WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast technical progress

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  2. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation

  3. Technical progress and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The global warming debate has neglected and thus underestimated the importance of technical change in considering reduction in greenhouse gases and adaptation to climate change. Relevant quantitative cases of long-run technical change during the past 100 years are presented in computing, communications, transport, energy, and agriculture. A noteworthy technological trajectory is that of decarbonization, or decreasing carbon intensity of primary energy. If human societies have not yet reached the end of the history of technology, the cost structure for mitigation and adaptation changes could be cheap. (Author)

  4. Progress report : Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.; Deshpande, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The research and development work carried out in the Technical Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, is reported. Some of the achievements are: (1) fabrication of mass spectrometers for heavy water analysis and lithium 6/7 isotope ratio measurement, (2) fabrication of electronic components for mass spectrometers, (3) growing of sodium iodide crystals for radiation detectors, (4) development of sandwich detectors comprising of NaI(Tl) and CaI(Na), (5) fabrication of mass spectrometer type leak detectors and (6) fabrication of the high vacuum components of the vacuum system of the variable energy cyclotron based at Calcutta. (M.G.B.)

  5. [Fluorine-18 labeled androgens and progestins; imaging agents for tumors of prostate and breast]: Technical progress report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project develops fluorine-18 labeled steroids that possess high binding affinity and selectivity for androgen and progesterone receptors and can be used as positron-emission tomographic imaging agents for prostate tumors and breast tumors, respectively. These novel diagnostic agents may enable an accurate estimation of tumor dissemination, such as metastasis of prostate cancer and lymph node involvement of breast cancer, and an in vivo determination of the endocrine responsiveness of these tumors. They will provide essential information for the selection of alternative therapies thereby improving the management of prostate and breast cancer patients. 14 refs., 1 tab

  6. 48 CFR 2052.211-71 - Technical progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Technical progress report... Technical progress report. As prescribed at 2011.104-70(b), the contracting officer shall insert the... solicitation. Technical Progress Report (JAN 1993) The contractor shall provide a monthly Technical Progress...

  7. Technical progress and its strategic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, G.

    1999-01-01

    The history of energy during recent decades has shown that technical progress can have consequences for the organisation of markets, company strategies and the economy in general, confounding all forecasts and going beyond simple technical change. As a consequence for example, improvements in the techniques concerning the exploration and production of hydrocarbons have led to the petrol 'counter-crisis', the reduction in the power of OPEC and undreamed of gains in wealth for certain countries. The progress in gas turbines has led to the reversal of the age-old tendency towards increases in the size of electricity production units and encouraged the liberation of this sector. When looking at the future it is therefore judicious to try and understand the forces at work, and the major trends which result. This is the aim of the articles in this edition of the Revue de l'Energie, published on the occasion of the European colloquium on 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' organised by the Association of Energy Economists. (authors)

  8. International linear collider. A technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Ned [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Aderhold, Sebastian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Adolphsen, Chris [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R and D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  9. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Ding, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO 3 , NO 2 , PO 4 , SO 4 , and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model

  10. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L J; Felmy, A R; Ding, E R

    1993-01-01

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

  11. Works Technical Department progress report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1961-04-19

    This document details the activities of the Savannah River Works Technical Department during the month of March 1961. Topics discussed are: Reactor Technology, Separations Technology, Engineering Assistance, Health Physics, Laboratories Overview, and Technical Papers Issued.

  12. Technical progress by major task. Semiannual technical progress report, September 29, 1997 - March 29, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 29 September 1997 through 29 March 1998 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described in this report. The report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; RTG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair

  13. Solar lease grant program. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Progress on a lease program for the installation of a solar water heater with no installation charge is reported. Information on the announcement of the program, the selection of participants, the contractural agreement, progress on installation of equipment, monitoring, and evaluation is summarized. The status of the budget concerned with the program is announced. Forms used for applications for the program and an announcement from Resource Alternatives for Cilco customers are presented.

  14. Technical consideration of intact breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives to mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer have been discussed in the medical literature since 1937. The advent of megavoltage equipment has enabled radiation therapy to become an increasingly accepted alternative. The modified treatment technique developed at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy is discussed

  15. Nuclear theory research. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Progress is briefly described on the following studies: (1) Dirac phenomenology for deuteron elastic scattering, (2) Dirac wave functions in nuclear distorted wave calculations, (3) impulse approximation for p→p → dπ + reaction above the 3-3 resonance, (4) coherent π production, (5) nuclear potentials from Dirac bound state wavefunctions, (6) nonlocality effects in nuclear reactions, (7) unhappiness factors in DWBA description of (t,p) and (p,t) reactions, (8) absolute normalization of three-nucleon transfer reactions, (9) formulation of a finite-range CCBA computer program, (10) crossing symmetric solutions of the low equations, (11) pion scattering from quark bags, (12) study of the p 11 channel in the delta model, (13) isovector corrections in pion-nucleus scattering, (14) pionic excitation of nuclear giant resonances, and (15) isospin dependence of the second-order pion-nucleus optical potential

  16. Progress report [of] Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijendran, P.; Deshpande, R.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Activities of the Technical Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, over the last few years are reported. This division is engaged in developing various technologies supporting the development of nuclear technology. The various fields in which development is actively being carried out are : (i) vacuum technology, (ii) mass spectrometry, (iii) crystal technology, (iv) cryogenics, and (v) magnet technology. For surface studies, the field emission microscope and the Auger electron spectrometer and other types of spectrometers have been devised and perfected. Electromagnets of requisite strength to be used in MHD programme and NMR instruments are being fabricated. Various crystals such as NaI(Tl), Ge, Fluorides, etc. required as windows and prisms in X and gamma-ray spectroscopy, have been grown. In the cryogenics field, expansion engines required for air liquefaction plants, vacuum insulated dewars, helium gas thermometers etc. have been constructed. In addition to the above, the Division provides consultancy and training to personnel from various institutions and laboratories. Equipment and systems perfected are transferred to commercial organizations for regular production. (A.K.)

  17. Heparan Sulfate and Heparanase as Modulators of Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica M. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is defined as a cancer originating in tissues of the breast, frequently in ducts and lobules. During the last 30 years, studies to understand the biology and to treat breast tumor improved patients’ survival rates. These studies have focused on genetic components involved in tumor progression and on tumor microenvironment. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are involved in cell signaling, adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and growth factors storage. As a central molecule, HSPG regulates cell behavior and tumor progression. HS accompanied by its glycosaminoglycan counterparts regulates tissue homeostasis and cancer development. These molecules present opposite effects according to tumor type or cancer model. Studies in this area may contribute to unveil glycosaminoglycan activities on cell dynamics during breast cancer exploring these polysaccharides as antitumor agents. Heparanase is a potent tumor modulator due to its protumorigenic, proangiogenic, and prometastatic activities. Several lines of evidence indicate that heparanase is upregulated in all human sarcomas and carcinomas. Heparanase seems to be related to several aspects regulating the potential of breast cancer metastasis. Due to its multiple roles, heparanase is seen as a target in cancer treatment. We will describe recent findings on the function of HSPGs and heparanase in breast cancer behavior and progression.

  18. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno

    2006-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  19. CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-Hong [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ma, Qin [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Ye-Hui [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Shu-Fen [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Tong, Zhong-Sheng, E-mail: 83352162@qq.com [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression.

  20. CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Li-Hong; Ma, Qin; Shi, Ye-Hui; Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Li, Shu-Fen; Tong, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression

  1. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.

    2013-04-08

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  2. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.; Kashef-Haghighi, D.; Weng, Z.; Salari, R.; Sweeney, R. T.; Brunner, A. L.; Zhu, S. X.; Guo, X.; Varma, S.; Troxell, M. L.; West, R. B.; Batzoglou, S.; Sidow, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  3. The tumor macroenvironment and systemic regulation of breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Zafira; Tracy, Kristin; McAllister, Sandra S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide and is the most common cause of death for women between 35 and 50 years of age. Women with breast cancer are at risk of developing metastases for their entire lifetime and, despite local and systemic therapies, approximately 30% of breast cancer patients will relapse (Jemal et al., 2010). Nearly all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastatic disease, even though metastasis is considered to be an inefficient process. In some cases, tumor cells disseminate from primary sites at an early stage, but remain indolent for protracted periods of time before becoming overt, life-threatening tumors. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause these indolent tumors to grow into malignant disease. Because of this gap in our understanding, we are unable to predict which breast cancer patients are likely to experience disease relapse or develop metastases years after treatment of their primary tumor. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signals involved in the exit of tumor cells from dormancy would not only allow for more accurate selection of patients that would benefit from systemic therapy, but could also lead to the development of more targeted therapies to inhibit the signals that promote disease progression. In this review, we address the systemic, or "macroenvironmental", contribution to tumor initiation and progression and what is known about how a pro-tumorigenic systemic environment is established.

  4. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  5. Technical Progress of the New Worlds Observer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Amy; Noecker, C.; Cash, W.; NWO Study Team

    2009-01-01

    We report on the technical progress of the New Worlds Observer (NWO) mission concept. NWO is a two spacecraft mission that is capable of detecting and characterizing extra-solar, terrestrial planets and planetary systems. NWO consists of an external starshade and an UV-optical space telescope, flying in tandem. The starshade is a petal-shaped, opaque screen that creates an extremely dark shadow large enough to shade the telescope aperture from the target star. The NWO team has been addressing the top technology challenges of the concept, and report here our progress. We will present the current mission configuration best suited to address Terrestrial Planet Finding requirements, and highlight the technological breakthroughs that we have achieved this year. In particular, we will report on progress made in precision deployables for the large starshade, and the trajectory & alignment control system for NWO. We will also briefly highlight advances in understanding the starshade optical performance.

  6. Second harmonic generation reveals matrix alterations during breast tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kathleen; Tang, Ping; Brown, Edward

    2013-03-01

    Alteration of the extracellular matrix in tumor stroma influences efficiency of cell locomotion away from the primary tumor into surrounding tissues and vasculature, thereby affecting metastatic potential. We study matrix changes in breast cancer through the use of second harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen in order to improve the current understanding of breast tumor stromal development. Specifically, we utilize a quantitative analysis of the ratio of forward to backward propagating SHG signal (F/B ratio) to monitor collagen throughout ductal and lobular carcinoma development. After detection of a significant decrease in the F/B ratio of invasive but not in situ ductal carcinoma compared with healthy tissue, the collagen F/B ratio is investigated to determine the evolution of fibrillar collagen changes throughout tumor progression. Results are compared with the progression of lobular carcinoma, whose F/B signature also underwent significant evolution during progression, albeit in a different manner, which offers insight into varying methods of tissue penetration and collagen manipulation between the carcinomas. This research provides insights into trends of stromal reorganization throughout breast tumor development.

  7. Indications and technical aspects of brachytherapy in breast conserving treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erik Van, Limbergen

    2003-01-01

    Improved local control rates have been demonstrated in retrospective studies as well as in randomized trials on brachytherapy with increasing doses to the tumour bed. The higher local control obtained by interstitial breast implants, as compared to external photon or electron beam boosts, have been mainly attributed to the higher doses actually delivered to the tumour bed by these implants for the same nominal dose as compared to external beam radiotherapy (RT). On the other hand, poor cosmesis has also been correlated with radiation dose to the breast skin (radiation telangiectases), and breast tissue (retraction due to fibrosis), the latter depending not only on RT dose but also on the treated boost volume. For this reason, a possible benefit of interstitial implants will only be realized when the gain in local control goes together with minimal cosmetic damage. Therefore, the ballistic advantages of interstitial implants have to be maximally exploited: i.e. the treated volume should be maximally adapted to the target volume, and additional irradiation of the breast skin by the boost technique should be avoided. This paper deals in detail with the technical aspects of breast brachytherapy that seem to be relevant for high quality outcome. (author)

  8. Technical progress safeguards future. Technischer Fortschritt sichert die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    'Technical progress safeguards future', the guiding theme of the 1985 conference of German engineers, calls for discussion. In five lectures representatives of the subdivisions of 'VDI' issued their statements from the viewpoints of their special fields. These lectures were completed by reports on the part of the remaining VDI subdivisions, which are published together with the lectures in this volume. The complex guiding theme is meant to stimulate discussion, which should be conducted also with representatives of other sciences and the public. The volume contains a.o. contributions regarding future prospects, given certain modifications in construction engineering and user behaviour in the sector heating and air-conditioning, regarding the development of new construction techniques to protect the environment, and regarding clean air as an international concern of engineers. For these three contributions separate entries were made. Other presentations relate to: automobile production technology; energy supply as an engineering task; information, invention, innovation as stages of technical progress; progress in materials technology; noise of motor vehicles - current state and future prospects. (orig./HSCH).

  9. International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, Eckhard; /DESY; Harrison, Mike; /Brookhaven; Hesla, Leah; /Fermilab; Ross, Marc; /Fermilab; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; /Paris, IN2P3; Takahashi, Rika; /KEK, Tsukuba; Walker, Nicholas; /DESY; Warmbein, Barbara; /DESY; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Yokoya, Kaoru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zhang, Min; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2011-11-04

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  10. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter

  11. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  12. A Tissue Engineering Approach to Study the Progression of Breast Tumor Metastasis in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Che, Mingxin; Nie, Daotai

    2005-01-01

    Most patients dying of breast cancer suffer painful bone metastasis. It is our hypothesis that the invasive growth and progression of breast metastatic lesions in bone requires the participation of various constituents from "soil...

  13. A Tissue Engineering Approach to Study the Progression of Breast Tumor Metastasis in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Che, Mingxin; Nie, Daotai

    2006-01-01

    Most patients dying of breast cancer suffer painful bone metastasis. It is our hypothesis that the invasive growth and progression of breast metastatic lesions in bone requires the participation of various constituents from "soil...

  14. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2012-02-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  15. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2011-06-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  16. Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0080 TITLE: Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER GRANT11489...institutional, NIH-funded study of genetic and epigenetic alterations of pre-invasive DCIS that did or did not progress to invasive breast cancer , with an

  17. Nonequilibrium photochemical reactions induced by lasers. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfeld, J.I.

    1978-04-01

    Research has progressed in six principal subject areas of interest to DOE advanced (laser) isotope separation efforts. These are (1) Infrared double resonance spectroscopy of molecules excited by multiple infrared photon absorption, particularly SF 6 and vinyl chloride. (2) Infrared multiphoton excitation of metastable triplet-state molecules, e.g., biacetyl. (3) An Information Theory analysis of multiphoton excitation and collisional deactivation has been carried out. (4) The mechanism of infrared energy deposition and multiphoton-induced reactions in chlorinated ethylene derivatives; and RRKM (statistical) model accounts for all observed behavior of the system, and a deuterium-specific reaction pathway has been identified. (5) Diffusion-enhanced laser isotope separation in N 16 O/N 18 O. (6) A technical evaluation of laser-induced chemistry and isotope separation

  18. FY 1992 work plan and technical progress reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-11-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is a division of the University of Nevada System devoted to multidisciplinary scientific research. For more than 25 years, DRI has conducted research for the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV) in support of operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). During that time, the research program has grown from an early focus on hydrologic studies to include the areas of geology, archaeology, environmental compliance and monitoring, statistics, database management, public education, and community relations. The range of DRI`s activities has also expanded to include a considerable amount of management and administrative support in addition to scientific investigations. DRI`s work plan for FY 1992 reflects a changing emphasis in DOE/NV activities from nuclear weapons testing to environmental restoration and monitoring. Most of the environmental projects from FY 1991 are continuing, and several new projects have been added to the Environmental Compliance Program. The Office of Technology Development Program, created during FY 1991, also includes a number of environmental projects. This document contains the FY 1992 work plan and quarterly technical progress reports for each DRI project.

  19. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer progression: reciprocal tumor–microenvironment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Baruch, A

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of breast cancer development and progression suggests that the process is influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells, as well as by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, in breast carcinoma, an intensive interplay exists between the tumor cells on one hand, and inflammatory cells/cytokines/chemokines on the other. The purpose of the present review is to outline the reciprocal interactions that exist between these different elements, and to shed light on their potential involvement in breast cancer development and progression

  20. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  1. Technical quality assessment of breast ultrasound according to American College of Radiology (ACR) Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun; Chung, Sun Yang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the technical quality of breast ultrasound based on American College of Radiology(ACR) standards. Between March 2002 and July 2002, ninety three breast sonograms obtained from 73 institutions were evaluated based on ACR standards for the hardware, technical settings, labeling of the images and identification. Of 93 breast sonograms, a satisfactory compliance with all ACR standards in the performance of breast US examinations was documented in 31% while the remaining 69% did not fully meet all ACR standards. 4.3% of breast US examinations were performed with a convex transducers, and the focal zone was inappropriately positioned in 14.2%. Gray-scale gain was subjectively characterized as inappropriate in 26.9%, and the size of lesion was not measured in 7.5%. Anatomic location of lesions was inappropriately described in 9.3%. The orientation of an US transducer was not properly labeled on any images in 33.3%. Inadequate recording of patient's information was noted in 43.3%. 50% of sonograms at University medical centers and larger general hospitals fully met all ACR standards while 36.8% at radiologic clinics and 12.1% at other private clinics met all ACR standards. Overall, 69% of breast sonograms failed to meet the quality criteria of the ACR standards. Therefore, it is essential to educate the basic technical details in performing breast US for the quality control.

