignant HMT3522-S1 cells is dominated by genes involved in normal processes, whereas the T4-2-specific network is enriched with cancer-related genes. The networks specific to various conditions of the reverted T4-2 cells are enriched with pathways suggestive of compensatory effects, consistent with clinical data showing patient resistance to anticancer drugs. We validated the findings using an external dataset, and showed that aberrant expression values of certain hubs in the identified networks are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Thus, analysis of various reversion conditions (including non-reverted of HMT3522 cells using Treegl can be a good model system to study drug effects on breast cancer.

  15. Evaporation by mechanical vapor recompression. Technical progress report, September 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, C.H.; Coury, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Progress to date in the development of a study of the application of the technologies of mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporators as applied to the beet sugar industry is reported. Progress is reported in the following areas: technical literature search and plant visitations of existing applications of VR/FFE.

  16. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Raju, Usha [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Worsham, Maria J., E-mail: mworsha1@hfhs.org [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer.

  17. Overexpression of centromere protein H is significantly associated with breast cancer progression and overall patient survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ting Liao; Yan Feng; Men-Lin Li; Guang-Lin Liu; Man-Zhi Li; Mu-Sheng Zeng; Li-Bing Song

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide.This study aimed to analyze the expression of centromere protein H (CENP-H) in breast cancer and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data,including patient survival.Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Westem blotting to detect the expression of CENP-H in normal mammary epithelial cells,immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines,and breast cancer cell lines,we observed that the mRNA and protein levels of CENP-H were higher in breast cancer cell lines and in immortalized mammary epithelial cells than in normal mammary epithelial cells.We next examined CENP-H expression in 307 paraffin-embedded archived samples of clinicopathologically characterized breast cancer using immunohistochemistry,and detected high CENP-H expression in 134 (43.6%) samples.Statistical analysis showed that CENP-H expression was related with clinical stage (P = 0.001),T classification (P = 0.032),N classification (P =0.018),and Ki-67 (P<0.001).Patients with high CENP-H expression had short overall survival.Multivariate analysis showed that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic indicator for patient survival.Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of breast cancer progression and prognosis.

  18. Development of a new technic for breast attenuation correction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X2 for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods employed

  19. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Stefanie R; Sameni, Mansoureth; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F; Moin, Kamiar

    2012-12-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer.To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyper plasia(MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L,reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression. PMID:23667900

  20. Conjoint utility analysis of technical maturity and project progress of construction project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking construction project as the research object, the relationship between the project maturity index calculated by the construction project technical risks with different fine degree and the project progress index is studied, and the equilibrium relationship between the Party A’s utility curve and the Party B’s cost curve of using project maturity index and project progress index as the research variables is analyzed. The results show that, when the construction project technical risk division is more precise, the conjoint utility of the project's technical maturity index and the project progress is higher, and the project’s Party A and Party B two sides are closer to the optimal equilibrium. This shows that the construction project technical risk must be finely divided, and managed and controlled respectively, which will help to improve the conjoint utility of the project Party A and Party B two sides.

  1. Chesterfield/Marlboro Technical College, AACC Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterfield-Marlboro Technical Coll., Cheraw, SC.

    In 1996, South Carolina's Chesterfield-Marlboro Technical College (CMTC) participated in the Exploring America's Communities project sponsored by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). The project works to strengthen the teaching and learning of American history, literature, and culture at community colleges. The primary goal of…

  2. Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction using complimentary DNA (cDNA) samples derived from breast cancer patients. Lymph node (LN) metastasis and stage progression were significantly correlated with EphA10 expression at the mRNA level (P = 0.0091 and P = 0.034, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) revealed that EphA10 expression at the protein level was also associated with LN metastasis and stage progression (P = 0.016 and P = 0.011, respectively). These results indicate that EphA10 expression might play a role in tumor progression and metastasis. Our findings will help elucidate the role of EphA10 in clinical breast cancer progression

  3. Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Kazuya; Kanasaki, So-Ichiro; Yamashita, Takuya; Maeda, Yuka; Inoue, Masaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi

    2013-12-01

    Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction using complimentary DNA (cDNA) samples derived from breast cancer patients. Lymph node (LN) metastasis and stage progression were significantly correlated with EphA10 expression at the mRNA level (P = 0.0091 and P = 0.034, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) revealed that EphA10 expression at the protein level was also associated with LN metastasis and stage progression (P = 0.016 and P = 0.011, respectively). These results indicate that EphA10 expression might play a role in tumor progression and metastasis. Our findings will help elucidate the role of EphA10 in clinical breast cancer progression. PMID:24403271

  4. Breast cancer associated a2 isoform vacuolar ATPase immunomodulates neutrophils: potential role in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Safaa A; Katara, Gajendra K; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Amin, Magdy A; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2015-10-20

    In invasive breast cancer, tumor associated neutrophils (TAN) represent a significant portion of the tumor mass and are associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. Identifying the regulatory factors that control TAN behavior will help in developing ideal immunotherapies. Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), multi-subunit proton pumps, are highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells. A cleaved peptide from a2 isoform V-ATPase (a2NTD) has immunomodulatory role in tumor microenvironment. Here, we report for the first time the role of V-ATPase in neutrophils modulation. In invasive breast cancer cells, a2NTD was detected and a2V was highly expressed on the surface. Immunohistochemical analysis of invasive breast cancer tissues revealed that increased neutrophil recruitment and blood vessel density correlated with increased a2NTD levels. In order to determine the direct regulatory role of a2NTD on neutrophils, recombinant a2NTD was used for the treatment of neutrophils isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Neutrophils treated with a2NTD (a2Neuɸ) showed increased secretion of IL-1RA, IL-10, CCL-2 and IL-6 that are important mediators in cancer related inflammation. Moreover, a2Neuɸ exhibited an increased production of protumorigenic factors including IL-8, matrix metaloprotinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, functional characterization of a2Neuɸ revealed that a2Neuɸ derived products induce in vitro angiogenesis as well as increase the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. This study establishes the modulatory effect of breast cancer associated a2V on neutrophils, by the action of a2NTD, which has a positive impact on tumor progression, supporting that a2V can be a potential selective target for breast cancer therapy.

  5. MLF1IP is correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Du-Ping; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Myeloid leukemia factor 1-interacting protein (MLF1IP) has been found to be involved in the progression of several malignancies. The potential correlation between MLF1IP and clinical outcome in patients with luminal breast cancer, however, remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that MLF1IP was significantly upregulated in luminal breast cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Upregulated expression of MLF1IP was correlated with more often lymph node metastasis and negative progesterone receptor expression in TCGA cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high MLF1IP expression had significantly lower overall survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that high MLF1IP expression was independent high risk factor as well as old age (>60) and distant metastasis. This study provides new insights and evidences that MLF1IP over-expression plays important roles in progression of luminal breast cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms for MLF1IP in luminal breast cancer need to be further explored. PMID:27378428

  6. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  7. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases

  9. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1996--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This report from the Amarillo National REsource Center for PLutonium provides research highlights and provides information regarding the public dissemination of information. The center is a a scientific resource for information regarding the issues of the storage, disposition, potential utilization and transport of plutonium, high explosives, and other hazardous materials generated from nuclear weapons dismantlement. The center responds to informational needs and interpretation of technical and scientific data raised by interested parties and advisory groups. Also, research efforts are carried out on remedial action programs and biological/agricultural studies.

  10. Technical progress report, 1 April-30 June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments during the quarter ending June 1981, on the commercial nuclear waste management programs under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). The ONWI program is organized into 8 tasks entitled: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management. Principal investigators in each of these areas have submitted summaries of quarterly highlights for inclusion in this report. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 5 of these tasks for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  11. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  12. Crystalline Repository Project. Technical progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the progress being made periodically on the development of a geologic repository in crystalline rock for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Crystalline Respository Development (OCRD), a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other prime contractors and by subcontractors to OCRD

  13. The superconducting super collider: Scientific motivation and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author summarizes the case for new physics at the TeV scale, and reviews speculations about new phenomena which may occur there. He then discusses in brief the physics prospects of a multi-TeV hadron collider, and mention some of the processes which may be studied in detail with such an instrument. Finally, he reports progress toward the design and construction of the SSC

  14. First quarter technical progress report for Thermally Modified Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilfilian, R.E.

    1994-02-28

    This report documents progress on a project to demonstrate suitability of Thermally Modified Sand (TMS) for large scale use by demonstrating its performance on icy roadways maintained by the State of Alaska Department of Transportation. This report deals primarily with the startup of the project and includes initial observations of the effectiveness of the use of the TMS versus the typical salt/sand combination.

  15. MicroRNA-490 inhibits tumorigenesis and progression in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao L; Zheng XY

    2016-01-01

    Lin Zhao,1 Xin-Yu Zheng1,21Department of Breast Surgery, the First Hospital of China Medical University, 2The First Laboratory, Cancer Institute of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: MicroRNAs are consistently reported to regulate gene expression in all cancer cell types by modulating a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which are associated with tumor development and progression. Previou...

  16. Technical Progress Has Positive,Differentiated Effects on Energy Efficiency of Chinese Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廉水; 周勇

    2007-01-01

    The rebound effects of technological advancement on energy consumption make it very complicated to measure the impact of technological advancement on energy efficiency.This article,taking 35 industries as samples,utilizes the non-parameter DEA-Malmquist productivity approach to subcategorise technological advancement into three parts:science-technological(sci-tech)progress,pure technical efficiency and efficiency of scale.The panel technique is then used to work out each subcategory’s contribution to energy efficiency individually.Findings show that technological efficiency (calculated by multiplying the results of pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency)is the principal factor in the improvement of energy efficiency while the contribution from sci-tech progress is comparatively less.Overtime,however,the effect of sci-tech progress is gradually heightened while the effect of technical efficiency slowly diminishes.

  17. Role of deregulated microRNAs in breast cancer progression using FFPE tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs contribute to cancer initiation and progression by silencing the expression of their target genes, causing either mRNA molecule degradation or translational inhibition. Intraductal epithelial proliferations of the breast are histologically and clinically classified into normal, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. To better understand the progression of ductal breast cancer development, we attempt to identify deregulated miRNAs in this process using Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE tissues from breast cancer patients. Following tissue microdissection, we obtained 8 normal, 4 ADH, 6 DCIS and 7 IDC samples, which were subject to RNA isolation and miRNA expression profiling analysis. We found that miR-21, miR-200b/c, miR-141, and miR-183 were consistently up-regulated in ADH, DCIS and IDC compared to normal, while miR-557 was uniquely down-regulated in DCIS. Interestingly, the most significant miRNA deregulations occurred during the transition from normal to ADH. However, the data did not reveal a step-wise miRNA alteration among discrete steps along tumor progression, which is in accordance with previous reports of mRNA profiling of different stages of breast cancer. Furthermore, the expression of MSH2 and SMAD7, two important molecules involving TGF-β pathway, was restored following miR-21 knockdown in both MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. In this study, we have not only identified a number of potential candidate miRNAs for breast cancer, but also found that deregulation of miRNA expression during breast tumorigenesis might be an early event since it occurred significantly during normal to ADH transition. Consequently, we have demonstrated the feasibility of miRNA expression profiling analysis using archived FFPE tissues, typically with rich clinical information, as a means of miRNA biomarker discovery.

  18. Progress report of Technical Physics Division: April 1980 - March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities, with an individual summary of each, of the Technical Physics Division (TPD) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay are reported for the period April 1980 - March 1982. The major thrust of the TPD's work has been in: (i) design and fabrication of instruments, devices and equipment and (ii) development of techniques in the frontline research and technology areas like vacuum science, surface analysis, cryogenics and crystal growing. The Division also provided custombuilt electronics equipment, vacuum systems and glass components and devices to the various Divisions of BARC and other units of the DAE. Training and manpower development activities and technology transfer activities are also reported. Lists of seminars, colloquia, publications during the period of the report are given. (M.G.B.)

  19. Progress report for 1978-79, Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development activities of the Technical Physics Division (TPD) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar years 1978 and 1979 are reported. The TPD's major areas of work are electronics instrumentation, crystal technology, mass spectrometers, cryogenic equipment and vacuum equipment. Some of the major achievements are: (1) fabrication of various electronic instruments and components for the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, (2) growth of large size NaI(Tl) and Ge crystals, (3) growth of CsI, KDP and arsenic selenide crystals, (4) fabrication of quadrupole mass filters and (5) fabrication of mass spectrometers for gas analysis and D/H analysis in water samples. (M.G.B.)

  20. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) preparation of low-rank coals; application of liquefaction processes to low-rank coals; (2) slagging fixed-bed gasification; (3) atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coal; (4) ash fouling and combustion modification for low-rank coal; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization and disposal; and (9) exploratory research.

  1. Foxp3 promoter polymorphism (rs3761548) in breast cancer progression: a study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Parveen; Ramachander, V R Vinish; Maruthi, G; Nalini, S; Latha, K Prasanna; Murthy, T S R

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female neoplasm that drives the transformation of normal mammary epithelial cells into highly malignant derivatives. Forkhead Box Protein3 (Foxp3), a tumor suppressor/immunomodulatory gene, which controls the function of Treg cells and oncogenes is down regulated in breast cancer. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential influence of Foxp3-3279 C>A polymorphism (rs3761548) and -2383 C>T polymorphism (rs3761549) in 202 breast cancer patients and 130 normal healthy women of Indian origin. The genotypes were determined using ARMS-PCR for rs3761548 and PCR-RFLP method for rs3761549 using specific primers. The results revealed lack of association of these two polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility. However, with respect to AA genotype of rs3761548, we found highly significant association with the advanced stage (T3-4) of the tumor (OR = 3.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-9.70; p = 0.03). Stratified data also revealed an association of homozygous mutant genotype with advanced stage of tumor in premenopausal women (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.07-19.38; p = 0.04) with disease duration of <6 months (OR =  .10; 95% CI = 1.80-20.50; p = 0.002) suggestive of modulating effect of rs3761548 in tumor progression. We conclude that Foxp3 rs37161548 has a potential to be a polymorphic marker for tumor progression in premenopausal breast cancer patients in Indian women. PMID:24338714

  2. A male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer: treating acromegaly to control tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acromegaly is a rare disease associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with acromegaly (IGF-1 770 ng/ml) and breast cancer. Four years before he suffered from a colon-rectal cancer. Pituitary surgery and octreotide-LAR treatment failed to control acromegaly. Normalization of IGF-1 (97 ng/ml) was obtained with pegvisomant therapy. Four years after breast cancer surgery, 2 pulmonary metastases were detected at chest CT. The patient was started on anastrozole, but, contrary to medical advice, he stopped pegvisomant treatment (IGF-I 453 ng/ml). Four months later, chest CT revealed an increase in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung. The patient was shifted from anastrozole to tamoxifen and was restarted on pegvisomant, with normalization of serum IGF-1 levels (90 ng/ml). Four months later, a reduction in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung was detected by CT. Subsequent CT scans throughout a 24-month follow-up showed a further reduction in size and then a stabilization of the metastasis. This is the first report of a male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer. The clinical course of breast cancer was closely related to the metabolic control of acromegaly. The rapid progression of metastatic lesion was temporally related to stopping pegvisomant treatment and paralleled a rise in serum IGF-1 levels. Normalization of IGF-1 after re-starting pegvisomant impressively reduced the progression of metastatic breast lesions. Control of acromegaly is mandatory in acromegalic patients with cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1400-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  3. Role of interleukin-8 in the progression of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chen; LIN Ying; YE Cai-sheng; BI Jiong; ZHU Yi-fan; WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor (ER) is a very important biomarker of breast cancer. ER deletion has been consistently associated with tumor progression, recurrence, metastasis and poor prognosis, but the biological mechanism is still unclear. ER negative breast cancer expresses high levels of interieukin-8 (IL-8). ER expression can downregulate IL-8 promotor activity. As a multifunctional cytokine, IL-8 has many important biological activities in tumor genesis and development. With the goal of investigating the role of IL-8 in ER-negative breast cancer progression, we applied RNA interference technology to specifically knockdown the IL-8 expression in ER-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.Methods Interfering pRNA-IL-8 and the control was transfected into ER(-) MDA-MB-231. The proliferation, cell apotosis,and invasive ability were recorded in transfected, untransfected and negative transfected cells. These cells were injected into nude mice to assess tumorigenicity, proliferation, metastasis and microvessel density (MVD).Results In vitro, decreased expression of IL-8 was associated with reduced cell invasion (P<0.001), but had no effect on cell proliferation (P>0.05). In vivo, neutrophils infiltration was significantly inhibited in pRNA-IL-8 transfected cells compared with untransfected and negatively transfected cells (P=0.001, P<0.001). Less metastasis was found in transfected cells compared with negatively transfected cells (0% vs 80%, P=0.048). Nevertheless, we observed less MVD in transfected cells compared with control in nude mice (P<0.001).Conclusions IL-8 inhibits ER-negative breast cancer cell growth and promotes its metastasis in vivo, which may be correlated with neutrophils infiltration induced by IL-8.

  4. The Micro environmental Effect in the Progression, Metastasis, and Dormancy of Breast Cancer: A Model System within Bone Marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite diagnostic advances, breast cancer remains the most prevalent cancer among women in the United States. The armamentarium of treatment options for metastatic disease is limited and mostly ineffective with regards to eradicating cancer. However, there have been novel findings in the recent literature that substantiate the function of the microenvironment in breast cancer progression and the support of metastasis to tertiary sites such as bone marrow. The uncovered significance of the microenvironment in the pathophysiology of breast cancer metastasis has served to challenge previously widespread theories and introduce new perspectives for the future research to eradicate breast cancer. This paper delineates the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between breast cancer cells and the microenvironment in progression, metastasis, and dormancy. The information, in addition to other mechanisms described in bone marrow, is discussed in the paper

  5. Technical Change Theory and Learning Curves: Patterns of Progress in Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of energy technology learning and progress within the framework of Schumpeter?s invention-innovation-diffusion paradigm. We estimate learning by doing and research rates for a range of energy technologies in four stages of technical progress. Emerging and mature technologies respond slowly to research and development (R&D) and capacity expansion; evolving technologies exhibit high learning-by-doing and research rates; reviving technologies exhibit co...

  6. Technical progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress during the 12-month period, October 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981 on the University of Wisconsin Plasma Physics contract is described. Most of the work centers around two major experimental devices, the Levitated Octupole and Tokapole II. A major upgrade of the Octupole is underway to include 2 MW of ICRH and 1.8 MW of neutral beam heating. Meanwhile, gun optimization and low field operation has resulted in the attainment of 35% beta, a factor of 9 above the single fluid ballooning limit. The ICRH experiment is well underway, and the first neutral beam source has been installed. The Tokapole is operating reliably at the full design field of 10 kG with 12 msec discharges. Low q (approx. 0.4) discharges with flat current profiles are obtained at reduced (approx. 3kG) toroidal field. The device is presently being used to study shear Alfven wave heating, ECRH startup, poloidal ohmic heating, and plasma transport

  7. Technical progress report, November 1, 1983-October 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress on theoretical high-energy physics and field theory is briefly described. Research topics include consistency of the canonically-realized Salam-Weinberg theory, supergravity Kaluza-Klein theory, a simple supergravity GUT, a mechanism for fermion mass generation was considered and applied to the lepton sector of the Weinberg-Salam model, an N=1 locally supersymmetric theory, a local topological charge density for 2d U(1) lattice gauge fields, the 2d O(3) sigma-model, Minkowski space-time, quantum field theory, non-Abelian gauge theories and algebraic topology, the semiclassical approximation in quantum field theory, the origin of the CP violation, and others. Publications are listed

  8. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR: High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Monday 24 June from 14:30 to 15:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593-11 High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues Prof. Jan Evetts / UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, UK Grappling with grain boundaries: Current transport processes in granular High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) The development of High Temperature Superconductors, seen from a materials scientist's point of view, is relevant to the superconductivity community at CERN: their possible high current applications can include high performance magnets for future accelerators. There is an urgent need to develop a quantitative description of HTS conductors in terms of their complex anisotropy, inhomogeneity and dimensionality. This is essential both for the practical specification of a conductor and for charting routes to conductor optimisation. The critical current, the n-value, dissipation and quenching characteristics are amongst most important parameters that make up an engineering specifi...

  9. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Namita

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. Methods To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. Results In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. Conclusions These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells.

  10. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-04

    The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

  11. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.

  12. Technical Adequacy and Acceptability of Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Measures of Academic Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, Stacy-Ann A.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement in reading (CBM-R) and the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) are assessment tools widely employed for universal screening in schools. Although a large body of research supports the validity of CBM-R, limited empirical evidence exists supporting the technical adequacy of MAP or the acceptability of either measure for…

  13. Cassini RTG Program. Monthly technical progress report, 27 November--31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly technical progress report provided information on the following tasks: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety analysis; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, and reliability, and contractor acquired government owned (CAGO) property acquisition

  14. Stockholm international conference 2003 on geological repositories: Political and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference reviewed global progress made as well as current perspectives on the activities to develop geologic repositories. The objectives were to review the progress in policy making as well as technical issues and to strengthen international co-operation on waste management and disposal issues. The first day of the conference addressed the policy aspects of geological repositories and the second day featured the more technical issues. Session 1: International progress in performing long-term safety studies and security of geological disposal were discussed and reviewed with examples from OECD/NEA, Belgium, Sweden, USA, Switzerland and Russia. Session 2: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by international organisations and national implementers from Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium and OECD/NEA. Session 3: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by regional and local stakeholders from France, Finland, Korea and Sweden. Session 4: International instruments assisting in the implementation of geological repositories were discussed, for example ICRP and IAEA/NEA safety documents, Joint Convention, Safeguard agreements, Nuclear Liability Conventions, etc. Session 5: The contribution of Research, Development and Demonstration was discussed with overviews of the progress achieved on scientific and technical issues over the past four years. Progress and key issues were presented from Switzerland, USA, Finland, Japan, Sweden and IAEA. Each of the papers and poster presentations have been analysed and indexed separately

  15. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  16. Analysis of breast cancer progression using principal component analysis and clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Alexe; G S Dalgin; S Ganesan; C DeLisi; G Bhanot

    2007-08-01

    We develop a new technique to analyse microarray data which uses a combination of principal components analysis and consensus ensemble -clustering to find robust clusters and gene markers in the data. We apply our method to a public microarray breast cancer dataset which has expression levels of genes in normal samples as well as in three pathological stages of disease; namely, atypical ductal hyperplasia or ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC. Our method averages over clustering techniques and data perturbation to find stable, robust clusters and gene markers. We identify the clusters and their pathways with distinct subtypes of breast cancer (Luminal, Basal and Her2+). We confirm that the cancer phenotype develops early (in early hyperplasia or ADH stage) and find from our analysis that each subtype progresses from ADH to DCIS to IDC along its own specific pathway, as if each was a distinct disease.

  17. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Arrigoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps.

  18. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  19. Progress towards understanding heterotypic interactions in multi-culture models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Mary C; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2016-06-13

    Microenvironments in primary tumors and metastases include multiple cell types whose dynamic and reciprocal interactions are central to progression of the disease. However, the literature involving breast cancer studied in vitro is dominated by cancer cells in mono-culture or co-cultured with one other cell type. For in vitro studies of breast cancer the inclusion of multiple cell types has led to models that are more representative of in vivo behaviors and functions as compared to more traditional monoculture. Here, we review foundational co-culture techniques and their adaptation to multi-culture (including three or more cell types). Additionally, while macroscale methods involving conditioned media, direct contact, and indirect interactions have been informative, we examined many advances that have been made more recently using microscale systems with increased control over cellular and structural complexity. Throughout this discussion we consider the benefits and limitations of current multi-culture methods and the significant results they have produced.

  20. Subtype-specific micro-RNA expression signatures in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, Vilde D; Nygaard, Vegard; Greger, Liliana; Aure, Miriam R; Fromm, Bastian; Bukholm, Ida R K; Lüders, Torben; Chin, Suet-Feung; Git, Anna; Caldas, Carlos; Kristensen, Vessela N; Brazma, Alvis; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hovig, Eivind; Helland, Åslaug

    2016-09-01

    Robust markers of invasiveness may help reduce the overtreatment of in situ carcinomas. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and biological mechanisms for carcinogenesis vary between subtypes. Stratification by subtype is therefore necessary to identify relevant and robust signatures of invasive disease. We have identified microRNA (miRNA) alterations during breast cancer progression in two separate datasets and used stratification and external validation to strengthen the findings. We analyzed two separate datasets (METABRIC and AHUS) consisting of a total of 186 normal breast tissue samples, 18 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 1,338 invasive breast carcinomas. Validation in a separate dataset and stratification by molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry, PAM50 and integrated cluster classifications were performed. We propose subtype-specific miRNA signatures of invasive carcinoma and a validated signature of DCIS. miRNAs included in the invasive signatures include downregulation of miR-139-5p in aggressive subtypes and upregulation of miR-29c-5p expression in the luminal subtypes. No miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transition from DCIS to invasive carcinomas on the whole, indicating the need for subtype stratification. A total of 27 miRNAs were included in our proposed DCIS signature. Significant alterations of expression included upregulation of miR-21-5p and the miR-200 family and downregulation of let-7 family members in DCIS samples. The signatures proposed here can form the basis for studies exploring DCIS samples with increased invasive potential and serum biomarkers for in situ and invasive breast cancer. PMID:27082076

  1. Transcriptomic changes in human breast cancer progression as determined by serial analysis of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic and transcriptomic alterations affecting key cellular processes such us cell proliferation, differentiation and genomic stability are considered crucial for the development and progression of cancer. Most invasive breast carcinomas are known to derive from precursor in situ lesions. It is proposed that major global expression abnormalities occur in the transition from normal to premalignant stages and further progression to invasive stages. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was employed to generate a comprehensive global gene expression profile of the major changes occurring during breast cancer malignant evolution. In the present study we combined various normal and tumor SAGE libraries available in the public domain with sets of breast cancer SAGE libraries recently generated and sequenced in our laboratory. A recently developed modified t test was used to detect the genes differentially expressed. We accumulated a total of approximately 1.7 million breast tissue-specific SAGE tags and monitored the behavior of more than 25,157 genes during early breast carcinogenesis. We detected 52 transcripts commonly deregulated across the board when comparing normal tissue with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 149 transcripts when comparing ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma (P < 0.01). A major novelty of our study was the use of a statistical method that correctly accounts for the intra-SAGE and inter-SAGE library sources of variation. The most useful result of applying this modified t statistics beta binomial test is the identification of genes and gene families commonly deregulated across samples within each specific stage in the transition from normal to preinvasive and invasive stages of breast cancer development. Most of the gene expression abnormalities detected at the in situ stage were related to specific genes in charge of regulating the proper homeostasis between cell death and cell proliferation. The comparison of in situ lesions

  2. Appraisement on Contributive Ratio of Scientific and Technical Progresses in Milk Productive Enterprises by Model C2GS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Futian; SUN Liqun; YANG Guanglin

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technical progress has been the driving forces of enterprises development. Milk productive enterprises are developing faster and growing better. It is very important to measure the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises. And the appraisement could help to develop milk productive enterprises. The model C2GS2 was established to appraise the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises in the research. And the appraisement on the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises was made by the model. In the results of appraisement, science and technology play a main role in milk productive enterprises. It is shown that our milk productive enterprises are developed by scientific and technical progress while not by input of productive factors.

  3. The influence of HRT on technical recall in the UK Breast Screening Programme: are pain, compression force, and compressed breast thickness contributing factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmo, L.J. [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.nimmo@gcal.ac.uk; Alston, L.A.C. [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom); McFadyen, A.K. [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Aim: To investigate recall for technical reasons within the UK Breast Screening Programme, and to determine whether differences exist in those women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), considering potential associations with reported pain, compression force used and compressed breast thickness (CBT) obtained. Materials and method: A prospective cohort study of 2765 women attending for incident round breast screening appointments who were either HRT users, with a minimum of 1 year duration (n = 1077), or had never used HRT (n = 1688). Data were collected using technical recall records, a radiographer data-collection sheet, and a self-administered participant questionnaire. Results: Sixty-eight (2.5%) participants were recalled for technical reasons of whom 28 (2.6%) were HRT and 40 (2.4%) non-HRT users. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.80). Significant differences were found for CBT between those HRT users who were and were not recalled for technical reasons (p < 0.01) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.03). No significant differences were found for force between those HRT users who were recalled or not (p = 0.73) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.07). Similarly no significant differences were found for pain between those HRT users who were recalled or not (p = 0.75) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.73). Conclusion: CBT was the only variable to have both a statistically and a clinically significant relationship with technical recall.