  2. Technical progress in planning organization of the Ostravo-Karwina coal basin, ''Mining Projects of Ostravo''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpeta, B; Kolar, J

    1979-01-01

    Based on the main task of further improvement in labor productivity and improvement in the quality of products, the leading planning organization of the Ostravo-Karwina basin is planning and realizing progressive technological plans based on new equipment. Long-term plans for basin development up to 1990 stipulate a rise in capital investments by 180%, increase in the volume of productivity by 164% with a rise in the number of workers by 142%. Corresponding technical progress in planning is based on an improvement in the system of scientific-technical information, automation and technical equipping of the planning process, improvements in the forms and organizational structure. Organization of specialized research-planning groups to substantiate and to technically-economically evaluate technical progress, and also to develop comprehensive technical assignments is stipulated.

  3. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Methods Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Po...

  4. Genomic analyses of breast cancer progression reveal distinct routes of metastasis emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound...... clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis....

  5. MicroRNA-384 inhibits the progression of breast cancer by targeting ACVR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxia; Zhang, Zheying; Wang, Jianqiang

    2018-04-20

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of all breast cancer cases and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes. Moreover, the treatment for breast cancer, especially for TNBC, remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in many types of cancers. In the present study, the expression of miR-384 was explored in GSE58606 and in fresh breast cancer tissues by qPCR. The results showed that miR-384 was decreased in breast cancer, especially in TNBC. The results of MTT, colony formation, soft agar, Transwell migration, wound healing and the tumorigenesis assay demonstranted that overexpression of miR-384 inhibited the proliferation and migration of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo; knockdown of miR-384 enhanced the proliferation and migration of breast cancer. In addition, luciferase assay showed that Activin A receptor type 1 (ACVR1) was a direct target of miR-384 and is involved in the inhibitory effects of miR-384 on breast cancer progression. Furthermore, this study indicated that ACVR1 activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer. In conclusion, our findings revealed functional and mechanistic links between miR-384 and ACVR1 in the progression of breast cancer. miR-384 not only plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer, but has promise as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer especially for TNBC.

  6. The challenge of the future. Technical progress and ecological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jischa, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The book introduces readers into the interrelated global problems population dynamics, energy supply, imminent climate catastrophe, environmetal pollution, finite resources and the conflict between the North and South. It encourages probing more deeply into the technical challenges of the future. The author demonstrates why economic and technical issues will soon be outstripped by questions of the environmental, human and social compatibility of new technologies. (orig./UA) [de

  7. New Approaches for Early Detection of Breast Tumor Invasion or Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Man, Yan-Gao

    2003-01-01

    To assess interactions between epithelial (EP) and myoepithelial (ME) cells in association with breast tumor progression and invasion, a double immunostaining technique with antibodies to smooth muscle actin (SMA...

  8. Association Between Breast Cancer Disease Progression and Workplace Productivity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wesley; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Perkins, Julia Jane; Sison, Steve; Smith, Greg; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Philipson, Tomas J

    2017-02-01

    Determine workplace productivity losses attributable to breast cancer progression. Longitudinal analysis linking 2005 to 2012 medical and pharmacy claims and workplace absence data in the US patients were commercially insured women aged 18 to 64 diagnosed with breast cancer. Productivity was measured as employment status and total quarterly workplace hours missed, and valued using average US wages. Six thousand four hundred and nine women were included. Breast cancer progression was associated with a lower probability of employment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, P work was $24,166 for non-metastatic and $30,666 for metastatic patients. Thus, progression to metastatic disease is associated with an additional $6500 in lost work time (P < 0.05), or 14% of average US wages. Breast cancer progression leads to diminished likelihood of employment, increased workplace hours missed, and increased cost burden.

  9. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles....... The primary end point was time to progression. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 78 patients to capecitabine and 78 patients to capecitabine plus trastuzumab. Sixty-five events and 38 deaths in the capecitabine group and 62 events and 33 deaths in the capecitabine-plus-trastuzumab group occurred during 15...

  10. Nuclear waste glass melter: an update of technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Hanson, M.S.

    1984-08-01

    The direct slurry-fed ceramic-lined melter is currently the reference US process for treating defense and civilian high-level liquid waste. Extensive nonradioactive pilot-scale testing at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory has proven the process, defined operating parameters, and identified successful equipment design concepts. Programs at PNL continue to support several of the planned US vitrification plants through preparation of equipment designs and flowsheet testing. Current emphasis is on remotization of equipment, radioactive verification testing, and resolution of remaining technical issues. Development of this technology, technical status, and planned development activities are discussed. 9 references, 4 figures

  11. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  12. Annual technical progress report: reactor safety, Government fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in LMFBR safety studies on accident debris behavior is reported under the following subtask titles: high-temperature-concentration aerosols, large-scale molten fuel tests, sodium release tests, and risk analysis

  13. The neurotensin receptor-1 pathway contributes to human ductal breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Sandra; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Alifano, Marco; Souazé, Frédérique; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Chaouat, Marc; Lavaur, Anne; Hugol, Danielle; Gespach, Christian; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The neurotensin (NTS) and its specific high affinity G protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor (NTSR1), are considered to be a good candidate for one of the factors implicated in neoplastic progression. In breast cancer cells, functionally expressed NT1 receptor coordinates a series of transforming functions including cellular migration and invasion. we investigated the expression of NTS and NTSR1 in normal human breast tissue and in invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDCs) by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. NTS is expressed and up-regulated by estrogen in normal epithelial breast cells. NTS is also found expressed in the ductal and invasive components of IDCs. The high expression of NTSR1 is associated with the SBR grade, the size of the tumor, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the NTSR1 high expression is an independent factor of prognosis associated with the death of patients. these data support the activation of neurotensinergic deleterious pathways in breast cancer progression.

  14. Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.

  15. NCOA5 is correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiao-He; Huang, Du-Ping; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor coactivator 5 (NCOA5) is known to modulate ERα-mediated transcription and has been found to be involved in the progression of several malignancies. However, the potential correlation between NCOA5 and clinical outcome in patients with luminal breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that NCOA5 was significantly up-regulated in luminal breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high NOCA5 expression had significantly lower overall survival (P = 0.021). Cox regression analysis indicated that the high NOCA5 expression was independent high risk factor as well as old age (>60) and HER-2 expression (P = 0.039; P = 0.003; P = 0.005; respectively). This study provides new insights and evidences that NOCA5 over-expression was significantly correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms for NOCA5 in luminal breast cancer need to be further explored. - Highlights: • NCOA5 is significantly over-expressed in human luminal breast cancer tissues. • NOCA5 was involved in the progression of luminal breast cancer. • NCOA5 can predict the progression of luminal breast cancer.

  16. Technical progress of nuclear energy: economic and environmental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document deals with three different aspects of the nuclear energy: first the operating and economic performances of nuclear power plants in the world, the French nuclear competitiveness. Then, the technical and economic perspectives about reactors and fuels cycle and the advantages towards atmospheric pollution are discussed to favour a new worldwide nuclear development. (TEC). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Technical, Psychological, and Economic Aspects of DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.C. Damen (Tim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western world the incidence of breast cancer (BC) is high. In the Netherlands the lifetime risk for women to develop BC is around 13%, making it the most common form of cancer among women with approximately 12.000 women being diagnosed annually. Also, increasing numbers of women

  18. Evaporation by mechanical vapor recompression. Technical progress report, September 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, C.H.; Coury, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Progress to date in the development of a study of the application of the technologies of mechanical vapor recompression and falling film evaporators as applied to the beet sugar industry is reported. Progress is reported in the following areas: technical literature search and plant visitations of existing applications of VR/FFE.

  19. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  20. Analysis of breast cancer progression using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    technology being aggressively pursued by researchers, ... public microarray breast cancer dataset which has expression levels of genes in normal samples as well as in three ..... suggests that treatment decisions may benefit by taking account ...

  1. Hypofractionated Adjuvant Whole Breast Radiotherapy: Progress and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnold, John; Haviland, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Published results of randomised trials involving >7000 women confirm the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated schedules of adjuvant radiotherapy for women with early breast cancer using fraction sizes between 2 and 3 Gy assuming appropriate downward adjustments to total dose. Unnecessary concerns relating to heart tolerance, suboptimal dose distribution and duration of follow up need not discourage the routine adoption of 15- or 16-fraction schedules in women treated by breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Regardless of fractionation regimen, dose escalation to the index quadrant in high risk subgroups will result in a greater relative increase in late adverse effects than tumour control, a therapeutic disadvantage that can only be overcome by exploiting a marked dose-volume effect. A 15-fraction schedule of whole breast radiotherapy is unlikely to represent the lower limits of hypofractionation, and the preliminary results of a 5-fraction regimen are encouraging

  2. Conjoint utility analysis of technical maturity and project progress of construction project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking construction project as the research object, the relationship between the project maturity index calculated by the construction project technical risks with different fine degree and the project progress index is studied, and the equilibrium relationship between the Party A’s utility curve and the Party B’s cost curve of using project maturity index and project progress index as the research variables is analyzed. The results show that, when the construction project technical risk division is more precise, the conjoint utility of the project's technical maturity index and the project progress is higher, and the project’s Party A and Party B two sides are closer to the optimal equilibrium. This shows that the construction project technical risk must be finely divided, and managed and controlled respectively, which will help to improve the conjoint utility of the project Party A and Party B two sides.

  3. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [ 18F ]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([ 18F ]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [ 18F ]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [ 18F ]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging

  4. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases

  5. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Technical progress report, 1 April-30 June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments during the quarter ending June 1981, on the commercial nuclear waste management programs under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI). The ONWI program is organized into 8 tasks entitled: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management. Principal investigators in each of these areas have submitted summaries of quarterly highlights for inclusion in this report. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 5 of these tasks for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  7. Technical Progress and Development Directions of Oceanic Spatial Information Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAO Jingyang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly analyzes the basic development and technical situation of oceanic spatial information datum, reviews the main processes of oceanic vertical datum and correlative oceanic tidal study, such as improvement and perfect methods of determining tidal station vertical datum, realizing form of vertical datum controlled by tidal station, effect on maintaining vertical datum by long-term tidal station, oceanic tidal model establishing, and also construction and transformation of tidal datum, and then forecasts the key development directions of oceanic spatial information datum on high-accuracy marine position service, vertical datum and the transferring model refinement and spatial datum application.

  8. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1996--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This report from the Amarillo National REsource Center for PLutonium provides research highlights and provides information regarding the public dissemination of information. The center is a a scientific resource for information regarding the issues of the storage, disposition, potential utilization and transport of plutonium, high explosives, and other hazardous materials generated from nuclear weapons dismantlement. The center responds to informational needs and interpretation of technical and scientific data raised by interested parties and advisory groups. Also, research efforts are carried out on remedial action programs and biological/agricultural studies.

  9. Crystalline Repository Project. Technical progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the progress being made periodically on the development of a geologic repository in crystalline rock for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Crystalline Respository Development (OCRD), a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other prime contractors and by subcontractors to OCRD

  10. C-Mod Collaboration Informal Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth W. Gentle

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the collaboration have not changed. A specific list of tasks was agreed upon during the Fall of 2006 in preparation for the 2007 C-Mod campaign by Earl Marmar, Head of the Alcator Project, Kenneth Gentle, Principal Investigator, and William Rowan, Collaboration Coordinator with the facilitation of Adam Rosenberg (DOE grant monitor for the collaboration). The activities follow the list of tasks and are discussed in this progress report

  11. Progress report of Technical Physics Division: April 1980 - March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Ramesh; Vijendran, P.

    1983-01-01

    Activities, with an individual summary of each, of the Technical Physics Division (TPD) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay are reported for the period April 1980 - March 1982. The major thrust of the TPD's work has been in: (i) design and fabrication of instruments, devices and equipment and (ii) development of techniques in the frontline research and technology areas like vacuum science, surface analysis, cryogenics and crystal growing. The Division also provided custombuilt electronics equipment, vacuum systems and glass components and devices to the various Divisions of BARC and other units of the DAE. Training and manpower development activities and technology transfer activities are also reported. Lists of seminars, colloquia, publications during the period of the report are given. (M.G.B.)

  12. Progress report for 1978-79, Technical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.; Deshpande, R.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Technical Physics Division (TPD) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar years 1978 and 1979 are reported. The TPD's major areas of work are electronics instrumentation, crystal technology, mass spectrometers, cryogenic equipment and vacuum equipment. Some of the major achievements are: (1) fabrication of various electronic instruments and components for the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, (2) growth of large size NaI(Tl) and Ge crystals, (3) growth of CsI, KDP and arsenic selenide crystals, (4) fabrication of quadrupole mass filters and (5) fabrication of mass spectrometers for gas analysis and D/H analysis in water samples. (M.G.B.)

  13. Electronic refrigerant leak detector. Quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamas, E. Jr.

    1998-10-15

    The project comprises three main tasks. They are (1) Develop, design, and fabricate sensors, (2) Develop, design, and fabricate test instruments, (3) Testing and data analysis. The milestone includes 17 sub-tasks for the 52-weeks project period, starting on May 1, 1998 and ending on April 30, 1999. As stated in the Application for Federal Assistance, Micronic intended to relocate to a new office by June of 1998. This decision was delayed, since the first partial payment was transferred on August 12, 1998. Micronic plans to relocate this November. A second Provisional Application for a US patent has been filed. Progress made during this period is reported.

  14. Fundamental studies of separation processes. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.B.

    1975-06-01

    Studies using high-precision gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography have produced new types of information on liquid crystals and on behavior of substances in the region of the critical temperature, respectively. In addition, the first successful studies of the effects of pressure on cation exchange have been made using aqueous solutions of alkali metal nitrates. In contrast, progress on separations of isotopic species using gas chromatography has been disappointing. In that area, the chief accomplishment has been a determination of the levels of accuracy and precision with which isotopic abundances can be measured using our quadrupole mass spectrometer. (U.S.)

  15. The role of technical progress in the process of recalculating oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulard, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to the concept of resources (which is essentially a geological one), the notion of reserves designates the quantities that are technically and economically recoverable. Beyond the production-related effect, the reserves therefore evolve over time in accordance with numerous technical and economic parameters. Among these parameters, it can be seen that technical progress plays a considerable role throughout the process of converting resources into reserves, including progress in the identification, accessibility and processing of the resources, and improvements in economic viability. After having tackled the problem of measuring the 'technical progress effects' and citing examples, we demonstrate that the evolution in oil reserves is subject to three types of impact. These are a quantitative impact by significantly improving the recovery rates or making it possible to identify hitherto undetectable oil fields, a qualitative impact by widening the resource base thanks to the adoption of new categories of oil (in particular the so-called 'unconventional' oils) and by carrying out the gradual substitution between these resources of differing qualities. There is also a dynamic impact, through the acceleration of resource availability. Through these three approaches, technical progress makes makes it possible to ensure continuity in oil supply and contributes significantly to the recalculation of reserves. It therefore acts as a compensating factor, counterbalancing the progressive depletion of resources. (author)

  16. Cycling Towards Progress: Ribociclib, CDK 4/6 inhibitor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Laura; Bardia, Aditya

    2018-04-23

    Ribociclib is an orally active, highly selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6. It is the second CDK 4/6 inhibitor approved for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The addition of ribociclib to an aromatase inhibitor has resulted in marked improvements in progression-free survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Technical progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 12-month period, October 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981 on the University of Wisconsin Plasma Physics contract is described. Most of the work centers around two major experimental devices, the Levitated Octupole and Tokapole II. A major upgrade of the Octupole is underway to include 2 MW of ICRH and 1.8 MW of neutral beam heating. Meanwhile, gun optimization and low field operation has resulted in the attainment of 35% beta, a factor of 9 above the single fluid ballooning limit. The ICRH experiment is well underway, and the first neutral beam source has been installed. The Tokapole is operating reliably at the full design field of 10 kG with 12 msec discharges. Low q (approx. 0.4) discharges with flat current profiles are obtained at reduced (approx. 3kG) toroidal field. The device is presently being used to study shear Alfven wave heating, ECRH startup, poloidal ohmic heating, and plasma transport

  18. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR: High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Monday 24 June from 14:30 to 15:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593-11 High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues Prof. Jan Evetts / UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, UK Grappling with grain boundaries: Current transport processes in granular High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) The development of High Temperature Superconductors, seen from a materials scientist's point of view, is relevant to the superconductivity community at CERN: their possible high current applications can include high performance magnets for future accelerators. There is an urgent need to develop a quantitative description of HTS conductors in terms of their complex anisotropy, inhomogeneity and dimensionality. This is essential both for the practical specification of a conductor and for charting routes to conductor optimisation. The critical current, the n-value, dissipation and quenching characteristics are amongst most important parameters that make up an engineering specifi...

  19. Technical progress review of extraction of uranium from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi; Gao Junning; Wu Qingming; Chen Gang; Wan Hongjin; Zhang Ziyue

    2014-01-01

    The increasing of fly ash in coal-fired power plants at home and abroad year by year and the potential impacts to the environment attracted media attention. Although the extraction of uranium from the fly ash in coal-fired power plants had optional process from technique aspect and sufficient preliminary researches, but considering the low grade of the uranium in fly ash and particularity of the mineral composition, it is easy to have a high cost of extraction. As a consequence, it is not included in the development plan of uranium mining and metallurgy. The present applications of fly ash are only building materials, building roads and pit valley backfill, the resource utilization rate was low and was still in its early stages of development and application. In view of this, the research advances and the latest development trends of extraction of uranium from fly ash at home and abroad were introduced from the technical aspect, and the beneficial analyzes of the prospect and advices to this industry were given. (authors)

  20. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  1. Selective expression of long non-coding RNAs in a breast cancer cell progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kirsten M; Tye, Coralee E; Page, Natalie A; Fritz, Andrew J; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2018-02-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are acknowledged as regulators of cancer biology and pathology. Our goal was to perform a stringent profiling of breast cancer cell lines that represent disease progression. We used the MCF-10 series, which includes the normal-like MCF-10A, HRAS-transformed MCF-10AT1 (pre-malignant), and MCF-10CA1a (malignant) cells, to perform transcriptome wide sequencing. From these data, we have identified 346 lncRNAs with dysregulated expression across the progression series. By comparing lncRNAs from these datasets to those from an additional set of cell lines that represent different disease stages and subtypes, MCF-7 (early stage, luminal), and MDA-MB-231 (late stage, basal), 61 lncRNAs that are associated with breast cancer progression were identified. Querying breast cancer patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we selected a lncRNA, IGF-like family member 2 antisense RNA 1 (IGFL2-AS1), of potential clinical relevance for functional characterization. Among the 61 lncRNAs, IGFL2-AS1 was the most significantly decreased. Our results indicate that this lncRNA plays a role in downregulating its nearest neighbor, IGFL1, and affects migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the lncRNAs we identified provide a valuable resource to mechanistically and clinically understand the contribution of lncRNAs in breast cancer progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Current progress and technical challenges of flexible liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto

    2009-02-01

    We focused on several technical approaches to flexible liquid crystal (LC) display in this report. We have been developing flexible displays using plastic film substrates based on polymer-dispersed LC technology with molecular alignment control. In our representative devices, molecular-aligned polymer walls keep plastic-substrate gap constant without LC alignment disorder, and aligned polymer networks create monostable switching of fast-response ferroelectric LC (FLC) for grayscale capability. In the fabrication process, a high-viscosity FLC/monomer solution was printed, sandwiched and pressed between plastic substrates. Then the polymer walls and networks were sequentially formed based on photo-polymerization-induced phase separation in the nematic phase by two exposure processes of patterned and uniform ultraviolet light. The two flexible backlight films of direct illumination and light-guide methods using small three-primary-color light-emitting diodes were fabricated to obtain high-visibility display images. The fabricated flexible FLC panels were driven by external transistor arrays, internal organic thin film transistor (TFT) arrays, and poly-Si TFT arrays. We achieved full-color moving-image displays using the flexible FLC panel and the flexible backlight film based on field-sequential-color driving technique. Otherwise, for backlight-free flexible LC displays, flexible reflective devices of twisted guest-host nematic LC and cholesteric LC were discussed with molecular-aligned polymer walls. Singlesubstrate device structure and fabrication method using self-standing polymer-stabilized nematic LC film and polymer ceiling layer were also proposed for obtaining LC devices with excellent flexibility.

  3. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  4. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tian-Li; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Li, Yue; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan; Ge, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  5. Lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 promotes triple negative breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Xiaoyan; Zhou, Julie Xia; Calvet, James P; Godwin, Andrew K; Jensen, Roy A; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-02-27

    We identified SMYD2, a SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a novel breast cancer oncogene. SMYD2 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer cell lines and in breast tumor tissues. Silencing of SMYD2 by RNAi in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines or inhibition of SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. SMYD2 executes this activity via methylation and activation of its novel non-histone substrates, including STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased TNBC cell proliferation and survival. There are cross-talk and synergistic effects among SMYD2, STAT3, and NF-κB in TNBC cells, in that STAT3 can contribute to the modification of NF-κB p65 subunit post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, whereas the p65 subunit of NF-κB can also contribute to the modification of STAT3 post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, leading to methylation and activation of STAT3 and p65 in these cells. The expression of SMYD2 can be upregulated by IL-6-STAT3 and TNFα-NF-κB signaling, which integrates epigenetic regulation to inflammation in TNBC development. In addition, we have identified a novel SMYD2 transcriptional target gene, PTPN13, which links SMYD2 to other known breast cancer associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling via PTPN13 mediated phosphorylation.

  6. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively

  7. Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer necessita......Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer...... progression from one breast cancer patient, including two different regions of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), primary tumor and an asynchronous metastasis. We identify a remarkable landscape of somatic mutations, retained throughout breast cancer progression and with new mutational events emerging at each...

  8. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  9. ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-07-22

    This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

  10. Technical progress in INPRO activities on modelling and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalibre, P.; Haas, E.; Khartabil, H.; Kim, S.; Korinny, A.; Usanov, V. and others

    2010-01-01

    Among the 31 Members of the 'International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles' (INPRO) in April 2010, more than 20 are cooperating in the implementation of Collaborative Projects (CPs) related to the four substantive Programme Areas of the INPRO Action Plan. The purpose of the CPs is to contribute to the achievement of goals established in the programmatic areas. This paper presents progress status of several CPs dealing with Modelling and Innovation: - CP on Environmental Impact Benchmarking applicable to Nuclear Energy Systems under Normal Operation (ENV): A benchmark of codes and methods for determining radiation released during normal operation of nuclear facilities is performed by using established source term, release scenario, and target group (humans). - CP on Proliferation Resistance: Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis (PRADA): 'PRADA' addresses the identification and analyses of high level pathways for the acquisition of weapons usable material, and makes recommendations for evaluating the multiplicity and robustness of barriers against proliferation. PRADA develops a case study based on DUPIC fuel cycle. The outcome from the project will support the assessment methodologies developed at GIF and INPRO. - CP on Global Architecture of Nuclear Energy Systems based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS): GAINS objective is to develop a methodological platform for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account the sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. High and moderate scenarios of nuclear energy demand and supply during the Century (5000 and 2500 GWe respectively in the year 2100) are being analysed using homogeneous and heterogeneous considerations. A non-geographic approach grouping the countries according to their planned use of nuclear energy has being established. - CP on Investigations of the 233 U/Th Fuel Cycle (ThFC): ThFC objective is to explore FC

  11. PBX1 Genomic Pioneer Function Drives ERα Signaling Underlying Progression in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ERα-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ERα in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ERα recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ERα-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ERα-positive breast tumors, as it guides ERα genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of membrane technology. Fourth technical progress report, June 17-September 16, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandre, A.

    1980-10-01

    Progress is reported on the investigation of the potential application of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis to the system of solids concentration in beet sugar process streams. During this period, emphasis was put on running reverse osmosis tests with a new prototype machine to select the most suitable membranes for the concentrating of sugar solutions. An economic analysis of using reverse osmosis in a factory producing 10/sup 6/ gal/day of thin juice is discussed. (DMC)

  13. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  14. The E-cadherin/catenin complex: an important gatekeeper in breast cancer tumorigenesis and malignant progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berx, Geert; Roy, Frans Van

    2001-01-01

    E-cadherin is a cell–cell adhesion protein fulfilling a prominent role in epithelial differentiation. Data from model systems suggest that E-cadherin is a potent invasion/tumor suppressor of breast cancer. Consistent with this role in breast cancer progression, partial or complete loss of E-cadherin expression has been found to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is located on human chromosome 16q22.1, a region frequently affected with loss of heterozygosity in sporadic breast cancer. Invasive lobular breast carcinomas, which are typically completely E-cadherin-negative, often show inactivating mutations in combination with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type CDH1 allele. Mutations were found at early noninvasive stages, thus associating E-cadherin mutations with loss of cell growth control and defining CDH1 as the tumor suppressor for the lobular breast cancer subtype. Ductal breast cancers in general show heterogeneous loss of E-cadherin expression, associated with epigenetic transcriptional downregulation. It is proposed that the microenvironment at the invasive front is transiently downregulating E-cadherin transcription. This can be associated with induction of nonepithelial cadherins

  15. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 appears to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence......Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...... hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, based on the fact that TGF-ß1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-ß1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12...

  16. Institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV: Countries progress in implementing technical guidelines and good governance requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, R.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Arts, B.; Brockhaus, M.; Herold, M.

    2016-01-01

    The UNFCCC requires REDD+ countries wishing to receive results-based payments to measure, report and verify (MRV) REDD+ impacts; and outlines technical guidelines and good governance requirements for MRV. This article examines institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV by assessing countries’ progress

  17. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics: Technical progress report [February 1987-February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Kovacs, E.

    1988-02-01

    This is a technical progress report for grant No. FG02-84ER40173 for the period February 1987 to February 1988. Our research on supersymmetric quantum mechanics has yielded many interesting results. In particular, a systematic approach to the tunneling problem in double well potentials has been developed. Higgs boson related physics at the high energy hadron colliders has been extensively studied

  18. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.

  19. Cassini RTG Program. Monthly technical progress report, 27 November--31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This monthly technical progress report provided information on the following tasks: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety analysis; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, and reliability, and contractor acquired government owned (CAGO) property acquisition

  20. Analysis of the progression of fibroepithelial tumours of the breast by PCR-based clonality assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Buerger, H.; Simon, R.; Schaefer, K-L.; Croonen, A.; Boecker, W.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2002-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour of the breast are both fibroepithelial tumours. Although progression to epithelial malignancy has been described, the behaviour of most fibroadenomas is benign. Phyllodes tumours, on the other hand, can display locally destructive growth and can even metastasize. A

  1. A Role for TIMP-1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardelli, James

    2004-01-01

    ... as compared to patients that survive. This suggests that this protein may have multiple functions that include both inhibition of cancer promoting proteinases and stimulation of cell-signaling pathways that promote cancer progression...

  2. Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1999-01-01

    The colloquium organised by the Association of Energy Economists dealing with the theme 'Technical progress faced with the challenges of the energy sector in the future' takes place against a backdrop of ever-increasing initiatives in this field, for example at the World Energy Council or the International Energy Agency Faith in technical progress is widespread but should be supported by studies without any preconceived ideas. Research and development efforts must be fully supported, and in a climate of opening markets and liberalization the public authorities have a major role to pay. Historically, the markets have always been able to meet new needs thanks to technology, but the ambitious targets that the international community has set itself regarding the emission of greenhouse gases imply technical improvements and major investments. (authors)

  3. Stockholm international conference 2003 on geological repositories: Political and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The conference reviewed global progress made as well as current perspectives on the activities to develop geologic repositories. The objectives were to review the progress in policy making as well as technical issues and to strengthen international co-operation on waste management and disposal issues. The first day of the conference addressed the policy aspects of geological repositories and the second day featured the more technical issues. Session 1: International progress in performing long-term safety studies and security of geological disposal were discussed and reviewed with examples from OECD/NEA, Belgium, Sweden, USA, Switzerland and Russia. Session 2: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by international organisations and national implementers from Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium and OECD/NEA. Session 3: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by regional and local stakeholders from France, Finland, Korea and Sweden. Session 4: International instruments assisting in the implementation of geological repositories were discussed, for example ICRP and IAEA/NEA safety documents, Joint Convention, Safeguard agreements, Nuclear Liability Conventions, etc. Session 5: The contribution of Research, Development and Demonstration was discussed with overviews of the progress achieved on scientific and technical issues over the past four years. Progress and key issues were presented from Switzerland, USA, Finland, Japan, Sweden and IAEA. Each of the papers and poster presentations have been analysed and indexed separately

  4. Technical meeting on progress in managing, and limiting the consequences of events exceeding the design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Technical Groups on 'Reactor Safety' and 'Thermodynamics and Fluid Dynamics' of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. organized a joint technical meeting on 'Progress in Managing, and Limiting the Consequences of, Events Exceeding the Design Basis' at the FTU Training Center of the Karlsruhe Research Center. The topic chosen, the papers presented, the presenters, and the non-technical part of the program met with lively interest on the part of institutions in the nuclear field. These were the objectives of the technical meeting: - Establishing a forum for communicating relevant topics. - In-depth discussion of the main topic, i.e. the advanced development of reactor safety, research in the field, and its application, in twenty selected papers presented by speakers from different institutions. - Presentation of topical work in a nuclear technology institution, the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.) [de

  5. The neurotensin receptor-1 pathway contributes to human ductal breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Dupouy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurotensin (NTS and its specific high affinity G protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor (NTSR1, are considered to be a good candidate for one of the factors implicated in neoplastic progression. In breast cancer cells, functionally expressed NT1 receptor coordinates a series of transforming functions including cellular migration and invasion. METHODS AND RESULTS: we investigated the expression of NTS and NTSR1 in normal human breast tissue and in invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDCs by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. NTS is expressed and up-regulated by estrogen in normal epithelial breast cells. NTS is also found expressed in the ductal and invasive components of IDCs. The high expression of NTSR1 is associated with the SBR grade, the size of the tumor, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the NTSR1 high expression is an independent factor of prognosis associated with the death of patients. CONCLUSION: these data support the activation of neurotensinergic deleterious pathways in breast cancer progression.

  6. Molecular Features of Subtype-Specific Progression from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lesurf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer consists of at least five main molecular “intrinsic” subtypes that are reflected in both pre-invasive and invasive disease. Although previous studies have suggested that many of the molecular features of invasive breast cancer are established early, it is unclear what mechanisms drive progression and whether the mechanisms of progression are dependent or independent of subtype. We have generated mRNA, miRNA, and DNA copy-number profiles from a total of 59 in situ lesions and 85 invasive tumors in order to comprehensively identify those genes, signaling pathways, processes, and cell types that are involved in breast cancer progression. Our work provides evidence that there are molecular features associated with disease progression that are unique to the intrinsic subtypes. We additionally establish subtype-specific signatures that are able to identify a small proportion of pre-invasive tumors with expression profiles that resemble invasive carcinoma, indicating a higher likelihood of future disease progression.

  7. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Raju, Usha [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Worsham, Maria J., E-mail: mworsha1@hfhs.org [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer.

  8. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K.; Raju, Usha; Worsham, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer

  9. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-03-10

    Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Pokemon expression and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. DNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cells that overexpress Pokemon was used to identify Pokemon target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to determine how Pokemon regulates survivin expression, a target gene. Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in 158 (86.8%) of 182 breast cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0148) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0014). Pokemon expression led to worse overall (n = 175, P = 0.01) and disease-related (n = 79, P = 0.0134) patient survival. DNA microarray analyses revealed that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Pokemon regulates the expression of at least 121 genes involved in several signaling and metabolic pathways, including anti-apoptotic survivin. In clinical specimens, Pokemon and survivin expression were highly correlated (n = 49, r = 0.6799, P Pokemon induces survivin expression by binding to the GT boxes in its promoter. Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of this malignancy.

  10. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  11. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  12. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of malignant disease of the breast arouses more controversy and emotion than that of any other form of malignant disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out and others are still in progress. In addition, research work continues in regard to other aspects of the disease, such as epidemiology, population screening, and endocrine factors; yet little is really known about the true biological nature of carcinoma of the breast. A vast amount of literature has accumulated on the treatment of ''operable'' carcinoma of the breast, but it is not proposed to discuss here the merits or demerits of the various suggested treatments. Instead this chapter will be confined to the practical management of carcinoma of the breast as seen from the point of view of radiotherapist. For this reason greater attention will be paid to the radiotherapy techniques as practised at the Christie Hospital

  13. Multimodal Analgesia in Breast Surgical Procedures: Technical and Pharmacological Considerations for Liposomal Bupivacaine Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushka M. Afonso, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multidisciplinary perioperative clinical pathway that uses evidence-based interventions to improve the patient experience as well as increase satisfaction, reduce costs, mitigate the surgical stress response, accelerate functional recovery, and decrease perioperative complications. One of the most important elements of enhanced recovery pathways is multimodal pain management. Herein, aspects relating to multimodal analgesia following breast surgical procedures are discussed with the understanding that treatment decisions should be individualized and guided by sound clinical judgment. A review of liposomal bupivacaine, a prolonged-release formulation of bupivacaine, in the management of postoperative pain following breast surgical procedures is presented, and technical guidance regarding optimal administration of liposomal bupivacaine is provided.

  14. Clinical Significance of HER-2 Splice Variants in Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2 occurs in 20–30% of breast cancers and confers survival and proliferative advantages on the tumour cells making HER-2 an ideal therapeutic target for drugs like Herceptin. Continued delineation of tumour biology has identified splice variants of HER-2, with contrasting roles in tumour cell biology. For example, the splice variant 16HER-2 (results from exon 16 skipping increases transformation of cancer cells and is associated with treatment resistance; conversely, Herstatin (results from intron 8 retention and p100 (results from intron 15 retention inhibit tumour cell proliferation. This review focuses on the potential clinical implications of the expression and coexistence of HER-2 splice variants in cancer cells in relation to breast cancer progression and drug resistance. “Individualised” strategies currently guide breast cancer management; in accordance, HER-2 splice variants may prove valuable as future prognostic and predictive factors, as well as potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Hsihui Chang; Ram Natarajan

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995--1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that...