  4. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  5. HSET overexpression fuels tumor progression via centrosome clustering-independent mechanisms in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Vaishali; Rida, Padmashree C.G.; Ogden, Angela; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bowen, Nathan J.; Rudd, Katie; Gupta, Meenakshi V.; Reid, Michelle D.; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Walczak, Claire E.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Human breast tumors harbor supernumerary centrosomes in almost 80% of tumor cells. Although amplified centrosomes compromise cell viability via multipolar spindles resulting in death-inducing aneuploidy, cancer cells tend to cluster extra centrosomes during mitosis. As a result cancer cells display bipolar spindle phenotypes to maintain a tolerable level of aneuploidy, an edge to their survival. HSET/KifC1, a kinesin-like minus-end directed microtubule motor has recently found fame as a crucial centrosome clustering molecule. Here we show that HSET promotes tumor progression via mechanisms independent of centrosome clustering. We found that HSET is overexpressed in breast carcinomas wherein nuclear HSET accumulation correlated with histological grade and predicted poor progression-free and overall survival. In addition, deregulated HSET protein expression was associated with gene amplification and/or translocation. Our data provide compelling evidence that HSET overexpression is pro-proliferative, promotes clonogenic-survival and enhances cell-cycle kinetics through G2 and M-phases. Importantly, HSET co-immunoprecipitates with survivin, and its overexpression protects survivin from proteasome-mediated degradation, resulting in its increased steady-state levels. We provide the first evidence of centrosome clustering-independent activities of HSET that fuel tumor progression and firmly establish that HSET can serve both as a potential prognostic biomarker and as a valuable cancer-selective therapeutic target. PMID:25788277

  6. Importance of Serum IL-18 and RANTES as Markers for Breast Carcinoma Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a cytokine that plays an important role in the T-cell-helper response, acts as an angiogenic factor and a tumor suppressor. RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cells expressed and secreted) is a member of the C-C chemokine family with chemo attractant activity for a variety of cell types. High incidence and intensity of RANTES were noted in advanced breast carcinoma. Aim of tile Study: To correlate the levels of RANTES and IL- 18 in serum of breast cancer patients with bone or other organ metastasis compared to breast cancer patients without metastasis and healthy controls and to estimate the role of each of them as a prognostic marker for the progression of the disease. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 breast cancer patients (25 cases with no metastasis and 35 cases with metastasis) who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of the NCI, Cairo University during the period from March 2004 to September 2004 and 30 apparently healthy controls who were volunteers at the blood bank of the NCI, Cairo University. Showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the level of IL- 18 in breast cancer patients without metastasis and the control group (ρ< 0.05) while there was a highly significant difference between the metastatic group and the control group (ρ<0.0001). There was a significant increase in IL-18 levels between metastatic and non-metastatic cases (ρ<0.01). RANTES showed a significant increase in breast cancer cases with no metastasis and the control group (ρ<0.05) and it showed a highly significant increase in metastatic patients compared to controls (ρ<0.0001). There was no significant increase in the level of RANTES in metastatic compared to non-metastatic patients (ρ<0.05). IL-18 is an important non invasive marker suspecting metastasis. Even though RANTES levels were higher in cancer patients compared to controls, its role in staging of breast cancer was not clear in this study

  7. Microenvironmental Heterogeneity Parallels Breast Cancer Progression: A Histology-Genomic Integration Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Natrajan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intra-tumor diversity of cancer cells is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment that is key to cancer progression and evolution. We aimed to assess the degree of microenvironmental heterogeneity in breast cancer and correlate this with genomic and clinical parameters.We developed a quantitative measure of microenvironmental heterogeneity along three spatial dimensions (3-D in solid tumors, termed the tumor ecosystem diversity index (EDI, using fully automated histology image analysis coupled with statistical measures commonly used in ecology. This measure was compared with disease-specific survival, key mutations, genome-wide copy number, and expression profiling data in a retrospective study of 510 breast cancer patients as a test set and 516 breast cancer patients as an independent validation set. In high-grade (grade 3 breast cancers, we uncovered a striking link between high microenvironmental heterogeneity measured by EDI and a poor prognosis that cannot be explained by tumor size, genomics, or any other data types. However, this association was not observed in low-grade (grade 1 and 2 breast cancers. The prognostic value of EDI was superior to known prognostic factors and was enhanced with the addition of TP53 mutation status (multivariate analysis test set, p = 9 × 10-4, hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84; validation set, p = 0.0011, hazard ratio = 1.78, 95% CI 1.26-2.52. Integration with genome-wide profiling data identified losses of specific genes on 4p14 and 5q13 that were enriched in grade 3 tumors with high microenvironmental diversity that also substratified patients into poor prognostic groups. Limitations of this study include the number of cell types included in the model, that EDI has prognostic value only in grade 3 tumors, and that our spatial heterogeneity measure was dependent on spatial scale and tumor size.To our knowledge, this is the first

  8. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  9. KAP1 promotes proliferation and metastatic progression of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Joseph B; Koontz, Colton; Fugett, James H; Creighton, Chad J; Chen, Dongquan; Farrugia, Mark K; Padon, Renata R; Voronkova, Maria A; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Livengood, Ryan H; Lin, Chen-Chung; Ruppert, J Michael; Pugacheva, Elena N; Ivanov, Alexey V

    2015-01-15

    KAP1 (TRIM28) is a transcriptional regulator in embryonic development that controls stem cell self-renewal, chromatin organization, and the DNA damage response, acting as an essential corepressor for KRAB family zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZNF). To gain insight into the function of this large gene family, we developed an antibody that recognizes the conserved zinc fingers linker region (ZnFL) in multiple KRAB-ZNF. Here, we report that the expression of many KRAB-ZNF along with active SUMOlyated KAP1 is elevated widely in human breast cancers. KAP1 silencing in breast cancer cells reduced proliferation and inhibited the growth and metastasis of tumor xenografts. Conversely, KAP1 overexpression stimulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. In cells where KAP1 was silenced, we identified multiple downregulated genes linked to tumor progression and metastasis, including EREG/epiregulin, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, MMP2, and CD44, along with downregulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF proteins. KAP1-dependent stabilization of KRAB-ZNF required direct interactions with KAP1. Together, our results show that KAP1-mediated stimulation of multiple KRAB-ZNF contributes to the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  10. Postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Young, Emily; Patterson, Sharla G; Makey, Kristina L; Wells, Jeremy; Huang, Min; Tucker, Kevan B; Miele, Lucio

    2011-05-15

    Obese postmenopausal women have a 50% higher risk of breast cancer than non-obese women. There is not an animal model that mimics postmenopausal obesity related to breast cancer progression. Using age-relevant C57BL/6 mice, this study determined whether postmenopausal obesity increases VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and breast tumor growth. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 12 sixty week-old female mice, then followed by a low-fat (5%, LF, n=6) or a high-fat (60%, HF, n=6) diet for 12 weeks. In the eighth week of the dietary program, 10(6) E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the left fourth mammary gland. Tumor size was monitored for 4 weeks. Body weights were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, visceral fat and tumors were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) using CD31 immunochemistry. Body weight was significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (55.3±1.7 vs. 41.5±1.5 g; p < 0.01). There was a two-fold increase in the ratio of visceral fat/BW in OVX/HF mice, compared to those in OVX/LF group (0.062±0.005 vs. 0.032±0.003; p < 0.01). Postmenopausal obesity significantly increased breast tumor weight over the control (4.62±0.63 vs. 1.98±0.27 g; p < 0.01) and IMD (173±3.7 vs. 139±4.3 IM#/mm^2; p < 0.01). Tumor VEGF levels were higher in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (73.3±3.8 vs. 49.5±4.3 pg/mg protein; p < 0.01). Plasma VEGF levels (69±7.1 vs. 48±3.5 pg/ml) and visceral fat VEGF levels (424.4±39.5 vs. 208.5±22.4 pg/mg protein) were significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group, respectively (n=6; p < 0.01). Interestingly, adipose tissue primary culture showed that subcutaneous fat released more VEGF, compared to visceral fat (6.77±1.14 vs. 0.94±0.16 pg/mg tissue; n=6; p < 0.01). These findings support the hypothesis that postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer

  11. Technical progress report for ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the technical progress covering the period from May 15, 1989 to the present for the DOE sponsored grant, ''ICRF Edge Modeling.'' Progress in the areas of antenna design, and kinetic modeling of ions and electrons is cited. The design of antennas for CIT and C-MOD is currently an ongoing activity. Ion kinetic modeling indicates the impurity ion heating is not an important impurity production mechanism. The development of a quasilinear model for electron heating is presented. The relevant professional activities sponsored by this grant are given

  12. Real-time motion analysis reveals cell directionality as an indicator of breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Weiger

    Full Text Available Cancer cells alter their migratory properties during tumor progression to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites. However, it remains unclear how migratory behaviors differ between tumor cells of different malignancy and whether these migratory behaviors can be utilized to assess the malignant potential of tumor cells. Here, we analyzed the migratory behaviors of cell lines representing different stages of breast cancer progression using conventional migration assays or time-lapse imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV to capture migration dynamics. We find that the number of migrating cells in transwell assays, and the distance and speed of migration in unconstrained 2D assays, show no correlation with malignant potential. However, the directionality of cell motion during 2D migration nicely distinguishes benign and tumorigenic cell lines, with tumorigenic cell lines harboring less directed, more random motion. Furthermore, the migratory behaviors of epithelial sheets observed under basal conditions and in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF or lysophosphatitic acid (LPA are distinct for each cell line with regard to cell speed, directionality, and spatiotemporal motion patterns. Surprisingly, treatment with LPA promotes a more cohesive, directional sheet movement in lung colony forming MCF10CA1a cells compared to basal conditions or EGF stimulation, implying that the LPA signaling pathway may alter the invasive potential of MCF10CA1a cells. Together, our findings identify cell directionality as a promising indicator for assessing the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines and show that LPA induces more cohesive motility in a subset of metastatic breast cancer cells.

  13. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

  14. Opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR expression is downregulated with progression of triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Worley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive form of breast cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of the newly diagnosed cancers worldwide, and disproportionately affects younger women and women of color. Although many forms of breast cancer are successfully treated, new therapies are needed for TNBC. A novel regulatory system, the opioid growth factor (OGF – opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr axis, plays a determining role in neoplasia. OGF is an endogenous peptide that binds specifically to OGFr to inhibit cell replication. As some human cancers grow, OGFr expression is diminished, thus limiting the therapeutic efficacy of OGF. The OGF-OGFr axis is present in human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 and OGF  inhibits cell replication in a dosage-related, receptor-mediated manner. Methods: The present study investigated whether OGFr protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines grown in vitro or transplanted into nude mice, changed with the stage of proliferation or size of tumor using western blotting, semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, and DNA synthesis techniques. Results: Comparison of log and confluent TNBC cultures revealed that OGF expression was significantly decreased in confluent cultures relative to levels in log-phase cells. Western blot analyses confirmed that OGFr was reduced in confluent TNBC and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in comparison to corresponding log-phase cells. Moreover, BrdU labeling was reduced in confluent cells. Small (<500 mm3 and large (>1000 mm3 TNBC tumors grown in nude mice were processed for semiquantitative   measurement of OGF and OGFr. The expression of both peptide and receptor in large tumors was downregulated relative to small tumors. Conclusion: The reduced expression of the inhibitory peptide and receptor diminishes the efficacy of the OGF-OGFr axis as a biotherapy. These data suggest that the OGF-OGFr pathway is altered with cancer progression and one or more elements of

  15. Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase C2β regulates a novel signaling pathway involved in breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jonathan J.; Piñeiro, Roberto; Buus, Richard; Iezzi, Manuela; Ricci, Francesca; Bergamaschi, Daniele; Ostano, Paola; Chiorino, Giovanna; Lattanzio, Rossano; Broggini, Massimo; Piantelli, Mauro; Maffucci, Tania; Falasca, Marco

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that the enzymes phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have a key role in the development and progression of many cancer types and indeed PI3Ks inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although eight distinct PI3K isoforms exist, grouped into three classes, most of the evidence currently available are focused on one specific isoform with very little known about the potential role of the other members of this family in cancer. Here we demonstrate that the class II enzyme PI3K-C2β is overexpressed in several human breast cancer cell lines and in human breast cancer specimens. Our data indicate that PI3K-C2β regulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and that PI3K-C2β expression in breast tissues is correlated with the proliferative status of the tumor. Specifically we show that downregulation of PI3K-C2β in breast cancer cell lines reduces colony formation, induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor growth, in particular in an estrogen-dependent in vivo xenograft. Investigation of the mechanism of the PI3K-C2β-dependent regulation of cell cycle progression and cell growth revealed that PI3K-C2β regulates cyclin B1 protein levels through modulation of microRNA miR-449a levels. Our data further demonstrate that downregulation of PI3K-C2β inhibits breast cancer cell invasion in vitro and breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Consistent with this, PI3K-C2β is highly expressed in lymph-nodes metastases compared to matching primary tumors. These data demonstrate that PI3K-C2β plays a pivotal role in breast cancer progression and in metastasis development. Our data indicate that PI3K-C2β may represent a key molecular switch that regulates a rate-limiting step in breast tumor progression and therefore it may be targeted to limit breast cancer spread. PMID:26934321

  16. A novel thermal treatment modality for controlling breast tumor growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yifan; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X

    2012-01-01

    The new concept of keeping primary tumor under control in situ to suppress distant foci sheds light on the novel treatment of metastatic tumor. Hyperthermia is considered as one of the means for controlling tumor growth. In this study, a novel thermal modality was built to introduce hyperthermia effect on tumor to suppress its growth and progression using 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma, a common animal model of metastatic breast cancer. A mildly raised temperature (i.e.39°C) was imposed on the skin surface of the implanted tumor using a thermal heating pad. Periodic heating (12 hours per day) was carried out for 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days, respectively. The tumor growth rate was found significantly decreased in comparison to the control without hyperthermia. Biological evidences associated with tumor angiogenesis and metastasis were examined using histological analyses. Accordingly, the effect of mild hyperthermia on immune cell infiltration into tumors was also investigated. It was demonstrated that a delayed tumor growth and malignancy progression was achieved by mediating tumor cell apoptosis, vascular injury, degrading metastasis potential and as well as inhibiting the immunosuppressive cell myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Further mechanistic studies will be performed to explore the quantitative relationship between tumor progression and thermal dose in the near future. PMID:23367225

  17. Navigator-3, a modulator of cell migration, may act as a suppressor of breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Ben-Chetrit, Nir; Russell, Roslin; Carvalho, Silvia; Lauriola, Mattia; Nisani, Sophia; Mancini, Maicol; Nataraj, Nishanth; Kedmi, Merav; Roth, Lee; Köstler, Wolfgang; Zeisel, Amit; Yitzhaky, Assif; Zylberg, Jacques; Tarcic, Gabi; Eilam, Raya; Wigelman, Yoav; Will, Rainer; Lavi, Sara; Porat, Ziv; Wiemann, Stefan; Ricardo, Sara; Schmitt, Fernando; Caldas, Carlos; Yarden, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of primary tumor cells depends on migratory and invasive attributes. Here, we identify Navigator-3 (NAV3), a gene frequently mutated or deleted in human tumors, as a regulator of epithelial migration and invasion. Following induction by growth factors, NAV3 localizes to the plus ends of microtubules and enhances their polarized growth. Accordingly, NAV3 depletion trimmed microtubule growth, prolonged growth factor signaling, prevented apoptosis and enhanced random cell migration. Mathematical modeling suggested that NAV3-depleted cells acquire an advantage in terms of the way they explore their environment. In animal models, silencing NAV3 increased metastasis, whereas ectopic expression of the wild-type form, unlike expression of two, relatively unstable oncogenic mutants from human tumors, inhibited metastasis. Congruently, analyses of > 2,500 breast and lung cancer patients associated low NAV3 with shorter survival. We propose that NAV3 inhibits breast cancer progression by regulating microtubule dynamics, biasing directionally persistent rather than random migration, and inhibiting locomotion of initiated cells. PMID:25678558

  18. Fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated RasGAP fragment, inhibits breast cancer metastatic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, David; Lorusso, Girieca; Lhermitte, Benoît; Viertl, David; Rüegg, Curzio; Widmann, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The p120 RasGAP protein negatively regulates Ras via its GAP domain. RasGAP carries several other domains that modulate several signaling molecules such as Rho. RasGAP is also a caspase-3 substrate. One of the caspase-3-generated RasGAP fragments, corresponding to amino acids 158-455 and called fragment N2, was previously reported to specifically sensitize cancer cells to death induced by various anticancer agents. Here, we show that fragment N2 inhibits migration in vitro and that it impairs metastatic progression of breast cancer to the lung. Hence, stress-activated caspase-3 might contribute to the suppression of metastasis through the generation of fragment N2. These results indicate that the activity borne by fragment N2 has a potential therapeutic relevance to counteract the metastatic process.

  19. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  20. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This reports reports the progress/efforts performed on six technical projects: 1. systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; 2. site remediation technologies (SRT):drain- enhanced soil flushing for organic contaminants removal; 3. SRT: in situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; 4. excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; 5. chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; and 6. development of organic sensors: monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors.

  1. Heber geothermal binary demonstration project quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1981--December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, R.G.; Allen, R.F.; Alsup, R.A.; Liparidis, G.S.; Van De Mark, G.D.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this quarterly technical progress report is to document work completed on the nominal 65 Megawatt (Mwe gross) Heber Geothermal Binary Demonstration Project, located at Heber, California, during the period of October 1, 1981, through December 31, 1981. The work was performed by San Diego Gas and Electric Company under the support and cooperation of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Imperial Irrigation District, the California Department of Water Resources, and the Southern California Edison Company. Topics covered in this quarterly report include progress made in the areas of Wells and Fluid Production and Injection Systems, Power Plant Design and Construction, Power Plant Demonstration, and Data Acquisition and Dissemination.

  2. Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression through suppressing E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Nan; Liang, Hongwei; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    It is generally regarded that E-cadherin is downregulated during tumorigenesis via Snail/Slug-mediated E-cadherin transcriptional reduction. However, this transcriptional suppressive mechanism cannot explain the failure of producing E-cadherin protein in metastatic breast cancer cells after overexpressing E-cadherin mRNA. Here we reveal a novel mechanism that E-cadherin is post-transcriptionally regulated by Slug-promoted miR-221, which serves as an additional blocker for E-cadherin expression in metastatic tumor cells. Profiling the predicted E-cadherin-targeting miRNAs in breast cancer tissues and cells showed that miR-221 was abundantly expressed in breast tumor and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells and its level was significantly higher in breast tumor or MDA-MB-231 cells than in distal non-tumor tissue and low-metastatic MCF-7 cells, respectively. MiR-221, which level inversely correlated with E-cadherin level in breast cancer cells, targeted E-cadherin mRNA open reading frame (ORF) and suppressed E-cadherin protein expression. Depleting or increasing miR-221 level in breast cancer cells induced or decreased E-cadherin protein level, leading to suppressing or promoting tumor cell progression, respectively. Moreover, miR-221 was specifically upregulated by Slug but not Snail. TGF-β treatment enhanced Slug activity and thus increased miR-221 level in MCF-7 cells. In summary, our results provide the first evidence that Slug-upregulated miR-221 promotes breast cancer progression via reducing E-cadherin expression. PMID:27174021

  3. Intercellular interactions and progression of hormonal resistance of breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Semina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study is the analysis of the role of cell-cell interactions in the formation of the tumor cell resistance to hormonal drugs. About 70 % of breast tumors contain estrogen receptor (ER, a key molecular target for hormone (endocrine therapy. However, the efficiency of endocrine therapy of breast cancer is limited by the development of hormone resistance which leads to progression of tumor cells to hormone-independent phenotype, increase in tumor malignancy and worse prognosis. Hormonal independence may be accompanied with the loss of the receptors, as well as with the another mechanisms including ligand-independent receptor activation, disbalance between receptor activators and repressors, stimulation of hormone-independent pathways. It is less known about the role of the intercellular interactions in the progression of hormonal resistance. Several studies demonstrate the involvement of cell junctions in the mediating of cell response to (anti estrogens, however the significance of cell-cell contacts in the formation of hormonal resistance still not clear. Here we have hypothesized that the formation of the hormone resistance of tumors may be based, at least in part, on the transferring of the resistant phenotype from the resistant to hormone-sensitive cells – as a result of the secretion of the specific factors acting in the paracrine manner or via the direct cell-cell contacts. Using the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7 and the resistant subline MCF-7 / T developed by long-term cultivation of MCF-7 cells in the presence of antiestrogen tamoxifen, we investigated the possible changes in the hormonal sensitivity of these cells caused by the co-cultivation in vitro. To discern the cell cultures, the MCF-7 / T cells were previously transfected with the plasmid containing the gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, and GFP-positive hormone-resistant subline MCF-7 / T / GFP+ was developed. We showed that the co

  4. Projects at the component development and integration facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; and Spray Casting Project

  5. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  6. Aberrant nocturnal cortisol and disease progression in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, Jamie M; Nouriani, Bita; Rissling, Michelle B; Sledge, George W; Kaplan, Katherine A; Aasly, Linn; Palesh, Oxana; Jo, Booil; Neri, Eric; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Spiegel, David

    2016-07-01

    While a relationship between disruption of circadian rhythms and the progression of cancer has been hypothesized in field and epidemiologic studies, it has never been unequivocally demonstrated. We determined the circadian rhythm of cortisol and sleep in women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) under the conditions necessary to allow for the precise measurement of these variables. Women with ABC (n = 97) and age-matched controls (n = 24) took part in a 24-h intensive physiological monitoring study involving polysomnographic sleep measures and high-density plasma sampling. Sleep was scored using both standard clinical metrics and power spectral analysis. Three-harmonic regression analysis and functional data analysis were used to assess the 24-h and sleep-associated patterns of plasma cortisol, respectively. The circadian pattern of plasma cortisol as described by its timing, timing relative to sleep, or amplitude was indistinguishable between women with ABC and age-matched controls (p's > 0.11, t-tests). There was, however, an aberrant spike of cortisol during the sleep of a subset of women, during which there was an eightfold increase in the amount of objectively measured wake time (p sleep disruption. A greater understanding of this sleep-related cortisol abnormality, possibly a vulnerability trait, is likely important in our understanding of individual variation in the progression of cancer. PMID:27314577

  7. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants. Second annual technical progress report, September 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-12-31

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  8. Circulating low IL-23: IL-35 cytokine ratio promotes progression associated with poor prognosisin breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghui; Liang, Yanfang; Guan, Xin; Chen, Hui; Liu, Qiankun; Lin, Bihua; Chen, Can; Huang, Mingyuan; Chen, Jianan; Wu, Weiquan; Liang, Yi; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12 (formed by IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-23 (formed by IL-23p19 and IL-12p40 subunits), IL-27 (formed by IL-27p28 and EBI3 subunits) and IL-35 (formed by IL-12p35 and EBI3 subunits), establishes a link between innate and adaptive immunity that involves different immune effector cells and cytokines to tumors. However, the role of IL-12 family in breast cancer (BC) progression and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated evidence indicating that EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 but not IL-23p19 or IL-27p28 were highly expressed in BC tissues, suggested that tumor derived EBI3, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were associated with tumor progression. Circulating IL-12 and IL-23 low expressed, but IL-27 and IL-35 high expressed in BC patients, especially circulating IL-23 associated with IL-35 to mediate BC tumor resection. Ki-67, p53 and EGFR expression on BC tissues, as well as CA125, CA153 and CA199 levels on BC bloods increased when circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio decreased. Together, for the first time, our data suggest that circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio may be an important indicator association with BC progression and prognosis. However, further research should be carried out to assess the implications of circulating IL-23: IL-35 ratio in a larger sample size.

  9. Ski regulates Hippo and TAZ signaling to suppress breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Juliet; Le Scolan, Erwan; Ji, Xiaodan; Zhu, Qingwei; Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel; Luo, Kunxin

    2015-02-10

    Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling is likely responsible for the pro-oncogenic activity of Ski. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski and found that Ski suppressed the activity of the Hippo signaling effectors TAZ and YAP to inhibit breast cancer progression. TAZ and YAP are transcriptional coactivators that can contribute to cancer by promoting proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer stem cell expansion. Hippo signaling activates the the Lats family of kinases, which phosphorylate TAZ and YAP, resulting in cytoplasmic retention and degradation and inhibition of their transcriptional activity. We showed that Ski interacted with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to facilitate activation of Lats2, resulting in increased phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of TAZ. Ski also promoted the degradation of a constitutively active TAZ mutant that is not phosphorylated by Lats, suggesting the existence of a Lats2-independent degradation pathway. Finally, we showed that Ski repressed the transcriptional activity of TAZ by binding to the TAZ partner TEAD and recruiting the transcriptional co-repressor NCoR1 to the TEAD-TAZ complex. Ski effectively reversed transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition in cultured breast cancer cells and metastasis in TAZ-expressing xenografted tumors. Thus, Ski inhibited the function of TAZ through multiple mechanisms in human cancer cells.

  10. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  11. A novel long non-coding RNA FGF14-AS2 is correlated with progression and prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ye-huan; Dong, Si-yang; Ma, Rui-ming; Bhandari, Adheesh; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Wang, Ou-chen

    2016-02-12

    Breast cancer is diverse in their natural history and in their responsiveness to treatments. It is urgent to generate candidate biomarkers for the stratification of patients and personalization of therapy to avoid overtreatment or inadequate treatment. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be pervasively transcribed in the genome and played critical roles in cancer progression. A lot of lncRNAs have been reported as potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in multiple cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that FGF14 antisense RNA 2 (FGF14-AS2), a novel long non-coding RNA, was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Reduced expression of FGF14-AS2 was correlated with larger tumor size, more lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage in both cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with lower FGF14-AS2 expression had a worse overall survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that decreased expression of FGF14-AS2 was an independent predictor of overall survival. Together, these results suggested that FGF14-AS2 involved in the progress of breast cancer and might act as a tumor suppressor gene. To the best of our knowledge, it was firstly reported that FGF14-AS2 was involved in cancer. This study provided a potential new marker and a target for gene therapy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26820525

  12. Progression-free survival as a potential surrogate for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauchemin C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Beauchemin,1 Dan Cooper,2 Marie-Ève Lapierre,1 Louise Yelle,3 Jean Lachaine11Université de Montréal, Faculté de pharmacie, Montreal, 2Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS, 3Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal – Hôpital Notre-Dame, Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaBackground: Progression-free survival (PFS and time to progression (TTP are frequently used to establish the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. However, the surrogacy of PFS/TTP for overall survival (OS remains a matter of uncertainty in metastatic breast cancer (mBC. This study assessed the relationship between PFS/TTP and OS in mBC using a trial-based approach.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PICO method: 'Population' consisted of women with mBC; 'Interventions' and 'Comparators' were standard treatments for mBC or best supportive care; 'Outcomes' of interest were median PFS/TTP and OS. We first performed a correlation analysis between median PFS/TTP and OS, and then conducted subgroup analyses to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Then, we assessed the relationship between the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS. The treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was quantified by the absolute difference of median values. We also conducted linear regression analysis to predict the effects of a new anti-cancer drug on OS on the basis of its effects on PFS/TTP.Results: A total of 5,041 studies were identified, and 144 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There was a statistically significant relationship between median PFS/TTP and OS across included trials (r=0.428; P<0.01. Correlation coefficient for the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was estimated at 0.427 (P<0.01. The obtained linear regression equation was ΔOS =−0.088 (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.347–1.172 + 1.753 (95% CI 1.307–2.198 × ΔPFS (R2=0.86.Conclusion: Results of

  13. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  14. Progression risk of columnar cell lesions of the breast diagnosed in core needle biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Witkamp, Arjen J; de Bruin, Peter C; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2011-12-01

    Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) of the breast are recognized as putative precursor lesions of invasive carcinoma, but their management remains controversial. We therefore conducted a retrospective study on 311 CCLs, diagnosed in 4,164 14-gauge core needle biopsies (CNB): 221 CCLs without atypia (CCL), 69 with atypia (CCL-A), and 21 atypical ductal hyperplasias originating in CCL (ADH-CCL). Two groups were identified: "immediate treatment" group undergoing excision within four months after the CNB diagnosis of CCL (N = 52) and the "wait-and-see" group followed up to 8 years (median 3.5 years, N = 259). In 7 of 31 women (22.5%, 1 CCL, 4 CCL-A, 2 ADH-CCL) who underwent immediate surgical excision and were initially biopsied for microcalcifications, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present and in 2/31 women (6.5%, 1 CCL, 1 CCL-A) invasive carcinoma. In 2/21 excisions (9.5%, 1 CCL, 1 CCL-A) initially biopsied for a density, DCIS was present and invasive carcinoma in 5/21 excisions (23.8%, 2 CCL, 3 CCL-A). In the wait-and-see group, 9/259 women (3.5%) developed invasive carcinoma, 6 ipsi, and 3 contralaterally. Progression risks of CCL-A and ADH-CCL were 18% and 22%,versus 2% for CCL without atypia (p biopsies. The 8-years progression risks for CCL-A and ADH-CCL were around 20%. This illustrates that an atypical CCL in a CNB may signal the presence of concurrent lesions or development of advanced lesions in future and may justify ("mini") surgical excision. PMID:21225627

  15. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report: Third Quarter, CY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This is the sixteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility (HGCU). This report covers the period of work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1993. During this quarter, the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) was operated for a total of 1295 hours. This represents 58% availability during July, August, September, and including June 30 of the previous quarter. The operating dates and times since initial operation are summarized. The APF operating temperatures and differential pressures are provided. Details of the APF runs during this quarter are included in this report.

  16. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  17. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  18. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-15

    The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

  19. Research and Test Reactor Conversion to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel: Technical and Programmatic Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program - the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) - in 1978 to develop the technology necessary to reduce the use of High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel in research reactors by converting them to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. In 2004, the reactor conversion program became the driving pilar of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), a program established by the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration. The overall GTRI objectives are the conversion, removal or protection of vunerable civilian radiological and nuclear material. As part of the GTRI, the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. This paper provides an update on the progress made since 2007 and describes current technical challenges that the program faces. (author)

  20. Solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    Progress on the solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility of the Lincoln Housing Authority, Lincoln, NE is covered. An acceptance test plan is presented and the results of the test are tabulated. A complete blueprint of the system as built is provided. The monitoring system is drawn and settings and installation are described. An operation and maintenance manual discusses procedures for start up, shut down and seasonal changeover and include a valve list and pictures and specifications of components and materials used. Photographs of the final installation are included, and technical data and performance data are given. Finally, there is a brief description of system design and operation and a discussion of major maintenance problems encountered and their solutions. (LEW)

  1. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the

  2. A Bayesian model for censored positive count data in evaluating breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Wen; Jiang, Yu; Garrard, Lili; Lei, Yang; Gajewski, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Basic science researchers transplant human cancer tissues from patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to animals and observe the progression of the disease. Successful transplants show invasion of human tissues across mammary ducts in animal fat pads and cause DCIS-like lesions in one or more ducts. In this work, we consider data from a recent publication of breast cancer research where positive counts of affected ducts may be subject to censoring. We fit the data with zero-truncated Poisson (ZTP) models with an informative prior of gamma. Due to the zero-truncation and right censoring, posterior distributions may not be conventional gamma and are estimated through Markov chain Monte Carlo and grid approximation. For each of the two cell lines, we fit a model with group-specific parameters for DCIS subtypes classified by the cell surface biomarkers, and another model with a homogeneous parameter across groups. Models are compared by the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). For the chosen prior parameter values, Bayes estimates are comparative to the maximum likelihood estimates, and the DIC favors the simpler model in both cell lines. PMID:23997758

  3. Modeling invasive breast cancer: growth factors propel progression of HER2-positive premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, C-R; Zeisel, A; Köstler, W J; Lauriola, M; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Haibe-Kains, B; Amariglio, N; Ben-Chetrit, N; Emde, A; Solomonov, I; Neufeld, G; Piccart, M; Sagi, I; Sotiriou, C; Rechavi, G; Domany, E; Desmedt, C; Yarden, Y

    2012-08-01

    The HER2/neu oncogene encodes a receptor-like tyrosine kinase whose overexpression in breast cancer predicts poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. However, the mechanisms underlying aggressiveness of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-overexpressing tumors remain incompletely understood. Because it assists epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin receptors, we overexpressed HER2 in MCF10A mammary cells and applied growth factors. HER2-overexpressing cells grown in extracellular matrix formed filled spheroids, which protruded outgrowths upon growth factor stimulation. Our transcriptome analyses imply a two-hit model for invasive growth: HER2-induced proliferation and evasion from anoikis generate filled structures, which are morphologically and transcriptionally analogous to preinvasive patients' lesions. In the second hit, EGF escalates signaling and transcriptional responses leading to invasive growth. Consistent with clinical relevance, a gene expression signature based on the HER2/EGF-activated transcriptional program can predict poorer prognosis of a subgroup of HER2-overexpressing patients. In conclusion, the integration of a three-dimensional cellular model and clinical data attributes progression of HER2-overexpressing lesions to EGF-like growth factors acting in the context of the tumor's microenvironment.