  16. Joint modelling of longitudinal CEA tumour marker progression and survival data on breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana; Sousa, Inês; Castro, Luis

    2017-06-01

    This work proposes the use of Biostatistics methods to study breast cancer in patients of Braga's Hospital Senology Unit, located in Portugal. The primary motivation is to contribute to the understanding of the progression of breast cancer, within the Portuguese population, using a more complex statistical model assumptions than the traditional analysis that take into account a possible existence of a serial correlation structure within a same subject observations. We aim to infer which risk factors aect the survival of Braga's Hospital patients, diagnosed with breast tumour. Whilst analysing risk factors that aect a tumour markers used on the surveillance of disease progression the Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). As survival and longitudinal processes may be associated, it is important to model these two processes together. Hence, a joint modelling of these two processes to infer on the association of these was conducted. A data set of 540 patients, along with 50 variables, was collected from medical records of the Hospital. A joint model approach was used to analyse these data. Two dierent joint models were applied to the same data set, with dierent parameterizations which give dierent interpretations to model parameters. These were used by convenience as the ones implemented in R software. Results from the two models were compared. Results from joint models, showed that the longitudinal CEA values were signicantly associated with the survival probability of these patients. A comparison between parameter estimates obtained in this analysis and previous independent survival[4] and longitudinal analysis[5][6], lead us to conclude that independent analysis brings up bias parameter estimates. Hence, an assumption of association between the two processes in a joint model of breast cancer data is necessary. Results indicate that the longitudinal progression of CEA is signicantly associated with the probability of survival of these patients. Hence, an assumption of

  17. Development of a new technic for breast attenuation correction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Anderson de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m Tc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X 2 for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods employed

  18. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Reports on a quarterly basis. This report comprises the first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for Year 2 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the sixteen (16) technical projects encompassed by the Year 2 Agreement for the period of January 1 through March 31, 1994. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents; Microbial enrichment for enhancing in-situ biodegradation of hazardous organic wastes; Treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using biofilters; Drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; Chemical destruction of chlorinated organic compounds; Remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming; Soil decontamination with a packed flotation column; Use of granular activated carbon columns for the simultaneous removal of organics, heavy metals, and radionuclides; Monolayer and multilayer self-assembled polyion films for gas-phase chemical sensors; Compact mercuric iodide detector technology development; Evaluation of IR and mass spectrometric techniques for on-site monitoring of volatile organic compounds; A systematic database of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; Dust control methods for insitu nuclear and hazardous waste handling; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; and Socio-economic assessment of alternative environmental restoration technologies.

  19. Tristetraprolin: A novel target of diallyl disulfide that inhibits the progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ting; Liu, Xiao-Wang; Huang, Xue-Long; Xu, Xiong-Feng; Xie, Wei-Quan; Zhang, Su-Jun; Tu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a volatile component of garlic oil, has various biological properties, including antioxidant, antiangiogenic and anticancer effects. The present study aimed to explore novel targets of DADS that may slow or stop the progression of breast cancer. First, xenograft tumor models were created by subcutaneously injecting MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into nude mice. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression of tristetraprolin (TTP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the xenograft tumors, and cell cultures. Tablet cloning, Transwell and wound healing assays revealed that DADS treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. In addition, DADS treatment led to significant downregulation of uPA and MMP-9 protein expression, but significantly upregulated TTP expression in vivo and in vitro . Knocking down TTP expression using small interfering RNA reversed the aforementioned effects of DADS, which suggests TTP is a key target of DADS in inhibiting the progression of breast cancer.

  20. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  1. Withaferin A and sulforaphane regulate breast cancer cell cycle progression through epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Kendra J; Paul, Bidisha; Nozell, Susan; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of combinatorial dietary compounds on the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms involved in breast cancer prevention. The human diet consists of a multitude of components, and there is a need to elucidate how certain compounds interact in collaboration. Withaferin A (WA), found in the Indian winter cherry and documented as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, and sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor found in cruciferous vegetables, are two epigenetic modifying compounds that have only recently been studied in conjunction. The use of DNMT and HDAC inhibitors to reverse the malignant expression of certain genes in breast cancer has shown considerable promise. Previously, we found that SFN + WA synergistically promote breast cancer cell death. Herein, we determined that these compounds inhibit cell cycle progression from S to G2 phase in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this unique combination of epigenetic modifying compounds down-regulates the levels of Cyclin D1 and CDK4, and pRB; conversely, the levels of E2F mRNA and tumor suppressor p21 are increased independently of p53. We find these events coincide with an increase in unrestricted histone methylation. We propose SFN + WA-induced breast cancer cell death is attributed, in part, to epigenetic modifications that result in the modulated expression of key genes responsible for the regulation of cancer cell senescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EPCR promotes breast cancer progression by altering SPOCK1/testican 1-mediated 3D growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Perurena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated protein C/endothelial protein C receptor (APC/EPCR axis is physiologically involved in anticoagulant and cytoprotective activities in endothelial cells. Emerging evidence indicates that EPCR also plays a role in breast stemness and human tumorigenesis. Yet, its contribution to breast cancer progression and metastasis has not been elucidated. Methods Transcriptomic status of EPCR was examined in a cohort of 286 breast cancer patients. Cell growth kinetics was evaluated in control and EPCR and SPARC/osteonectin, Cwcv, and kazal-like domains proteoglycan (SPOCK1/testican 1 silenced breast cancer cells in 2D, 3D, and in co-culture conditions. Orthotopic tumor growth and lung and osseous metastases were evaluated in several human and murine xenograft breast cancer models. Tumor-stroma interactions were further studied in vivo by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. An EPCR-induced gene signature was identified by microarray analysis. Results Analysis of a cohort of breast cancer patients revealed an association of high EPCR levels with adverse clinical outcome. Interestingly, EPCR knockdown did not affect cell growth kinetics in 2D but significantly reduced cell growth in 3D cultures. Using several human and murine xenograft breast cancer models, we showed that EPCR silencing reduced primary tumor growth and secondary outgrowths at metastatic sites, including the skeleton and the lungs. Interestingly, these effects were independent of APC ligand stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptomic analysis of EPCR-silenced tumors unveiled an effect mediated by matricellular secreted proteoglycan SPOCK1/testican 1. Interestingly, SPOCK1 silencing suppressed in vitro 3D growth. Moreover, SPOCK1 ablation severely decreased orthotopic tumor growth and reduced bone metastatic osteolytic tumors. High SPOCK1 levels were also associated with poor clinical outcome in a subset breast cancer patients. Our results suggest that EPCR

  3. α2-adrenergic blockade mimics the enhancing effect of chronic stress on breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Sung, Ha Yeon; Yang, Gyu Sik; David, John M.; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in preclinical mouse models of breast cancer have shown that chronic restraint stress can enhance disease progression by increasing catecholamine levels and subsequent signaling of β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines also signal α-adrenergic receptors, and greater α-adrenergic signaling has been shown to promote breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, antagonism of α-adrenergic receptors can result in elevated catecholamine levels, which may increase β-adrenergic signaling, because pre-synaptic α2-adrenergic receptors mediate an autoinhibition of sympathetic transmission. Given these findings, we examined the effect of α-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer progression under non-stress and stress conditions (chronic restraint) in an orthotopic mouse model with MDA-MB-231HM cells. Chronic restraint increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to distant tissues as expected, and non-selective α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine significantly inhibited those effects. However, under non-stress conditions, phentolamine increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis. Sympatho-neural gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes was elevated by phentolamine under non-stress conditions, and the non-selective β-blocker propranolol inhibited the effect of phentolamine on breast cancer progression. Selective α2-adrenergic blockade by efaroxan also increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis under non-stress conditions, but selective α1-adrenergic blockade by prazosin did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic signaling can act through an autoreceptor mechanism to inhibit sympathetic catecholamine release and, thus, modulate established effects of β-adrenergic signaling on tumor progression-relevant biology. PMID:25462899

  4. Experimental Facilities Division/User Program Division technical progress report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In October 1999, the two divisions of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the Accelerator Systems Division (ASD) and the Experimental Facilities Division (XFD), were reorganized into four divisions (see high-level APS organizational chart, Fig. 1.1). In addition to ASD and XFD, two new divisions were created, the APS Operations Division (AOD), to oversee APS operations, and the User Program Division (UPD), to serve the APS user community by developing and maintaining the highest quality user technical and administration support. Previous XFD Progress Reports (ANL/APS/TB-30 and ANL/APS/TB-34) covered a much broader base, including APS user administrative support and what was previously XFD operations (front ends, interlocks, etc.) This Progress Report summarizes the main scientific and technical activities of XFD, and the technical support, research and development (R and D) activities of UPD from October 1998 through November 2000. The report is divided into four major sections, (1) Introduction, (2) SRI-CAT Beamlines, Technical Developments, and Scientific Applications, (3) User Technical Support, and (4) Major Plans for the Future. Sections 2 and 3 describe the technical activities and research accomplishments of the XFD and UPD personnel in supporting the synchrotron radiation instrumentation (SRI) collaborative access team (CAT) and the general APS user community. Also included in this report is a comprehensive list of publications (Appendix 1) and presentations (Appendix 2) by XFD and UPD staff during the time period covered by this report. The organization of section 2, SRI CAT Beamlines, Technical Developments, and Scientific Applications has been made along scientific techniques/disciplines and not ''geographical'' boundaries of the sectors in which the work was performed. Therefore items under the subsection X-ray Imaging and Microfocusing could have been (and were) performed on several different beamlines by staff in different divisions. The management of

  5. Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: progress from 2002 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Adriano; Burmaz, Tea; Arendt, Maryse; Nilsson, Ingrid; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Kondrate, Irena; Communal, Marie José; Massart, Catherine; Chapin, Elise; Fallon, Maureen

    2010-06-01

    To assess progress in the protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe. Data for 2002 and 2007 were gathered with the same questionnaire. Of thirty countries, twenty-nine returned data for 2002, twenty-four for 2007. The number of countries with national policies complying with WHO recommendations increased. In 2007, six countries lacked a national policy, three a national plan, four a national breast-feeding coordinator and committee. Little improvement was reported in pre-service training; however, the number of countries with good coverage in the provision of WHO/UNICEF courses for in-service training increased substantially, as reflected in a parallel increase in the number of Baby Friendly Hospitals and the proportion of births taking place in them. Little improvement was reported as far as implementation of the International Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is concerned. Except for Ireland and the UK, where some improvement occurred, no changes were reported on maternity protection. Due to lack of standard methods, it was difficult to compare rates of breast-feeding among countries. With this in mind, slight improvements in the rates of initiation, exclusivity and duration were reported by countries where data at two points in time were available. Breast-feeding rates continue to fall short of global recommendations. National policies are improving slowly but are hampered by the lack of action on maternity protection and the International Code. Pre-service training and standard monitoring of breast-feeding rates are the areas where more efforts are needed to accelerate progress.

  6. A male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer: treating acromegaly to control tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leporati, Paola; Fonte, Rodolfo; Martinis, Luca de; Zambelli, Alberto; Magri, Flavia; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with acromegaly (IGF-1 770 ng/ml) and breast cancer. Four years before he suffered from a colon-rectal cancer. Pituitary surgery and octreotide-LAR treatment failed to control acromegaly. Normalization of IGF-1 (97 ng/ml) was obtained with pegvisomant therapy. Four years after breast cancer surgery, 2 pulmonary metastases were detected at chest CT. The patient was started on anastrozole, but, contrary to medical advice, he stopped pegvisomant treatment (IGF-I 453 ng/ml). Four months later, chest CT revealed an increase in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung. The patient was shifted from anastrozole to tamoxifen and was restarted on pegvisomant, with normalization of serum IGF-1 levels (90 ng/ml). Four months later, a reduction in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung was detected by CT. Subsequent CT scans throughout a 24-month follow-up showed a further reduction in size and then a stabilization of the metastasis. This is the first report of a male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer. The clinical course of breast cancer was closely related to the metabolic control of acromegaly. The rapid progression of metastatic lesion was temporally related to stopping pegvisomant treatment and paralleled a rise in serum IGF-1 levels. Normalization of IGF-1 after re-starting pegvisomant impressively reduced the progression of metastatic breast lesions. Control of acromegaly is mandatory in acromegalic patients with cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1400-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Overexpression of prostate tumor overexpressed 1 correlates with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Fangyong; Zhang, Longjuan; Li, Xinghua; Lin, Xi; Wu, Shu; Li, Fengyan; Liu, Junling

    2014-01-01

    Prostate tumor overexpressed 1 (PTOV1) was demonstrated to play an important role in cancer progression and was correlated with unfavorable clinical outcome. However, the clinical role of PTOV1 in cancer remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of PTOV1 in breast cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PTOV1 were analyzed in 12 breast cancer cell lines and eight paired breast cancer tumors by semi-quantitative real time-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess PTOV1 protein expression in 169 paraffin-embedded, archived breast cancer samples. Survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to investigate the clinicopathological significance of PTOV1 expression. Our data revealed that PTOV1 was frequently overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines compared to normal human breast epithelial cells and in primary breast cancer samples compared to adjacent noncancerous breast tissues, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, high expression of PTOV1 in breast cancer is strongly associated with clinicopathological characteristics and estrogen receptor expression status (P = 0.003). Breast cancer patients with higher PTOV1 expression had substantially shorter survival times than patients with lower PTOV1 expression (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that PTOV1 might be an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients (P = 0.005). Our study showed that PTOV1 is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples, and its expression was positively associated with progression and aggressiveness of breast cancer, suggesting that PTOV1 could serve as an independent prognostic marker

  8. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Louise; Whyte, Lorna; Chatterjee, Namita; Tenniswood, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s) of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU) that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells

  9. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Namita

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. Methods To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. Results In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. Conclusions These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells.

  10. Expression of Notch1 Correlates with Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yuan

    Full Text Available Various studies have evaluated the significance of Notch1 expression in breast cancer, but the results have ever been disputed. By using 21 studies involving 3867 patients, this meta-analysis revealed that the expression of Notch1 was significantly higher in breast cancer than in normal tissues (OR=7.21; 95%CI, 4.7-11.07 and that higher Notch1 expression was associated with transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive cancer (OR=3.75; 95% CI, 1.8-7.78. Higher Notch1 activity was observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.18-5.43. Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall and recurrence-free survival. Our meta-analysis suggests that Notch inhibitors may be useful in blocking the early progression of DCIS and that the outcomes of clinical trials for Notch1-targeting therapeutics could be improved by the molecular stratification of breast cancer patients.

  11. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L Groner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  12. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Bernd L; Hynes, Nancy E

    2016-09-01

    Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  13. Breast Carcinoma Progression and Tumour Vascular Markers Related to Apoptotic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Bilecova-Rabajdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the last few years, the cancer research had tried to identify and characterize new biochemical and molecular pathways in which the inhibition induces prosurvival mechanisms. Our work describes the expression of two different members of apoptotic regulatory pathway and their relationship with a progression of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods. We compared expression of genes related to apoptosis (DR6 and Gpm6B in the blood of patients suffering from stage I of breast cancer in different grades (I–IV, with healthy controls. After isolation of mRNA, transcription of mRNA into the cDNA was performed. The quantification of gene expression changes in DR6 and Gpm6B was detected by RT-PCR method. Analysis at the protein level was performed by the Western blot.Results. In statistical analysis of Dr6 mRNA level changes we detected significant increase starting in Grading 1 (G1 and reached maximal level in G3.This expression on mRNA levels was similar to protein levels, which copy rising tendency with maximal value in G3. The results of Gpm6B were significantly lower.Conclusion. This result showed that antiapoptotic signalling during neovascularization is increased significantly. It would be advisable in the future to study the influence of cytostatic treatment on the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways and their relationship with progression of breast cancer tumours.

  14. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. Technical progress report, 4 March 1993--3 June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesketh, R.P.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will burn within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization will be performed to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 March, 1993 through 3 June, 1993 is reported in this technical progress report. The work during this time period consists primarily of the startup and trouble shooting of the fluidized bed reactor and gas phase modeling of methane and propane.

  15. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

  16. Technical progress and efficiency changes in football teams participating in the UEFA Champions League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Isabel García Cebrián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper commits to calculate and analyze productivy levels and its components for teams that participated in the UEFA Champions League between 2003 and 2012. It will pursue three objectives: 1 evaluate resources usage, 2 analyze the productivity levels of the football teams and the sports results, and 3 see the influence of participation experience in reference to productivity and sports results. Using Malmquist Productivity Index, the results reflect a lack of consistent progression of efficiency, productivity, and technical change. This competition does not reward the efficient usage of resources and there is not a conclusive relationshop between permanence in the competition and productivity.

  17. Western Research Institute: Annual technical progress report, October 1987--September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made by the Western Research Institute of the University of Wyoming Research Institute of the University of Wyoming Research Corporation on work performed for the period October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988. This research involves five resource areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. Under the terms of the cooperative agreement, an annual project plan has been approved by DOE. The work reported herein reflects the implementation of the research in the plan and follows the structure used therein. 49 refs., 32 figs., 87 tabs.