  4. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO2 emissions

  5. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  6. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1990-- January 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  7. Technical adaption of a breast coil to clinical requirements at 1 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the increase of signal intensity on the T1-weighted pulse sequences is the simplest way of measuring the enhancement in MR studies of the breast. A good homogeneity within the coil is a prerequisite for such an evaluation. A coil with 3 parallel windings and good homogeneity is presented. (orig.)

  8. CDK5 is essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Li, Lili; Zhang, Jianchao; Lei, Yang; Wang, Liping; Liu, Dong-Xu; Feng, Jingxin; Hou, Pingfu; Yao, Ruosi; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a change of cellular plasticity critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase playing important roles in cancer progression. Here we show that CDK5 is commonly overexpressed and significantly correlated with several poor prognostic parameters of breast cancer. We found that CDK5 participated in TGF-β1-induced EMT. In MCF10A, TGF-β1 upregulated the CDK5 and p35 expression, and CDK5 knockdown inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT. CDK5 overexpression also exhibited a potential synergy in promoting TGF-β1-induced EMT. In mesenchymal breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and BT549, CDK5 knockdown suppressed cell motility and tumorigenesis. We further demonstrated that CDK5 modulated cancer cell migration and tumor formation by regulating the phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-732. Therefore, CDK5-FAK pathway, as a downstream step of TGF-β1 signaling, is essential for EMT and motility in breast cancer cells. This study implicates the potential value of CDK5 as a molecular marker for breast cancer. PMID:24121667

  9. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  10. Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions Vitamin D pathways unbalanced in breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Nair

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy. Vitamin D has been emerging as a potential treatment for cancer, as it has been demonstrated that it modulates proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, among others. It acts mostly through the Vitamin D receptor (VDR and the synthesis and degradation of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We aimed to study the expression of these three proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of breast lesions. Methods We have used a cohort comprising normal breast, benign mammary lesions, carcinomas in situ and invasive carcinomas and assessed the expression of the VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 by immunohistochemistry. Results The results that we have obtained show that all proteins are expressed in the various breast tissues, although at different amounts. The VDR was frequently expressed in benign lesions (93.5% and its levels of expression were diminished in invasive tumours (56.2%. Additionally, the VDR was strongly associated with the oestrogen receptor positivity in breast carcinomas. CYP27B1 expression is slightly lower in invasive carcinomas (44.6% than in benign lesions (55.8%. In contrast, CYP24A1 expression was augmented in carcinomas (56.0% in in situ and 53.7% in invasive carcinomas when compared with that in benign lesions (19.0%. Conclusions From this study, we conclude that there is a deregulation of the Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer, favouring tumour progression. Thus, during mammary malignant transformation, tumour cells lose their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D and respond to VDR-mediated Vitamin D effects, while increasing their ability to degrade this hormone.

  11. Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions Vitamin D pathways unbalanced in breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy. Vitamin D has been emerging as a potential treatment for cancer, as it has been demonstrated that it modulates proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, among others. It acts mostly through the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the synthesis and degradation of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We aimed to study the expression of these three proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of breast lesions. We have used a cohort comprising normal breast, benign mammary lesions, carcinomas in situ and invasive carcinomas and assessed the expression of the VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 by immunohistochemistry. The results that we have obtained show that all proteins are expressed in the various breast tissues, although at different amounts. The VDR was frequently expressed in benign lesions (93.5%) and its levels of expression were diminished in invasive tumours (56.2%). Additionally, the VDR was strongly associated with the oestrogen receptor positivity in breast carcinomas. CYP27B1 expression is slightly lower in invasive carcinomas (44.6%) than in benign lesions (55.8%). In contrast, CYP24A1 expression was augmented in carcinomas (56.0% in in situ and 53.7% in invasive carcinomas) when compared with that in benign lesions (19.0%). From this study, we conclude that there is a deregulation of the Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer, favouring tumour progression. Thus, during mammary malignant transformation, tumour cells lose their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D and respond to VDR-mediated Vitamin D effects, while increasing their ability to degrade this hormone

  12. Generation and focusing of pulsed intense ion beams. Technical progress report, 20 August 1981-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress on this contract is described in two parts. The first deals with the technical operation of the LION accelerator which is the exact equivalent to one line of PBFA-I. The second part is concerned with the experimental results on the ion diode mounted at the front end of the LION accelerator

  13. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  14. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  15. [Chemical risk in operating rooms and technical progress: the obligations and responsibilities of law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We are going to consider the specific applications of the new legal system and of the most recent body of laws to those work environments of particular risk, such as healthcare facilities and in particular operating rooms. In such environments, volatile chemicals classified as "dangerous" are used with consequent exposure to "chemical risk", both of those persons professionally involved, depending on the type of activity, and of the patients to whom such activities are addressed in the same environment. Once the chemical risk is framed in the existing regulatory system, it must be specifically evaluated the application of the same principle to the particular chemical risk arising from the use of anesthetic agents in the operating room, for example sevoflurane and desflurane, being careful to test wether and how much this risk can be eliminated or reduced to minimum in relation to the new achievements of the technical progress. So, as soon as the quality of "dangerous chemical agent" of the "volatile chemicals" and of the "volatile liquid anesthetic" (sevoflurane and desflurane) as well--which are characterized by a lower degree of toxicity and for this reason are mostly used in current chemical practice, preferable to some anesthetic gases such as nitrous oxide--is legally verified, it is necessary to relate the scientific and technical data which result from the current "state of art" also to the other binding regulations that are imposed for the "prevention and protection from chemical agents", according to the relative Title IX of the TUSL (Unique text for Safety and Health at Work). PMID:24640081

  16. Trastuzumab beyond progression: overall survival analysis of the GBG 26/BIG 3-05 phase III study in HER2-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Schwedler, Kathrin; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2011-01-01

    Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine (XH) showed a significantly improved overall response rate and time to progression compared with capecitabine (X) alone in women with HER2-positive breast cancer progressing during trastuzumab treatment. Here, we report the final analysis on overall...

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Emeli M., E-mail: Emeli.Nilsson@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Brokken, Leon J.S., E-mail: Leon.Brokken@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Haerkoenen, Pirkko L., E-mail: Pirkko.Harkonen@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tumour Biology, Lund University, CRC, Building 91, Plan 10, Entrance 72, UMAS, 205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2010-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

  18. Krüppel-like Factor 4 Inhibits Tumorigenic Progression and Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Yori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4 is a zinc finger transcription factor that functions as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in a highly tissue-specific cell-dependent manner. However, its precise role in breast cancer and metastasis remains unclear. Here, we show that transient adenoviral expression of KLF4 in the 4T1 orthotopic mammary cancer model significantly attenuated primary tumor growth as well as micrometastases to the lungs and liver. These results can be attributed, in part, to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Further supporting a tumor-suppressive role for KLF4 in the breast, we found that KLF4 expression is lost in a mouse model of HER2/NEU/ERBB2-positive breast cancer. To determine whether enforced KLF4 expression could alter tumor latency in these mice, we used a doxycycline-inducible expression model in the context of the MMTV-Neu transgene. Surprisingly, tumors that developed in this model also lost KLF4 expression, suggesting negative selection for sustained expression. We have previously reported that KLF4 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a preliminary step in metastatic progression. Overexpression of KLF4 in 4T1 cells led to a significant reduction in the expression of Snail, a key mediator of EMT and metastasis. Conversely, KLF4 silencing increased Snail expression in the nontransformed MCF-10A cell line. Collectively, these data demonstrate the first functional, in vivo evidence for KLF4 as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our findings suggest an inhibitory role for KLF4 during breast cancer metastases that functions, in part, through repression of Snail.

  19. Progress of transcription factor Twist expression in breast cancer and its biological effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Qian

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women and the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis are the links closely related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Twist is a type of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that can affect cell proliferation and invasion process, epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and angiogenesis process through regulating the transcription of downstream target genes. In the research, the study of transcription factor Twist expression in breast cancer and its biological effect is reviewed.

  20. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies. Technical progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1992-07-01

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a center for information exchange, nationally and internationally, by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results that are obtained by the Institute contribute mainly to the progress of national and international efforts in nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power.as a basic energy source. In addition to its primary focus on fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in related fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, plasma astrophysics, and accelerator physics. The work of EFS scientists continued to receive national and international recognition. Numerous invited papers were given during the past year at workshops, conferences, and scientific meetings. Last year IFS scientists published 95 scientific articles in technical journals and monographs.

  1. Jointly sponsored research program quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: Development and demonstration of a practical electric downhole steam generator for thermal recovery of heavy oil and tar; wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems; coal gasification, power generation, and product market study; impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay liners; investigation of coprocessing of heavy oil, automobile shredder residue, and coal; injection into coal seams for simultaneous CO{sub 2} mitigation and enhanced recovery of coalbed methane; optimization of carbonizer operations in the FMC coke process; chemical sensor and field screening technology development; demonstration of the Koppelman ``Series C`` Power River Basin coal as feed; remote chemical sensor development; market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use; solid-state NMR analysis and interpretation of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; Crow{trademark} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; ``B`` series pilot plant tests; and in-situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program.

  2. MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Technology development for the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Work is being done under three tasks as described in the following. (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development: The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The scope of the work will include compilation of materials data, materials selection for testing and design studies, materials property determination, liaison with refractory manufacturers and other organizations to encourage development of materials and fabrication technology, establishment of preliminary HTAH material specifications, analyses of test materials, and development of criteria for thermal stress limits for crack-tolerant refractory materials. (2) operability, performance, and materials testing: The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. (3) full-scale design concepts: The objectives of this task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. Progress is described. (WHK)

  3. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  4. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, May 1991--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990`s, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  5. Technical Progress of Rubber Additives%橡胶助剂技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐琳; 梁诚

    2013-01-01

    In this review, the development and application of rubber additives are presented, including antioxidant 4030, antioxidant 4050, accelerator TBSI and TBZTD, anti-reversion agent Perkalink900, peptizer, homogenizing agent and resorcinol resin. The technical progress of production processes of several rubber additives is reviewed, for example, 4-aminodiphenylamine from nitrobenzene, antioxidant DTPD from mixed amine, and thiazole accelerators through clean process. The growth of China rubber additive industry relies strongly on continuous technological innovation.%介绍防老剂4030和4050等防护体系助剂,促进剂TBSI和TBZTD、抗硫化返原剂Perkalink900等硫化体系助剂,以及塑解剂、均匀剂、间苯二酚树脂等加工助剂的开发和应用。综述对氨基二苯胺硝基苯法工艺、混合胺合成防老剂DTPD工艺、噻唑类促进剂清洁工艺等进展。我国橡胶助剂工业应不断科技创新,才能够做大做强。

  6. Current status of gene therapy for breast cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrudden CM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cian M McCrudden, Helen O McCarthySchool of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is characterized by a series of genetic mutations and is therefore ideally placed for gene therapy intervention. The aim of gene therapy is to deliver a nucleic acid-based drug to either correct or destroy the cells harboring the genetic aberration. More recently, cancer gene therapy has evolved to also encompass delivery of RNA interference technologies, as well as cancer DNA vaccines. However, the bottleneck in creating such nucleic acid pharmaceuticals lies in the delivery. Deliverability of DNA is limited as it is prone to circulating nucleases; therefore, numerous strategies have been employed to aid with biological transport. This review will discuss some of the viral and nonviral approaches to breast cancer gene therapy, and present the findings of clinical trials of these therapies in breast cancer patients. Also detailed are some of the most recent developments in nonviral approaches to targeting in breast cancer gene therapy, including transcriptional control, and the development of recombinant, multifunctional bio-inspired systems. Lastly, DNA vaccines for breast cancer are documented, with comment on requirements for successful pharmaceutical product development.Keywords: breast cancer, gene therapy, nonviral, clinical trial

  7. CDK5 is essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Qian; Li, Lili; Zhang, Jianchao; Lei, Yang; Wang, LiPing; Liu, Dong-Xu; Feng, Jingxin; Hou, Pingfu; Yao, Ruosi; ZHANG, YU; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a change of cellular plasticity critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase playing important roles in cancer progression. Here we show that CDK5 is commonly overexpressed and significantly correlated with several poor prognostic parameters of breast cancer. We found that CDK5 participated in TGF-β1-induced EMT. In MCF10A, TGF-β1 upregulated the CDK5 and p35 expression, and CDK5 knockdown inhi...

  8. Assessment of circulating tumor cells and serum markers for progression-free survival prediction in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bidard, François-Clément; Hajage, David; Bachelot, Thomas; Delaloge, Suzette; Brain, Etienne; Campone, Mario; Cottu, Paul; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Rolland, Emilie; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been recently proposed as a new dynamic blood marker whose positivity at baseline is a prognostic factor and whose changes under treatment are correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer patients. However, serum marker levels are also used for the same purpose, and no clear comparison has been reported to date. Methods The IC 2006-04 enrolled prospectively 267 metastatic breast cancer patients treated by first lin...

  9. Ganoderma lucidum Combined with the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Erlotinib Synergize to Reduce Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Rios-Fuller, Tiffany J; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Leal-Alviarez, Daniel J; Maldonado-Martinez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify agents that may be combined with these therapies to provide a sustained response for breast cancer patients. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) in breast cancer, focusing on the regulation of the EGFR signaling cascade when treated with the EGFR TKI, Erlotinib. SUM-149, or intrinsic Erlotinib resistant MDA-MB-231 cells, and a successfully developed Erlotinib resistant cell line, rSUM-149 were treated with increasing concentrations of Erlotinib, GLE, or their combination (Erlotinib/GLE) for 72h. Treatment effects were tested on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. To determine tumor progression, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with SUM-149 cells and then treated with Erlotinib/GLE or Erlotinib for 13 weeks. We assessed the protein expression of ERK1/2 and AKT in in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. GLE increases Erlotinib sensitivity by inactivating AKT and ERK signaling pathways in our models. We conclude that a combinatorial therapeutic approach may be the best way to increase prognosis in breast cancer patients with EGFR overexpressing tumors.

  10. Ganoderma lucidum Combined with the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Erlotinib Synergize to Reduce Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Rios-Fuller, Tiffany J; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Leal-Alviarez, Daniel J; Maldonado-Martinez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify agents that may be combined with these therapies to provide a sustained response for breast cancer patients. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) in breast cancer, focusing on the regulation of the EGFR signaling cascade when treated with the EGFR TKI, Erlotinib. SUM-149, or intrinsic Erlotinib resistant MDA-MB-231 cells, and a successfully developed Erlotinib resistant cell line, rSUM-149 were treated with increasing concentrations of Erlotinib, GLE, or their combination (Erlotinib/GLE) for 72h. Treatment effects were tested on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. To determine tumor progression, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with SUM-149 cells and then treated with Erlotinib/GLE or Erlotinib for 13 weeks. We assessed the protein expression of ERK1/2 and AKT in in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. GLE increases Erlotinib sensitivity by inactivating AKT and ERK signaling pathways in our models. We conclude that a combinatorial therapeutic approach may be the best way to increase prognosis in breast cancer patients with EGFR overexpressing tumors. PMID:26958085

  11. Elevated expression of LSD1 (Lysine-specific demethylase 1 during tumour progression from pre-invasive to invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serce Nuran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysine-specific demethylase1 (LSD1 is a nuclear protein which belongs to the aminooxidase-enzymes playing an important role in controlling gene expression. It has also been found highly expressed in several human malignancies including breast carcinoma. Our aim was to detect LSD1 expression also in pre-invasive neoplasias of the breast. In the current study we therefore analysed LSD1 protein expression in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS in comparison to invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC. Methods Using immunohistochemistry we systematically analysed LSD1 expression in low grade DCIS (n = 27, intermediate grade DCIS (n = 30, high grade DCIS (n = 31 and in invasive ductal breast cancer (n = 32. SPSS version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results LSD1 was differentially expressed in DCIS and invasive ductal breast cancer. Interestingly, LSD1 was significantly overexpressed in high grade DCIS versus low grade DCIS. Differences in LSD1 expression levels were also statistically significant between low/intermediate DCIS and invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Conclusions LSD1 is also expressed in pre-invasive neoplasias of the breast. Additionally, there is a gradual increase of LSD1 expression within tumour progression from pre-invasive DCIS to invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Therefore upregulation of LSD1 may be an early tumour promoting event.

  12. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, July 1 through September 30, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; Combustion Gas Turbine; and Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility.

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  14. Weight loss reversed obesity-induced HGF/c-Met pathway and basal-like breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha eSundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC. Using the C3(1-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. It is likely that other factors regulated tumor progression, hence we investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor

  15. Technical factors associated with radiation pneumonitis after local ± regional radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of, and clinical factors associated with, symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after tangential breast/chest wall irradiation with or without regional lymph node treatment. Methods and Materials: The records of 613 patients irradiated with tangential photon fields for breast cancer with >6 months follow-up were reviewed. Clinically significant RP was defined as the presence of new pulmonary symptoms requiring steroids. Data on clinical factors previously reported to be associated with RP were collected, e.g., tamoxifen or chemotherapy exposure and age. The central lung distance (CLD) and the average of the superior and inferior mid lung distance (ALD) in the lateral tangential field were measured on simulator films as a surrogate for irradiated lung volume. Many patients were treated with partly wide tangential fields that included a heart block shielding a part of the lower lung. Results: RP developed in 15/613 (2.4%) patients. In the univariate analysis, there was an increased incidence of RP among patients treated with local-regional radiotherapy (RT) (4.1%) vs. those receiving local RT only (0.9%) (p=0.02), and among patients receiving chemotherapy (3.9%) vs. those not treated with chemotherapy (1.4%) (p=0.06). According to multivariate analysis, only the use of nodal RT remained independently associated with RP (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant association between ranked CLD or ALD measurements and RP among patients treated with nodal irradiation with tangential beams. However, there was a statistically nonsignificant trend for increasing rates of RP with grouped ALD values: below 2 cm (4% RP rate), between 2 and 3 cm (6%), and above 3 cm (14%). Conclusions: RP was an uncommon complication, both with local and local-regional RT. The addition of regional lymph node irradiation slightly increased the incidence of RP among patients treated with the partly wide tangential field technique. Concern for RP should

  16. Savannah River Plant, Works Technical Department monthly progress report for March 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details activities of the Works Technical Department during the month of March 1956. It covers reactor technology, separations technology, engineering assistance and heavy water technology

  17. Savannah River Plant, Works Technical Department monthly progress report for March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1956-04-18

    This document details activities of the Works Technical Department during the month of March 1956. It covers reactor technology, separations technology, engineering assistance and heavy water technology.

  18. Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Volume 1. Summary. Volume 2. Detailed technical information. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, M.E.; Hwang, K.C.; Railing, S.M.

    1978-03-31

    Research and development work aimed at the development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier is described in detail. The system features a rotary bed of granular silica gel and a rotary regenerator. The dehumidifier can be used for air conditioning through adiabatic saturation of the process airstream. Detailed technical information is presented in the appendices: (A) management, (B) review of the literature: state-of-the-art survey and SERI meeting, (C) review of the literature: adsorbent survey, (D) design requirements and evaluation criteria, (E) design requirements and evaluation criteria, single-family house model, (F) design requirements and evaluation criteria, economic model, (G) design requirements and evaluation criteria: conventional system models for comparison, (H) candidate cooling subsystems, (I) subsystem computer model, (J) subsystem performance map, and (K) subsystem preliminary design. (WHK)

  19. Translational control of TWIST1 expression in MCF-10A cell lines recapitulating breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nairismägi, Maarja-Liisa; Vislovukh, Andrii; Meng, Q;

    2012-01-01

    TWIST1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Its misregulation has been observed in various types of tumors. Using the MCF-10A-series of cell lines that recapitulate the early stages of breast cancer formation...

  20. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is primarily focused on the previously hardly explored role of HIF-1 in breast cancer. HIF-1 is a transcription factor induced by hypoxia, but also by some oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and growth factors. Activated HIF-1 can induce angiogenesis, glycolysis, erythropoiesis, and other

  1. Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-26

    The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

  2. Microarray methods to identify factors determining breast cancer progression : Potentials, limitations, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, B.; de Bock, G. H.; Hollema, H.; Wesseling, J.

    2009-01-01

    65-80% of the patients with breast cancer might not benefit from the adjuvant therapy they receive based on 'classical' markers used for the selection for adjuvant therapy. Therefore it is necessary to develop new markers that are able to tailor treatment for an individual patient. A number of micro

  3. Learning Progressions: Tools for Assessment and Instruction for All Learners. Technical Report #1307

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Leilani; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Conceptually, learning progressions hold promise for improving assessment and instruction by precisely outlining what students know and don't know at particular stages of knowledge and skill development. Based upon a synthesis of the literature, a rationale for the use of learning progressions maps to clarify how learning progresses in…

  4. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Juana M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ErbB2-positive breast cancer is characterized by highly aggressive phenotypes and reduced responsiveness to standard therapies. Although specific ErbB2-targeted therapies have been designed, only a small percentage of patients respond to these treatments and most of them eventually relapse. The existence of this population of particularly aggressive and non-responding or relapsing patients urges the search for novel therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids might constitute a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of ErbB2-positive breast tumors. We analyzed their antitumor potential in a well established and clinically relevant model of ErbB2-driven metastatic breast cancer: the MMTV-neu mouse. We also analyzed the expression of cannabinoid targets in a series of 87 human breast tumors. Results Our results show that both Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most abundant and potent cannabinoid in marijuana, and JWH-133, a non-psychotropic CB2 receptor-selective agonist, reduce tumor growth, tumor number, and the amount/severity of lung metastases in MMTV-neu mice. Histological analyses of the tumors revealed that cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cancer cell apoptosis, and impair tumor angiogenesis. Cannabinoid antitumoral action relies, at least partially, on the inhibition of the pro-tumorigenic Akt pathway. We also found that 91% of ErbB2-positive tumors express the non-psychotropic cannabinoid receptor CB2. Conclusions Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

  5. Technical and clinical breast cancer screening performance indicators for computed radiography versus direct digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, Hilde; Lemmens, Kim; Zanca, Federica; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Hauwere, An de; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, QCC, Ghent (Belgium); Herck, Koen van; Bleyen, Luc; Mortier, Griet [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Department of Public Health, Ghent (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Vroegtijdige Opsporing Borstklierkanker West-Vlaanderen vzw, Bruges (Belgium); Putte, Gretel vande; Kellen, Eliane; Limbergen, Erik van [Leuven University Center of Cancer Screening, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    To compare technical and clinical screening performance parameters between computed radiography (CR) and direct digital radiography (DR) systems. The number of women screened with CR was 73,008 and with DR 116,945. Technical and patient dose survey data of 25 CR and 37 DR systems were available. Technical performance was expressed by threshold thickness values at the mean glandular dose (MGD) level of routine practice. Clinical indicators included recall rate (RR), cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), percentage of cancers with T-scores smaller than 1 cm and positive predictive value (PPV). Contrast threshold values for the 0.1-mm gold disk were 1.44 {mu}m (SD 0.13 {mu}m) for CR and 1.20 {mu}m (SD 0.13 {mu}m for DR). MGD was 2.16 mGy (SD 0.36 mGy) and 1.35 mGy (SD 0.32 mGy) for CR and DR respectively. We obtained for CR, respectively DR, the following results: RR in the first round of 5.48 % versus 5.61 %; RR in subsequent rounds of 2.52 % versus 2.65 %; CDR of 0.52 % versus 0.53 %; DCIS of 0.08 % versus 0.11 %; a rate of cancers with T-scores smaller than 1 cm of 0.11 % versus 0.11 %; PPV of 18.45 % versus 18.64 %; none of them was significantly different. Our screening indicators are reassuring for the use of CR and DR, with CR operating at 60 % higher MGD. (orig.)

  6. Retrospective study of the effect of disease progression on patient reported outcomes in HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC. Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102 were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%, lung (28% and liver (26% predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL.

  7. Notch3 overexpression causes arrest of cell cycle progression by inducing Cdh1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Fa; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Xi-Xun; Wei, Xiao-Long; Li, Yao-Chen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation, genomic instability and cancer are closely related to the abnormal activation of the cell cycle. Therefore, blocking the cell cycle of cancer cells has become one of the key goals for treating malignancies. Unfortunately, the factors affecting cell cycle progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we have explored the effects of Notch3 on the cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines by 3 methods: overexpressing the intra-cellular domain of Notch3 (N3ICD), knocking-down Notch3 by RNA interference, and using X-ray radiation exposure. The results revealed that overexpression of Notch3 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation rate in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, overexpressing N3ICD upregulated Cdh1 expression and resulted in p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation. Conversely, silencing of Notch3 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, caused a decrease in expression levels of Cdh1 and p27(Kip) at both the protein and mRNA levels, while the expression of Skp2 only increased at the protein level. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an elevated proliferative ability and colony-formation rate, which may be caused by alterations of the Cdh1/Skp2/p27 axis. These results were also supported by exposing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 treated with siN3 to X-irradiation at various doses. Overall, our data showed that overexpression of N3ICD upregulated the expression of Cdh1 and caused p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation, which in turn led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, in the context of proliferating breast cancer cell lines. These findings help to illuminate the precision therapy targeted to cell cycle progression, required for cancer treatment.

  8. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  9. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Juana M; Moreno-Bueno Gema; Cerutti Camilla; Pérez-Gómez Eduardo; Mira Emilia; Andradas Clara; Caffarel María M; García-Real Isabel; Palacios José; Mañes Santos; Guzmán Manuel; Sánchez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background ErbB2-positive breast cancer is characterized by highly aggressive phenotypes and reduced responsiveness to standard therapies. Although specific ErbB2-targeted therapies have been designed, only a small percentage of patients respond to these treatments and most of them eventually relapse. The existence of this population of particularly aggressive and non-responding or relapsing patients urges the search for novel therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine whe...

  10. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinario, Ellen; Han, Hye-Jung; Furuta, Saori; Heiser, Laura M; Jakkula, Lakshmi R; Rodier, Francis; Spellman, Paul T; Campisi, Judith; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2012-01-01

    SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2), but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  11. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  12. Anti-Glycine Receptor Antibody Mediated Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus Associated with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie N. De Blauwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 66-year-old woman who presented with a dramatic course of PERM. Anti-glycine receptor antibodies were found. She stabilized after plasma-exchange and partly recovered. Eighteen months later, a diagnosis of smouldering breast cancer with bone marrow metastasis was made. There are indications that this tumor was already present at first presentation. An overview of PERM and anti-glycine receptor antibodies is given.

  13. HSET overexpression fuels tumor progression via centrosome clustering-independent mechanisms in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pannu, Vaishali; Rida, Padmashree C. G.; Ogden, Angela; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bowen, Nathan J.; Rudd, Katie; Gupta, Meenakshi V.; Reid, Michelle D.; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Walczak, Claire E.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Human breast tumors harbor supernumerary centrosomes in almost 80% of tumor cells. Although amplified centrosomes compromise cell viability via multipolar spindles resulting in death-inducing aneuploidy, cancer cells tend to cluster extra centrosomes during mitosis. As a result cancer cells display bipolar spindle phenotypes to maintain a tolerable level of aneuploidy, an edge to their survival. HSET/KifC1, a kinesin-like minus-end directed microtubule motor has recently found fame as a cruci...

  14. Current status of gene therapy for breast cancer: progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    McCrudden CM; McCarthy HO

    2014-01-01

    Cian M McCrudden, Helen O McCarthySchool of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is characterized by a series of genetic mutations and is therefore ideally placed for gene therapy intervention. The aim of gene therapy is to deliver a nucleic acid-based drug to either correct or destroy the cells harboring the genetic aberration. More recently, cancer gene therapy has evolved to also encompass delivery of RNA interference technologies, as well as c...

  15. 乳腺癌MRI检查的临床进展%THE CLINICAL PROGRESSION OF MRI OF BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奥妮; 牛广明; 韩晓东

    2014-01-01

    乳腺癌为全世界女性最多发的恶性肿瘤之一,且有发病率、死亡率逐年上升和年轻化的趋势。然而乳腺癌早期症状及体征并不明显,较易被忽略。故其早期检出和诊断在提高病人生存率方面就显得尤为重要。近年来随着科学技术的进步,MRI技术也已经从单纯解剖学描述向分子生物学、病理生理学和功能性影像学的方向发展。本文将对MRI在乳腺癌诊断治疗方面的研究现状及临床价值加以综述。%Breast cancer is one of the world ' s most frequent female malignant tumors, and its morbidity and mortality has a tendency to rise year by year and the trend of getting younger. Because of a breast cancer early signs and symptoms are not obvious, so more easy to be ignored. So the early detection and diagnosis is particularly important in improving survival. With the progress of science and technology in recent years,MRI techniques have also been described from pure anatomy to molecular biology, pathology, physiology and the direction of functional imaging. This article of MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and clinical value of the current state of research on are re-viewed.