  18. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This reports reports the progress/efforts performed on six technical projects: 1. systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; 2. site remediation technologies (SRT):drain- enhanced soil flushing for organic contaminants removal; 3. SRT: in situ bio-remediation of organic contaminants; 4. excavation systems for hazardous waste sites: dust control methods for in-situ nuclear waste handling; 5. chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; and 6. development of organic sensors: monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors.

  19. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: (1) statistical spectroscopy, including giant resonances for beta and electromagnetic excitation and sum rules (including inverse-energy-weighted sum rules), statistical methods of truncating shell model spaces and renormalization of operators, study of state labelling and ''chains'' of groups, evaluation of fluctuation measures, technical aspects of operator averaging; (2) meson interactions with nuclei, including scattering and absorption of mesons by nuclei (general methods), models for absorption, single- and double-charge exchange of pions, role of rho mesons

  20. MFAP5 promotes tumor progression and bone metastasis by regulating ERK/MMP signaling pathways in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ting; Fang, Meng; Huang, Wending; Sun, Zhengwang; Xiao, Jianru; Yan, Wangjun

    2018-04-06

    Breast cancer accounts for about 30% of all cancers in women, while approximately 70% breast cancer patients developed bone metastases throughout the course of their disease, highlighting the importance of exploring new therapeutic targets. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is a component of extracellular elastic microfibril which has been confirmed to function in tissue development and cancer progression. But the role of MFAP5 in breast cancer remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that MFAP5 was up-regulated in breast cancers compared with that in normal breast tissues, and further increased in breast cancer bone metastasis. Functionally, MFAP5 overexpression accelerated breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, while an opposite effect was observed when MFAP5 was knocked down. In addition, up-regulation of MFAP5 increased the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and activated the ERK signaling pathway. Conversely, inhibition of MFAP5 suppressed the expression of MMP2, MMP9, p-FAK, p-Erk1/2 and p-cJun. These findings may provide a better understanding about the mechanism of breast cancer and suggest that MFAP5 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially for bone metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of silver and gold as novel tools against breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Carmela; Barone, Ines; Iacopetta, Domenico; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Rosano, Camillo; Campana, Antonella; Catalano, Stefania; Longo, Pasquale; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-12-01

    Metal carbenic complexes have received considerable attention in both the catalysis and biological fields for their potential applications in cancer and antimicrobial therapies. A small series of new silver and gold N-heterocyclic carbene complexes has been designed and synthesized. Among the tested complexes, one compound was particularly active in inhibiting anchorage-dependent and -independent breast cancer proliferation, and inducing cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-related process. The antitumor activity was associated to the transcriptional activation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in an Sp1-dependent manner, as evidenced by biological and docking studies. Our results highlight the importance and the versatility of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of gold and silver as useful tools against breast cancer progression.

  2. The role of microRNA-200 in progression of human colorectal and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bojmar

    Full Text Available The role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer has been studied extensively in vitro, but involvement of the EMT in tumorigenesis in vivo is largely unknown. We investigated the potential of microRNAs as clinical markers and analyzed participation of the EMT-associated microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin pathway in cancer progression. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen and microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary colorectal tumors, normal colon mucosa, and matched liver metastases. MicroRNA expression was validated by in situ hybridization and after in vitro culture of the malignant cells. To assess EMT as a predictive marker, factors considered relevant in colorectal cancer were investigated in 98 primary breast tumors from a treatment-randomized study. Associations between the studied EMT-markers were found in primary breast tumors and in colorectal liver metastases. MicroRNA-200 expression in epithelial cells was lower in malignant mucosa than in normal mucosa, and was also decreased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Low microRNA-200 expression in colorectal liver metastases was associated with bad prognosis. In breast cancer, low levels of microRNA-200 were related to reduced survival and high expression of microRNA-200 was predictive of benefit from radiotheraphy. MicroRNA-200 was associated with ER positive status, and inversely correlated to HER2 and overactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, that was associated with high ZEB1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that the stability of microRNAs makes them suitable as clinical markers and that the EMT-related microRNA-200-ZEB-E-cadherin signaling pathway is connected to established clinical characteristics and can give useful prognostic and treatment-predictive information in progressive breast and colorectal cancers.

  3. PTHrP drives breast tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis in mice and is a potential therapy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiarong; Karaplis, Andrew C.; Huang, Dao C.; Siegel, Peter M.; Camirand, Anne; Yang, Xian Fang; Muller, William J.; Kremer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) is a secreted factor expressed in almost all normal fetal and adult tissues. It is involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, including serum calcium regulation. PTHrP is also associated with the progression of skeletal metastases, and its dysregulated expression in advanced cancers causes malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Although PTHrP is frequently expressed by breast tumors and other solid cancers, its effects on tumor progression are unclear. Here, we demonstrate in mice pleiotropic involvement of PTHrP in key steps of breast cancer — it influences the initiation and progression of primary tumors and metastases. Pthrp ablation in the mammary epithelium of the PyMT-MMTV breast cancer mouse model caused a delay in primary tumor initiation, inhibited tumor progression, and reduced metastasis to distal sites. Mechanistically, it reduced expression of molecular markers of cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis (factor VIII), antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, cell-cycle progression regulator cyclin D1, and survival factor AKT1. PTHrP also influenced expression of the adhesion factor CXCR4, and coexpression of PTHrP and CXCR4 was crucial for metastatic spread. Importantly, PTHrP-specific neutralizing antibodies slowed the progression and metastasis of human breast cancer xenografts. Our data identify what we believe to be new functions for PTHrP in several key steps of breast cancer and suggest that PTHrP may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22056386

  4. Transcriptomic changes in human breast cancer progression as determined by serial analysis of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, Martin C; Aldaz, C Marcelo; Drake, Jeffrey A; Hawkins, Kathleen A; Hu, Yuhui; Sun, Hongxia; Notcovich, Cintia; Gaddis, Sally; Sahin, Aysegul; Baggerly, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomic alterations affecting key cellular processes such us cell proliferation, differentiation and genomic stability are considered crucial for the development and progression of cancer. Most invasive breast carcinomas are known to derive from precursor in situ lesions. It is proposed that major global expression abnormalities occur in the transition from normal to premalignant stages and further progression to invasive stages. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was employed to generate a comprehensive global gene expression profile of the major changes occurring during breast cancer malignant evolution. In the present study we combined various normal and tumor SAGE libraries available in the public domain with sets of breast cancer SAGE libraries recently generated and sequenced in our laboratory. A recently developed modified t test was used to detect the genes differentially expressed. We accumulated a total of approximately 1.7 million breast tissue-specific SAGE tags and monitored the behavior of more than 25,157 genes during early breast carcinogenesis. We detected 52 transcripts commonly deregulated across the board when comparing normal tissue with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 149 transcripts when comparing ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma (P < 0.01). A major novelty of our study was the use of a statistical method that correctly accounts for the intra-SAGE and inter-SAGE library sources of variation. The most useful result of applying this modified t statistics beta binomial test is the identification of genes and gene families commonly deregulated across samples within each specific stage in the transition from normal to preinvasive and invasive stages of breast cancer development. Most of the gene expression abnormalities detected at the in situ stage were related to specific genes in charge of regulating the proper homeostasis between cell death and cell proliferation. The comparison of in situ lesions

  5. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  6. Oxidative stress: development and progression of breast cancer:review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Salmaninejad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Enormous advancement has been made over the last decades in understanding the biology of breast cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms regulating progression, gaining of invasive and metastatic phenotypes, and therapeutic resistance are still not completely understood. Oxidative stress initiate by disbalance in redox status of body. In this case, increase of free radicals in body cause tissue damage. One of the significant species of free radicals is reactive oxygen species (ROS that produced by various metabolic pathways, comprising aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They play a serious role in cellular physiology and pathophysiology likewise beginning and evolution of numerous types of cancers. ROS overproduction is deleterious to cells, and considered key-factors for the development of numerous diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Cancer cells are commonly submitted to upper ROS levels that further incite malignant phenotype through motivation to preserved proliferation, angiogenesis, death evasion, invasiveness, and metastasis. ROS impress various signaling pathways, comprising mitogenic pathways and growth factors, and also controls numerous cellular processes, containing cell proliferation, thus stimulates the undisciplined growth of cells which inspires the development of tumors and initiates the progression of carcinogenesis. The importance of ROS on breast cancer development and etiology is being increasingly clarified. Nevertheless, fewer consideration has been given to the progress of redox system-targeted strategies for breast cancer treatment. Augmented oxidative stress caused by reactive species can diminish the body’s antioxidant defense against angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer cells. These processes are core factors in the development of cancer. Bimolecular reactions cause

  7. Microenvironmental Heterogeneity Parallels Breast Cancer Progression: A Histology-Genomic Integration Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Natrajan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intra-tumor diversity of cancer cells is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment that is key to cancer progression and evolution. We aimed to assess the degree of microenvironmental heterogeneity in breast cancer and correlate this with genomic and clinical parameters.We developed a quantitative measure of microenvironmental heterogeneity along three spatial dimensions (3-D in solid tumors, termed the tumor ecosystem diversity index (EDI, using fully automated histology image analysis coupled with statistical measures commonly used in ecology. This measure was compared with disease-specific survival, key mutations, genome-wide copy number, and expression profiling data in a retrospective study of 510 breast cancer patients as a test set and 516 breast cancer patients as an independent validation set. In high-grade (grade 3 breast cancers, we uncovered a striking link between high microenvironmental heterogeneity measured by EDI and a poor prognosis that cannot be explained by tumor size, genomics, or any other data types. However, this association was not observed in low-grade (grade 1 and 2 breast cancers. The prognostic value of EDI was superior to known prognostic factors and was enhanced with the addition of TP53 mutation status (multivariate analysis test set, p = 9 × 10-4, hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84; validation set, p = 0.0011, hazard ratio = 1.78, 95% CI 1.26-2.52. Integration with genome-wide profiling data identified losses of specific genes on 4p14 and 5q13 that were enriched in grade 3 tumors with high microenvironmental diversity that also substratified patients into poor prognostic groups. Limitations of this study include the number of cell types included in the model, that EDI has prognostic value only in grade 3 tumors, and that our spatial heterogeneity measure was dependent on spatial scale and tumor size.To our knowledge, this is the first

  8. Projects at the component development and integration facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; and Spray Casting Project

  9. Surgical resident technical skill self-evaluation: increased precision with training progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jacob A; Kudav, Vishal; Doty, Jennifer; Crane, Megan; Bukoski, Alex D; Bennett, Bethany J; Barnes, Stephen L

    2017-10-01

    Surgical resident ability to accurately evaluate one's own skill level is an important part of educational growth. We aimed to determine if differences exist between self and observer technical skill evaluation of surgical residents performing a single procedure. We prospectively enrolled 14 categorical general surgery residents (six post-graduate year [PGY] 1-2, three PGY 3, and five PGY 4-5). Over a 6-month period, following each laparoscopic cholecystectomy, residents and seven faculty each completed the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Spearman's coefficient was calculated for three groups: senior (PGY 4-5), PGY3, and junior (PGY 1-2). Rho (ρ) values greater than 0.8 were considered well correlated. Of the 125 paired assessments (resident-faculty each evaluating the same case), 58 were completed for senior residents, 54 for PGY3 residents, and 13 for junior residents. Using the mean from all OSATS categories, trainee self-evaluations correlated well to faculty (senior ρ 0.97, PGY3 ρ 0.9, junior ρ 0.9). When specific OSATS categories were analyzed, junior residents exhibited poor correlation in categories of respect for tissue (ρ -0.5), instrument handling (ρ 0.71), operative flow (ρ 0.41), use of assistants (ρ 0.05), procedural knowledge (ρ 0.32), and overall comfort with the procedure (ρ 0.73). PGY3 residents lacked correlation in two OSATS categories, operative flow (ρ 0.7) and procedural knowledge (ρ 0.2). Senior resident self-evaluations exhibited strong correlations to observers in all areas. Surgical residents improve technical skill self-awareness with progressive training. Less-experienced trainees have a tendency to over-or-underestimate technical skill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    the skeletal muscle-specific muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and mice expressing a dominant negative form of the myostatin receptor, Activin...and rates of breast cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, skeletal muscle, myostatin , MPA, DMBA, Activin receptor 16...including interleukins, Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) isoforms, IGF-binding proteins and myostatin . To determine the effect of skeletal muscle mass

  11. Postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Young, Emily; Patterson, Sharla G; Makey, Kristina L; Wells, Jeremy; Huang, Min; Tucker, Kevan B; Miele, Lucio

    2011-05-15

    Obese postmenopausal women have a 50% higher risk of breast cancer than non-obese women. There is not an animal model that mimics postmenopausal obesity related to breast cancer progression. Using age-relevant C57BL/6 mice, this study determined whether postmenopausal obesity increases VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and breast tumor growth. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 12 sixty week-old female mice, then followed by a low-fat (5%, LF, n=6) or a high-fat (60%, HF, n=6) diet for 12 weeks. In the eighth week of the dietary program, 10(6) E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the left fourth mammary gland. Tumor size was monitored for 4 weeks. Body weights were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, visceral fat and tumors were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) using CD31 immunochemistry. Body weight was significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (55.3±1.7 vs. 41.5±1.5 g; p < 0.01). There was a two-fold increase in the ratio of visceral fat/BW in OVX/HF mice, compared to those in OVX/LF group (0.062±0.005 vs. 0.032±0.003; p < 0.01). Postmenopausal obesity significantly increased breast tumor weight over the control (4.62±0.63 vs. 1.98±0.27 g; p < 0.01) and IMD (173±3.7 vs. 139±4.3 IM#/mm^2; p < 0.01). Tumor VEGF levels were higher in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (73.3±3.8 vs. 49.5±4.3 pg/mg protein; p < 0.01). Plasma VEGF levels (69±7.1 vs. 48±3.5 pg/ml) and visceral fat VEGF levels (424.4±39.5 vs. 208.5±22.4 pg/mg protein) were significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group, respectively (n=6; p < 0.01). Interestingly, adipose tissue primary culture showed that subcutaneous fat released more VEGF, compared to visceral fat (6.77±1.14 vs. 0.94±0.16 pg/mg tissue; n=6; p < 0.01). These findings support the hypothesis that postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer

  12. A seven-gene CpG-island methylation panel predicts breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Melnikov, Anatoliy A.; Levenson, Victor; Guerra, Emanuela; Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio; Deng, Youping

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation regulates gene expression, through the inhibition/activation of gene transcription of methylated/unmethylated genes. Hence, DNA methylation profiling can capture pivotal features of gene expression in cancer tissues from patients at the time of diagnosis. In this work, we analyzed a breast cancer case series, to identify DNA methylation determinants of metastatic versus non-metastatic tumors. CpG-island methylation was evaluated on a 56-gene cancer-specific biomarker microarray in metastatic versus non-metastatic breast cancers in a multi-institutional case series of 123 breast cancer patients. Global statistical modeling and unsupervised hierarchical clustering were applied to identify a multi-gene binary classifier with high sensitivity and specificity. Network analysis was utilized to quantify the connectivity of the identified genes. Seven genes (BRCA1, DAPK1, MSH2, CDKN2A, PGR, PRKCDBP, RANKL) were found informative for prognosis of metastatic diffusion and were used to calculate classifier accuracy versus the entire data-set. Individual-gene performances showed sensitivities of 63–79 %, 53–84 % specificities, positive predictive values of 59–83 % and negative predictive values of 63–80 %. When modelled together, these seven genes reached a sensitivity of 93 %, 100 % specificity, a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 93 %, with high statistical power. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering independently confirmed these findings, in close agreement with the accuracy measurements. Network analyses indicated tight interrelationship between the identified genes, suggesting this to be a functionally-coordinated module, linked to breast cancer progression. Our findings identify CpG-island methylation profiles with deep impact on clinical outcome, paving the way for use as novel prognostic assays in clinical settings. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1412-9) contains supplementary

  13. The pioneer factor PBX1 is a novel driver of metastatic progression in ERα-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Patten, Darren K.; Nguyen, Van T.M.; Hong, Sung-Pil; Steel, Jennifer H.; Patel, Naina; Lombardo, Ylenia; Faronato, Monica; Gomes, Ana R.; Woodley, Laura; Page, Karen; Guttery, David; Primrose, Lindsay; Garcia, Daniel Fernandez; Shaw, Jacqui; Viola, Patrizia; Green, Andrew; Nolan, Christopher; Ellis, Ian O.; Rakha, Emad A.; Shousha, Sami; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Győrffy, Balázs; Lupien, Mathieu; Coombes, R. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Over 30% of ERα breast cancer patients develop relapses and progress to metastatic disease despite treatment with endocrine therapies. The pioneer factor PBX1 translates epigenetic cues and mediates estrogen induced ERα binding. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 plays a central role in regulating the ERα transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. PBX1 regulates a subset of EGF-ERα genes highly expressed in aggressive breast tumours. Retrospective stratification of luminal patients using PBX1 protein levels in primary cancer further demonstrates that elevated PBX1 protein levels correlate with earlier metastatic progression. In agreement, PBX1 protein levels are significantly upregulated during metastatic progression in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Finally we reveal that PBX1 upregulation in aggressive tumours is partly mediated by genomic amplification of the PBX1 locus. Correspondingly, ERα-positive breast cancer patients carrying PBX1 amplification are characterized by poor survival. Notably, we demonstrate that PBX1 amplification can be identified in tumor derived-circulating free DNA of ERα-positive metastatic patients. Metastatic patients with PBX1 amplification are also characterized by shorter relapse-free survival. Our data identifies PBX1 amplification as a functional hallmark of aggressive ERα-positive breast cancers. Mechanistically, PBX1 amplification impinges on several critical pathways associated with aggressive ERα-positive breast cancer. PMID:26215677

  14. Real-time motion analysis reveals cell directionality as an indicator of breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Weiger

    Full Text Available Cancer cells alter their migratory properties during tumor progression to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites. However, it remains unclear how migratory behaviors differ between tumor cells of different malignancy and whether these migratory behaviors can be utilized to assess the malignant potential of tumor cells. Here, we analyzed the migratory behaviors of cell lines representing different stages of breast cancer progression using conventional migration assays or time-lapse imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV to capture migration dynamics. We find that the number of migrating cells in transwell assays, and the distance and speed of migration in unconstrained 2D assays, show no correlation with malignant potential. However, the directionality of cell motion during 2D migration nicely distinguishes benign and tumorigenic cell lines, with tumorigenic cell lines harboring less directed, more random motion. Furthermore, the migratory behaviors of epithelial sheets observed under basal conditions and in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF or lysophosphatitic acid (LPA are distinct for each cell line with regard to cell speed, directionality, and spatiotemporal motion patterns. Surprisingly, treatment with LPA promotes a more cohesive, directional sheet movement in lung colony forming MCF10CA1a cells compared to basal conditions or EGF stimulation, implying that the LPA signaling pathway may alter the invasive potential of MCF10CA1a cells. Together, our findings identify cell directionality as a promising indicator for assessing the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines and show that LPA induces more cohesive motility in a subset of metastatic breast cancer cells.