  16. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulates breast cancer progression via HIF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosatto, Anna; Sommaggio, Roberta; Kummerow, Carsten; Bentham, Robert B; Blacker, Thomas S; Berecz, Tunde; Duchen, Michael R; Rosato, Antonio; Bogeski, Ivan; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Rizzuto, Rosario; Mammucari, Cristina

    2016-05-02

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents the most aggressive breast tumor subtype. However, the molecular determinants responsible for the metastatic TNBC phenotype are only partially understood. We here show that expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), the selective channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, correlates with tumor size and lymph node infiltration, suggesting that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake might be instrumental for tumor growth and metastatic formation. Accordingly, MCU downregulation hampered cell motility and invasiveness and reduced tumor growth, lymph node infiltration, and lung metastasis in TNBC xenografts. In MCU-silenced cells, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) is blunted and expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is reduced, suggesting a signaling role for mROS and HIF-1α, downstream of mitochondrial Ca(2+) Finally, in breast cancer mRNA samples, a positive correlation of MCU expression with HIF-1α signaling route is present. Our results indicate that MCU plays a central role in TNBC growth and metastasis formation and suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is a potential novel therapeutic target for clinical intervention.

  17. AZU-1: A Candidate Breast Tumor Suppressor and Biomarker for Tumor Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Schmeichel, Karen L; Mian, I. Saira; Lelie`vre, Sophie; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2000-02-04

    To identify genes misregulated in the final stages of breast carcinogenesis, we performed differential display to compare the gene expression patterns of the human tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, HMT-3522-T4-2, with those of their immediate premalignant progenitors, HMT-3522-S2. We identified a novel gene, called anti-zuai-1 (AZU-1), that was abundantly expressed in non- and premalignant cells and tissues but was appreciably reduced in breast tumor cell types and in primary tumors. The AZU-1 gene encodes an acidic 571-amino-acid protein containing at least two structurally distinct domains with potential protein-binding functions: an N-terminal serine and proline-rich domain with a predicted immunoglobulin-like fold and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. In HMT-3522 cells, the bulk of AZU-1 protein resided in a detergent-extractable cytoplasmic pool and was present at much lower levels in tumorigenic T4-2 cells than in their nonmalignant counterparts. Reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of T4-2 cells, by means described previously, was accompanied by the up-regulation of AZU-1. In addition, reexpression of AZU-1 in T4-2 cells, using viral vectors, was sufficient to reduce their malignant phenotype substantially, both in culture and in vivo. These results indicate that AZU-1 is a candidate breast tumor suppressor that may exert its effects by promoting correct tissue morphogenesis.

  18. The Role of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Schweizer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional breast cancer extirpation involves resection of parts of or the whole gland, resulting in asymmetry and disfiguration. Given the unsatisfactory aesthetic outcomes, patients often desire postmastectomy reconstructive procedures. Autologous fat grafting has been proposed for reconstructive purposes for decades to restore form and anatomy after mastectomy. Fat has the inherent advantage of being autologous tissue and the most natural-appearing filler, but given its inconsistent engraftment and retention rates, it lacks reliability. Implementation of autologous fat grafts with cellular adjuncts, such as multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, has shown promising results. However, it is pertinent and critical to question whether these cells could promote any residual tumor cells to proliferate, differentiate, or metastasize or even induce de novo carcinogenesis. Thus far, preclinical and clinical study findings are discordant. A trend towards potential promotion of both breast cancer growth and invasion by ADSCs found in basic science studies was indeed not confirmed in clinical trials. Whether experimental findings eventually correlate with or will be predictive of clinical outcomes remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to concisely review current experimental findings on the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer, mainly focusing on ADSCs as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, and discuss the implications in clinical translation.

  19. Savannah River Plant Works Technical Department progress report, July 1960: Deleted Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-08-17

    This progress report by the Atomic Energy Division of the Savannah River Plant covers: Reactor Technology; Separation Technology; Engineering Assistance; Health Physics; and General Laboratory work. (JT)

  20. Savannah River Plant Works Technical Department monthly progress report for May 1958: Deleted Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-17

    This progress report by the Atomic Energy Division of the Savannah River Plant covers: Reactor Technology; Separation Technology; Engineering Assistance; Health Physics; and General Laboratory Work. (JT)

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3, 000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  3. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting. Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 (micro)m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of ∼ 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light

  4. Haploinsufficiency in the prometastasis Kiss1 Receptor Gpr54 delays breast tumor initiation, progression and lung metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Gook; Wang, Ying; Rodriguez, Melissa; Tan, Kunrong; Zhang, Wenzheng; Luo, Jian; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-01-01

    Activation of KISS1 receptor (KISS1R or GPR54) by its ligands (kisspeptins) regulates a diverse function both in normal physiology and pathophysiology. In cancer, KISS1-induced KISS1R signaling is known to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, roles of KISS1 and KISS1R in earlier stages of tumor progression and metastasis in vivo are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a critical role for Kiss1r in early stages of tumor progression using mouse tumor models. PyMT/Kiss1r mice with different Kiss1r genotypes were obtained by crossing MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse with Kiss1r heterozygous mouse (Kiss1r+/−). Kiss1r heterozygosity attenuated breast tumor initiation, growth, latency, multiplicity and metastasis in MMTV-PyMT/Kiss1r+/− mouse models. To confirm the effects of Kiss1r in tumor progression and limit any effect of endogenous hormones, we isolated primary tumor cells from PyMT/Kiss1r+/+ or PyMT/Kiss1r+/− mice and performed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis assays. Kiss1r heterozygosity inhibited PyMT-induced in vitro tumorigeneity and in vivo tumor growth in NOD.SCID/NCr mice. To understand the underlying mechanism, we showed that activation of KISS1R by kisspeptin-10 led to RhoA activation and RhoA-dependent gene expression through Gαq-p63RhoGEF signaling pathway. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth was tightly linked to the dosage-dependent regulation of RhoA by KISS1R. When MCF10A cells overexpressing H-RasV12 were subjected to in vitro tumorigenesis assays, knockdown of KISS1R or inactivation of RhoA in MCF10A cells reduced Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth, similar to our data obtained from PyMT-Kiss1r+/− mouse models. Altogether, we conclude that Kiss1r haploinsufficiency delays breast tumor initiation, progression and metastasis through its downstream Gαq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA signaling pathway. PMID:21852382

  5. THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION ABOUT CAPITAL AND LABOR IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH AN ENDOGENOUS TECHNICAL PROGRESS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金山; 李楚霖; 胡适耕

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the balanced economic growth path was considered in a new growth model with endogenous technical progress. It is not only obtained the optimal allocation about capital and labor between a goods-producing sector and a R&D Sector,but also the optimal value of saving rates. By discussing the effect of parameters, it are also got the following results: When the rate of time preference (discount factor) rising, the fractions of Capital and labor in the goods-producing sector will increase , the fractions in R&D sector and the saving rates will decrease; When the population grows rapidly, the result will be contrary.

  6. ANX7 as a Bio-Marker in Prostate and Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Srivastava

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANX7 gene codes for a Ca2+-activated GTPase, which has been implicated in both exocytotic secretion in cells and control of growth. In this review, we summarize information regarding increased tumor frequency in the Anx7 knockout mice, ANX7 growth suppression of human cancer cell lines, and ANX7 expression in human tumor tissue micro-arrays. The loss of ANX7 is significant in metastatic and hormone refractory prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. In addition, ANX7 expression has prognostic value for predicting survival of breast cancer patients.

  7. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY. TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements

  8. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion - atom collisions. Technical progress report - year 1, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. The objective of this research project is to provide absolute cross section measurements of various scattering processes which occur in negative ion collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target-inelastic processes of excitation and ionization. Total cross sections for single- and double-electron detachment were recently published in Physical Review A from this research project. The researchers were successful this past year in acquiring the first cross section measurements of target excitation for H{sup -} impact on helium target atoms.

  9. Regulation of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Simin; Choong, Lee-Yee; Kuan, Chong Poh; Yunhao, Chen; Lim, Yoon-Pin

    2009-08-01

    Genetic aberration of EGFR is one of the major molecular characteristics of breast cancer. However, the molecular changes associated with EGFR signaling during different stages of breast cancer development have not been studied. In this study, complementary two-dimensional-DIGE and iTRAQ technologies were used to profile the expression level of proteins in 4 isogenic cell lines in the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression following a time course of EGF stimulation. A total of 80 proteins (67 from iTRAQ, 15 from DIGE, 2 common in both) were identified to be up- or down-regulated by EGF treatment. Following EGF stimulation, the expression level of MIF, a cytokine that has been implicated in many human cancers, was decreased in MCF10A1 normal breast mammary epithelial cells, increased in MCF10AT1k preneoplastic and MCF10CA1h low grade breast cancer cells, but showed no obvious difference in the MCF10CA1a high grade cancer cells. The increase in MIF expression level following EGF treatment could also be observed in A431 cervical cancer cells. EGF-induced increases of MIF expression levels in CA1h breast cancer cells were abrogated when MEK, but not PIK3CA, was knocked down. In addition, silencing of MIF diminished the proliferation of EGF-stimulated CA1h cells when compared to control cells. Taken together, our data suggested an EGFR --> MEK --> MIF proliferative pathway that has never been reported previously and that this pathway "evolves" during disease progression as modeled by the MCF10AT system. Revelation of the novel relationship between MIF and EGF may contribute to an integrated understanding of the roles of these oncogenic factors during breast cancer development.

  10. Proceedings of the technical review on advances in geothermal reservoir technology---Research in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This proceedings contains 20 technical papers and abstracts describing most of the research activities funded by the Department of Energy (DOE's) Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program, which is under the management of Marshall Reed. The meeting was organized in response to several requests made by geothermal industry representatives who wanted to learn more about technical details of the projects supported by the DOE program. Also, this gives them an opportunity to personally discuss research topics with colleagues in the national laboratories and universities.

  11. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development.

  12. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development

  13. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, March 1, 1997--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-13

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes progress in manufacturing, bonding, deposition, non-destructive evaluation, repair, and maintenance.

  14. Information and Communications Technical Support Services to the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following tasks: development of safety publications, conference support, planning and reporting, MORT A/I video, print products, special graphics, and SAFE software development.

  15. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  16. Theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities during this past year included theoretical work in lattice gauge theory, EMC effect, supersymmetry and supergravity, weak interactions including CP violation, and superstrings. Progress in all these areas is reported

  17. High energy physics. Technical progress report, November 1, 1982 - October 25, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following areas: quantum field theory, gauge theories, dynamical symmetry breaking, supersymmetry, magnetic monopoles, cosmology and particle physics, and phenomenological studies. 34 publications under this contract are listed

  18. Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under this contract, research has been performed on both the theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles. A brief description of the work which is either in progress or has been completed is given. Publications are listed

  19. A Catalogue of Altered Salivary Proteins Secondary to Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A Novel In Vivo Paradigm to Assess Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfus, Charles F; Bigler, Lenora

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to introduce a catalogue of salivary proteins that are altered secondary to carcinoma of the breast. The catalogue of salivary proteins is a compilation of twenty years of research by the authors and consists of 233 high and low abundant proteins which have been identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, 2D-gel analysis and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The body of research suggests that saliva is a fluid suffused with solubilized by-products of oncogenic expression and that these proteins may be useful in the study of breast cancer progress, treatment efficacy and the tailoring of individualized patient care.

  20. 乳腺癌术后上肢水肿研究进展%Progress in study on lymphedema of arm after surgery of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Lymphedema of affected arm is a severe complication after surgery of breast cancer.Quality of life and rehabilitation of patients suffered from breast cancer receive more and more attention with increase of incidence and decrease of mortality,longation of survival time.Lymphedema of arm not only affects esthetics but produce pain,dysfunction,deprivation of work ability,and serious psychological issues.In the current paper,we reviewed progress in study on risk factors associated with surgery,evaluation,prevention and management of lymphedema in arm.

  1. Technical progress report for the quarter 1 October-31 December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments on the commercial nuclear waste management programs and on the geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The program is organized into eight tasks: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management. (DLC)

  2. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  3. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrinos, A. A.; Hoffman, H. W. [comps.

    1977-04-01

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented.

  4. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  5. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...

  6. Technical progress report for the quarter 1 October-31 December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the technical accomplishments on the commercial nuclear waste management programs and on the geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The program is organized into eight tasks: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management

  7. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented

  8. Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Colak

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative

  9. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have on

  10. Modeling of hypo/hyperglycemia and their impact on breast cancer progression related molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin A I Adham

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC arises commonly in women with metabolic dysfunction. The underlying mechanism by which glycemic load can exert its action on tumor metastasis is under investigated. In this study we showed that glycemic microenvironment alters the expression of three classes of proteins, VEGF and its receptors, cell to cell, and cell to extracellular matrix (ECM adhesion proteins in MDA-MB-231 parental cells and its two metastatic variants to the bone and brain (MDA-MB-231BO and MDA-MB-231BR, respectively. Using western blotting, we showed that VEGFR2 levels were higher in these variant cells and persisted in the cells under extreme hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia did not alter VEGFR2 expression per se but rather suppressed its posttranslational glycosylation. This was reversed rapidly upon the restoration of glucose, and cyclohexamide (CHX treatment demonstrated that this deglycosylated VEGFR2 was not a product of de-novo protein synthesis. VEGFR2 co-receptor Neuropilin-1 was up-regulated four-fold in all MDA-MB-231 cells (parental and two variants compared to VEGFR2 expression, and was also susceptible to glycemic changes but resistant to CHX treatment for up to 72 hrs. Hypoglycemia also resulted in a significant decrease in specific catenin, cadherin, and integrin proteins, as well as cellular proliferation and colony forming ability. However, MDA-MB-231BR cells showed a unique sensitivity to hypo/hyperglycemia in terms of morphological changes, colony formation ability, integrin β3 expression and secreted VEGF levels. In conclusion, this study can be translated clinically to provide insight into breast cancer cell responses to glycemic levels relevant for our understanding of the interaction between diabetes and cancer.

  11. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  12. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1997--January 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report provides information on projects conducted by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a consortium of Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas. Progress is reported for four major areas: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) environmental, safety, and health; (3) communication, education, training, and community involvement; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Environmental, safety, and health projects reported include a number of studies on high explosives. Progress reported for nuclear material studies includes storage and waste disposal investigations.

  14. Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Monitoring Response to Chemotherapy and Predicting Progression-Free Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping Cheng; Ying Yan; Xiang-yi Wang; Yuan-li Lu; Yan-hua Yuan; Xiao-li Wang; Jun Jia; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore RT-PCR method to set up the examination platform for detecting circulating tumor cells(CTC) in peripheral blood from metastatic breast cancer patients.The primary endpoint is to find out the correlation of existence of CTC with clinical responses and progression-free survival (PFS).Methods: The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was serially diluted into the peripheral blood from 45 healthy donors to set up the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay.The expression of CK19 mRNA was amplified from both 49 patients and 45 healthy donors respectively.The CK19 protein quantity from plasma was measured by competitive inhibition ELISA assay.Results: The sensitivity of RT-PCR could reach 1/106-107 white blood cells with specificity of 95.6%.The objective response rate(ORR) of patients with CK19 mRNA-negative undertaken one cycle chemotherapy was significantly higher than those with positive(P<0.0001).PFS among CK19 mRNA-negative patients was also increased,although there was no significance(P=0.098).The results of ELISA assay showed that CK19 protein was decreased significantly after one cycle chemotherapy,which gave rise to a little higher ORR(P=0.015) and increased PFS(P=0.016).Conclusion: Patients with unamplified CK19 mRNA after one cycle chemotherapy could achieve better radiographic evaluation and increased PFS,which was showed to be of consistency with the CK19 protein assay among the patients treated.

  15. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  16. The Diagnosis and Treatment Progress of Early Breast Cancer%早期乳腺癌的诊断及治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 张健; 李爱东

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the worldwide most common malignancy in women and also is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Early breast cancer is one of the attentions that mammary gland oncologists focus on. The long-term cure rate of early breast cancer is more than 90%, the improvement of diagnosis rate can increase patients' survival rate, decrease mortality. The risk factors of breast cancer include way of life, the environment factors, genetic and so on. In resent years early breast cancer incidence keeps rising, and tend to be younger. The key of treating early breast cancer is early prevention, early detection and early treatment The treatment of early breast cancer has been improved from traditional surgery to comprehensive therapy, which is conserving surgery combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Along with the progress of the society and the development of economy, the treatment of early breast cancer tend to be perfect gradually. In order to guide clinical, now I summarize the diagnosis and treatment progress of early breast cancer.%乳腺癌是全球女性最常见的恶性肿瘤.多年来早期乳腺癌是乳腺肿瘤学家积极关注的焦点之一.早期乳腺癌的长期治愈率达90%以上,其诊断率的提高将大大提高病人的生存率和生存年限,降低病死率.生活方式、环境因素、遗传基因等都是乳腺癌的危险因素.近年来早期乳腺癌发生率不断上升,并趋于年轻化,所以早期预防、早期发现、早期治疗成了治疗早期乳腺癌的关键.早期乳腺癌的治疗从传统的手术治疗发展到以手术为主,放化疗为辅的综合疗法.随着社会的进步和经济的发展,早期乳腺癌的治疗方案渐渐趋于完整.现对早期乳腺癌的诊断和治疗研究进展进行概述,以指导临床.

  17. Accelerator research studies: Technical progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses research progress in the following general topics: Study of transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; study of collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse powered plasma focus; and study of microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency electron-positron supercollider linacs

  18. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This quarterly report briefly describes recent progress in eight projects. The projects are entitled Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Spray Casting Project; and Watervliet Arsenal Project.

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  20. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses progress of experiments at CERN and Fermilab. At CERN, data accumulation and analysis is discussed for the UA-6 experiment, which involves proton-antiproton collisions. At Fermilab, the testing of a collider detector for the Tevatron is discussed

  1. Chemistry of gaseous lower-valent actinide halides. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective is to provide thermochemical data for key actinide halide and oxyhalide systems. Progress is reported on bond dissociation energies of gaseous ThCl4, ThCl3, ThCl2, and ThCl; bond dissociation energies of ruthenium fluorides; and mass spectroscopy of UF6

  2. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report No. 2, April 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-03-15

    Systems that reduce energy usage and are economically viable in the citrus fruit processing industry are identified. The preliminary results of Phase I are presented. Alternative systems to be considered are classified and denoted as central, modular, integrated, and combined. Progress is reported on the central and modular systems. (MCW)

  3. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1975--30 June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling; regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora; regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling; and fate of detrital dissolved and particulate organic matter. (HLW)

  4. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1992-04-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering,single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H{sup {minus}} is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991.

  5. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H{sup {minus}} is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion - atom collisions. In addition secondary negative particle emission yields for H{sup 0} on Cu in the 3 to 50 keV range are shown.

  6. Expression of Eph receptor A10 is correlated with lymph node metastasis and stage progression in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, Kazuya; Kanasaki, So-ichiro; Yamashita, Takuya; Maeda, Yuka; Inoue, Masaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) is a valuable breast cancer marker that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues by comparison with normal breast tissues, as we previously reported. However, the role of EphA10 expression in breast cancer is not well understood. Here, we have analyzed the expression of EphA10 at the mRNA- and protein-level in clinical breast cancer tissues and then evaluated the relationship with clinicopathological parameters for each sample. EphA10 mRNA expression was quantifi...

  7. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20), primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31), metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32), and healthy individuals (n = 28) by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001), whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001), nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008), and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001). High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009). Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004). The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01) and DNA levels (p = 0.04), and protease activities (p = 0.008). Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression

  8. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark (until 31-12- 2011: Association Euratom – Risø DTU) covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport......, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high...

  9. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  10. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction...

  11. Solar-powered irrigation systems. Technical progress report, July 1977--January 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-28

    Dispersed solar thermal power systems applied to farm irrigation energy needs are analyzed. The 17 western states, containing 84% of nationwide irrigated croplands and consuming 93% of nationwide irrigation energy, have been selected to determine were solar irrigation systems can compete most favorably with conventional energy sources. Financial analysis of farms, according to size and ownership, was accomplished to permit realistic comparative analyses of system lifetime costs. Market potential of optimized systems has been estimated for the 17-state region for near-term (1985) and intermediate-term (2000) applications. Technical, economic, and institutional factors bearing on penetration and capture of this market are being identified.

  12. [Review of draft Crystalline Repository Project reports]: Technical progress report, CY 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period (CY 1985-86) of this report, the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board provided technical services under the contract with DOE. These included Participation in the development of variables and screening techniques that would be used in identifying those rock bodies in the Area Recommendation Report (ARR); reviewing and commenting on the report and developing a procedure in which local residents could have input into the process; sought resumption of negotiations with DOE on a full Consultation and Cooperation (CandC) agreement; and Participating in workshops and provided comments on two major DOE transportation documents, ''Transportation Business Plan: Strategy Options Document,'' and ''Transportation Institutional Plan.''

  13. Abrogation of junctional adhesion molecule-A expression induces cell apoptosis and reduces breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Murakami

    Full Text Available Intercellular junctions promote homotypic cell to cell adhesion and transfer intracellular signals which control cell growth and apoptosis. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A is a transmembrane immunoglobulin located at tight junctions of normal epithelial cells of mammary ducts and glands. In the present paper we show that JAM-A acts as a survival factor for mammary carcinoma cells. JAM-A null mice expressing Polyoma Middle T under MMTV promoter develop significantly smaller mammary tumors than JAM-A positive mice. Angiogenesis and inflammatory or immune infiltrate were not statistically modified in absence of JAM-A but tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. Tumor cells isolated from JAM-A null mice or 4T1 cells incubated with JAM-A blocking antibodies showed reduced growth and increased apoptosis which paralleled altered junctional architecture and adhesive function. In a breast cancer clinical data set, tissue microarray data show that JAM-A expression correlates with poor prognosis. Gene expression analysis of mouse tumor samples showed a correlation between genes enriched in human G3 tumors and genes over expressed in JAM-A +/+ mammary tumors. Conversely, genes enriched in G1 human tumors correlate with genes overexpressed in JAM-A-/- tumors. We conclude that down regulation of JAM-A reduces tumor aggressive behavior by increasing cell susceptibility to apoptosis. JAM-A may be considered a negative prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Accelerator research studies: Technical progress report for the period June 1, 1986 to May 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the study of instabilities and emittance growth in periodic focusing systems for intense beams, collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse-powered plasma focus, and microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency linacs. Results of a solenoid lens realignment are reported. Theoretical work with particle simulation codes is underway. Laser-controlled collective ion acceleration was demonstrated, a time-resolved Thomson spectrometer was developed, and theoretical studies have led to the development of improved analytical and simulation models describing the equilibrium state and the collective acceleration mechanism in an electron beam with co-moving ions. Progress is reported in the development of a gyroklystron electron gun, and theoretical work on frequency scaling and wakefield effects resulting in codes for quick evaluation of different parameter regimes for electron-positron colliders is discussed. Studies of quadrupole wakefield effects have commenced

  15. Nuclear structure theory. Technical progress report, September 1, 1982-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported. Spectral Averaging studies are outlined including the theory of level densities for interacting nucleons, the properties of single-particle nuclear excitations, spectral distributions for fixed symmetries, and applications to the secular behavior of fluctuation measures in complex nuclei. Collective States research is described, in particular the boson-fermion symmetries which are related to the U(5) limit of the interacting boson model. Nuclear Reaction studies are described including the statistical theory of pion absorption, direct reactions at intermediate energies, and the properties of the off-shell πN t-matrix. Progress is reported on the quark theory of nuclear matter and the construction of models for a Fermi fluid which, near the nuclear ground state, is a fluid of nucleons composed of quarks, and, at high densities or temperatures, is a quark fluid. Applications of formal scattering theory to the study of phase-conjugate optics are discussed. Publications are listed

  16. U.C. Davis high energy particle physics research: Technical progress report -- 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    Summaries of progress made for this period is given for each of the following areas: (1) Task A--Experiment, H1 detector at DESY; (2) Task C--Experiment, AMY detector at KEK; (3) Task D--Experiment, fixed target detectors at Fermilab; (4) Task F--Experiment, PEP detector at SLAC and pixel detector; (5) Task B--Theory, particle physics; and (6) Task E--Theory, particle physics.

  17. AFR spent fuel storage program. Technical progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on this project is focused on developing design and licensing information for the model facility. Deliverables were submitted to DOE for facility modification, security design, and licensing documentation. Work is essentially complete on the high-density rack design with deliverable planned for April 30, 1981. A continuing program for completion of design and licensing information development was initiated by AGNS in February 1981. Progress to date is satisfactory

  18. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1980-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in these areas: study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer; proton decay experiment; a study of rare processes in meson spectroscopy using the SLAC Hybrid Bubble Chamber System; theory of fundamental problems in gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions; experimental neutrino and antineutrino physics; chi production; development of a colliding beam detector; internal target experiment; and theory of elementary particles with an underlying basis of relativistic quantum field theory

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    Brief progress reports are presented on the following tasks: design packages for retrofits at the Dunkirk Station; fuel supply and site development plans; major equipment guarantees and project risk sharing; power production commitment; power plant site plan, construction and environmental permits; and experimental strategies for system evaluation. The paper then discusses in more detail the following: feedstock development efforts; clone-site testing and genetic studies; and efforts at outreach, extension and technology transfer.

  20. Progress of Glycomics in Breast Cancer%糖组学在乳腺癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘夏薇; 安然; 于汉杰; 舒健; 秦鑫敏; 李铮

    2016-01-01

    乳腺癌仍是备受关注的世界性健康问题,在女性人群中有较高的发病率和致死率.蛋白质的糖基化修饰是一种重要的翻译后修饰,糖基化的改变已被证明与生物学过程密切相关.异常表达的糖链是肿瘤细胞的主要特征之一,对肿瘤的发生、发展,特别是癌细胞的浸润、转移起重要作用.本文从参与调节肿瘤细胞代谢,破坏细胞间黏着,在循环系统中维持肿瘤细胞活性、增强癌细胞与血管内皮细胞黏着及促进血管生成等方面系统阐述了O-连接型N-乙酰葡糖胺、唾液酸化的Lewis抗原、黏蛋白型O-聚糖及包含多聚N-乙酰乳糖胺的β1-6GlcNAc分支型N-糖链等几种异常表达糖链在肿瘤细胞浸润、转移过程中的作用.最后,本文从糖组学角度讨论了与肿瘤相关的异常表达的糖链、糖蛋白、糖基转移酶及针对糖抗原的抗体在乳腺癌临床中的应用前景.%Breast cancer remains a public-health issue on a global scale.Although mammographic screening and molecular-based classification have been applied to the clinical treatment effectively,breast cancer still has high incidence and mortality in women.Therefore,the discovery of novel biomarkers and molecular targets for early diagnosis and treatment is still essential.Glycosylation is the enzymatic addition of sugars,or oligosaccharides,to proteins and lipids.This increases the diversity of the proteome and lipidome to a level unmatched by any other post-translational modification due to the various aspects of the molecule that can be modified,including the glycosidic bond and glycan composition,structure,and length.Altered glycosylation,a predominant feature of tumor cells,plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of various malignancies.This review describes the variety of glycosylation processes,such as O-GlcNAcylation,sialyl-Lewis antigen,mucin type O-linked glycosylation,and β1-6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans with

  1. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  2. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  3. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  4. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task E: Technical progress report, December 1, 1988--November 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report for Task E of the Indiana University High Energy Physics Group covers the period June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1989. During this time we worked on several aspects of the development of the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. We finished our gas flow studies for the recirculating and purification system for the limited streamer gas and aided, on a consulting basis, our colleagues at Frascati with the technical specifications for the gas system which they plan to buy from industry. Our major efforts were devoted to design of the tracking trigger, plans for cabling of the whole detector, and learning about the L3 database system. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  6. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Koneru, P.B.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-05-01

    Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included BI-GAS Tests G-18, G-18A and G-18B; Westinghouse PDU Test TP-032-1 and CFSF Test TP-M003; and Peatgas Pilot Plant Test No. 5. Kellogg also monitored winterization/maintenance activities at BI-GAS and Westinghouse and precommissioning of the IGT Wet Carbonization PDU. The final report on the Hygas Data Base Evaluation was issued, while final revisions were completed for the reports concerning PDU data base evaluations of Peatgas and single-stage peat gasification. Efforts toward completion of the brochure describing the DOE/GRI Joint Program proceeded. Normal MPC activities continued. Several technical progress reports were issued during this quarter.

  7. Downregulation of microRNA-362-3p and microRNA-329 promotes tumor progression in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Kim, C; Lee, H; Rho, J G; Seo, J-W; Nam, J-W; Song, W K; Nam, S W; Kim, W; Lee, E K

    2016-03-01

    p130Cas regulates cancer progression by driving tyrosine receptor kinase signaling. Tight regulation of p130Cas expression is necessary for survival, apoptosis, and maintenance of cell motility in various cell types. Several studies revealed that transcriptional and post-translational control of p130Cas are important for maintenance of its expression and activity. To explore novel regulatory mechanisms of p130Cas expression, we studied the effect of microRNAs (miRs) on p130Cas expression in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Here, we provide experimental evidence that miR-362-3p and miR-329 perform a tumor-suppressive function and their expression is downregulated in human breast cancer. miR-362-3p and miR-329 inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, thereby suppressing tumor growth, by downregulating p130Cas. Ectopic expression of p130Cas attenuated the inhibitory effects of the two miRs on tumor progression. Relative expression levels of miR-362-3p/329 and p130Cas between normal and breast cancer correlated inversely; miR-362-3p/329 expression was decreased, whereas that of p130Cas increased in breast cancers. Furthermore, we showed that downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 was caused by differential DNA methylation of miR genes. Enhanced DNA methylation (according to methylation-specific PCR) was responsible for downregulation of miR-362-3p and miR-329 in breast cancer. Taken together, these findings point to a novel role for miR-362-3p and miR-329 as tumor suppressors; the miR-362-3p/miR-329-p130Cas axis seemingly has a crucial role in breast cancer progression. Thus, modulation of miR-362-3p/miR-329 may be a novel therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. PMID:26337669

  8. Progress of breast cancer screening technology%乳腺癌筛查技术的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡卓君

    2016-01-01

    As a main threat to female health, breast cancer has shown increasing morbidity rate in recent years, and it has become an critical public health issue in society. Breast cancer screening is helpful for detecting and preventing breast cancer, and the main screening technology in China include clinical breast check, breast X-ray, breast ultrasounography, breast magnetic resonance imaging, and breast blood oxygen functional imaging. This paper made a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of breast cancer screening technology, so as to provide reference and basis for female breast cancer screening strategy.%乳腺癌是威胁女性健康的主要疾病,近年其发病率呈上升趋势,成为当前社会重大公共卫生问题。乳腺癌筛查有助于发现和预防乳腺癌,国内外目前主要筛查技术有临床乳腺检查、乳腺X 线、乳腺超声、乳腺磁共振成像、乳腺血氧功能成像等,本文对乳腺癌筛查技术的优缺点进行比较,为女性乳腺癌筛查策略提供参考和依据。

  9. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  10. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  11. Progress report [of] Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, April 1982 - March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done by the Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay during the period from April 1982 to March 1984 is described in the form of summaries. The main thrust of the work of the Division is towards designing, developing, fabricating and if needed, producing on a large scale various instruments, equipment and components required for the programmes of the BARC and the Department of Atomic Energy. The summaries describing the work are grouped under the headings:(1) vacuum, (2) surface analysis, (3) mass spectrometry, (4) electronics, (5) cryogenics, (6) crystals and detectors, (7) glass technology and devices, and (8) optoelectronics. A list of publications of the staff-members of the Division during the report period is given. (M.G.B.)