  15. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: Meson interactions with nucleons and nuclei, including elastic and inelastic scattering of pions, three-body theories of scattering and absorption of pions by deuterons, π-p bremsstrahlung, and multiple-excitation models for meson absorption by heavier nuclei. Studies of the inverse scattering problem including 1 S 0 nucleon-nucleon scattering; the relativistic two-body problem, particularly for relativistic effects at low energies: the unitary-pole expansion in nucleon-nucleon scattering with hard-core interactions. Statistical spectroscopy including: strength distributions and sum rules(both energy weighted and inverse energy weighted) for nuclear excitations; fluctuations and correlations in spectra, strengths and expectation values; studies of Garvey-Kelson and similar mass relationships; spectroscopy in huge spaces including spectral methods for renormalization of the interaction and for using (two + three)-body Skyrme interactions; technical aspects of operator averaging

  16. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  17. The U.S. nuclear waste management program - technical progress at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, L.H. [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discusses the current status of a national program being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste produced by civilian nuclear power generation and defense-related activities. In 1987 the U.S. Congress directed the Department to characterize the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada and determine its suitability for development of a geologic repository. This paper will focus on the technical progress that has been made after more than 15 years of scientific and engineering investigations at Yucca Mountain, and the remaining work that is being done to support a decision on whether to recommend the site for development of a geologic repository. (author)

  18. The influence of HRT on technical recall in the UK Breast Screening Programme: are pain, compression force, and compressed breast thickness contributing factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmo, L.J.; Alston, L.A.C.; McFadyen, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate recall for technical reasons within the UK Breast Screening Programme, and to determine whether differences exist in those women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), considering potential associations with reported pain, compression force used and compressed breast thickness (CBT) obtained. Materials and method: A prospective cohort study of 2765 women attending for incident round breast screening appointments who were either HRT users, with a minimum of 1 year duration (n = 1077), or had never used HRT (n = 1688). Data were collected using technical recall records, a radiographer data-collection sheet, and a self-administered participant questionnaire. Results: Sixty-eight (2.5%) participants were recalled for technical reasons of whom 28 (2.6%) were HRT and 40 (2.4%) non-HRT users. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.80). Significant differences were found for CBT between those HRT users who were and were not recalled for technical reasons (p < 0.01) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.03). No significant differences were found for force between those HRT users who were recalled or not (p = 0.73) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.07). Similarly no significant differences were found for pain between those HRT users who were recalled or not (p = 0.75) and for the similar categories of non-HRT users (p = 0.73). Conclusion: CBT was the only variable to have both a statistically and a clinically significant relationship with technical recall

  19. Progresso tecnico, forme di mercato e disoccupazione. ( Technical progress, market forms and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ASIMAKOPULOS A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del presente lavoro è triplice . Il primo obiettivo è quello di sottolineare l'importanza delle intuizioni da trovare nel lavoro di Sylos Labini . Il secondo scopo è quello di espandere su di essa distinguendo tra i diversi tipi di progresso tecnico . Infine , il terzo obiettivo è quello di commentare il confronto di Labini di Ricardo e Keynes sulla possibilità di disoccupazione tecnologica . Per quanto riguarda la sua descrizione del progresso tecnologico come " risparmio di lavoro " , l'autore mostra che una descrizione più completa sarebbe più utile per i suoi scopiThe purpose of the present paper is threefold. The first purpose is to emphasise the importance of the insights to be found in Sylos Labini’s work. The second purpose is to expand upon it by distinguishing  between the different types of technical progress. Finally, the third purpose is to comment on Labini’s comparison of Ricardo and Keynes on the possibility of technological unemployment. Regarding his description of technological progress as “labour saving”, the author shows that a more comprehensive description would be more useful for his purposes.JEL: E24, J64, O33

  20. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jianhua; Zheng, Mingzheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO 2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO 2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO 2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO 2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO 2 emissions

  1. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  2. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.

    2013-01-01

    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  3. Generation and focusing of pulsed intense ion beams. Technical progress report, 20 August 1981-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Kusse, B.R.; Sudan, R.N.

    1983-07-01

    The progress on this contract is described in two parts. The first deals with the technical operation of the LION accelerator which is the exact equivalent to one line of PBFA-I. The second part is concerned with the experimental results on the ion diode mounted at the front end of the LION accelerator

  4. Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS. The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed.

  5. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  6. Expression of neurotensin and NT1 receptor in human breast cancer: a potential role in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souazé, Frédérique; Dupouy, Sandra; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Bruyneel, Erik; Attoub, Samir; Gespach, Christian; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2006-06-15

    Emerging evidence supports neurotensin as a trophic and antiapoptotic factor, mediating its control via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor (NT1 receptor) in several human solid tumors. In a series of 51 patients with invasive ductal breast cancers, 34% of all tumors were positive for neurotensin and 91% positive for NT1 receptor. We found a coexpression of neurotensin and NT1 receptor in a large proportion (30%) of ductal breast tumors, suggesting a contribution of the neurotensinergic signaling cascade within breast cancer progression. Functionally expressed NT1 receptor, in the highly malignant MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, coordinated a series of transforming functions, including cellular migration, invasion, induction of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 transcripts, and MMP-9 gelatinase activity. Disruption of NT1 receptor signaling by silencing RNA or use of a specific NT1 receptor antagonist, SR48692, caused the reversion of these transforming functions and tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells xenografted in nude mice. Our findings support the contribution of neurotensin in human breast cancer progression and point out the utility to develop therapeutic molecules targeting neurotensin or NT1 receptor signaling cascade. These strategies would increase the range of therapeutic approaches and be beneficial for specific patients.

  7. [Elastography as an additional tool in breast sonography. Technical principles and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjosk-Dendorfer, D; Reichelt, A; Clevert, D-A

    2014-03-01

    In recent years the use of elastography in addition to sonography has become a routine clinical tool for the characterization of breast masses. Whereas free hand compression elastography results in qualitative imaging of tissue stiffness due to induced compression, shear wave elastography displays quantitative information of tissue displacement. Recent studies have investigated the use of elastography in addition to sonography and improvement of specificity in differentiating benign from malignant breast masses could be shown. Therefore, additional use of elastography could help to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in benign breast lesions especially in category IV lesions of the ultrasound breast imaging reporting data system (US-BI-RADS).

  8. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, July 1 through September 30, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; Combustion Gas Turbine; and Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility.

  9. Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, H.

    1992-04-14

    The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.

  10. Progression-free survival as a potential surrogate for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauchemin C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Beauchemin,1 Dan Cooper,2 Marie-Ève Lapierre,1 Louise Yelle,3 Jean Lachaine11Université de Montréal, Faculté de pharmacie, Montreal, 2Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS, 3Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal – Hôpital Notre-Dame, Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaBackground: Progression-free survival (PFS and time to progression (TTP are frequently used to establish the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. However, the surrogacy of PFS/TTP for overall survival (OS remains a matter of uncertainty in metastatic breast cancer (mBC. This study assessed the relationship between PFS/TTP and OS in mBC using a trial-based approach.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PICO method: 'Population' consisted of women with mBC; 'Interventions' and 'Comparators' were standard treatments for mBC or best supportive care; 'Outcomes' of interest were median PFS/TTP and OS. We first performed a correlation analysis between median PFS/TTP and OS, and then conducted subgroup analyses to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Then, we assessed the relationship between the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS. The treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was quantified by the absolute difference of median values. We also conducted linear regression analysis to predict the effects of a new anti-cancer drug on OS on the basis of its effects on PFS/TTP.Results: A total of 5,041 studies were identified, and 144 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There was a statistically significant relationship between median PFS/TTP and OS across included trials (r=0.428; P<0.01. Correlation coefficient for the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was estimated at 0.427 (P<0.01. The obtained linear regression equation was ΔOS =−0.088 (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.347–1.172 + 1.753 (95% CI 1.307–2.198 × ΔPFS (R2=0.86.Conclusion: Results of

  11. Savannah River Plant, Works Technical Department monthly progress report for March 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1956-01-01

    This document details activities of the Works Technical Department during the month of March 1956. It covers reactor technology, separations technology, engineering assistance and heavy water technology

  12. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  13. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina; Fonseca, Isabel; Dias, Sérgio; Mendes de Almeida, JC

    2014-01-01

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients

  14. Plasma level of LDL-cholesterol at diagnosis is a predictor factor of breast tumor progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Catarina [Gulbenkian Programme for Advanced Medical Education, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, Isabel [Department of Pathology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Dias, Sérgio [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes de Almeida, JC [Department of Surgical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa, Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-02-26

    Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related death between 30 and 69 years. Although lifestyle and diet are considered to have a role in global BC incidence pattern, the specific influence of dyslipidemia in BC onset and progression is not yet completely understood. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides) was prospectively assessed in 244 women with BC who were enrolled according to pre-set inclusion criteria: diagnosis of non-hereditary invasive ductal carcinoma; selection for surgery as first treatment, and no history of treatment with lipid-lowering or anti-diabetic drugs in the previous year. Pathological and clinical follow-up data were recorded for further inclusion in the statistical analysis. Univariate associations show that BC patients with higher levels of LDL-C at diagnosis have tumors that are larger, with higher differentiation grade, higher proliferative rate (assessed by Ki67 immunostaining), are more frequently Her2-neu positive and are diagnosed in more advanced stages. Cox regression model for disease-free survival (DFS), adjusted to tumor T and N stages of TNM classification, and immunohistochemical subtypes, revealed that high LDL-C at diagnosis is associated with poor DFS. At 25 months of follow up, DFS is 12% higher in BC patients within the third LDL-C tertile compared to those in the first tertile. This is a prospective study where LDL-C levels, at diagnosis, emerge as a prognostic factor; and this parameter can be useful in the identification and follow-up of high-risk groups. Our results further support a possible role for systemic cholesterol in BC progression and show that cholesterol metabolism may be an important therapeutic target in BC patients.

  15. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Manuscript s • Submitted to the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Feb 21, 2012) “The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via upregulation...29] Ko KP, Park SK, Park B et al. Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING

  16. Development of a phantom to test fully automated breast density software – A work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waade, G.G.; Hofvind, S.; Thompson, J.D.; Highnam, R.; Hogg, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mammographic density (MD) is an independent risk factor for breast cancer and may have a future role for stratified screening. Automated software can estimate MD but the relationship between breast thickness reduction and MD is not fully understood. Our aim is to develop a deformable breast phantom to assess automated density software and the impact of breast thickness reduction on MD. Methods: Several different configurations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVAL) phantoms were created. Three methods were used to estimate their density. Raw image data of mammographic images were processed using Volpara to estimate volumetric breast density (VBD%); Hounsfield units (HU) were measured on CT images; and physical density (g/cm 3 ) was calculated using a formula involving mass and volume. Phantom volume versus contact area and phantom volume versus phantom thickness was compared to values of real breasts. Results: Volpara recognized all deformable phantoms as female breasts. However, reducing the phantom thickness caused a change in phantom density and the phantoms were not able to tolerate same level of compression and thickness reduction experienced by female breasts during mammography. Conclusion: Our results are promising as all phantoms resulted in valid data for automated breast density measurement. Further work should be conducted on PVAL and other materials to produce deformable phantoms that mimic female breast structure and density with the ability of being compressed to the same level as female breasts. Advances in knowledge: We are the first group to have produced deformable phantoms that are recognized as breasts by Volpara software. - Highlights: • Several phantoms of different configurations were created. • Three methods to assess phantom density were implemented. • All phantoms were identified as breasts by the Volpara software. • Reducing phantom thickness caused a change in phantom density.

  17. Decomposing productivity growth allowing efficiency gains and price-induced technical progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Silva, E.; Stefanou, S.

    2000-01-01

    Time- and firm-specific output technical efficiency measures are generated within a price-induced technological change framework. The firm-specific production frontier incorporates past prices as an argument encouraging innovation and a time trend to account for exogenous technical change. The

  18. Role of DNA Methylation in Altering Gene Expression During the Early Stages of Human Breast Cancer Progression in the MCF10AT Xenograft Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    ...) Collect microdissected tissue representative of each of the morphologically different stages of early breast cancer progression in the MCFlOAT model to obtain RNA and DNA for miroarray analysis...

  19. The Regulation of the Angiogenic Factor FGF Binding Protein (FGF-BP) by the APC/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stylianou, Dora

    2004-01-01

    ...) to study the expression of FGF-BP in mammary tumorigenesis progression of the APC/+ mouse and 2) to determine the mechanism of regulation of FGF-BP b the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer...

  20. The Regulation of the Angiogenic Factor FGF Binding Protein (FGF-BP) by the APC/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stylianou, Dora

    2003-01-01

    ...) to study the expression of FGF-BP in mammary tumorigenesis% progression of the APC/+ mouse and 2) to determine the mechanism of regulation of FGF-BP by the APC/beta- catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer...

  1. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the

  2. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-11-09

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is

  3. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A.; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is highly

  4. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  5. Coal to SNG: Technical progress, modeling and system optimization through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Ji, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Xiaosong; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical progresses of coal to SNG technologies are reported. • The entire coal to SNG system is modeled. • Coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated. • Breakthrough points for further energy saving are determined. • System performance is optimized based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. - Abstract: For both energy security and CO 2 emission reduction, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is an important path to implement clean coal technologies in China. In this paper, an overview of the progress of coal to SNG technologies, including the development of catalysts, reactor designs, synthesis processes, and systems integration, is provided. The coal to SNG system is modeled, the coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated, the breakthrough points for further energy savings are determined, and the system performance is optimized based on the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. From the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics, the energy conversion efficiency of coal to SNG system can reach 59.8%. To reduce the plant auxiliary power, the breakthrough points are the development of low-energy-consumption oxygen production technology and gas purification technology or seeking new oxidants for coal gasification instead of oxygen. From the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics, the major exergy destruction in a coal to SNG system occurs in the coal gasification unit, SNG synthesis unit and the raw syngas cooling process. How to reduce the exergy destruction in these units is the key to energy savings and system performance enhancement. The conversion ratio of the first SNG synthesis reactor and the split ratio of the recycle gas are key factors that determine the performance of both the SNG synthesis process and the whole plant. A “turning point” phenomenon is observed: when the split ratio is higher than 0.90, the exergy destruction of the SNG

  6. Technical evaluation of Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification and elastography in benign and malignant breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, QUAN; ZHANG, YUAN; CHEN, JIAN; ZHANG, YUN-XIAO; HE, ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) and elastosonography technologies in benign and malignant breast tumors. Routine preoperative ultrasound, elastosonography and VTQ examinations were performed on 86 patients with breast lesions. The elastosonography score and VTQ speed grouping of each lesion were measured and compared with the pathological findings. The difference in the elastosonography score between the benign and malignant breast tumors was statistically significant (Pbenign and malignant tumors was also statistically significant (P<0.05). In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of conventional ultrasound, elastosonography, VTQ technology and the combined methods showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The use of the three technologies in combination significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy to 91.86%. In conclusion, the combination of conventional ultrasound, elastosonography and VTQ technology can significantly improve accuracy in the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25187797

  7. Early impact of social isolation and breast tumor progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kelley S; Szpunar, Mercedes J; Brown, Edward B

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from cancer patients and animal models of cancer indicates that exposure to psychosocial stress can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the pathways underlying stress-induced cancer pathogenesis are not fully understood. Social isolation has been shown to promote tumor progression. We examined the impact of social isolation on breast cancer pathogenesis in adult female severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice using the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, a high β-adrenergic receptor (AR) expressing line. When group-adapted mice were transferred into single housing (social isolation) one week prior to MB-231 tumor cell injection into a mammary fat pad (orthotopic), no alterations in tumor growth or metastasis were detected compared to group-housed mice. When social isolation was delayed until tumors were palpable, tumor growth was transiently increased in singly-housed mice. To determine if sympathetic nervous system activation was associated with increased tumor growth, spleen and tumor norepinephrine (NE) was measured after social isolation, in conjunction with tumor-promoting macrophage populations. Three days after transfer to single housing, spleen weight was transiently increased in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice in conjunction with reduced splenic NE concentration and elevated CD11b+Gr-1+ macrophages. At day 10 after social isolation, no changes in spleen CD11b+ populations or NE were detected in singly-housed mice. In the tumors, social isolation increased CD11b+Gr-1+, CD11b+Gr-1-, and F4/80+ macrophage populations, with no change in tumor NE. The results indicate that a psychological stressor, social isolation, elicits dynamic but transient effects on macrophage populations that may facilitate tumor growth. The transiency of the changes in peripheral NE suggest that homeostatic mechanisms may mitigate the impact of social isolation over time. Studies are underway to define the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the

  8. Technical feasibility proof for high-resolution low-dose photon-counting CT of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Kolditz, Daniel; Lueck, Ferdinand [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steiding, Christian [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Ruth, Veikko; Roessler, Ann-Christin [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); Wenkel, Evelyn [University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed and evaluated multiple times as a potentially alternative method for breast imaging. All efforts shown so far have been criticized and partly disapproved because of their limited spatial resolution and higher patient dose when compared to mammography. Our concept for a dedicated breast CT (BCT) scanner therefore aimed at novel apparatus and detector design to provide high spatial resolution of about 100 μm and average glandular dose (AGD) levels of 5 mGy or below. Photon-counting technology was considered as a solution to reach these goals. The complete concept was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups. We here present measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters and surgical specimen results on such a scanner. For comparison purposes, the specimens were also imaged with digital mammography (DM) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) apparatus. Results show that photon-counting BCT (pcBCT) at 5 mGy AGD offers sufficiently high 3D spatial resolution for reliable detectability of calcifications and soft tissue delineation. (orig.)