  12. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  13. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  14. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  15. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  16. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  17. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  18. Theoretical nuclear physics. Task B. Technical progress report, August 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following studies: (a) double delta interactions in pion double charge exchange; (b) isovector correlations in pion-nucleus scattering; (c) nuclear structure effects in pion single charge exchange; (d) a perspective on sequential transfer reactions; (e) inelastic and charge exchange scattering theory; (f) magnitude of the first order DWBA description of the two nuclear transfer reactions; (g) nonlocality effects on deuteron transfer reactions; (h) evaluation of external radial integrals in inelastic electron scattering; (i) experimental observables as a function of Dirac invariant amplitudes; (j) Dirac shell-model wavefunctions in inelastic electron scattering; and (k) impulse approximation Dirac theory of inelastic proton nucleus collective excitations. Publications are listed

  19. Salt Repository Project technical progress report for the quarter 1 January--31 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the progress being made each quarter on the development of a geologic repository in salt for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, a prime contractor of the US Department of energy (DOE) Salt Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. 23 refs., 1 fig

  20. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in these areas: a study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer; experimental study of proton decay; gamma ray astrophysics; the DUMAND project; fundamental problems in the theory of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions; chi production by hadrons; study of collective phenomena; search for the onset of collective phenonmena; work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab; search for a deconfined quark-gluon phase of strongly interacting matter at the FNAL proton-antiproton collider; and development of an electrodeless drift chamber

  1. Salt repository project: Technical progress report for the quarter 1 April--30 June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the progress being made each quarter on the development of a geologic repository in salt for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Salt Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation

  2. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming

  3. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: (1) statistical spectroscopy, including: random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions; group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; electromagnetic and β transitions, limits to time-reversal symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon interaction; (2) meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including: general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption; and (3) meson currents in electromagnetic transitions

  4. Status report on technical progress for LEU-based 99Mo production at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, most of the world's supply of 99Mo is produced from the fissioning 235U in high- enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Conversion of these targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) would ease worldwide concern over the use and transport of this weapons-grade material. This paper documents our progress in three development areas: (1) the chemistry of iodine and its recovery from irradiated uranium targets, (2) alternate uranium metal target dissolution methods compatible with existing alkaline ion exchange processes and, (3) a small-foot-print dissolver for the LEU-modified Cintichem process. (author)

  5. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming.

  6. Plasma physics research (Tokapole II). Technical progress report, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress during the 27-month period, October 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983 on Tokapole II research is described. Tokapole II is a 4-node poloidal divertor tokamak that can also be run as an octupole. Research during this period has concentrated on studies of discharges with safety factor q less than one and on the identification of the shear Alfven wave resonance. Other topics include measurements of the loop voltage reduction through ECRH startup, plasma gun refueling, fluctuations and transport, pumped limiter studies, plasma-wall interactions, diagnostic development, polarization of electron cyclotron emission, and poloidal ohmic heating

  7. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  8. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Final technical progress report, October 1978-November 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The agreement between the United States Government Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute for the Joint Coal Gasification Research Program provided for one or more technical evaluation contractors. Pullman Kellogg (now the M.W. Kellogg Company) was selected as evaluation contractor to assess, and report to the DOE/GRI Operating Committee on, the relative merits of the active programs covered by the agreement. This report includes the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 November 1982. The objective was to provide engineering support for the DOE/GRI high Btu coal gasification program. This support generally consisted of assistance in developing or advancing each process to its maximum potential. Kellogg monitored and evaluated the startup and operational activities of all pilot plant projects within the combined DOE/GRI program. Kellogg evaluated proposals to determine their technical feasibility as potential processes or as viable processing operations for commercial-scale gasification of coal. Kellogg also recorded observations on the reliability, maintainability, and availability of the equipment used in the pilot plant or PDU facilities. Kellogg performed design reviews, data analyses, and engineering evaluations of proposals, cost estimates and monthly progress reports to provide information considered essential to the overall objectives of the combined DOE/GRI program.

  9. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  10. Technical progress report, Contracts DE-AC02-81ER40014, 40015 and 40016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Progress Report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1980 through July 31, 1981, under contracts between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The shorter report period of nine months is due to a change to an earlier submission date this year for our proposal for support to begin February 1, 1982. Cyclotron operation, research, and development have been supported under contract DE-AC02-81ER40014. The AVF cyclotron has continued to provide reliable and versatile beams of protons, deuterons, 3He and 4He. A wide variety of research results in direct reactions, nuclear structure, and compound reaction mechanisms can be noted in this Progress Report, correlated in many cases to current problems in intermediate energy physics. Theoretical work on nuclear reactions, carried out under contract DE-AC02-81ER40015, has been well matched to our experimental programs in low and intermediate energy physics. One important result has been the recasting of the DWBA in an eikonal expansion suited to high energy reactions. Our efforts in intermediate energy physics, under contract DE-AC02-81ER40016, have emphasized pion scattering studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF and proton induced charge exchange reactions at IUCF. Data for an important test of hadronic charge symmetry have been completed at two energies, using elastic pion-deuteron scattering

  11. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in research to evaluate the impact of utilization of fossil fuels on surface water is reported. Analyses of regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling center on evaluation of quantitative control interactions among the microflora of the pelagial zones of several lakes of progressively greater eutrophy, littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and allochthonous inorganic-organic influxes and their biotic processing. The underlying thesis is that quantification of the dynamic carbon fluxes among these components and their rate control mechanisms by physical and chemical factors are fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication. A major portion of the research has been directed towards the fate and nutrient mechanisms regulating qualitative and quantitative utilization and losses of organic carbon synthesized within lakes and their drainage basins. It has become increasingly apparent that the wetland and littoral flora, and attendant epiphytic and benthic microflora, have major regulatory controls on biogeochemical cycling of whole lake systems. A major effort on factors regulating the metabolism of littoral macrophytes and attached algae has been coupled to integrated studies on their decomposition and the fate of detrital dissolved and particulate organic matter. These organic products are being coupled to influences on enzymatic activity and inorganic nutrient cycling.

  12. Progress of the correlation study between mammographic appearances and expression of p53, Ki-67 in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors. The occurrence and development of breast cancer are often accompanied by abnormal gene expression. It has been well accepted that p53, Ki -67 are the commonly used biological indicators for clinical endocrine therapy and prognosis prediction. The oncogene expression reflects the malignant biological behavior of breast cancer from different perspectives. Those aggressive behaviors cause a variety of changes in histopathology and thus in imaging. Therefore, the imaging features of breast cancer may indirectly demonstrate the status of p53, Ki-67. Until now, because of its facility, low cost and high accuracy, mammography is still the preferred method in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The relationship of mammographic appearances and gene expression in patients with breast cancer has potential clinical value in preoperative evaluation and planning of non-surgical treatment for those who are not able to perform immunohistochemistry. (authors)

  13. Surrogacy of progression free survival for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer studies: meta-analyses of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Madan G.; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: PFS is often used as a surrogate endpoint for OS in metastatic breast cancer studies. We have evaluated the association of treatment effect on PFS with significant HR$_{OS}$ (and how this association is affected by other factors) in published prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. Methods: A systematic literature search in PubMed identified prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. Treatments effects on PFS were determined using hazard ratio (HR$_{PFS}$), increase in media...

  14. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-18

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following. Butyrate production was enhanced during H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (50/50) batch fermentation. Isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress. Pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability. Polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support. Cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8. Trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing. Pervaporation system was constructed. No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up.

  15. 乳腺癌骨转移分子机制研究进展%Research progress on the molecular mechanism of breast cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧娟(综述); 王少华(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women. Bone is commonly affected in the context of metastatic breast cancer.Once bone metastasis happens, patient would experience poor prognosis and impaired quality of life.However, there is a lack of approaches for more sensitive and specific diagnosis and treatments for breast cancer bone metastasis.Thus, it is im-perative to find new treatment target from molecular mechanism.In this paper, we review the current research progress on the molecular mechanism from several levels including gene profile, proteins and microRNAs.We also review the establishment of animal models of breast cancer bone metastasis.With the achievements acquired in the completed or undergoing researches on breast cancer bone metasta-sis, we hope the finding of the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic targets could lead the breast cancer research into a new era.%乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,骨为其最易发生转移的部位。一旦发生骨转移,患者预后及生活质量明显下降,然而目前仍缺乏有力证据证实的、能够应用于临床的特异性诊疗手段。因此,迫切需要从其分子机制入手,寻找新的分子靶点。文中就乳腺癌骨转移在基因、蛋白及miRNA3个层面机制的研究进展作一综述,并阐述了乳腺癌骨转移动物模型的建立方法。

  16. Crystalline Repository Project: Technical progress report for the period October 1, 1982--May 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the progress made on the development of a second geologic repository in crystalline rocks during the duration of the Crystalline Repository Project from its inception in October 1982 to its termination in May 1986. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), successor to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. OWTD is a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program Office, itself the successor to the Crystalline Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. 151 refs

  17. Repository Technology Program: Technical progress report for the period May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the progress made in the 13-month period from May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987, on the development of a second geologic repository in rocks other than those being considered for a first repository. Subsequent periods will be covered in reports to be issued on a semiannual basis. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), a prime contractor of the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program (RTP) Office in the Repository Technology and Transportation Division (RTTD) of the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR). The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the OWTD. 50 refs

  18. Imaging polarimeter/interferometer arrays for tokamak measurements. Technical progress report FY 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Task IIIB program has continued to make significant strides during the last year. Laboratory test studies continued in our development efforts on imaging polarimeter and interferometer arrays in support of the tokamak measurements carried out under Task IIIA. This work ensures that the system optics and resolution are completely understood prior to attempting actual tokamak measurements. New microbolometer designs and fabrication techniques increased their sensitivity by over an order of magnitude compared with the previous devices. In addition, the development of sensitive monolithic integrated Schottky diode detector arrays has shown rapid progress. Heterodyne noise temperature of less than 90000K have already been achieved at 94 GHz with extension into the submillimeter region anticipated during the coming year

  19. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

  20. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on investigations on the qualitative and quantitative cycling of particulate and dissolved organic matter within lakes and their drainage basins. Interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling and regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora remain the focal point of these studies. Major efforts were directed towards the sources fates, pathways, and interactions of dissolved organic matter in inorganic chemical cycling; allochthonous sources, metabolism en route, and inputs to the lake systems of increasing stages of eutrophication; and the relationships of these compounds to the nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, sessile algae, macrophytes, and bacterial populations. Results of studies carried out in a freshwater lake in Michigan (Lawrence Lake) are reported. 165 references.

  1. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory's research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL)

  3. Indiana University high energy physics, Task A. Technical progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.; Hanson, G.; Martin, H.; Marshall, T.; Mir, R.; Mouthy, T.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.; Teige, S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.

    1992-10-01

    During this reporting period the group has been carrying out programs in several areas. These are presented in this paper is follows: The group was a collaborator in the Mark II experiment at the SLC and completed analysis on the experiment. Three students completed their theses this reporting period; the group is the prime mover in (E672), a high mass dimuon experiment which now in its final data collection period. Our group is also a collaborator in the DO collider experiment which is now preparing for the first data run in 1992; the group is a collaborator in the OPAL experiment at LEP which is now taking data. The group also is working on the development of a major offline facility shift and on a silicon vertex chamber for 1993; the group is the prime mover in the construction of a major new experiment (E852) in precision meson spectroscopy. A test run is presently underway and data taking will begin in 1993; and the group is a prime mover in the tracking design of the SDC experiment. The SDC has completed the Technical Design report. Construction will begin in 1993.

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  5. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    From 2009 inclusive, NINA has received economic support for research on power lines and wildlife from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) through the RENERGI Programme. The project is named 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' (OPTIPOL). It is scheduled for 5 years (2009-1013) and is part of the activities within CEDREN, i.e. the Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (cf. http://www.cedren.no). With a grid close to 200 000 km overhead power-lines, the associated rights-of-way (ROW) affect huge land areas in Norway. The overall goal is to develop predict-ing tools for optimal routing of power lines from an environmental perspective and assess technical and economic solutions to minimize conflicts with wildlife and habitat conservation. Thus, the OPTIPOL rationale is based on the belief that the negative effects of electricity transmission and distribution can be reduced with respect to birds and mammals. OPTIPOL has several ambitious objectives, and is divided into sub-projects and specific tasks. From the first of November a PhD-student became part of the project, a position that will be held for 4 years. The main objective of the PhD-activities will be to assess how and why different wildlife species use deforested areas below power lines, evaluate possible positive and negative effects of power-line ROWs, and assess the possibilities for quality improvement. Another part of the project is dedicated the effects of linear structures on movement patterns and distribution in the landscape in native deer species. Here we will examine how different spatial scales influence the processes that guide movement patterns, and responses to linear structures. Another focus will be small game species, with mountain hare, capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse as model species. The main objective will be to assess the impact of transforming ROW habitats into attractive small-game foraging

  6. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG) lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT) breast cancer mouse model. We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model

  7. Research Progress of Breast Reconstruction after Breast Cancer Operation%乳腺癌术后乳房再造整形的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors threatening female life, the onset age of which shows a down tendency. The traditional operation treatment of breast cancer destroys the graceful female sexuality and the figure, which causes great psychological trauma to the patients, severely impacting the postoperative quality of life. Europe and the US have more mature experiences in breast reconstruction after breast cancer operation, which not only alleviate the mental stress and mood disorders due to the loss of breast and recover the patients confidence and social participation awareness, but also greatly improve the postoperative quality of life of the breast cancer patients.%乳腺癌是威胁女性生命最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,其发生有年轻化的趋势.传统的乳腺癌手术在治疗的同时也破坏了女性优美的性征和曲线,给患者造成极大的心理创伤,严重影响术后生存质量.欧美国家在乳腺癌术后乳房再造有较成熟的经验,不仅可以缓解患者因失去乳房而导致的心理压力和情绪障碍,恢复患者的自信与和社会参与意识,而且可以极大地提高乳腺癌患者术后的生活质量.

  8. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1997-08-01

    Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-H of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

  9. University of Tennessee Space Institute. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The major activities discussed in this quarterly report are concerned with the initiation of testing in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility in the LMF1D test series. This test series is designed to provide basic data on seed/slag interaction as a function of diffuser exit temperature and slag carryover rate for the coal fired MHD system with slag screen installed. During the quarter two shakedown tests and three tests in the test series were conducted. Data is reported on the flow train performance, including the combustor, the slag screen, radiant furnace and the materials test module. Analysis of data from the LMF1C test series continues and a summary of the NO/sub x/ data analysis is provided. A summary of the results of application of advanced diagnostic equipment provided by UTSI, Mississippi State University and the Babcock and Wilcox Company is included. In Task 2 the arrival on site of the low temperature air heater is reported. A progress report on the procurement, engineering and installation of the superheater components is included.

  10. Technical progress report during Phase 1 of the continuous fiber ceramic composites program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richerson, D.W.

    1994-03-15

    United States industry has a critical need for materials that are lightweight, strong, tough, corrosion resistant and capable of performing at high temperatures; such materials will enable substantial increase in energy efficiency and reduction in emissions of pollutants. Continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are an emerging class of materials which have the potential for the desired combination of properties to meet the industrial needs. A $10 billion annual market has been estimated for CFCC products by the year 2010, which equates to over 100,000 industrial sector jobs. The CFCC program began in the spring of 1992 as a three-phase 10-year effort to assess potential applications of CFCC materials, develop the necessary supporting technologies to design, analyze and test CFCC materials, conduct materials and process development guided by the applications assessment input, fabricate test samples and representative components to evaluate CFCC material capabilities under application conditions, and analyze scaleability and manufacturability plus demonstrate pilot-scale production engineering. DOE awarded 10 Phase I cooperative agreements to industry-lead teams plus identified generic supporting technology projects. This document highlights the broad progress and accomplishments on these contracts and support technology projects during Phase I.

  11. Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This program seeks the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on understanding systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. The additives include cyclodextrins, affinity reagents, and soluble (entangled) polymers and are employed with capillary electrophoresis, CE and/or micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, MECC modes of separation. The utility of molecular modeling techniques for predicting the effects of highly ordered assemblies on the retention behavior of isomeric compounds is under investigation. The feasibility of performing separations using a non-aqueous solvent/fullerene electrochromatographic system is being explored. The analytical methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced through the development of retention programming instumentation/techniques and new strategies for performing optical detection. The advantages of laser fluorimetry are extended through the inclusion of fluorogenic, reagents in the running buffer. These reagents include oligonucleotide intercalation reagents for detecting DNA fragments. Chemiluminescence detection using post-capillary reactors/flow cells is also in progress. Successful development of these separation and detection systems will fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques.

  12. Nuclear structure theory. Technical progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in the following areas of research: Spectral Averaging, including the theory of level densities and partition functions for interacting nucleons, spectral distributions for fixed symmetries, general studies of distributions (in particular of strength distributions) considered as multivariate processes, and applications to the secular behavior of fluctuation measures; spectral and strength fluctuations, including study of the transitions between different fluctuation patterns (i.e., between different types of quantum chaos) as a conserved symmetry is gradually broken, application of these results to determining values of, or upper bounds for, the goodness of symmetries in complex nuclei, reduction of values or bounds to statements about the nuclear Hamiltonian, in particular for time-reversal symmetry, and specific studies of quantum chaos; statistical theory of pion absorption, including analysis of the (π,p) inclusive reaction; and quark theory of nuclear matter, involving development of models which show two limiting behaviors - that of a Fermi gas of nucleons (quark clusters) at low density and of a Fermi gas of quarks at high density. Both variational and exact solutions of one model have been found. 9 refs

  13. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1978--30 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in continuing investigations focused on integrated studies of the qualitative and quantitative cycling and metabolism of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in lakes and their inflow sources (surface and subsurface). Emphasis is placed on the sources, fates, and interactions of dissolved and particulate organic matter in relation to: (a) inorganic chemical cycling, (b) allochthonous loading to the lake system, and (c) the coupled nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, bacterial populations, macrophytes, and attendant sessile algal-bacterial communities. Regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon and nutrient cycling are being evaluated among the (a) inorganic-organic influxes of allochthonous sources as they are controlled by wetland-littoral communities, (b) the littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and (c) the microflora of the pelagial zone. Quantification of carbon fluxes among these components and control mechanisms is fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication. The integrated studies addressing these multifacted objectives are summarized in three summary diagrams.

  14. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1977--30 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling and regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora remains the focal point of these studies. Major efforts are directed towards the sources, fates, pathways, and interactions of dissolved organic matter in inorganic chemical cycling; allochthonous sources, metabolism en route, and inputs to the lake systems of increasing stages of eutrophication; and the relationships of these compounds to the nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, sessile algae, macrophytes, and bacterial populations of the littoral zones and wetlands of the drainage basin. Analyses of regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling center on evaluation of quantitative control interactions among the microflora of the pelagial zones of seversal lakes of progressively greater eutrophy, littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and allochthonous inorganic--organic influxes and their biotic processing. The underlying thesis is that quantification of the dynamic carbon fluxes among these components and their rate control mechanisms by physical and chemical factors are fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication.

  15. Proton resonance spectroscopy. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1992--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Work on chaos in the low-lying levels of nuclei has continued on several fronts. The major effort has been study of the {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction with the goal of establishing a complete level scheme for {sup 30}P and analyzing the eigenvalue fluctuations for evidence of chaos. These measurements are in progress, and the current status is described. A related topic is the search for different signatures of chaos which do not require the extremely high degree of completeness and purity necessary for eigenvalue analyses; those efforts are discussed in Sections 2 and 3. The possibility of studying both parity violation and time-reversal invariance violation with charged particle resonances has been explored by performing calculations using experimentally measured resonance parameters. Large enhancements are indeed available; the results are discussed in Sections 4 and 5. Preparations for an experimental study of parity violation using these techniques are ongoing. An undergraduate project searching for experimental evidence of a parity dependence of level density is discussed in Section 6. A number of improvements to the operation of the TUNL KN accelerator have been implemented in the past three years. These are described in Section 7.

  16. Inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate upregulates C-reactive protein via C/EBPβ and potentiates breast cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, E.S.; Cha, Y.; Ham, M.; Jung, J.; Kim, S.G.; Hwang, S.; Kleemann, R.; Moon, A.

    2014-01-01

    A crucial role of the inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in breast cancer aggressiveness has been reported. Recent clinical studies have suggested that C-reactive protein (CRP) has a role in breast cancer development. However, limited information is available on the molecular basis for

  17. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  18. Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Roberts, S; Bourcier, W

    2000-12-01

    This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.

  19. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  20. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado technical progress report, 1976 and proposal for continuation of contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1975 to November 1, 1976. The low energy nuclear physics section is dominated by light-ion reaction studies which span a wide range. These include both two-neutron and two-proton transfer reactions, charge exchange and inelastic scattering, as well as single nucleon transfer reactions. The nuclei studied vary widely in their mass and characteristics. These reaction studies have been aided by the multi-use scattering chamber which now allows the energy-loss-spectrometer beam preparation system (beam swinger) to shift from charged particle studies to neutron time-of-flight studies with a minimum loss of time. The intermediate energy section reflects the increase in activity accompanying the arrival of LAMPF data and the initiation of (p,d) studies at the Indiana separated-sector cyclotron. The nucleon removal results provided by the ..pi.. beam at EPICS previous to completion of the spectrometer have shown that nuclear effects dominate this process, so that the widely used free interaction picture is inadequate. The section entitled ''Other Activities'' reveals continuing activities in new applications of nuclear techniques to problems in medicine and biology. Reactions important to astrophysics continue to be investigated and our trace-element program remains at a high level of activity. The theoretical section reports new progress in understanding magnitudes of two-step reactions by inclusion of finite-range effects. A new finite-range program which is fast and economical has been completed. Intermediate energy results include calculations of ..pi..-..gamma.. angular correlations, low energy ..pi..-nucleus interactions, as well as (p,d) and nucleon scattering calculations for intermediate energies.

  1. Theory of high-energy-collision processes. Technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is described in the following areas: (1) several years ago, surprisingly simple expressions were obtained for the differential cross sections of e+e- → μ+μ-γ and e+e- → e+e-γ at high energies. Such simple expressions were generalized to twelve other similar radiative processes in QED and QCD. Afterwards, it was found that these results can be derived easily with the help of helicity amplitudes. This method is being investigated for many other radiative processes; (2) in the two-dimensional Ising model, the horizontal and vertical interaction energies are usually taken to be different. When this idea of different interactions in different directions is applied to the Z2 lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, a limiting case is found which is exactly solvable. Contrary to numerical calculations at the symmetry point, the phase transition is found to be of second order; (3) on the subject of supersymmetry, general helicity and spin sum rules were obtained for massless and massive supermultiplets, and a functional integral approach was found as a natural setting for Witten's criterion for the occurrence of dynamic symmetry breaking of supersymmetry. A systematic and exhaustive analysis of explicit soft breaking of global supersymmetry has also been carried out using the methods of superfields; (4) the renormalization of the massless Thirring model in the neighborhood of g = -π/2 was studied. The results are consistent with those found previously by placing the model on a lattice; and (5) in studying the effect of laboratory temperature on scattering processes, it was found that transport phenomena play an important role. As a preparation for this study, an exactly solvable case of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation has been found and studied

  2. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation in a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  4. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  5. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  6. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  7. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  8. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  9. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, Kjetil; Bartzke, Gundula; Broeseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank; Jacobsen, Karl-Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaloey, Paal; May, Roel; Meaas, Roger; Nygaaard, Torgeir; Resnaes, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Thomassen, Joern

    2012-07-01

    birds in the database, compared to only 117 a year earlier. WP5 - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) toolbox for optimal route routing of power lines', has developed an LCP-pilot to demonstrate the LCP method, based on the impact studies were undertaken prior to construction of a 420 kV transmission line in Central Norway 2005. Relevant economic, ecological and technological environment criteria based on suggestions from interested users (NGOs, government, industry, etc.), was used. LCP-pilot and a fuzzy-logic approach of this was demonstrated in the first dialogue-based workshop, 23.-24. april 2012. The seminar, which had an emphasis on criteria definitions were followed up with a working seminar that focused criterion values ??on 20 november 2012. Lecture - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) Toolbox for Optimal Routing of Power Lines, -was presented and submitted as contributions to the conference report from 'The 10th ROW Conference' in Arizona, 'The 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA12) ' in Porto, Portugal, and 'The ESRI European User Conference' in Oslo. WP6 - 'Birds and camouflaging of power lines', has almost completed the final report, 'Power line camouflaging. An assessment of the ecological and technical challenges'. 'Because of the budget situation in CEDREN However, completion of the report postponed until the end of April 2013. WP7 - 'Effect of line marking / modifications remedial measures against bird mortality' has almost completed the final report 'Opportunities and limitations in terms of reducing mortality in birds due to collision and electrocution.' Due to overall budget situation in CEDREN the report deferred to the end of april 2013. WP8, 'guidelines for technological solutions that may reduce mortality in birds because of the power line's', has focused topics relating to the labeling, design, insulation, camouflage and wiring. The results, which are presented in the notes and articles, will be implemented in

  10. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  11. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  12. Distribution of marine birds on Georges Bank and adjacent waters. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.

    1978-10-01

    The work accomplished during the period covered in this technical progress report demonstrates the importance, interest, and necessity of a distribution study of marine birds in the Georges Bank area on a national and international scale. Cooperation was extended by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Coast Guard, and by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Halifax, N.S., AltantNIRO, Kaliningrad, USSR, and Federal Republic of Germany. Two sampling methods, fixed-area and total bird counts, were effectively employed, which allow comparable data bases with marine bird distribution information being collected in the North Pacific, Bering and Chukchi Seas (Outer Continental Shelf Energy Assessment Program), and in the North Atlantic and Canadian Arctic (CWS and The Seabird Group). A marine bird data retrieval bank is being developed for MBO seabird data at the USFWS Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory. A food habits bibliography and prey item/bird species summary table for marine birds in the western North Atlantic has been prepared from existing literature. Unpublished NMFS data on zooplankton/ichthyoplankton, and ground fish is being made available for possible correlations in distribution of selected prey items with bird species.

  13. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Second quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-19

    This document contains the Quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Micronized Magnetite Testing Project being performed at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). This second quarterly report covers the period from October, 1994 through December, 1994. The main accomplishments of Custom Coals and the project subcontractors, during this period, included: (1) Submitted all overdue project documents and kept up with routine reporting requirements; (2) Worked with CLI Corporation, the design subcontractor, and completed the circuit design and finalized all design drawings; (3) Specified and procured all of the process equipment for the circuit, as well as a number of ancillary equipment, instruments, and supplies; (4) Assisted Vangura Iron Inc. in detailing and constructing the structural and platework steel; (5) Subcontracted Rizzo & Sons to perform the circuit mechanical and electrical installation, and prepared for January 23rd installation start date; (6) Organized and prepared for coal and magnetite procurement; (7) Specified and organized an operating personnel plan for the commissioning and testing tasks in the project; (8) Assessed analytical challenges for project, and began to research problem areas. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the abovementioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  14. Gas turbine demonstration of pyrolysis: derived fuels. Third technical progress report, July 1, 1979-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasas, G.; Kasper, J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing pyrolytic oil and char as a fuel for a combustion turbine engine. This is the first phase of an extended program with the ultimate goal of commercializing a gas turbine engine and electrical generating system which is independent of petroleum-based fuels. Maximum use of existing technology and current production engine hardware (Teledyne CAE Model J69-T-29 Turbojet Engine) is being incorporated for a sequence of test evaluations rating from isolated combustor component tests to full scale engine demonstration tests. The technical goals to be achieved during the course of this project are: pyrolytic fuel characterization in terms of its properties and constituents; pyrolytic fuel combustion technology in gas turbine application in terms of pyrolytic oil atomization, quantity of char burned, emissions, performance and associated combustion system aerothermodynamics; pyrolytic fuel (oil and char slurry) handling, mixing, and storage technology; and engine materials compatibility with the the pyrolytic fuel and its combustion products. Progress achieved during the period from July 1979 through Deember 1981 in design, analysis, an project management hardware fabrication and procurement, fuel chemistry and properties, and combustor rig tests are summarized.

  15. Salivary Protein Profiles among HER2/neu-Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Patients: Support for Using Salivary Protein Profiles for Modeling Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Streckfus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to compare the salivary protein profiles from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer that were either HER2/neu receptor positive or negative. Methods. Two pooled saliva specimens underwent proteomic analysis. One pooled specimen was from women diagnosed with stage IIa HER2/neu-receptor-positive breast cancer patients (n=10 and the other was from women diagnosed with stage IIa HER2/neu-receptor-negative cancer patients (n=10. The pooled samples were trypsinized and the peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagent. Specimens were analyzed using an LC-MS/MS mass spectrometer. Results. The results yielded approximately 71 differentially expressed proteins in the saliva specimens. There were 34 upregulated proteins and 37 downregulated proteins.

  16. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease. PMID:26158500

  17. Models of Understanding: Historical Constructions of Breast Cancer in Medicine and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The era of technical and scientific progress ushered in with the twentieth century brought new medical knowledge such as the Halstead 'radical' mastectomy, which promised a cure for breast cancer. These advances in medical knowledge were premised on an epidemiological model of disease, which shaped the treatment and public understanding of breast…

  18. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  19. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  20. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  1. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  2. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index

  3. 隆乳术后常见并发症的预防研究进展%The common complication prevention research progress After breast augmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红华

    2013-01-01

    With the frequent number of professional women social activities,women pay more attention to their appearance image,breast augmentation can change congenital or acquired breast bad shape,give women with perfect body curve.However, improper handling easily lead to various complications.This article through the introduction of postoperative complications of progress in the prevention of breast augmentation, provide a reference to the clinicians.%  随着职业女性社交活动频繁增多,女性更加注意自己的外表形象。隆乳术虽然能改变先天性或后天性乳房形态不良,给女性以完美的身材曲线,但处理不当易导致各种并发症。文章通过对预防隆乳术后并发症研究进展的介绍,给临床医生施术提供参考。

  4. The cellular distribution of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 is determined by the PDZ-I domain and regulates the malignant progression of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guifang; Gu, Yanan; Hao, Chengcheng; Yuan, Zhu; He, Junqi; Jiang, Wen G.; Cheng, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic role of ectopic expression of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) was recently suggested. Here, we show that NHERF1 was upregulated in high grades compared with low grades. Increased NHERF1 expression was correlated with poor prognosis and poor survival. NHERF1 expression was higher in the nucleus of cancer cells than in contiguous non- mammary epithelial cells. A novel mutation, namely NHERF1 Y24S, was identified in human breast cancer tissues and shown to correspond to a conserved residue in the PDZ-I domain of NHERF1. Truncation and mutation of the PDZ-I domain of NHERF1 increased the nuclear distribution of the NHERF1 protein, and this redistribution was associated with the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells, including growth, migration, and adhesion. The present results suggest a role for NHERF1 in the progression of breast cancer mediated by the nuclear distribution of the NHERF1 protein, as determined by the truncation or key site mutation of the PDZ-I domain. PMID:27097111

  5. Cilengitide inhibits progression of experimental breast cancer bone metastases as imaged noninvasively using VCT, MRI and DCE-MRI in a longitudinal in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Merz, Maximilian; Berger, Martin R; Goodman, Simon L; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibiting αvβ(3)/α(v) β(5) integrins by cilengitide in experimentally induced breast cancer bone metastases using noninvasive imaging techniques. For this purpose, nude rats bearing established breast cancer bone metastases were treated with cilengitide, a small molecule inhibitor of αvβ(3) and αvβ(5) integrins (75 mg/kg, five days per week; n = 12 rats) and compared to vehicle-treated control rats (n = 12). In a longitudinal study, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and flat panel volumetric computed tomography were used to assess the volume of the soft tissue tumor and osteolysis, respectively, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI was performed to determine functional parameters of the tumor vasculature reflecting blood volume and blood vessel permeability. In rats treated with cilengitide, VCT and MRI showed that osteolytic lesions and the respective bone metastatic soft tissue tumors progressed more slowly than in vehicle-treated controls. DCE-MRI indicated a decrease in blood volume and an increase in vessel permeability and immunohistology revealed increased numbers of immature vessels in cilengitide-treated rats compared to vehicle controls. In conclusion, treatment of experimental breast cancer bone metastases with cilengitide resulted in pronounced antiresorptive and antitumor effects, suggesting that αvβ(3)/αvβ(5) inhibition may be a promising therapeutic approach for bone metastases. PMID:20648558

  6. Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; R.C. Greenlund

    2002-12-31

    Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide product with little salt and no hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gas generating capability, which, if isolated from high alkali conditions, would pose no reactivity concerns. The US aluminum industry has historically, along with the steel industry, been a leader in recycling metal. The findings from this project, increased metal recovery, improved salt recycling, and demonstrated end uses for oxide residues, will go a long way in helping the aluminum industry obtain 100% material utilization and zero discharge.

  7. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the present contract period Phaedrus has begun operation as a true tandem mirror. This was accomplished by achieving the rf sustained mode in which the plug densities were built up by a combination of central cell gas puffing and plug ICRH following stream gun turn off. It was demonstrated that the tandem mirror plasma could be sustained by plug ICRH for up to 1 msec following decay of the external plasma. In this mode plasma characteristics were no longer dominated by problems associated with a high conductivity stream gun plasma in the external region (as was the case in many previous experiments in Phaedrus). Among these problems were (1) line tying which significantly reduced instabilities in a way that would not apply to reactors and (2) low electron temperatures which had been held to approx. 20 eV

  8. 1995 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of the researches are grouped into programs as follows: research and development which covers all the PNRI research projects in 1994; scientific and technological services; and the nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards of the institute

  9. 1997 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards

  10. Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Ronney

    2004-08-26

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. The corona generator can also be used as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. Higher peak pressures and faster pressure rise times were realized consistently in all test chambers versus standard spark plug ignition. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder to The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions including cylinder pressure monitoring. A ceramic corona electrode has been designed that fits in the new test engine and is capable of withstanding the pressures and temperatures encountered inside the combustion chamber. The corona ignition system was tested on the engine and an increase in both peak pressure and IMEP were seen in the initial test. There are issues that must be addressed before on-engine testing can continue such as EMF interference from the corona generator and electrical insulation on portions of the piston and cylinder head to prevent arcing. The EMF issue can be solved with proper shielding and grounding and various ceramic coatings are being researched for electrical insulation.

  11. 1996 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of the researches are grouped into programs as follows: research and development in food and agriculture; research and development in health, environment and industry which includes all the PNRI research projects in 1996; scientific and technological services; and the nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards of the institute

  12. 1999 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards

  13. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996

  15. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  16. PTEN insufficiency modulates ER+ breast cancer cell cycle progression and increases cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kun-Chun Chiang,1,4 Huang-Yang Chen,1 Shu-Yuan Hsu,2 Jong-Hwei S Pang,3 Shang-Yu Wang,4 Jun-Te Hsu,4 Ta-Sen Yeh,4 Li-Wei Chen,5 Sheng-Fong Kuo,6 Chi-Chin Sun,7 Jim-Ming Lee,1 Chun-Nan Yeh,4 Horng-Heng Juang21Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Keelung, 2Department of Anatomy, 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, 4Department of General Surgery, 5Department of Gastroenterology, 6Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 7Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, a well-known tumor suppressor gene and frequently mutated or lost in breast cancer, possesses the negative regulation function over the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PTEN insufficiency has been associated with advanced breast cancer and poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Recently, target therapies aimed at PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway to treat breast cancer have got popularity. However, the exact effect of PTEN on breast cancer cells is still not well understood. This study demonstrated that PTEN knockdown in MCF-7 cells strengthened the downstream gene expressions, including p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k, and p-GSK3ß. PTEN knockdown MCF-7 cells had increased cell growth and Ki-67 expression. Further Western blot demonstrated that p27 was repressed obviously with p21 slightly inhibited and CDK1, 2, 4, 6, cyclin A, and Cdc25C were upregulated in MCF-7 PTEN knockdown cells, leading to the higher growth rate. More importantly, PTEN knockdown MCF-7 cells had higher tumorigenesis and tumor growth in vivo. From our current work, we provided more detailed PTEN-mediated mechanisms to stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell growth. Our result may pave the way for further target therapy development used alone or in combination with other drugs for ER+ breast cancer with PTEN insufficiency.Keywords: PTEN, breast cancer, MCF-7

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Inscribes a Gene Expression Profile for Angiogenic Factors and Cancer Progression in Breast Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Oh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-11R by IGF-1 is associated with the risk and progression of many types of cancer, although despite this it remains unclear how activated IGF-1 R contributes to cancer progression. In this study, gene expression changes elicited by IGF-1 were profiled in breast epithelial cells. We noted that many genes are functionally linked to cancer progression and angiogenesis. To validate some of the changes observed, the RNA and/or protein was confirmed for c-fos, cytochrome P4501Al, cytochrome P450 1131, interleukin-1 beta, fas ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase plasminogen activator. Nuclear proteins were also temporally monitored to address how gene expression changes were regulated. We found that IGF-1 stimulated the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated AKT, hypoxic-inducible factor-1 alpha, and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, which correlated with temporal changes in gene expression. Next, the promoter regions of IGF-1-regulated genes were searched in silico. The promoters of genes that clustered together had similar regulatory regions. In summary, IGF-1 inscribes a gene expression profile relevant to cancer progression, and this study provides insight into the mechanism(s whereby some of these changes occur.

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  19. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  20. Vinorelbine-based salvage therapy in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients progressing during trastuzumab-containing regimens: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vinka-alkaloyd vinorelbine is a potentially valuable treatment in patients with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant advanced breast cancer. We sought to document the clinical activity of vinorelbine-based salvage treatments in this clinical setting. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 424 consecutive women receiving trastuzumab-based therapy for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. Of these, 299 were identified as progressing during the initial trastuzumab-based treatment, and 77 received vinorelbine-based therapy as first salvage treatment. Central review of pathological specimens revealed that 70 patients had HER2-amplification detected by FISH. For these patients we determined overall response rate (ORR = complete-CR + partial-PR and clinical benefit (CB = CR+PR+ Stable disease lasting at least 6 months, time to progression (TTP and overall survival (OS from the initiation of vinorelbine-based salvage therapy. Results In 60 patients who were evaluable for tumor response, ORR and CB rates were 28% (95% C.I. 18%-41% and 50% (95% C.I. 38%-62%, respectively. Median follow-up from the initiation of salvage therapy was 15 months (range 1–63 months. Median TTP and OS were 7.1 months (95% C.I. 6.6–7.7 months and 21 months (95% C.I. 14.3–27.7 months, respectively. No differences in clinical outcomes were observed according to whether vinorelbine was administered as a single agent or in combination with other cytostatics, or whether trastuzumab was stopped or continued beyond disease progression. Conclusion our findings suggests that vinorelbine-based combinations are active and should be further evaluated in studies conducted in trastuzumab-resistant patients, including those evaluating newer HER2-targeting agents.

  1. Research Progress on Postoperative Rehabilitation of Patients with Breast Cancer%乳腺癌术后康复的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周扬; 张晟

    2014-01-01

    近年来,我国乳腺癌发病率呈明显上升的趋势。当前的治疗是以外科切除为主的综合治疗,对于乳腺癌术后的多种并发症,如乳腺癌术后上肢淋巴水肿、上肢功能障碍等,均需要妥善的治疗以保证良好的康复效果。然而,鉴于乳腺癌对患者生理和心理产生的严重影响,心理康复、通过评估患者生活质量来指导临床工作越发重要。本文从乳腺癌上肢淋巴水肿、上肢功能障碍、心理康复及术后生活质量评估方面进行综述,为探讨乳腺癌术后康复提供依据。%In recent years,the incidence of breast cancer showed a significantly upward trend. The current treatment is a comprehensive model centering on the surgery. A variety of complications after mastectomy,such as breast cancer-related up-per extremity lymphedema,upper extremity dysfunction,need proper treatment to ensure good rehabilitation efficacy. However, in view of the serious impact of breast cancer on the patients' physiological and psychological status,the psychological rehabilita-tion and guiding clinical practice by evaluating the quality of life of patients become more important. This paper reviews the re-search progress on breast cancer-related upper extremity lymphedema,upper extremity dysfunction,psychological rehabilitation and postoperative life quality evaluation,and provide basis for postoperative rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer.

  2. For the acceleration of scientific and technical progress in coal mining a central authority is required for conception and realization of a single technical branch policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, L.

    1988-02-01

    Discusses scientific and technical developments in Bulgarian coal mining. Until 1988, research, investigations and design were largely carried out by the Minproekt and Minstroi institutes and by higher schools of mining, usually according to a national plan determined by the Energetika association, state power and mining associations and the Association of Engineers and Technicians. After 1. January, 1988, when self-management is planned to be introduced, individual enterprises will carry out their own research, together with research institutes and other organizations. Experience acquired by the FRG, UK and France may be evaluated and advantageously applied to Bulgarian conditions. Recommendations for the future include: importing equipment and technology from abroad; basing domestic research and design around local problems and requirements; forming a central commission and several working groups to evaluate and plan research work; using experienced technical personnel for experimental introduction of new technologies; establishing experimental laboratories and mine fields in large mines and associations. 2 refs.

  3. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  4. SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

  5. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  6. Effects of simultaneous knockdown of HER2 and PTK6 on malignancy and tumor progression in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Natalie; Anastasov, Natasa; Rosemann, Michael; Seiler, Jana; Lohmann, Nadine; Braselmann, Herbert; Mengele, Karin; Schmitt, Manfred; Höfler, Heinz; Aubele, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. One prominent feature of breast cancer is the co- and overexpression of HER2 and protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6). According to the current clinical cancer therapy guidelines, HER2-overexpressing tumors are routinely treated with trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting HER2. Approximately, 30% of HER2-overexpressing breast tumors at least initially respond to the anti-HER2 therapy, but a subgroup of these tumors develops resistance shortly after the administration of trastuzumab. A PTK6-targeted therapy does not yet exist. Here, we show for the first time that the simultaneous knockdown in vitro, compared with the single knockdown of HER2 and PTK6, in particular in the trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells, leads to a significantly decreased phosphorylation of crucial signaling proteins: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 (MAPK 1/3, ERK 1/2) and p38 MAPK, and (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) PTEN that are involved in tumorigenesis. In addition, dual knockdown strongly reduced the migration and invasion of the JIMT-1 cells. Moreover, the downregulation of HER2 and PTK6 led to an induction of p27, and the dual knockdown significantly diminished cell proliferation in JIMT-1 and T47D cells. In vivo experiments showed significantly reduced levels of tumor growth following HER2 or PTK6 knockdown. Our results indicate a novel strategy also for the treatment of trastuzumab resistance in tumors. Thus, the inhibition of these two signaling proteins may lead to a more effective control of breast cancer.

  7. The importance of prognostic markers of tumor progression Ki-67 and р53 in the breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bondareva V.A.; Shponka I.S.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of morbidity and invalidization frequency of patients with the breast cancer stipulates a necessity to find of the new diagnostic ways and prognostic markers with the aim for early diagnostic, optimization and individual way of therapy that will allow to improve the quality of life, patients’ physical and social reabilitation. The purpose of our investigation was to estimate an expression of important biological markers of tumor’s bihavior – p53 and Ki-67 (proliferative markers) ...

  8. Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganatha R Somasagara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB fruits in leukaemia (CEM and breast cancer (T47D cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved.

  9. The importance of prognostic markers of tumor progression Ki-67 and р53 in the breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondareva V.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of morbidity and invalidization frequency of patients with the breast cancer stipulates a necessity to find of the new diagnostic ways and prognostic markers with the aim for early diagnostic, optimization and individual way of therapy that will allow to improve the quality of life, patients’ physical and social reabilitation. The purpose of our investigation was to estimate an expression of important biological markers of tumor’s bihavior – p53 and Ki-67 (proliferative markers at women suffering from breast cancer of different age by immunohistochemical method. We have examined 300 women with 5 markers (estrogen and progesteron receptors - ER, PgR; human epidermal growth factor receptor HER-2/neu; p53-oncoprotein, presenolin pS2, and 150 women with 7 markers (additionally Ki-67, bcl-2. Our data suggests that the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells is higher at patients with metastasis. Besides, we have estimated correlation between young age of women and p53-pozitive status. Thus, it allows their using as independent prognostic markers which are evidence of high metastatic and invasive tumor potential.

  10. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  11. 乳腺癌患者家庭沟通的研究进展%The research progress of family communication for breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜芹; 刘均娥

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of cancer not only bring distress to patients but also have certain inlfuence on family communication. This article reviews the concept, measuring tools and research progress of family communication for breast cancer patients, in order to provide evidence for exploring particular family communication processes and working out better family communication intervention programs in future.%乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤。癌症的诊断和治疗不仅给患者带来痛苦,对家庭沟通也会造成一定影响。本文从家庭沟通的概念、测量工具及研究现状等方面对乳腺癌患者家庭沟通的研究进展进行综述,旨在为今后探究具体的家庭沟通过程、制定良好的家庭沟通干预方案提供依据。

  12. Simultaneous knockdown of uPA and MMP9 can reduce breast cancer progression by increasing cell-cell adhesion and modulating EMT genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Anuradha; Bondhopadhyay, Banashree; Mukherjee, Mala; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Mukherjee, Narendranath; Konar, Karabi; Bhattacharya, Shubham; Basu, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In cancer progression, proteolytic enzymes like serine proteases and metalloproteinases degrade the basement membrane enabling the tumor cells to invade the adjacent tissues. Thus, invasion and metastasis are augmented by these enzymes. Simultaneous silencing of uPA and MMP9 in breast cancer cells decreased the wound healing, migratory, invasive and adhesive capacity of the cells. After simultaneous down regulation, cells were seen to be arrested in the cell cycle. There was a remarkable increase in the expression of cell to cell adhesion molecule E–cadherin, and decrease in Vimentin and Snail expression. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the expression of the stem cell marker Oct-4. In the breast tumor samples it has been observed that, tumors, expressing higher level of uPA and MMP9, express less amount of E–cadherin. It has also been observed that few tumors also show, Vimentin positive in the ductal epithelial area. Thus, our model can help for checking the aggressive tumor invasion by blocking of uPA and MMP9. Our present observations also give the concept of the presence of aggressive epithelial cells with mesenchymal nature in the tumor micro-environment, altering the expression of EMT genes. PMID:26906973

  13. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Chen, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Kellogg activities included continued monitoring of test operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon and IGT (for peak gasification). Pilot plant/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included: BI-GAS tests G-14, G-14A, G-15 and G-15A; Westinghouse PDU tests TP-027-5 and TP-031-1 and CFSF tests TP-M001-1, 2, 3 and 4; Exxon run periods No. 23 and No. 24; and IGT single-stage peat gasification tests BF-1 through BF-6. Draft reports were submitted regarding Hygas data base evaluation, gasifier vessel design and scaleup risks of the Westinghouse oxygen-blown gasifier. Evaluation of the Hygas data base continued, and a similar study of the Peatgas PDU data base was initiated. Work was begun on preparation of a descriptive brochure for the DOE/GRI joint program. Kellogg personnel participated in investigations of welding materials with the MPC. Significant progress was made in the technical/economic assessments of Westinghouse, Exxon and Peatgas and in the technical/economic comparison of Westinghouse and U-gas, with technical definitions being essentially finished and cost estimation begun. Technical definition and preliminary capital cost estimates were completed for the peat harvesting/dewatering study. Work continued in the study of carbonyl formation. Following reviews by the developers, Kellogg began finalization of the report on screening evaluations of Westinghouse, Exxon and Rockwell. Work on the safety assurance study continued, with the commencement of safety audit visits.

  14. Evaluation of the technical performance of three different commercial digital breast tomosynthesis systems in the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, A; Castillo, M; Garayoa, J; Chevalier, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to research and evaluate the performance of three different digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems in the clinical environment (Siemens Mammomat Inspiration, Hologic Selenia Dimensions, and Fujifilm Amulet Innovality). The characterization included the study of the detector, the automatic exposure control, and the resolution of DBT projections and reconstructed planes. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the DBT projections was measured with a 1mm thick steel edge, showing a strong anisotropy (30-40% lower MTF0.5 frequencies in the tube travel direction). The in-plane MTF0.5, measured with a 25μm tungsten wire, ranges from 1.3 to 1.8lp/mm in the tube-travel direction and between 2.4 and 3.7lp/mm in the chest wall-nipple. In the latter direction, the MTF peak shift is more emphasized for large angular range systems (2.0 versus 1.0lp/mm). In-depth resolution of the planes, via the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the point spread function of a 25μm tungsten wire, is not only influenced by angular range and yields 1.3-4.6mm among systems. The artifact spread function from 1mm diameter tungsten beads depends mainly on angular range, yielding two tendencies whether large (FWHM is 4.5mm) or small (FWHM is 10mm) angular range is used. DBT delivers per scan a mean glandular dose between 1.4 and 2.7mGy for a 45mm thick polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) block. In conclusion, we have identified and analysed specific metrics that can be used for quality assurance of DBT systems.

  15. Phase I-II studies on accelerated IMRT in breast carcinoma: Technical comparison and acute toxicity in 332 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the results in terms of dosimetric parameters and acute toxicity of two clinical studies (MARA-1 and MARA-2) on accelerated IMRT-based postoperative radiotherapy. These results are compared with historical control group (CG) of patients treated with 'standard' 3D postoperative radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Prescribed dose to the breast was 50.4 Gy in the CG, 40 Gy in MARA-1 (low risk of local recurrence), and 50 Gy in MARA-2 (medium-high risk of recurrence). The tumor bed total dose was 60.4 Gy (sequential 10 Gy electron boost), 44 Gy (concomitant 4 Gy boost), and 60 Gy (concomitant 10 Gy boost) in CG, MARA-1 and MARA-2 studies, respectively. Overall treatment time was of 32 fractions for CG (6.4 weeks); 16 fractions for MARA-1 study (3.2 weeks) and 25 fractions for MARA-2 study (5 weeks). Results: Three hundred and thirty two patients were included in the analysis. Dosimetric analysis showed Dmax and V107% reduction (p min improvement (p < 0.001) in the PTV in patients treated with IMRT. Grade 2 acute skin toxicity was 33.6%, 13.1%, and 45.1% in the CG, MARA-1, and MARA-2, respectively (p < 0.001), and grade 3 acute skin toxicity was 3.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0%, respectively. Similarly, larger PTV and use of chemotherapy with anthracyclines and taxanes were associated with a greater acute toxicity. With a median follow-up of 31 months, no patients showed local or nodal relapse. Conclusions: A simplified step and shoot IMRT technique allowed better PTV coverage and reduced overall treatment time (CG, 6.6 weeks; MARA-1, 3.2 weeks; MARA-2, 5 weeks) with acceptable short-term toxicity

  16. Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions Vitamin D pathways unbalanced in breast lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Nair; Sousa Bárbara; Martins Diana; Gomes Madalena; Vieira Daniella; Veronese Luiz A; Milanezi Fernanda; Paredes Joana; Costa José L; Schmitt Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy. Vitamin D has been emerging as a potential treatment for cancer, as it has been demonstrated that it modulates proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, among others. It acts mostly through the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the synthesis and degradation of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We aimed to study the ex...

  17. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opdenaker LM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lynn M Opdenaker,1,2 Kimberly M Arnold,1,3 Ryan T Pohlig,3,4 Jayasree S Padmanabhan,1 Daniel C Flynn,1,3 Jennifer Sims-Mourtada1–3 1Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health Services, Inc., Newark, Delaware, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Biostatistics Core Facility, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA Abstract: In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity has been used to identify cancer stem-like cells within the tumor. The presence and quantity of these cells are believed to predict the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Therefore, identification and eradication of these cells would be necessary to cure the patient. However, there are 19 different ALDH isoforms that could contribute to the enzyme activity. ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are among the isoforms mostly responsible for the increased ALDH activity observed in these stem-like cells, although the main isoforms vary in different tissues and tumor types. In the study reported here, we attempted to determine if ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3, specifically, correlate with tumor stage, grade, and hormone-receptor status in breast-cancer patients. While there was no significant correlation between ALDH1A1 and any of the parameters tested, we were able to identify a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 and tumor stage in triple-negative cancers. In addition, ALDH1A3 was negatively correlated with estrogen-receptor status. Our data suggest that ALDH1A3 could be utilized as a marker to identify stem-like cells within triple-negative tumors. Keywords: breast tumor, ALDH, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, stem-like cells, triple-negative cancer

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Opdenaker LM; Arnold KM; Pohlig RT; Padmanabhan JS; Flynn DC; Sims-Mourtada J

    2014-01-01

    Lynn M Opdenaker,1,2 Kimberly M Arnold,1,3 Ryan T Pohlig,3,4 Jayasree S Padmanabhan,1 Daniel C Flynn,1,3 Jennifer Sims-Mourtada1–3 1Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health Services, Inc., Newark, Delaware, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Biostatistics Core Facility, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA Abstract: In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, ald...

  20. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm-combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1980 through December 31, 1980. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. The final detail design effort was completed and the final design report submitted. Progress on procurement activity authorized by full Phase II release on March 20, 1980, is discussed. Following approval by DOE, a purchase order was placed with the Norflor Construction Corporation for the prototype plant construction which began in November. Construction of the access roadway installation of the electric power, sewer and water lines was completed during this reporting period. Boiler construction continued.

  1. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  2. Progression of luminal breast tumors is promoted by ménage à trois between the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and the hormonal and growth-supporting arms of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenfeld, Polina; Meron, Nurit; Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal; Meshel, Tsipi; Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer progression is strongly linked to inflammatory processes, aggravating disease course. The impacts of the inflammatory cytokine TNF α on breast malignancy are not fully substantiated, and they may be affected by cooperativity between TNF α and other protumoral mediators. Here, we show that together with representatives of other important arms of the tumor microenvironment, estrogen (hormonal) and EGF (growth-supporting), TNF α potently induced metastasis-related properties and functions in luminal breast tumor cells, representing the most common type of breast cancer. Jointly, TNFα + Estrogen + EGF had a stronger effect on breast cancer cells than each element alone, leading to the following: (1) extensive cell spreading and formation of FAK/paxillin-enriched cellular protrusions; (2) elevated proportion of tumor cells coexpressing high levels of CD44 and β 1 and VLA6; (3) EMT and cell migration; (4) resistance to chemotherapy; (5) release of protumoral factors (CXCL8, CCL2, MMPs). Importantly, the tumor cells used in this study are known to be nonmetastatic under all conditions; nevertheless, they have acquired high metastasizing abilities in vivo in mice, following a brief stimulation by TNFα + Estrogen + EGF. These dramatic findings indicate that TNF α can turn into a strong prometastatic factor, suggesting a paradigm shift in which clinically approved inhibitors of TNFα would be applied in breast cancer therapy.

  3. Progression of Luminal Breast Tumors Is Promoted by Ménage à Trois between the Inflammatory Cytokine TNFα and the Hormonal and Growth-Supporting Arms of the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Weitzenfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer progression is strongly linked to inflammatory processes, aggravating disease course. The impacts of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα on breast malignancy are not fully substantiated, and they may be affected by cooperativity between TNFα and other protumoral mediators. Here, we show that together with representatives of other important arms of the tumor microenvironment, estrogen (hormonal and EGF (growth-supporting, TNFα potently induced metastasis-related properties and functions in luminal breast tumor cells, representing the most common type of breast cancer. Jointly, TNFα + Estrogen + EGF had a stronger effect on breast cancer cells than each element alone, leading to the following: (1 extensive cell spreading and formation of FAK/paxillin-enriched cellular protrusions; (2 elevated proportion of tumor cells coexpressing high levels of CD44 and β1 and VLA6; (3 EMT and cell migration; (4 resistance to chemotherapy; (5 release of protumoral factors (CXCL8, CCL2, MMPs. Importantly, the tumor cells used in this study are known to be nonmetastatic under all conditions; nevertheless, they have acquired high metastasizing abilities in vivo in mice, following a brief stimulation by TNFα + Estrogen + EGF. These dramatic findings indicate that TNFα can turn into a strong prometastatic factor, suggesting a paradigm shift in which clinically approved inhibitors of TNFα would be applied in breast cancer therapy.

  4. Progression of luminal breast tumors is promoted by ménage à trois between the inflammatory cytokine TNFα and the hormonal and growth-supporting arms of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenfeld, Polina; Meron, Nurit; Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal; Meshel, Tsipi; Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer progression is strongly linked to inflammatory processes, aggravating disease course. The impacts of the inflammatory cytokine TNF α on breast malignancy are not fully substantiated, and they may be affected by cooperativity between TNF α and other protumoral mediators. Here, we show that together with representatives of other important arms of the tumor microenvironment, estrogen (hormonal) and EGF (growth-supporting), TNF α potently induced metastasis-related properties and functions in luminal breast tumor cells, representing the most common type of breast cancer. Jointly, TNFα + Estrogen + EGF had a stronger effect on breast cancer cells than each element alone, leading to the following: (1) extensive cell spreading and formation of FAK/paxillin-enriched cellular protrusions; (2) elevated proportion of tumor cells coexpressing high levels of CD44 and β 1 and VLA6; (3) EMT and cell migration; (4) resistance to chemotherapy; (5) release of protumoral factors (CXCL8, CCL2, MMPs). Importantly, the tumor cells used in this study are known to be nonmetastatic under all conditions; nevertheless, they have acquired high metastasizing abilities in vivo in mice, following a brief stimulation by TNFα + Estrogen + EGF. These dramatic findings indicate that TNF α can turn into a strong prometastatic factor, suggesting a paradigm shift in which clinically approved inhibitors of TNFα would be applied in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24369447

  5. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    This report details the progress of the three tasks of this project. The tasks are: (1) develop genetic models and analytical methods; (2) molecular confirmation of major gene segregation; and (3) develop strategies for marker-assisted breeding.