  9. Data on the putative role of p53 in breast cancer cell adhesion: Technical information for adhesion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallirroi Voudouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, the potential role of p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53 on the attachment ability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated. In our main article, “IGF-I/ EGF and E2 signaling crosstalk through IGF-IR conduit point affect breast cancer cell adhesion” (K. Voudouri, D. Nikitovic, A. Berdiaki, D. Kletsas, N.K. Karamanos, G.N. Tzanakakis, 2016 [1], we describe the key role of IGF-IR in breast cancer cell adhesion onto fibronectin (FN. p53 tumor suppressor gene is a principal regulator of cancer cell proliferation. Various data have demonstrated an association between p53 and IGF-IR actions on cell growth through its’ putative regulation of IGF-IR expression. According to our performed experiments, p53 does not modify IGF-IR expression and does not affect basal MCF-7 cells adhesion onto FN. Moreover, technical details about the performance of adhesion assay onto the FN substrate were provided.

  10. The Gαh-PLCδ1 signaling axis drives metastatic progression in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Pen; Liu, Pei-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lin, Yuan-Feng

    2017-06-02

    Distant metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to other organs, e.g., the lungs, has been correlated with poor survival rates among breast cancer patients. Therefore, the identification of useful therapeutic targets to prevent metastasis or even inhibit tumor growth of TNBC is urgently needed. Gαh is a novel GTP-binding protein and known as an inactive form of calcium-dependent tissue transglutaminase. However, the functional consequences of transamidating and G-protein activities of tissue transglutaminase in promoting cancer metastasis are still controversial. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to estimate the prognostic values of Gαh and PLCδ1 by utilizing public databases and performing immunohistochemical staining experiments. Cell-based invasion assays and in vivo lung colony-forming and orthotropic lung metastasis models were established to evaluate the effectiveness of interrupting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Gαh and PLCδ1 in inhibiting the invasive ability and metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Here, we showed that the increased level of cytosolic, not extracellular, Gαh is a poor prognostic marker in breast cancer patients and correlates with the metastatic evolution of TNBC cells. Moreover, clinicopathological analyses revealed that the combined signature of high Gαh/PLCδ1 levels indicates worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer and correlates with lymph node metastasis of ER-negative breast cancer. Blocking the PPI of the Gαh/PLCδ1 complex by synthetically myristoylated PLCδ1 peptide corresponding to the Gαh-binding interface appeared to significantly suppress cellular invasiveness in vitro and inhibit lung metastatic colonies of TNBC cells in vivo. This study establishes Gαh/PLCδ1 as a poor prognostic factor for patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers, including TNBCs, and provides therapeutic value by targeting the PPI of the Gαh/PLCδ1 complex to combat the metastatic progression

  11. Savannah River Plant Works Technical Department monthly progress report for May 1958: Deleted Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-17

    This progress report by the Atomic Energy Division of the Savannah River Plant covers: Reactor Technology; Separation Technology; Engineering Assistance; Health Physics; and General Laboratory Work. (JT)

  12. A Simple extension of Dematerialization Theory: Incorporation of Technical Progress and the Rebound Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Christopher L.; Devezas, Tessaleno C.

    2016-01-01

    Dematerialization is the reduction in the quantity of materials needed to produce something useful over time. Dematerialization fundamentally derives from ongoing increases in technical performance but it can be counteracted by demand rebound - increases in usage because of increased value (or decreased cost) that also results from increasing technical performance. A major question then is to what extent technological performance improvement can offset and is offsetting continuously increasin...

  13. Loss of cadherin-based cell adhesion and the progression of Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Lobular breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that is histologically characterized by a noncohesive growth pattern of small regular cells, where single cells infiltrate as one-layered strands of cells. This noncohesive growth pattern is due to inactivation of the E-cadherin complex and a

  14. Global Expression Profiling and Pathway Analysis of Mouse Mammary Tumor Reveals Strain and Stage Specific Dysregulated Pathways in Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yang, Jun-Ping; Lang, Yan-Hong; Peng, Li-Xia; Yang, Ming-Ming; Liu, Qin; Meng, Dong-Fang; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Qiang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chang-Zhi; Wei, Wen-Wen; Niu, Ting; Peng, Xing-Si; Yang, Qin; Lin, Fen; Hu, Hao; Xu, Hong-Fa; Huang, Bi-Jun; Wang, Li-Jing; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that the alteration of tissue microenvironment would affect cancer initiation and progression. However, little is known in terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms that would affect the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we use two murine mammary tumor models with different speeds of tumor initiation and progression for whole genome expression profiling to reveal the involved genes and signaling pathways. The pathways regulating PI3K-Akt signaling and Ras signaling were activated in Fvb mice and promoted tumor progression. Contrastingly, the pathways regulating apoptosis and cellular senescence were activated in Fvb.B6 mice and suppressed tumor progression. We identified distinct patterns of oncogenic pathways activation at different stages of breast cancer, and uncovered five oncogenic pathways that were activated in both human and mouse breast cancers. The genes and pathways discovered in our study would be useful information for other researchers and drug development.

  15. Target volume definition for external beam partial breast radiotherapy: Clinical, pathological and technical studies informing current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Yarnold, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Partial breast irradiation (PBI) is currently under investigation in several phase III trials and, following a recent consensus statement, its use off-study may increase despite ongoing uncertainty regarding optimal target volume definition. We review the clinical, pathological and technical evidence for target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). The optimal method of tumour bed (TB) delineation requires X-ray CT imaging of implanted excision cavity wall markers. The definition of clinical target volume (CTV) as TB plus concentric 15 mm margins is based on the anatomical distribution of multifocal and multicentric disease around the primary tumour in mastectomy specimens, and the clinical locations of local tumour relapse (LR) after breast conservation surgery. If the majority of LR originate from foci of residual invasive and/or intraduct disease in the vicinity of the TB after complete microscopic resection, CTV margin logically takes account of the position of primary tumour within the surgical resection specimen. The uncertain significance of independent primary tumours as sources of preventable LR, and of wound healing responses in stimulating LR, increases the difficulties in defining optimal CTV. These uncertainties may resolve after long-term follow-up of current PBI trials. By contrast, a commonly used 10 mm clinical to planning target volume (PTV) margin has a stronger evidence base, although departmental set-up errors need to be confirmed locally. A CTV-PTV margin >10 mm may be required in women with larger breasts and/or large seromas, whilst the role of image-guided radiotherapy with or without TB markers in reducing CTV-PTV margins needs to be explored.

  16. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.

    2014-11-11

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  17. HER family kinase domain mutations promote tumor progression and can predict response to treatment in human breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Boulbes, Delphine R.; Arold, Stefan T.; Chauhan, Gaurav B.; Blachno, Korina V.; Deng, Nanfu; Chang, Wei-Chao; Jin, Quanri; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Brady, Samuel W.; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ladbury, John E.; Stone, Steve; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie; Esteva, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to HER2-targeted therapies remains a major obstacle in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of drug resistance is needed to improve the clinical utility of novel agents, and to predict the success of targeted personalized therapy based on tumor-specific mutations. Little is known about the clinical significance of HER family mutations in breast cancer. Because mutations within HER1/EGFR are predictive of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in lung cancer, we investigated whether mutations in HER family kinase domains are predictive of response to targeted therapy in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We sequenced the HER family kinase domains from 76 HER2-overexpressing invasive carcinomas and identified 12 missense variants. Patients whose tumors carried any of these mutations did not respond to HER2 directed therapy in the metastatic setting. We developed mutant cell lines and used structural analyses to determine whether changes in protein conformation could explain the lack of response to therapy. We also functionally studied all HER2 mutants and showed that they conferred an aggressive phenotype and altered effects of the TKI lapatinib. Our data demonstrate that mutations in the finely tuned HER kinase domains play a critical function in breast cancer progression and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers.

  18. The Impacts of Technical Progress on Sulfur Dioxide Kuznets Curve in China: A Spatial Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used in case the coefficient estimates are biased due to the negligence of spatial dependence. With the provincial panel data of China from 2004 to 2014, this is the first research that finds an inverse N-trajectory of the relationship between SO2 emission and economic growth and confirms the beneficial impacts of technical advancement on SO2 emission abatement. The empirical results also suggest that the industrial structure change is an important driving force of the SO2 EKC. In addition, the direct and spillover effects of determinants on sulfur emission are clarified and estimated by a correct approach. Finally, we check the stability of our conclusions on the EKC shape for SO2 and technical progress effects when controlling for different variables and specifications, through which we find the turning points are sensitive to variables selections.

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  20. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting. Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 (micro)m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of ∼ 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul M. Bertsch,

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3, 000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research in this area

  2. Technical aspects of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldino, Denise de Deus; Gracio, Tatiana Schiller; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Bezerra, Alexandre Sergio de Araujo; Gracio, Tatiana Schiller

    2005-01-01

    With the advances in surface coil technology and the development of new imaging protocols in addition to the increase of the use of contrast agents, contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for detection, diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Despite these advances, there are some unresolved issues, including no defined standard technique for contrast-enhanced breast MRI and no standard criteria of interpretation for the evaluation of such studies. In this article, we review the literature and discuss the general requirements and recommendations for contrast agent-enhanced breast MRI, including image interpretation criteria, MR equipment, dedicated radiofrequency coils, use of paramagnetic contrast agents, fat-suppression techniques, planes of acquisition, pulse sequence specifications and artifact sources. (author)

  3. Morphine does not facilitate breast cancer progression in two preclinical mouse models for human invasive lobular and HER2⁺ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornebal, Chris W; Vrijland, Kim; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Coffelt, Seth B; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E; Hollmann, Markus W

    2015-08-01

    Morphine and other opioid analgesics are potent pain-relieving agents routinely used for pain management in patients with cancer. However, these drugs have recently been associated with a worse relapse-free survival in patients with surgical cancer, thus suggesting that morphine adversely affects cancer progression and relapse. In this study, we evaluated the impact of morphine on breast cancer progression, metastatic dissemination, and outgrowth of minimal residual disease. Using preclinical mouse models for metastatic invasive lobular and HER2 breast cancer, we show that analgesic doses of morphine do not affect mammary tumor growth, angiogenesis, and the composition of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Our studies further demonstrate that morphine, administered in the presence or absence of surgery-induced tissue damage, neither facilitates de novo metastatic dissemination nor promotes outgrowth of minimal residual disease after surgery. Together, these findings indicate that opioid analgesics can be used safely for perioperative pain management in patients with cancer and emphasize that current standards of "good clinical practice" should be maintained.

  4. Angiogenesis - a crucial step in breast cancer growth, progression and dissemination by Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Monika; Abramczyk, Halina

    2018-06-01

    Combined micro-Raman imaging and AFM imaging are efficient methods for analyzing human tissue due to their high spatial and spectral resolution as well as sensitivity to subtle chemical, structural and topographical changes. The aim of this study was to determine biochemical composition and mechanical topography around blood vessels in the tumor mass of human breast tissue. Significant alterations of the chemical composition and structural architecture around the blood vessel were found compared to the normal breast tissue. A pronounced increase of collagen-fibroblast-glycocalyx network, as well as enhanced lactic acid, and glycogen activity in patients affected by breast cancer were reported.

  5. Theoretical particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, S.A.; Hendry, A.W.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Lichtenberg, D.B.

    1986-05-01

    Research activities during this past year included theoretical work in lattice gauge theory, EMC effect, supersymmetry and supergravity, weak interactions including CP violation, and superstrings. Progress in all these areas is reported

  6. Symbol manipulation by computer applied to plasma physics. Technical progress report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, B.

    1977-09-01

    Progress has been made in automating the calculation of parametric processes analytically by computer. The computations are performed automatically to lowest order quickly and efficiently. Work has started on a method for solving the nonlinear differential equations describing interacting modes

  7. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development

  8. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  9. Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    Under this contract, research has been performed on both the theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles. A brief description of the work which is either in progress or has been completed is given. Publications are listed

  10. Research in elementary particle physics: Technical progress report, June 1, 1987-May 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Abbott, L.F.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The main topics discussed in the progress report: electron/photon algorithm groups; W and Z analysis; heavy quark analysis; gas gain monitoring; database upgrade; CDF test beam studies; string theory; cosmology; and neutral networks

  11. University of Florida, University research program in robotics. Annual technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, C.D. III; Tulenko, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of environmental hardening, database, world modeling, vision, man-machine interface, advanced liquid metal reactor inspection robot, and articulated transporter/manipulator system (ATMS) development.

  12. Expression of cyclophilin B is associated with malignant progression and regulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Feng; Flegler, Ayanna J; Du, Pan; Lin, Simon; Clevenger, Charles V

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a 21-kDa protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity that functions as a transcriptional inducer for Stat5 and as a ligand for CD147. To better understand the global function of CypB in breast cancer, T47D cells with a small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CypB were generated. Subsequent expression profiling analysis showed that 663 transcripts were regulated by CypB knockdown, and that many of these gene products contributed to cell proliferation, cell motility, and tumorigenesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that STMN3, S100A4, S100A6, c-Myb, estrogen receptor alpha, growth hormone receptor, and progesterone receptor were all down-regulated in si-CypB cells. A linkage analysis of these array data to protein networks resulted in the identification of 27 different protein networks that were impacted by CypB knockdown. Functional assays demonstrated that CypB knockdown also decreased cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses of a matched breast cancer progression tissue microarray that was labeled with an anti-CypB antibody demonstrated a highly significant increase in CypB protein levels as a function of breast cancer progression. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhanced expression of CypB in malignant breast epithelium may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease through its regulation of the expression of hormone receptors and gene products that are involved in cell proliferation and motility.

  13. Technical progress report for the quarter 1 October-31 December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments on the commercial nuclear waste management programs and on the geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The program is organized into eight tasks: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management

  14. Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Energy Centers (AENEC) Program. Annual technical progress report, July 1975--September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1977-04-01

    The Technical Memorandum contains information of a preliminary nature from the six participants of the Program describing their activities and presenting the results obtained during the reporting period. The birth of the Program, its definition and evolution are described, and a complete breakdown of responsibilities and tasks assigned to the six AENEC participants is presented

  15. The Michigan high-level radioactive waste program: Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comprises the state of Michigan's final technical report on the location of a proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Included are a list of Michigan's efforts to review the DOE proposal and a detailed report on the application of geographic information systems analysis techniques to the review process

  16. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  17. Technical progress report for the quarter 1 October-31 December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments on the commercial nuclear waste management programs and on the geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. The program is organized into eight tasks: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities and excavations, land acquisition, and program management. (DLC)

  18. Trastuzumab beyond progression: overall survival analysis of the GBG 26/BIG 3-05 phase III study in HER2-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Schwedler, Kathrin; Schmidt, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine (XH) showed a significantly improved overall response rate and time to progression compared with capecitabine (X) alone in women with HER2-positive breast cancer progressing during trastuzumab treatment. Here, we report the final analysis on overall...