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdenaker, Lynn M; Arnold, Kimberly M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Padmanabhan, Jayasree S; Flynn, Daniel C; Sims-Mourtada, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been used to identify cancer stem-like cells within the tumor. The presence and quantity of these cells are believed to predict the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Therefore, identification and eradication of these cells would be necessary to cure the patient. However, there are 19 different ALDH isoforms that could contribute to the enzyme activity. ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are among the isoforms mostly responsible for the increased ALDH activity observed in these stem-like cells, although the main isoforms vary in different tissues and tumor types. In the study reported here, we attempted to determine if ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3, specifically, correlate with tumor stage, grade, and hormone-receptor status in breast-cancer patients. While there was no significant correlation between ALDH1A1 and any of the parameters tested, we were able to identify a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 and tumor stage in triple-negative cancers. In addition, ALDH1A3 was negatively correlated with estrogen-receptor status. Our data suggest that ALDH1A3 could be utilized as a marker to identify stem-like cells within triple-negative tumors. PMID:25540596

  7. Plasma physics research on Tokapole II: Technical progress report for the period November 1, 1985-May 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report covers research performed on the Tokapole II tokamak during FY 1986 and FY 1987 (May 1987). Experiments in the following areas are being investigated: turbulence studies, stability property studies of q/sub a/ < 1, disruption studies at 1 < q/sub a/ < 3, Alfven wave loading and resonance studies, gun refueling, and plasma recycling in a scoop limiter. Progress has been accomplished in upgrading of the machine and data acquisition system, along with modification of the divertor ring supports

  8. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. Progress in resolving open design issues from the outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this publication the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design is presented. It comprises the Plant Design Specifications, the Safety Principles and Environmental Criteria, the Site Requirements and Site Design Assumptions. The outline of the key features of the ITER-FEAT design includes main physical parameters and assessment, design overview and preliminary safety assessment, cost and schedule

  9. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  10. Effects of flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside on preneoplastic biomarkers of cancer progression in a model of simultaneous breast and ovarian cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, Devora M.; Fabian, Carol J.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Yeh, Henry; Petroff, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer prevention efforts are focused increasingly on potentially beneficial dietary modifications due to their ease of implementation and wide acceptance. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a lignan found in high concentration in flaxseed that may have selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like effects resulting in antiestrogenic activity in a high estrogen environment. In parallel with a human phase II prevention trial, female ACI rats (n=8–10/group) received 0, 10 or 100 ppm SDG in the feed. The 100 ppm SDG treatment produced similar blood lignan levels as those observed in our human pilot study. Mammary and ovarian cancer progression were induced using local ovarian DMBA treatment and subcutaneous sustained release 17β-estradiol administered starting at 7 weeks of age. Mammary gland and ovarian tissues were collected at 3 months after initiation of treatment and examined for changes in epithelial cell proliferation (Ki-67, cell counts), histopathology and dysplasia scores as well as expression of selected genes involved in proliferation, estrogen signaling and cell adhesion. Treatment with SDG normalized several biomarkers in mammary gland tissue (dysplasia, cell number, and expression of several genes) that had been altered by carcinogen. There is no indication that SDG promotes pre-neoplastic progression in the ovarian epithelium. PMID:26010915

  11. Technical Progress in Home-made Low NOx Burners for Cracking Furnace%裂解炉用低NOx燃烧器国内技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 李金科

    2012-01-01

    综述了裂解炉用低NOx燃烧器的发展方向和技术开发的国内进展情况,介绍了低NOx燃烧器的CFD模拟结合理论研究和冷热态试验的研发手段,这些技术将满足裂解炉对火焰形状、热通量分布、NOx排放和操作稳定性的要求,提升具有自主知识产权低NOx燃烧器的市场竞争力.%Both development direction and technical progress in home-made low NO., burners for cracking furnace were summarized. The technical progress in it can meet cracking furnace ' s requirements for flame shape, heat flux, NO, emission and operational stability and can promote low-NO, burner's competitiveness in the market because of its proprietary intellectual property rights.

  12. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  13. Technical support services to assist the Office of Environmental Audit in conducting the DOE Environmental Survey and to provide technical assistance on Environmental Compliance issues. Technical progress report, February 16, 1990--August 13, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    NUS received authorization from DOE on August 14, 1987 to provide technical support services to assist the Office of Environmental Audit (OEV) in conducting the DOE Environmental Survey and to provide technical assistance on environmental compliance issues. The overall contract is to accomplish a one-time, no-fault baseline Survey of all DOE operating facilities, and to provide technical assistance and support for the resolution of environmental compliance issues. NUS has completed the Preliminary Reports and continues to support DOE on the Prioritization and Tiger Team Assessment efforts. The project requires a broad range of environmental protection expertise, necessitating senior-level personnel as the primary project staff. Many of the tasks assigned by DOE require quick startup and performance, and several tasks may be active at any one time.

  14. Technical progress, the concept of individualized cancer treatment and the innovation of computer-assisted radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a first step of cancerogenesis, the further development of the tumor is an individual process. At the end of this process the tumor is formed as an individual in the individual. The individuality of cancer exists on the level of organs, tissues and cells and includes an individual tumor-host relationship. Today, optimized cancer treatment requires a most precise biological characterization possible of the tumor and of the tumor-host relationship, which will provide objective information about the individual character of every tumor. Routine analysis and strict therapeutic consideration of the clinical and biological individuality of human cancer can offer real chances for the improvement of cancer treatment. A routine acquisition of individual tumor characteristics will be possible only if methods and equipment are available for the registration of suitable parameters. In this context technical innovations have an essential influence on the realization of the concept of individualized cancer treatment. With the method of flow cytophotometry and other techniques examples are given in how far the ideas of individual cancer management can be realized by introduction of new technical solutions into medical research and clinical practice. Unfortunately there is still a lack of methodology in individualizing cancer treatment. The individualization of radiotherapy is connected to an extremely high degree of technical innovations. Particularly this refers to the topometrical description of the target volume in relation to the adjacent anatomical structures and the body contour as well as the fitting of isodoses to the shape and size of the target volume. As an example of innovation of a technical solution for individual radiotherapy planning the computer-assisted radiotherapy planning system DOPSY is described. (author)

  15. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  16. Research progression of exosome in breast cancer%外泌体在乳腺癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 申娴娟; 鞠少卿

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small (30 -100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by various cell types , they mediate cell-to-cell communication by transferring mRNAs , miRNAs, and proteins.As a hotspot in the research of oncology , exosomes have potential values in the research of development , diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This paper briefly reviews the relationship between breast cancer microenvironment , drug resistance and exosomes and its progress in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment , in order to propose new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies .%外泌体是由不同类型细胞释放的膜性囊泡,直径约30~100 nm,能够通过mRNAs、miRNAs和蛋白质等的传递介导细胞间相互作用。外泌体作为肿瘤学研究的热点,其在肿瘤发生、发展、临床诊断和治疗方面具有重要的研究价值。本文对外泌体与乳腺癌微环境、耐药的关系及其在乳腺癌诊断和治疗中的研究进展进行综述,以期为寻找乳腺癌诊断与治疗新靶点提供思路。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:466-469)

  17. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  19. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  20. Development of a new technic for breast attenuation correction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using computational methods; Desenvolvimento de uma nova tecnica para correcao da atenuacao por tecidos moles em cintilografia de perfusao miocardica utilizando metodos computacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de

    2015-07-01

    Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X{sup 2} for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods

  1. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  2. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  3. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...

  4. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities: Technical progress report for the period January, February, March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mississippi State University is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Additionally, technical support of the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided

  5. Technical progress report of biological research on the Volcanic Island Surtsey and its environs for the period 1965--1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: changes in shoreline and surface of the island due to volcanic activity; colonization of microorganisms, algae, lichens, and vascular plants; introduction of insects and other arthropods by wind, water, and man; transport of invertebrates to the island by flotsam of the sea; species and nesting habits of birds on the island; behavior of seals on beaches of the island; and future trends of Surtsey ecosystems. (HLW)

  6. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Interim quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1989-12-31

    During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Mercuric iodide research and development in support of DOE Historically Black Colleges and University Program. Semiannual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.A.; Zheng, Y.; Salary, L.; Chen, K.T.; Burger, A.

    1994-10-31

    This report describes the progress achieved during the first six months of the program. The different subjects studied were: zone refining experiments of mercuric iodide to establish optimum refining parameters and produce purified material; development of surface reflection spectroscopy as a method to measure crystal surface temperatures, with emphasis on investigation the potential of using optical multichannel analysis; optical methods for measuring iodine vapor during physical vapor transport of HgI{sub 2}; and atomic force microscopy studies.

  8. Research proposal and annual report No. 16. Part B. Technical progress, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: RNA synthesis in yeast; regulation of nitrogen metabolism; biological toxicity of intracellular radioisotope decay; the mechanism of energy conversion in chloroplasts; promoting vibrations in spin-orbital coupling in vibrationally deficient molecules; electronic excitation and hydrogen bonding; macromolecular biophysics; the synthesis and maturation of RNA; electronic response properties of biomolecular systems; chromosome structure and function and chromosome damage; DNA replication and chromosome structure; and influence of phospholipids on the dynamic properties of rhodopsin

  9. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  10. The research progress of relationship between breast density,sex hormone,and breast cancer%乳腺密度、性激素和乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小娜; 王丽; 康欣梅

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic breast density( BD)is independent risk factor for breast cancer,sex hormones also play a role in the development of breast cancer,but it is unclear whether mammographic breast density associate with sex hormone. In this review,we describe the association of BD and sex hormone with breast cancer.%乳腺密度( mammographic breast density,BD)是乳腺癌危险性独立的预测指标,性激素也在乳腺癌的发展中扮演重要角色,而乳腺密度与性激素的关系仍不明确。本文将对乳腺密度,性激素,乳腺癌的关系进行综述。

  11. The research progress of radionuclide molecular imaging for breast cancer%乳腺癌放射性核素分子成像研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 宋秀宇; 徐文贵; 周雯

    2015-01-01

    随着新型特异性显像剂和成像设备的出现,乳腺癌分子成像技术得以快速发展。乳腺癌放射性核素分子成像技术主要包括单光子发射体层成像(SPECT)、正电子发射体层成像(PET)、PET/CT以及正电子发射乳腺成像(PEM)。显像剂包括临床应用最广泛的正电子示踪剂18F-氟代脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG )、用于研究肿瘤细胞增殖显像的5-18F-氟尿嘧啶(5-FU)及3-脱氧-3-氟胸腺嘧啶(FLT)、通过肿瘤氨基酸代谢显像的精氨酸-甘氨酸-天冬氨酸(RGD)类,还包括受体类的靶向显像剂如雌激素受体相关的16α-[18F]-17β-雌二醇(FES)、放射性标记的人表皮生长因子受体2(HER2)及表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)等。目前用于乳腺显像的PEM技术对乳腺癌的早期诊断及疗效预测效果显著,就乳腺癌放射性核素分子成像技术的研究进展予以综述。%With the developments of new type specific imaging agent and imaging device, the molecular imaging technology of breast cancer is being developed rapidly. Radionuclide molecular imaging techniques for breast cancer include single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission body tomography (PET), PET/CT and positron emission (PEM) imaging. In addition to the most widely used radiotracer 18F -FDG, for study of tumor cell proliferation imaging 5-18F-FU and FLT can be used. For imaging tumor amino acid metabolism, RGD-based tracers are available. The receptor-targeted agents include estrogen receptor related FES, radiolabeled human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). At present, the PEM technique had an important clinical value in the early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. We reviewed the research progress of the radionuclide molecular imaging for breast cancer.

  12. Parameterization of a disease progression simulation model for sequentially treated metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Ali, Askal A.; Adunlin, Georges; Kohn, Christine G.; Montero, Alberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is twofold: 1) to propose a simulation model for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (mBC) which could further be used to assess the overall cost-effectiveness of the treatment sequences that would maximize survival of patients, and 2) to estimate transitional probabilities between treatment lines required to parameterize the simulation model, in the absence of individual patient data (IPD). Methods Individual patient data (IPD) were reconstructed for treatment lines composing four treatment sequences. Parametric models were tested to select the model that best fits the IPD. The transitional probability equations, used for disease progression modeling, were obtained by substituting the parameters of the general equation for transitional probabilities by the parameters estimated from fitted distributions. Results The log-logistic model best fitted the reconstructed data for progression-free and overall survival curves for each line of treatment. The shapes and scales of the log-logistic models were used to develop the transitional probability equations for the HER2+ mBC simulation model. Key limitations: The estimation of the transitional probabilities depends heavily on the accuracy of the IPD reconstruction. Nonetheless, analytical and graphical tests can be performed to check the face validity of the reconstructed data. Additionally, sensitivity analyses can be conducted to test the impact of uncertainty surrounding the estimated parameters defining equations for transitional probabilities. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as input in model-based economic evaluations of sequential therapy for HER2+ mBC. PMID:26824145

  13. 焦炉煤气的回收利用技术进展%Technical Progress of Coke Oven Gas Recovery and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      叙述了我国焦炉煤气开展综合利用的迫切性,介绍了其作用于发电、生产甲醇、制氢、生产直接还原铁等技术的进展,分析了焦炉煤气综合利用的广阔前景。%The urgency to comprehensively utilize coke oven gas in China is presented. The technical progress of the coke oven gas used in power generation, production of methanol, production of hydrogen, and production of direct reduced iron is introduced. The broad prospects of comprehensive utilization of coke oven gas are analyzed.

  14. Fusion transcript discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tissues reveals a link to tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ambannavar, Ranjana; Stephans, James; Jeong, Jennie; Dei Rossi, Andrew; Liu, Mei-Lan; Friedman, Adam J; Londry, Jason J; Abramson, Richard; Beasley, Ellen M; Baker, Joffre; Levy, Samuel; Qu, Kunbin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of gene fusions promises to play an important role in personalized cancer treatment decisions. Many rare gene fusion events have been identified in fresh frozen solid tumors from common cancers employing next-generation sequencing technology. However the ability to detect transcripts from gene fusions in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, which exist in very large sample repositories for which disease outcome is known, is still limited due to the low complexity of FFPE libraries and the lack of appropriate bioinformatics methods. We sought to develop a bioinformatics method, named gFuse, to detect fusion transcripts in FFPE tumor tissues. An integrated, cohort based strategy has been used in gFuse to examine single-end 50 base pair (bp) reads generated from FFPE RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets employing two breast cancer cohorts of 136 and 76 patients. In total, 118 fusion events were detected transcriptome-wide at base-pair resolution across the 212 samples. We selected 77 candidate fusions based on their biological relevance to cancer and supported 61% of these using TaqMan assays. Direct sequencing of 19 of the fusion sequences identified by TaqMan confirmed them. Three unique fused gene pairs were recurrent across the 212 patients with 6, 3, 2 individuals harboring these fusions respectively. We show here that a high frequency of fusion transcripts detected at the whole transcriptome level correlates with poor outcome (Parchival FFPE tissues, and the potential prognostic value of the fusion transcripts detected.

  15. Research progress of Chinese medicine to reverse the breast cancer resistance%中药逆转乳腺癌耐药研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文吉

    2015-01-01

    肿瘤多药耐药(MDR)的产生是一个多机制联合作用的结果,包括耐药基因的异常表达、药物作用靶点下调等.MDR是肿瘤化疗失败的主要原因之一,以致MDR逆转剂的研究已成为国内外研究热点.由于化学药逆转剂毒副作用较大、靶点单一,应用受到限制,中药具有安全有效、多靶点且成本低等优势,文章就近年来中药逆转乳腺癌MDR的研究进展进行综述.%Multidrug resistance (multidrug,resistance,MDR) is the result of joint action of a multi mechanism results,including the abnormal expression of multidrug resistance gene,drug targets down etc.MDR is one of the main reasons for the failure of cancer chemotherapy,so the study of MDR reversal agents has become a research hotspot at home and abroad.Due to chemical medicine reversal agent toxicity,target is single,limited application,Traditional Chinese medicine is safe and effective,multi targets and low cost advantage,This paper summarizes the research progress of Chinese medicine to reverse MDR in breast cancer.

  16. High-temperature liquid-metal technology review. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review, Volume 7, Number 2, April 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1969-04-01

    The purpose of the High-Temperature Liquid-Metal Technology Review is to provide up-to-date information on the various research and development programs in the United States in the field of high-temperature liquid-metal technology. The method is to publish reviews prepared by members of the Department of Applied Science of the Brookhaven National Laboratory on current topical and progress reports submitted by contracting organizations. When results and conclusions are reported, it is intended that the individual reviews become both summaries and critiques. Thirteen reviews are presented in this issue.

  17. Indiana University high energy physics group, Task E. Technical progress report, December 1, 1987-June 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task E of the Indiana University High Energy Physics Group was established on December 1, 1987. This progress report covers the period December 1, 1987 to June 1, 1988. Work was concentrated on the development of the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Most effort was devoted to design and experimental tests for the gas recirculating and purification system of the limited streamer tubes used in particle tracking. Some time was also devoted to the valuation of competing designs for the data acquisition system of the limited streamer tubes

  18. Direct probing of chromatography columns by laser-induced fluorescence. Technical progress report, September 1, 1989--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuffin, V.L.

    1992-12-07

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of this research project from September 1, 1989 to February 28, 1993. During this period, we have accomplished all of the primary scientific objectives of the research proposal: (1) constructed and evaluated a laser-induced fluorescence detection system that allows direct examination of the chromatographic column, (2) examined nonequilibrium processes that occur upon solute injection and elution, (3) examined solute retention in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, (4) examined solute zone dispersion in liquid chromatography as a function of temperature and pressure, and (5) developed appropriate theoretical models to describe these phenomena. In each of these studies, substantial knowledge has been gained of the fundamental processes that are responsible for chromatographic separations. In addition to these primary research objectives, we have made significant progress in three related areas: (1) examined pyrene as a fluorescent polarity probe insupercritical fluids and liquids as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) developed methods for the class-selective identification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-derived fluids by microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence quenching detection, and (3) developed methods for the determination of saturated and unsaturated (including omega-3) fatty acids in fish oil extracts by microcolumn liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. In these studies, the advanced separation and detection techniques developed in our laboratory are applied to practical problems of environmental and biomedical significance.

  19. Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS). Technical progress report ampersand continuation proposal, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the CAMOS to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of CAMOS activities from February 1, 1993 to January 31, 1994. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier progress reports. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the CAMOS study on the field that is being conducted by the Panel on the Future of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (FAMOS). During the above period, CAMOS has continued to track and participate in, when requested, discussions on the health of the field. Much of the perspective of CAMOS has been presented in the recently-published report Research Briefing on Selected Opportunities in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences. That report has served as the basis for briefings to representatives of the federal government as well as the community-at-large. In keeping with its charge to monitor the health of the field, CAMOS launched a study designed to highlight future directions of the field

  20. The dual role of FOXF2 in regulation of DNA replication and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Lee, Ji Shin; Liang, Xiaohui; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-10-01

    Dysregulation of Forkhead-box (FOX) transcription factors is linked to cancers of numerous tissue types. Here, we report that FOXF2 is frequently silenced in luminal-type and HER2-positive breast cancers, but is overexpressed in basal-like breast cancers; thus, FOXF2 appears to play distinct roles in different breast cancer subtypes. Inactivation of FOXF2 in luminal-type and HER2-positive breast cancers is attributable to epigenetic silencing. Silencing of FOXF2 is associated with poor prognosis in luminal-type breast cancer. Ectopic expression of FOXF2 in luminal and HER2-positive breast cancer cells suppresses their tumorigenic properties in vitro and in vivo via inhibition of the CDK2-RB-E2F cascade. The in vivo function of FOXF2 is to maintain the stringency of DNA replication, and its loss triggers dysregulation of DNA replication, which in turn activates the p53 checkpoint pathway. Besides its role in cell cycle regulation, FOXF2 is functionally required for mobility and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of normal breast epithelial cells. In basal-like breast cancer cells, the cell-cycle function of FOXF2 is impaired. However, the EMT function of FOXF2 is still required for mobility, invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth of basal-like breast cancer cells. Our gene expression profiling studies demonstrate that FOXF2 regulates the expression of genes implicated in cell cycle and EMT regulation. Moreover, FOXF2 is highly co-expressed with basal- and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer. These findings suggest that FOXF2 has a dual role in breast tumorigenesis and functions as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the breast tumor subtype. PMID:27377963

  1. ITER technology R and D progress report. Report by the Director. ITER technical advisory committee meeting, 25-27 June 2000, St. Petersburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall philosophy for the ITER design has been to use established approaches through detailed analysis and to validate their application to ITER through technology R and D, including fabrication of full scale or scalable models of key components. All this R and D work has been done for ITER under collaboration among the Home Teams, with a total resource of about 660 KIUA. R and D issues for ITER-FEAT are almost the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Major developments and fabrication have been completed and tests have significantly progressed. The technical output from the R and D validates the technologies and confirms the manufacturing techniques and quality assurance incorporated in the ITER design, and supports the manufacturing cost estimates for important key cost drivers. The testing of models is continuing to demonstrate their performance margin and/or to optimize their operational use. Their realisation offers insights useful for a possible future collaborative construction activity. Valuable and relevant experience has already been gained in the management of industrial scale, cross-party ventures. The successful progress of these projects increases confidence in the possibility of jointly constructing ITER in an international project framework. The R and D present status is summarized in the following: details are given in Chapters 2 and 3. Significant efforts and resources have been devoted to the Seven Large R and D Projects which cover all the major key components of the basic machine of ITER and their maintenance tools

  2. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Chen, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Kellogg activities included continued monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon, Rockwell and Bell plant sites, and of peat gasification laboratory activities. Pilot plant/PDU test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas Tests 85 and 86; BI-GAS Tests G-11C, 11D, 11E, 11F, G-12 and G-12A; Westinghouse test runs TP-023-4, TP-027-1, TP-027-2 and TP-027-3; Exxon test periods 13 through 17; and Rockwell Tests 318-063 through 318-073. Kellogg made significant progress toward completion of the Operating Plan Requirements for the individual developers, and began an evaluation of the Hygas data base. The final report on Westinghouse Risk Analysis were issued. Progress was made in completing the reports of the screening evaluations of Exxon, Rockwell and Westinghouse. The safety assurance study continued, as did normal participation in MPC activities. New task orders for technical/economic studies were submitted for review and approval.

  3. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

  4. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development. Quarterly technical progress and schedule report, September 28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardesich, N.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of the contract covers the development and evaluation of forming solar cell collector grid contacts by the MIDFILM process. This is a proprietary process developed by the Ferro Corporation which is a subcontractor for the program. The MIDFILM process attains line resolution characteristics of photoresist methods with processing related to screen printing. The surface to be processed is first coated with a thin layer of photoresist material. Upon exposure to ultraviolet light through a suitable mask, the resist in the non-pattern area cross-links and becomes hard. The unexposed pattern areas remain tacky. The conductor material is applied in the form of a dry mixture of metal and frit particles which adhere to the tacky pattern area. The assemblage is then fired to ash the photopolymer and sinter the fritted conductor powder. Effort was concentrated during this period on the establishment, optimization and identification of problem areas of the MIDFILM process. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  5. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  6. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion: Atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1994-09-27

    This report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past three years of the grant. This research project is designed to study various scattering processes which occur in H{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H{sup {minus}} is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements will provide total cross sections (TCS) initially, and once the angular positioning apparatus is installed, will provide angular differential cross sections (ADCS).

  7. AFCT/TFCT/ISFS Program. Technical progress report for the period January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    This is the ninth in a series of quarterly progress reports on Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technologies/International Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (AFCT/TFCT/ISFS) program. This program provides information needed by industry to close the back end of the power reactor fuel cycle. Included in the program are activities supporting specific design studies, as well as activities for general fuel cycle technology. Studies were conducted in the following tasks: thorium resource price analyses; investigation of air cleaning processes for removing TBP from off-gas streams; study of iodine chemistry in process solutions; high-level waste treatment; electropolishing to decontaminate metallic waste from alternate and thorium converter fuel cycles; U.S. scale transport, dispersion and removal model comparison; safety criticality experiments; and criticality research in support of thorium fuel cycle technology program. (21 figs., 7 tables) (DLC)

  8. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  9. Technical progress and energy substitutions in transport sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florane, Philippe

    2002-11-15

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first, to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (author)

  10. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-29

    The major focus of the project, which is scheduled to occur through December 1995, will be to install and test a 500{number_sign}/hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The overall objectives of the project are to: Determine the effects of operating time on the characteristics of the recirculating medium in a continuous integrated processing circuit, and subsequently, the sensitivity of cyclone separation performance to the quality of the recirculating medium; and determine the technical and economic feasibility of various unit operations and systems in optimizing the separation and recovery of the micronized magnetite from the coal products. This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  11. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  12. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  13. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  14. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  15. Intermediate-energy nuclear physics. Task C. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-October 1, 1983. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the following experimental studies: (1) excitation of giant resonances in 118Sn in inelastic pion scattering at 130 MeV; (2) giant dipole excitations of 40Ca by inelastic pion scattering; (3) charge symmetry test using the π+ and π- elastic scattering from deuterium at 143 and 256 MeV; (4) binding energy effects on the isospin amplitudes in p-shell nuclei; (5) the energy dependence of the 14C (π+,π0)14N reaction to the IAS; (6) the (3He,t) reaction at 2 GeV; (7) analyzing power in the (polarized p,n) IAS transitions; (8) the excitation of the 1/2+ (2.36) MeV state in the 24Mg (polarized p,d) reaction from 27 to 150 MeV; (9) the energy dependence of the (polarized p,d) reaction for 54Fe and 140Ce; and (10) the energy dependence of the 7Li(p,d)6Li reaction. Publications are listed

  16. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies. Technical progress report, 1 November 1993--31 October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a national and international center for information exchange by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results obtained by the Institute contribute to the progress of nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power as a basic energy source. Close collaborative relationships have been developed with other university and national laboratory fusion groups, both in the US and abroad. In addition to its primary focus on mainstream fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in fusion-sidestream fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, space plasmas and astrophysics, statistical mechanics, fluid dynamics, and accelerator physics. Important research discoveries are briefly described.

  17. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, June 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this program is the advanced development of sophisticated particle beam diagnostic techniques for making space and time resolved measurements on high temperature magnetically confined plasmas. The procedure is to develop and test new techniques on small-scale laboratory experiments and then transfer the technology to mainline confinement experiments. During the period covered by this progress report the major advances were: (1) demonstrated that beam probing can provide simultaneous measurements of n, phi and T/sub e/ on plasmas when T/sub e/ is less than approximately 500 eV; (2) demonstrated simultaneous measurements of n tilde and phi tilde on tokamak geometry for frequencies below 200 kHz; (3) developed the concept of multi-element energy analyzer to provide simultaneous measurements for more than one spatial location in the plasma; and (4) carried out preliminary analysis that showed that beam probes can be implemented on complex magnetic geometries such as ATF and that beam probe system could be extended into the MeV energy range

  18. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group: Task A: Technical progress report, December 1, 1986 to November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collection on the production of the KKπ state in π-, K-, and p-bar induced reactions is reported, with partial wave analysis in progress. Work on the design of a target calorimeter and data taking for a muon scattering experiment at CERN is completed. Analysis of a fixed-target jet experiment is reported. A dimuon detector has been prepared for an experiment at Fermilab to study hadronic processes yielding high mass dimuons and associated particles. Participation in the coordination and writing of software for the DO collider detector at Fermilab is reported. Some results from the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) are reported, including direct observation of several decay modes of the charmed mesons, directly observed meson resonances, baryon resonances, and some discoveries concerning the tau lepton. Activity is reported in the building of hardware for the muon upgrade for the Mark2 detector at the SLC and the building of the beam position monitors for the SLC, and microprocessors for Mark2 data analysis. Involvement in the SLC polarization collaboration is also reported

  19. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  20. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  1. Technical Progress Report for PEPCO: Turbo-Z Battery Charging System. Calendar Quarter Ending March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The project is proceeding at a rapid pace now. The software is in development for the control board and the test stand. Portions of the writing and debugging of this software have been in conjunction with the hardware development. The software now interfaces with all the measurement instruments and displays the measurements on the screen, and it saves the measurements to a disc file. There is still cleanup work to do on the display items. Work must still be imparted to the code to control a charging sequence while taking measurements of the results. The test stand hardware has received a good development effort this quarter. The timer-counter board is working in the computer. This board paces the measurement cycle and times the discharge pulse (whine circuit). The thermocouple multiplexer is scanning at the same time the analog to digital converter is taking measurements. We have made a good number of hardware modifications to solve problems revealed while writing the software. The power factor correction for the charger power section is still in development. The engineers have found additional sources for the PFC chips, and they have obtained more technical data sheets and acquired samples. The control board schematics are complete, and the software is far along in the development phase. The functions of the control board have been detailed. The control board must next be integrated with the power supply unit. The next phase of development will concentrate on integrating the components together. At this time, the final debugging of the hardware and software will begin. Additionally, the capacitive coupler development is proceeding. The annual DARPA/DoT Advanced Transportation review will be held on May 16, 1999. We expect to learn the status of our project proposal during this conference. Should we more forward, UL has agreed to help us determine the design requirements of the complete charging system at their EV testing facility, prior to manufacturing. This

  2. Continuous Fiber Wound Ceramic Composite (CFCC) for Commercial Water Reactor Fuel. Technical progress report for period ending April 1, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    Our program began on August 1, 1999. As of April 1, 2000, the progress has been in materials selection and test planning. Three subcontracts are in place (McDermott Technologies Inc. for continuous fiber reinforced ceramic tubing fabrication, Swales Aerospace for LOCA testing of tubes, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for In Reactor testing of tubes). With regard to materials selection we visited McDermott Technologies Inc. a number of times, including on February 23, 2000 to discuss the Draft Material Selection and Fabrication Report. The changes discussed at this meeting were implemented and the final version of this report is attached (attachment 1). McDermott Technologies Inc. will produce one type of tubing: Alumina oxide (Nextel 610) fiber, a carbon coating (left in place), and alumina-yttria matrix. A potentially desirable CFCC material of silicon carbide fiber with spinel matrix was discussed. That material selection was not adopted primarily due to material availability and cost. Gamma Engineering is exploring the available tube coatings at Northwestern University as a mechanism for reducing the permeability of the tubes, and thus, will use coating as a differentiating factor in the testing of tubing in the LOCA test as well as the In-Reactor Test. The conclusion of the Material Selection and Fabrication Report lists the possible coatings under evaluation. With regard to Test Planning, the MIT and Swales Aerospace have submitted draft Test Plans. MIT is attempting to accommodate an increased number of test specimens by evaluating alternative test configurations. Swales Aerospace held a design review at their facilities on February 24, 2000 and various engineering alternatives and safety issues were addressed. The final Test Plans are not expected until just before testing begins to allow for incorporation of changes during ''dry runs.''

  3. Association of germline variation in CCNE1 and CDK2 with breast cancer risk, progression and survival among Chinese Han women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22-2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31-5.34, and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (P(trend = 0.0001. Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.90. Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06-3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15-5.03; in stage II-IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09-3.79. For CDK2, no significant association was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further validation studies are needed.

  4. 癌症相关性视网膜病变在乳腺癌中的研究进展%Progress in the study of cancer-associated retinopathy in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyan Ji; Lei Xing; Jianbo Huang; Lingquan Kong; Ziwei Wang; Guosheng Ren; Kainan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) typically has a sudden or progressive onset of severe visual loss and an ominous association with an occult malignancy which contains breast cancer. Pathologically, CAR is the degeneration of photoreceptors. But the precise mechanism has not been fully established, CAR may result from autoimmune mediated apoptosis. And in recent years, there also have been some results demonstrating that tumor derived angiogenic factors such as VEGF may also confer the development of CAR, which may offer novel avenues for the therapeutic intervention in CAR.Early initiation of immunosuppressive therapy is critical for vision preservation. Future developments in rapid identification and longitudinal quantification of antibody levels would enable individualized management in these patients. The goal of this review was to analyze the epidemiology, the clinical features, the diagnosis and management of retinopathy in the context of recent advances in the elucidation of breast cancer-associated retinopathy (BCAR) pathogenesis.

  5. Research Progress of Early-stage Breast Cancer Breast-conserving Surgery Treatment%早期乳腺癌保乳手术治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温健

    2011-01-01

    随着病理及生物免疫学的不断发展,对乳腺癌的认识也进一步地加深.乳腺癌患者对生存质量的要求不断提高,势必推动乳腺癌外科的不断发展.尤其早期乳腺癌患者,保乳术及前哨淋巴结活检术的出现及临床应用进展迅猛发展,明显替代传统的乳癌根治术及全腋窝淋巴结清扫术.但是,如何使局部复发率及转移率降到最低,仍是保乳术发展的主要研究目标.%Along with pathological and hiological immuunology 's unceasing development, the understanding of breast cancer is also further deepened. The requirements for quality of life of breast cancer sufferers are increasing continuously as well,which inevitahly promotes the growth of breast cancer surgery. Especially for earlv breast cancer,the occurrence and rapid development of breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy has ohviously replaced the traditional radical mastectomy and full axillary lymph node dissection.However,how to lower the local recurrence and metastasis to the optimal still remains the major research objective of breast-conserving surgery development.

  6. Implantes mamarios y mastopexía: colgajos mamarios laterales y mediales, una opción técnica Breast Implants and Mastopexy: lateral and Medial Breast Flaps, a Technical Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Goulart Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La mastopexia asociada al uso de implantes mamarios es actualmente una de las prácticas más desafiantes en Cirugía Plástica; en ella, el cirujano tiene que utilizar al máximo sus capacidades y conocimientos para decidir con exactitud la mejor relación entre el tamaño ideal del implante y el exceso de piel a retirar. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una técnica a base de colgajos mamarios laterales y mediales (CMLM para cirugía de mastopexia con implantes mamarios en busca de una mejor definición de la mama y de una mayor duración del resultado final. Esta técnica se crea en base a la circulación mamaria y en los excedentes de tejido al final de la cirugía utilizando la marcación en T. Los resultados inmediatos han sido muy satisfactorios en términos de definición de la forma mamaria, de la solidez de la nueva estructura glandular y de la protección del implante mamario. La duración a largo plazo aún debe ser evaluada. Creemos que se trata de una técnica fácil de ejecutar, que permite un resultado estético satisfactorio, proporciona una percepción de mayor seguridad en el posicionamiento del implante, aunque somos conscientes de que su sostenibilidad y duración a largo plazo aún necesitan tiempo para una mejor evaluación.The breast implant associated with mastopexy actually is one of most difficult plastic surgeries. In fact, it is a surgery where the surgeon has to use his higher capabilities and skills in order to decide with precision the best relationship between ideal sizes of the breast implant and skin excess. The purpose in this paper is to present a breast lateral and medial flaps technique for augmentation mastopexy surgery looking for a better breast design and resistance on the final result. The technique was created on breast circulation basis, skin excess and better definition and resistance about the aesthetical breast results in the augmentation mastopexy surgery utilizing the T scar technique

  7. A Technical Assessment of the Utility of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for the Study of the Functional Proteome in Non-microdissected Human Breast Cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Bryan T

    2010-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of large panels of validated antibodies, tissue handling variability, and intratumoral heterogeneity potentially hamper comprehensive study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to address these concerns and to demonstrate clinical utility for the functional analysis of proteins in non-microdissected breast tumors using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA). METHODS: Herein, 82 antibodies that recognize kinase and steroid signaling proteins and effectors were validated for RPPA. Intraslide and interslide coefficients of variability were <15%. Multiple sites in non-microdissected breast tumors were analyzed using RPPA after intervals of up to 24 h on the benchtop at room temperature following surgical resection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 82 total and phosphoproteins demonstrated time-dependent instability at room temperature with most variability occurring at later time points between 6 and 24 h. However, the 82-protein functional proteomic "fingerprint" was robust in most tumors even when maintained at room temperature for 24 h before freezing. In repeat samples from each tumor, intratumoral protein levels were markedly less variable than intertumoral levels. Indeed, an independent analysis of prognostic biomarkers in tissue from multiple tumor sites accurately and reproducibly predicted patient outcomes. Significant correlations were observed between RPPA and immunohistochemistry. However, RPPA demonstrated a superior dynamic range. Classification of 128 breast cancers using RPPA identified six subgroups with markedly different patient outcomes that demonstrated a significant correlation with breast cancer subtypes identified by transcriptional profiling. CONCLUSION: Thus, the robustness of RPPA and stability of the functional proteomic "fingerprint" facilitate the study of the functional proteome in non-microdissected breast tumors.

  8. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast mass ... males and females of all ages have normal breast tissue. This tissue responds to hormone changes. Because of this, lumps can come and go. Breast lumps may appear at any age: Both male ...

  9. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  10. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

  11. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2 for reporting period August 1, 1998--November 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-10

    This report summarizes the technical progress achieved during the first quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ``Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.`` The focus of work during this reporting period was the testing of a novel device for introducing a broad bandwidth ultrasonic pulse at the surface of a simulated furnace tube. The device employs a sacrificial stand-off composed of a fusible alloy that conforms to hot furnace tube surface upon contact. Conventional high-temperature couplants have a maximum operating temperature of about 550{degrees}C, which limits their use for contact against ethylene cracker furnace tube surfaces that typically operate at about 1000{degrees}C. In the absence of a couplant, insufficient ultrasonic energy can be transmitted from the transducer to the tube surface. By using a fusible alloy, the device efficiently couples the transducer to the hot furnace tube surface, even for rough and convex tube surfaces operating at temperatures of 1800{degrees}F and above. Initial tests confirmed the ability to resolve pulse echoes in a simulated furnace tube using a 5 MHz piezoelectric transducer with a fusible stand-off.

  12. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington oil field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Quarterly technical progress report, March 21, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D. [Long Beach City Dept. of Oil Properties, CA (United States); Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J. [Tidelands Oil Production Co. (United States); Moos, D. [Stanford Univ. (United States); Tagbor, K. [MPI (United States)

    1995-07-26

    The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic 3-D geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions. Technical progress is reported for the following tasks: Reservoir characterization; reservoir engineering; 3-D geologic modeling; pulsed acoustic logging; and technology transfer.

  13. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L.

    1995-12-07

    This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

  14. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  15. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifan [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Pan, Juncheng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe, E-mail: cheli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yin, Jian [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China); Zhao, Qing [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  16. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; N. N. Tupitsyn; K. P. Laktionov

    2014-01-01

    The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompe...

  17. 二甲双胍与乳腺癌关系的研究进展%Progress on the relationship between metformin and breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆兰; 邢芳; 肖盟(综述); 王欣(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of breast cancer and affects the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, decreases blood glucose level and has a role in suppressing various cancers. In addition, metformin has a unique in-hibitory effect on breast cancer, i.e., it can inhibit breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, metformin exerts its anti-tumor ef-fect on epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive and monoclonal antibody trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell lines, breast cancer stem cells, and triple negative breast cancer cells. Metformin can reduce the risk of the breast cancer in patients with dia-betes, lower histologic grade, and increase expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Furthermore, metformin has certain effect on neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. This review aims to clarify the mechanism of metformin in restraining breast cancer based on basic and clinical study results.%糖尿病增加乳腺癌的发病风险,并影响乳腺癌患者的预后。二甲双胍作为一种降糖药除了能降低血糖外,尚有抑制多种癌症的作用,并对乳腺癌有独特的作用,体内和体外实验均被证实能抑制乳腺癌细胞,甚至对表皮生长因子受体-2(HER-2)阳性且曲妥株单抗耐药的乳腺癌细胞、乳腺癌干细胞、三阴性乳腺癌细胞也能发挥抗肿瘤作用。二甲双胍尚能减低糖尿病患者的乳腺癌发病风险、降低乳腺癌组织学级别、增加雌激素受体(ER)及孕激素受体(PR)表达,对乳腺癌新辅助化疗也有一定的作用。本文将从基础及临床研究方面阐明二甲双胍对乳腺癌的抑制机制。

  18. 自动乳腺全容积成像技术诊断乳腺病灶的研究进展%Research Progress in Application of Automated Breast Volume Scanner in Diagnosis of Breast Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何其佳; 赵玉珍

    2015-01-01

    Early screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancers play a key role in reduction of the mortality and improvement of the survival rate for patients with breast cancers. Through summarization of the related domestic and overseas literature, this paper compared the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) with conventional ultrasound, elasticity imaging, breast molybdenum target mammography from four perspectives including the lesion detection rate, accuracy, sensitivity and speciifcity. Additionally, the features of coronal ABVS images of benign and malignant breast lesions were also analyzed, such as the convergence sign, high echo ring, micro calciifcation,etc. Finally, it summarized the advantages and disadvantages of application of ABVS in diagnosis of breast cancers, which offered reliable references for its wider clinical popularity.%乳腺癌早期筛查及诊治是降低乳腺癌患者病死率和提高其生存率的关键。本文通过总结归纳国内外文献资料,对比分析自动乳腺全容积成像(ABVS)与普通超声、弹性成像、乳腺钼靶的病灶检出率、诊断准确度、敏感度、特异度,分析乳腺良恶性病灶的ABVS冠状面图像特征,总结ABVS诊断乳腺肿物的优势和不足,为其推广运用于临床提供可靠依据。

  19. The Research Progress of Herceptin in Treatment of HER-2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer%曲妥珠单抗1治疗HER-2过表达乳腺癌的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贤玉(综述); 王昆华(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Oncogene activation and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is an important molecular mechanism of tumor formation. HER-2 oncogene is associated with breast cancer invasion and metastasis and prognosis, HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer progresses rapidly and has poor prognosis. In recent years, the emergence of targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibody drug Herceptin which built its structure for the HER-2 has significantly inproved HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer.%原癌基因的激活和抑癌基因的失活是肿瘤形成的重要分子机制。原癌基因HER-2是与乳腺癌的侵袭,转移及预后密切相关,HER-2过表达型乳腺癌进展快,预后差。近年来,针对HER-2结构构建具有靶向治疗作用的单克隆抗体药物曲妥珠单抗出现,显著提高了HER-2阳性晚期乳腺癌的疗效。

  20. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  1. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Sardinian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite progress in identifying genes associated with breast cancer, many more risk loci exist. Genome-wide association analyses in genetically-homogeneous populations, such as that of Sardinia (Italy), could represent an additional approach to detect low penetrance alleles. We performed a genome-wide association study comparing 1431 Sardinian patients with non-familial, BRCA1/2-mutation-negative breast cancer to 2171 healthy Sardinian blood donors. DNA was genotyped using GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K Arrays or Genome-Wide Human SNP Arrays 6.0. To increase genomic coverage, genotypes of additional SNPs were imputed using data from HapMap Phase II. After quality control filtering of genotype data, 1367 cases (9 men) and 1658 controls (1156 men) were analyzed on a total of 2,067,645 SNPs. Overall, 33 genomic regions (67 candidate SNPs) were associated with breast cancer risk at the p < 10−6 level. Twenty of these regions contained defined genes, including one already associated with breast cancer risk: TOX3. With a lower threshold for preliminary significance to p < 10−5, we identified 11 additional SNPs in FGFR2, a well-established breast cancer-associated gene. Ten candidate SNPs were selected, excluding those already associated with breast cancer, for technical validation as well as replication in 1668 samples from the same population. Only SNP rs345299, located in intron 1 of VAV3, remained suggestively associated (p-value, 1.16x10−5), but it did not associate with breast cancer risk in pooled data from two large, mixed-population cohorts. This study indicated the role of TOX3 and FGFR2 as breast cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2-wild-type breast cancer patients from Sardinian population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1392-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four years of IRIS, from October 1999 to October 2003. It provides a panoramic of the project status and design effort, with emphasis on the current status, since two previous reports have very extensively documented the work performed, from inception to early 2002.

  3. 1986 PAEC Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in the fields of agriculture and natural resources, health and nutrition, supportive research, nuclear applications services, industry and energy, and other scientific and technological services and information system. (ELC)

  4. Progress in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring - Proceedings of the technical days organised by the SFRP Environment Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the progress made in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Environment monitoring at the global, national and local scale: historical overview (Dominique CALMET, CEA); 2 - Evolution of radioactivity monitoring in the environment from 1960 to the present day (Guillaume MANIFICAT, IRSN); 3 - Euratom's legal framework (Zhana GENOVA, CTE); 4 - Main regulatory changes during the last decade (Nathalie REYNAL, ASN); 5 - Progress of standardization works on radioactive effluent emissions control and environment monitoring (Philippe BEGUINEL, BNEN); 6 - From operators' self-monitoring to ASN's inspections: a many components control system (Eric LE COZ, ASN); 7 - Control of effluents and emissions management at CEA Centres (Marianne CALVEZ, CEA); 8 - Liquid and gaseous effluents of ITER experimental facility: description and impacts (Pierre CORTES, IO); 9 - Effluents and emissions management strategy at AREVA NC La Hague facility (Stephane PUYDARRIEUX, AREVA); 10 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities ongoing deconstruction: from dimensioning to real effluents (Benoit CLAVEL, EDF); 11 - Radionuclides decontamination process for liquid effluents using micro-algae at the laboratory scale (Corinne RIVASSEAU, CEA); 12 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear medicine services: management, monitoring and impact measurement methods (Nathalie TCHILIAN, ASN); 13 - Evolution history of effluents management and environment monitoring at the Solvay La Rochelle site (Thierry DELLOYE, SOLVAY); 14 - Different international approaches in effluents management and monitoring: example of French and German gaseous effluents - regulation, analyses, accounting rules (Jean-Jacques DIANA, ASN); 15 - Environment

  5. Progress of Hormone Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer%激素替代疗法与乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳芳; 史惠蓉

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can alleviate postmenopausal women′menopausal symptoms,prevent osteoporosis and reduce fractures with a consensus,but its influence on breast cancer,cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases is still controversial. Using estrogen alone may not increase the risk of breast cancer ,while combining estrogen with progesterone may increase breast cancer′s risk. Different breast disease patients may suffer different risks of breast cancer after HRT,the relationship between Chinese women HRT and breast cancer are uncertain. Benefits exceed risks when applying HRT on women who have indications close to post menopause ,different types and occupy pathways of HRT may result in different breast cancer risks. Summarize the relationship between HRT and breast cancer as well as HRT applications in patients with different breast disease.%激素替代疗法(hormone replacement therapy,HRT)在改善妇女绝经症状、预防骨质疏松、减少骨折发生等方面的作用已成共识,但其对乳腺癌、心脑血管疾病及其他慢性疾病的影响尚存在争议。单用雌激素可能不增加乳腺癌风险,雌孕激素联合应用可能增加乳腺癌风险。不同乳腺疾病患者应用HRT后乳腺癌发病风险不同,中国女性HRT与乳腺癌的关系尚未完全明确。在近绝经期有适应证的妇女中应用HRT的收益大于风险,且HRT的种类与使用途径对乳腺癌的发病风险可能不同。综述HRT与乳腺癌的关系以及HRT在不同乳腺疾病患者中的应用。

  6. 资本深化、技术进步与雇佣规模调整%Capital Deepening, Technical Progress and Employment Size Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫强

    2013-01-01

    本文试图解释工资增长趋势下中国上市公司的经营行为,在Cobb-Douglas生产函数的分析框架下,利用2000年至2011年沪深上市公司的数据对相关命题进行了检验,发现在工资增长的趋势下,资本深化总体上呈加尉态势,工资增长越快、劳动分配率越高则资本深化越剧烈,国有企业以资本替代劳动的倾向表现得越来越强烈.就企业的雇佣规模而言,技术进步和工资增长对其有显著的负向影响,营业收入则有显著的正向影响.民企的雇佣规模调整对技术进步越来越敏感,国企的雇佣规模调整对工资增长越来越敏感.本研究的启示包括:首先,未来一段时间的就业压力仍可能较大,但其表现形式由以往的劳动力市场供给带来的压力逐渐转向为劳动力市场需求方的压力.其次,国有企业在资本获取上的优势应该受到限制.再次,在提高劳动分配率的同时要关注资本深化的趋势.%This study aims to explain the employment practices of Chinese listed companies in the trend of wage growth.With the scheme of Cobb-Douglas production function and the data from Guotaian database,several hypotheses are induced and tested.The results show that capital deepening is aggravated in the wage growth trend,and the speed of capital deepening positively correlate to the wage growth rate and labor distribution rate.The state-owned enterprises are more tend to substitute labor with capital.For the employment size,technical progress and wage growth have significant negative effect,while firms' income has significant positive effect.The private enterprises' employment size adjustment are tend to get more sensitive to technical progresses,while the state-owned enterprises' get more sensitive to wage growth.There are several implications of this research:first of all,the employment pressure is still high in the immediate future,while the source of pressure gradually turns to the demand side

  7. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  8. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, S.; Prieditis, J.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Texaco Exploration and Production Inc`s. (TEPI) mid-term plans are to implement a full-scale miscible CO{sub 2} project in the CVU. TEPI concluded all of the tasks associated with the First Budget Period by October, 1995. The DOE approved the TEPI continuation application. Budget Period No. 2 is in progress. Initial injection of CO{sub 2} began in November, and after a short shut-in period for the soak, the well was returned to production in late December, 1995. This report, covers TEPI`s efforts at history matching the results of the field demonstration. Costs and economics of the work are presented. The majority of effort during the fourth quarter has revolved around the selection of a new project site and refinement of the demonstration design and well selection.

  9. 技术进步对就业人力资本结构的影响%The Impact of Technical Progress on Human Capital Structure of Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄犚

    2012-01-01

    利用2003-2010年省际面板数据,研究不同类型的技术进步对我国就业人力资本结构的影响.结果表明:总就业与就业结构的调整是矛盾的统一体;自主创新的技术进步对总就业的创造作用大于摧毁作用;外商直接投资和进出口贸易产生的引进技术进步有利于促进我国对外经济体转型升级,增加高人力资本需求;我国对外直接投资作为贸易的补充有利于增加我国总就业,但由于技术获取动力不足,吸收技术溢出的效果不明显,不具有高人力资本偏态效应.同时,该影响也表现出一定程度的区域差异.%Using the provincial panel data from 2003 to 2010, this paper studies the influence of different types of technical progress of the human capital structure of employment in China. The result shows that: total employment and employment structure adjustment are the unity of contradiction; independent innovation benefits job creation; FDI and foreign trade promote the transformation and upgrading of Chinas foreign economy, and thus increase the demand of high human capital; China's technology sourcing OFDI is underpowered; as a supplement to trade, it will be beneficial to increase total employment; but the technology spillover effect is not obvious. Meanwhile, the effect is different in areas.

  10. Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8 and topical report No. 3, April 2-July 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Johnson, R.E.; Manasevit, H.M.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.

    1978-07-01

    The seventh quarter of work on the contract is summarized. The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique has been applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAlAs on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (primarily glasses and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium (TMG), arsine (AsH/sub 3/), and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperatures of 725 to 750/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. The technical activities during the quarter were concentrated on (1) a continuing evaluation of various graphite materials as possible substrates for MO-CVD growith of the polycrystalline GaAs solar cells; (2) attempts to improve the quality (especially the grain size) of polycrystalline GaAs films on Mo sheet and Mo/glass substrates by using HCl vapor during the MO-CVD growith process; (3) further studies of the transport properties of polycrystalline GaAs films, wth emphasis on n-type films; (4) continuing investigations of the properties of p-n junctions in polycrystalline GaAs, with emphasis on the formation and properties of p/sup +//n/n/sup +/ deposited structures; and (5) assembling apparatus and establishing a suitable technique for producing TiO/sub 2/ layers for use as AR coatings on GaAs cells. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  11. Research Progress on the Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer%代谢综合征与三阴性乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田垚; 王毅; 朱科云; 汪百川; 曹旭晨

    2014-01-01

    代谢综合征(MS)、乳腺癌是女性常见疾病,三阴性乳腺癌(TNBCs)是近年来备受关注的乳腺癌的一个类型。MS的重要组分向心性肥胖、高血糖、高甘油三酯和低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)增加了TNBCs的患病风险。MS的常见生物标志物胰岛素、脂联素和瘦素等在乳腺癌特别是TNBCs的发生发展中起到重要作用。胰岛素样生长因子-ⅡmRNA结合蛋白3(IMP3)是一种癌胚蛋白,可能是TNBCs浸润性癌新的生物标志物。本文对MS与TNBCs关系的研究进展进行综述。%Metabolic syndrome (MS) and breast cancer are common diseases of women. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBCs) is one type of breast cancer, which is of much attention in recent years. Important components of MS include central obesity, high blood sugar, high triglycerides and low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), which increased the inci-dence risk of TNBCs. Common biomarkers of MS including insulin, adiponectin and leptin play an important role in the oc-currence and development of breast cancer, especially TNBCs. Insulin-like growth factor-IImRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3, an oncofetal protein) may be TNBCs’new invasive cancer biomarkers. In this paper, the research progress on the relation-ship between MS and TNBCs is reviewed.

  12. The research progress of Chinese medicine's treatment to precocious puberty simple early breast development%性早熟单纯乳房早发育中医药研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚艾妮

    2014-01-01

    文章通过收集整理近十年来中医药治疗性早熟单纯乳房早发育的进展和研究概况,得出结论为中医药治疗单纯乳房早发育的效果确实显著。其优点又在于无特殊不良反应。中医在辨证论治的基础上采用各种有效方药、中成药和外治疗法,研究治疗上,取得了可喜的进展,呈现着向内治与外治相结合的趋势发展。为中医药防治性早熟研究的进一步标准化提供了理论的支持和起到了指导作用。%The research of Chinese medicine treatment of precocious puberty simple early breast development is done by collecting materias including research and progress of this symptom in recent ten years. The conclusion of this research is that Chinese treatment effective .Having no special adverse reactions is the advantage of Chinese treatment. The early development of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of pure breast is based on syndrome differentiation, using a variety of effective prescription, Chinese medicine and external therapy, which has made a gratifying progress and presente a developing trend of combination of internal and external treatment. As a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of precocious puberty can provides theoretical support and guidance for the further standardization of precocious puberty simple early breast development study.

  13. Volumetric breast density from full-field digital mammograms and its association with breast cancer risk factors: a comparison with a threshold method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Kallenberg, M.G.J.; Karssemeijer, N.; Bosch, M.H.J. van den; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast density, a strong breast cancer risk factor, is usually measured on the projected breast area from film screen mammograms. This is far from ideal, as breast thickness and technical characteristics are not taken into account. We investigated whether volumetric density measurement

  14. Data on alteration of hormone and growth factor receptor profiles over progressive passages of breast cancer cell lines representing different clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhumathy G; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Hari, P S; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T S

    2016-09-01

    Human breast cancers are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours consisting of several molecular subtypes with a variable profile of hormone, growth factor receptors and cytokeratins [1]. Here, the data shows immunofluorescence profiling of four different cell lines belonging to distinct clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Post revival, the cell lines were passaged in culture and immunophenotyping was done for ER, HER-2, AR and EGFR. Data for the markers from early passage (5th) through passages as late as 25 for the different cell lines is presented. PMID:27508248

  15. 乳腺癌的MRI诊断及临床应用进展%Diagnosis and clinical application progress of MRI on breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the diagnosis and clinical application of MRI on breast cancer.Methods:Compared the MRI test results and pathological results in 120 patients with breast disease,and also compared their TNM staging and pTNM stage based on the MRI before the surgery,to explore the accuracy of MRI examination,and its accuracy of MRI diagnosed on TNM staging. Results:The diagnostic accuracy of MRI on diagnosis of breast cancer and benign disease was 88.9% and 87.5% respectively. Conclusion:MRI can diagnosis of TNM staging of breast cancer accurately.%目的:探究乳腺癌的MRI诊断及临床应用进展。方法:比较120例乳腺疾病患者MRI检查结果与病理结果以及术前乳腺癌患者以MRI为基础的TNM分期与pTNM分期,探讨MRI检查的准确性以及MRI诊断TNM分期的准确性。结果:MRI诊断乳腺癌以及良性疾病的准确率分别为88.9%、87.5%。结论:MRI能够较准确地诊断乳腺癌的TNM分期情况。

  16. Research Progress on Estrogen Relationship With breast cancer%雌激素与乳腺癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾蕾; 吴东恩

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone,ER is widely spread in tissues including reproductive system ,skeleton and cardiovas-cular system,could induce breast cancer.Complete mechanism of estrogen cause breast cancer remains unclear,but One important mechanism which is known to stimulate the growth of breast cancer and inhibition of apoptosis.Here is to review the full text on estro-gen,estrogen receptor and breast cancer relationship.%雌激素是一种甾体激素,具有广泛的组织分布,包括生殖系统、骨骼、心血管系统等,可诱导乳腺肿瘤的发生。雌激素导致乳腺癌的完全机制仍不明确,但已知其中重要的机制之一就是刺激乳腺癌组织的生长和抑制凋亡。本文就雌激素,雌激素受体与乳腺癌的关系进行综述。

  17. Ceramide targets xIAP and cIAP1 to sensitize metastatic colon and breast cancer cells to apoptosis induction to suppress tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramide is a bioeffector that mediates various cellular processes, including apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying ceramide function in apoptosis is apparently cell type-dependent and is not well-understood. We aimed at identifying molecular targets of ceramide in metastatic human colon and breast cancer cells, and determining the efficacy of ceramide analog in suppression of colon and breast cancer metastasis. The activity of and mechanism underlying ceramide as a cytotoxic agent, and as a sensitizer for Fas-mediated apoptosis was analyzed in human cell lines established from primary or metastatic colon and breast cancers. The efficacy of ceramide analog LCL85 in suppression of metastasis was examined in preclinical mouse tumor models. Exposure of human colon carcinoma cells to ceramide analog LCL85 results in apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, a sublethal dose of LCL85 increased C16 ceramide content and overcame tumor cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Subsequently, treatment of tumor cells with exogenous C16 ceramide resulted in increased tumor cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. LCL85 resembles Smac mimetic BV6 in sensitization of colon carcinoma cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis by inducing proteasomal degradation of cIAP1 and xIAP proteins. LCL85 also decreased xIAP1 and cIAP1 protein levels and sensitized metastatic human breast cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Silencing xIAP and cIAP1 with specific siRNAs significantly increased the metastatic human colon carcinoma cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that IAP proteins mediate apoptosis resistance in metastatic human colon carcinoma cells and ceramide induces IAP protein degradation to sensitize the tumor cells to apoptosis induction. Consistent with its apoptosis sensitization activity, subtoxic doses of LCL85 suppressed colon carcinoma cell metastatic potential in an experimental lung metastasis mouse model, as well as breast cancer growth

  18. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  19. Research Progress on Posttraumatic Growth of the Breast Cancer Patients%乳腺癌患者“创伤后成长”的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆靖; 史铁英

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , the incidence of breast cancer is rising , and breast cancer almost becomes the most serious malignant tumor for women .The operation brings a lot of harm to both the body and the mind of patients .But some researchers finds that the patients will have a positive psychological change in the process of fighting with breast cancer . This is posttraumatic growth which has been studied in the field of positive psychology .This paper reviews the connotation of the posttraumatic growth ,current situation in China and other countries ,assessment tools ,influencing factors and intervention methods in women with breast cancer ,in order to provide evidence for the development of clinical breast cancer patients'psychological care .%近年来,乳腺癌的发病率不断上升,乳腺癌已逐渐成为危害女性健康的首位恶性肿瘤。手术给患者的身心带来很大伤害,但研究者发现,在与乳腺癌这一疾病做斗争的过程中患者会产生一种正向的心理变化,这就是积极心理学领域研究的创伤后成长。本文从创伤后成长内涵、国内外研究现状、测量工具、影响因素、干预方法等几方面对乳腺癌创伤后成长研究现状进行文献综述,为乳腺癌患者心理护理提供依据。

  20. 乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞生物学特性的研究进展%Progress in biological characteristics of circulating breast-tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世超; 姜军

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the progress in biological characteristics of circulating breast-tumor cells. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy for review literature was performed towards the electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database using terms "breast neoplasm" ."circulating tumor cells" ,"micrometastasis"(2000-01 - 2011-12). Eligibility Criteria: Publications related to biological characteristics of circulating breast-tumor cells were included in this review and 34 literatures were cited. RESULTS : The biological characteristics of circulating breast-tumor cells were different from that of cells in primary and me-tastatic tumor including cellular atypia, proliferation, expressed molecules,angiogenesis,and relationship with epithelial to mesenchymal transition,tumor stem cell and tumor self-seeding. CONCLUSION: With respect to biological characteristics of circulating breast-tumor cells, further investigation on these characteristics may help enhance the understanding of tumor disseminateion and metastasis.%目的:总结乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞生物学特性相关的研究进展.方法:以“乳腺肿瘤、循环肿瘤细胞和微转移”为关键词,系统检索PubMed、Ovid、EMBASE、Web of Science的中国生物医学文献数据库等医学数据库(2000-01-2011-12).纳入标准:乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞生物学特性.根据纳入标准,符合分析的文献34篇.结果:乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞具有高度异形性,细胞增殖活性低,表达激素受体、血管生成相关分子等多种标志,且与上皮细胞间质化、肿瘤干细胞及肿瘤自身种植等密切相关.循环肿瘤细胞具有与原发灶、转移灶内肿瘤细胞明显不同的生物学特征.结论:乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞具有自身独特的生物学特性,进一步深入研究其生物学特性有助于加深对肿瘤播散和转移机制的认识.