  19. Metastic Progression of Breast Cancer by Allelic Loss on Chromosome 18q21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiagalingam, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of SMAD4 are rare occurrences in breast tumors despite it is localized to chromosome 18q and serves as a frequent target for inactivation in advanced gastrointestinal cancers...

  20. Investigation of Metastatic Breast Tumor Heterogeneity and Progression Using Dual Optical/SPECT Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antich, Peter P

    2006-01-01

    .... The proposed training plan will lead to advanced skills in research design, data management and analysis and in working with interdisciplinary research teams to improve outcomes of care of patients with breast cancer...

  1. Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR(+) breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Denise A; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Burris, Howard A; Baselga, José; Gnant, Michael; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Campone, Mario; Pistilli, Barbara; Piccart, Martine; Melichar, Bohuslav; Petrakova, Katarina; Arena, Francis P; Erdkamp, Frans; Harb, Wael A; Feng, Wentao; Cahana, Ayelet; Taran, Tetiana; Lebwohl, David; Rugo, Hope S

    2013-10-01

    Effective treatments for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer (BC) following relapse/progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy are needed. Initial Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial data demonstrated that everolimus and exemestane significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus exemestane alone in this patient population. BOLERO-2 is a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, international trial comparing everolimus (10 mg/day) plus exemestane (25 mg/day) versus placebo plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced BC with recurrence/progression during or after NSAIs. The primary endpoint was PFS by local investigator review, and was confirmed by independent central radiology review. Overall survival, response rate, and clinical benefit rate were secondary endpoints. Final study results with median 18-month follow-up show that median PFS remained significantly longer with everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane [investigator review: 7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.54); log-rank P NSAIs. These results further support the use of everolimus plus exemestane in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00863655.

  2. The role of dietary factors in prevention and progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder; Whyand, Tara; Caplin, Martyn Evan

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading global cause of cancer-related death in women. There is growing evidence for a role for dietary factors in BC pathophysiology. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the impact of dietary factors in BC risk. Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following terms: "nutrition and breast cancer", "nutrition and breast carcinoma", "dietary factors and breast cancer", "risk factors and breast cancer", "diet and breast cancer, "breast cancer epidemiology", "breast cancer and prevention". Consumption of well-done red meat appears to be associated with increased risk of BC, whereas fish may be protective. Total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and glycaemic load should be monitored and controlled in at risk populations because they may be associated with increased risk of BC, although the exact mechanisms involved are not clear. Alcohol intake should be minimized since it is a risk factor for BC. High intake of polyphenol/phyto-oestrogen -rich food (i.e. flavonoids, soya products), as well as fibres, fruits and vegetables, may have potential protective effects against BC occurrence but the results might vary according to hormonal status. Vitamin D supplements appear protective against BC development and similarly other vitamins and oligo-elements might decrease BC risk, although further large prospective studies are required. There exist increasing evidence that dietary factors can play an important role in both the development and prevention of BC. Large randomized clinical and epidemiological studies are required but are difficult to design due to the number of variable factors. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY. TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements

  4. Current status of gene therapy for breast cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrudden CM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cian M McCrudden, Helen O McCarthySchool of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is characterized by a series of genetic mutations and is therefore ideally placed for gene therapy intervention. The aim of gene therapy is to deliver a nucleic acid-based drug to either correct or destroy the cells harboring the genetic aberration. More recently, cancer gene therapy has evolved to also encompass delivery of RNA interference technologies, as well as cancer DNA vaccines. However, the bottleneck in creating such nucleic acid pharmaceuticals lies in the delivery. Deliverability of DNA is limited as it is prone to circulating nucleases; therefore, numerous strategies have been employed to aid with biological transport. This review will discuss some of the viral and nonviral approaches to breast cancer gene therapy, and present the findings of clinical trials of these therapies in breast cancer patients. Also detailed are some of the most recent developments in nonviral approaches to targeting in breast cancer gene therapy, including transcriptional control, and the development of recombinant, multifunctional bio-inspired systems. Lastly, DNA vaccines for breast cancer are documented, with comment on requirements for successful pharmaceutical product development.Keywords: breast cancer, gene therapy, nonviral, clinical trial

  5. Progression-free survival/time to progression as a potential surrogate for overall survival in HR+, HER2– metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Forsythe,1 David Chandiwana,2 Janina Barth,3 Marroon Thabane,4 Johan Baeck,2 Gabriel Tremblay1 1Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany; 4Novartis Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Dorval, QC, Canada Background: Several recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs in hormone receptor-positive (HR+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2– metastatic breast cancer (MBC have demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS; however, few have reported improvement in overall survival (OS. The surrogacy of PFS or time to progression (TTP for OS has not been formally investigated in HR+, HER2– MBC.Methods: A systematic literature review of RCTs in HR+, HER2– MBC was conducted to identify studies that reported both median PFS/TTP and OS. The correlation between PFS/TTP and OS was evaluated using Pearson’s product–moment correlation and Spearman’s rank correlation. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression (LSR was used to model incremental OS months as a function of incremental PFS/TTP months. An exploratory analysis investigated the impact of three covariates (chemotherapy vs hormonal/targeted therapy, PFS vs TTP, and first-line therapy vs second-line therapy or greater on OS prediction. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum incremental PFS/TTP months required to predict OS benefit (surrogate threshold effect [STE].Results: Forty studies were identified. There was a statistically significant correlation between median PFS/TTP and OS (Pearson =0.741, P=0.000; Spearman =0.650, P=0.000. These results proved consistent for chemotherapy and hormonal/targeted therapy. Univariate LSR analysis yielded an R2 of 0.354 with 1 incremental PFS/TTP month corresponding to 1.13 incremental OS months

  6. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the pla......The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction...... phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007....

  7. Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions Vitamin D pathways unbalanced in breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Nair; Schmitt, Fernando; Sousa, Bárbara; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Madalena; Vieira, Daniella; Veronese, Luiz A; Milanezi, Fernanda; Paredes, Joana; Costa, José L

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy. Vitamin D has been emerging as a potential treatment for cancer, as it has been demonstrated that it modulates proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, among others. It acts mostly through the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the synthesis and degradation of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We aimed to study the expression of these three proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of breast lesions. We have used a cohort comprising normal breast, benign mammary lesions, carcinomas in situ and invasive carcinomas and assessed the expression of the VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 by immunohistochemistry. The results that we have obtained show that all proteins are expressed in the various breast tissues, although at different amounts. The VDR was frequently expressed in benign lesions (93.5%) and its levels of expression were diminished in invasive tumours (56.2%). Additionally, the VDR was strongly associated with the oestrogen receptor positivity in breast carcinomas. CYP27B1 expression is slightly lower in invasive carcinomas (44.6%) than in benign lesions (55.8%). In contrast, CYP24A1 expression was augmented in carcinomas (56.0% in in situ and 53.7% in invasive carcinomas) when compared with that in benign lesions (19.0%). From this study, we conclude that there is a deregulation of the Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer, favouring tumour progression. Thus, during mammary malignant transformation, tumour cells lose their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D and respond to VDR-mediated Vitamin D effects, while increasing their ability to degrade this hormone

  8. Optically pumped polarized 23Na vapor target for use in polarized ion source. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    We are currently measuring relaxation times in an optically pumped 23 Na vapor target. Our research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na vapor targets used for the production of polarized H - ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source and especially the optically pumped Na vapor target employed in this source as well as discussing the progress of our research on relaxation times in an optically pumped Na vapor target. 30 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  9. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  10. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark (until 31-12- 2011: Association Euratom – Risø DTU) covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport...... temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2011....

  11. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  12. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  13. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: study of instabilities and emittance growth in periodic focusing systems for intense beams; study of collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse powered plasma focus; and study of microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency linacs

  14. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses progress of experiments at CERN and Fermilab. At CERN, data accumulation and analysis is discussed for the UA-6 experiment, which involves proton-antiproton collisions. At Fermilab, the testing of a collider detector for the Tevatron is discussed

  15. Accelerator research studies: Technical progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research progress in the following general topics: Study of transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; study of collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse powered plasma focus; and study of microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency electron-positron supercollider linacs

  16. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes MHD equilibrium and stability studies carried out at Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology and Development Center during the 12 month period starting March 1, 1994. Progress is reported in both ideal and resistive MHD modeling of TFTR plasmas. The development of codes to calculate the significant effects of highly anisotropic pressure distributions is discussed along with results from this model

  17. Chemistry of gaseous lower-valent actinide halides. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Objective is to provide thermochemical data for key actinide halide and oxyhalide systems. Progress is reported on bond dissociation energies of gaseous ThCl 4 , ThCl 3 , ThCl 2 , and ThCl; bond dissociation energies of ruthenium fluorides; and mass spectroscopy of UF 6

  18. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  19. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes MHD equilibrium and stability studies carried out at Grumman's Corporate Research Center during the 6 month period starting March 1, 1994. Progress is reported in both ideal and resistive MHD modeling of TFTR plasmas. The development of codes to calculate the significant effects of highly anisotropic pressure distributions is discussed along with initial results from this model

  20. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 1. Technical Report # 0919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grade 1. These measures, available as part of easyCBM [TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from schools…

  1. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Kindergarten. Technical Report # 0921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in kindergarten. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from…

  2. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 3. Technical Report # 09-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  3. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 5. Technical Report # 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  4. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 2. Technical Report # 0920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  5. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 7. Technical Report 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  6. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 4. Technical Report # 09-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  7. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 8. Technical Report # 09-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  8. Progress in nonviral gene therapy for breast cancer and what comes next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottai, Giulia; Truffi, Marta; Corsi, Fabio; Santarpia, Libero

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of correcting defective genes and modulating gene expression through gene therapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for breast cancer. Furthermore, the relevance of tumor immune microenvironment in supporting the oncogenic process has paved the way for novel immunomodulatory applications of gene therapy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the most relevant delivery systems, focusing on nonviral vectors, along with the description of the major approaches used to modify target cells, including gene transfer, RNA interference (RNAi), and epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, they highlight innovative therapeutic strategies and the application of gene therapy in clinical trials for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Gene therapy has the potential to impact breast cancer research. Further efforts are required to increase the clinical application of RNAi-based therapeutics, especially in combination with conventional treatments. Innovative strategies, including genome editing and stem cell-based systems, may contribute to translate gene therapy into clinical practice. Immune-based approaches have emerged as an attractive therapeutic opportunity for selected breast cancer patients. However, several challenges need to be addressed before considering gene therapy as an actual option for the treatment of breast cancer.

  9. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...... and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities on fusion materials research (Tungsten and ODSFS). Other activities are system analysis...

  10. Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics - Annual Progress Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom – DTU, Technical University of Denmark covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium...... and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities on fusion materials research (Tungsten and ODSFS). Other activities are system analysis...

  11. [Review of draft Crystalline Repository Project reports]: Technical progress report, CY 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    During the period (CY 1985-86) of this report, the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board provided technical services under the contract with DOE. These included Participation in the development of variables and screening techniques that would be used in identifying those rock bodies in the Area Recommendation Report (ARR); reviewing and commenting on the report and developing a procedure in which local residents could have input into the process; sought resumption of negotiations with DOE on a full Consultation and Cooperation (CandC) agreement; and Participating in workshops and provided comments on two major DOE transportation documents, ''Transportation Business Plan: Strategy Options Document,'' and ''Transportation Institutional Plan.''

  12. Lattice-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ suggests rules for breast cancer progression to an invasive state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boghaert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive lesions of the breast that result from abnormal proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Pathologists characterize DCIS by four tissue morphologies (micropapillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo, but the underlying mechanisms that distinguish the development and progression of these morphologies are not well understood. Here we explored the conditions leading to the emergence of the different morphologies of DCIS using a two-dimensional multi-cell lattice-based model that incorporates cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, adhesion, and contractility. We found that the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis governed which of the four morphologies emerged. High proliferation and low apoptosis favored the emergence of solid and comedo morphologies. In contrast, low proliferation and high apoptosis led to the micropapillary morphology, whereas high proliferation and high apoptosis led to the cribriform morphology. The natural progression between morphologies cannot be investigated in vivo since lesions are usually surgically removed upon detection; however, our model suggests probable transitions between these morphologies during breast cancer progression. Importantly, cribriform and comedo appear to be the ultimate morphologies of DCIS. Motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that tumor cells behave differently depending on where they are located within the mammary duct in vivo or in engineered tissues, we examined the effects of tissue geometry on the progression of DCIS. In agreement with our previous experimental work, we found that cells are more likely to invade from the end of ducts and that this preferential invasion is regulated by cell adhesion and contractility. This model provides additional insight into tumor cell behavior and allows the exploration of phenotypic transitions not easily monitored in vivo.

  13. Lattice-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ suggests rules for breast cancer progression to an invasive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghaert, Eline; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2014-12-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive lesions of the breast that result from abnormal proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Pathologists characterize DCIS by four tissue morphologies (micropapillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo), but the underlying mechanisms that distinguish the development and progression of these morphologies are not well understood. Here we explored the conditions leading to the emergence of the different morphologies of DCIS using a two-dimensional multi-cell lattice-based model that incorporates cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, adhesion, and contractility. We found that the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis governed which of the four morphologies emerged. High proliferation and low apoptosis favored the emergence of solid and comedo morphologies. In contrast, low proliferation and high apoptosis led to the micropapillary morphology, whereas high proliferation and high apoptosis led to the cribriform morphology. The natural progression between morphologies cannot be investigated in vivo since lesions are usually surgically removed upon detection; however, our model suggests probable transitions between these morphologies during breast cancer progression. Importantly, cribriform and comedo appear to be the ultimate morphologies of DCIS. Motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that tumor cells behave differently depending on where they are located within the mammary duct in vivo or in engineered tissues, we examined the effects of tissue geometry on the progression of DCIS. In agreement with our previous experimental work, we found that cells are more likely to invade from the end of ducts and that this preferential invasion is regulated by cell adhesion and contractility. This model provides additional insight into tumor cell behavior and allows the exploration of phenotypic transitions not easily monitored in vivo.

  14. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, July 1, 1975--March 15, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report covers four areas: development of positron instrumentation, development of NUMEDICS computer system and software, application of cyclotron-produced isotopes ( 11 C, 68 Ga, 13 N, 15 O, and 82 Rb), and application of the NUMEDICS computer system in nuclear medicine. The development of transverse section positron imaging has had a significant impact and a positron camera was designed specifically for transverse section imaging of heart and lungs. The computer net (NUMEDICS II) is progressing rapidly in design and software development. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring cerebral blood flow using a variety of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals and oxygen utilization using 15 O 2 . Rubidium-82 also appears to be a promising agent for measurement of cerebral blood flow

  15. Nuclear structure theory. Technical progress report, September 1, 1982-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    Research progress is reported. Spectral Averaging studies are outlined including the theory of level densities for interacting nucleons, the properties of single-particle nuclear excitations, spectral distributions for fixed symmetries, and applications to the secular behavior of fluctuation measures in complex nuclei. Collective States research is described, in particular the boson-fermion symmetries which are related to the U(5) limit of the interacting boson model. Nuclear Reaction studies are described including the statistical theory of pion absorption, direct reactions at intermediate energies, and the properties of the off-shell πN t-matrix. Progress is reported on the quark theory of nuclear matter and the construction of models for a Fermi fluid which, near the nuclear ground state, is a fluid of nucleons composed of quarks, and, at high densities or temperatures, is a quark fluid. Applications of formal scattering theory to the study of phase-conjugate optics are discussed. Publications are listed

  16. AFR spent fuel storage program. Technical progress report, January 1981-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Work on this project is focused on developing design and licensing information for the model facility. Deliverables were submitted to DOE for facility modification, security design, and licensing documentation. Work is essentially complete on the high-density rack design with deliverable planned for April 30, 1981. A continuing program for completion of design and licensing information development was initiated by AGNS in February 1981. Progress to date is satisfactory

  17. U.C. Davis high energy particle physics research: Technical progress report -- 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    Summaries of progress made for this period is given for each of the following areas: (1) Task A--Experiment, H1 detector at DESY; (2) Task C--Experiment, AMY detector at KEK; (3) Task D--Experiment, fixed target detectors at Fermilab; (4) Task F--Experiment, PEP detector at SLAC and pixel detector; (5) Task B--Theory, particle physics; and (6) Task E--Theory, particle physics.

  18. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1979-August 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: statistical spectroscopy (including random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of ergodicity; group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; electromagnetic and β transitions); meson scattering and absorption by nuclei (including general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption); and meson currents in electromagnetic transitions

  19. Nuclear methods in chemical kinetics. Technical progress report, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant progress was achieved in the following products: (1) gas phase thermal F-to-HF reactions; (II) gas phase thermal 18 F olefinic addition reactions; (III) steady state hot atom kinetic theory; (IV) moderator effects on nuclear recoil 18 F substitution reactions; and (V) new experimental methodology. New work has been initiated upon the development of a realisitic potential form of kinetic collision theory

  20. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Koltick, D.S.; Loeffler, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: a study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer at SLAC; proton decay; extensive muon showers; gamma ray astronomy; the DUMAND project; theoretical work on fundamental problems in electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational interactions; chi production by hadrons; p-nucleus interactions; development of the Collider Detector at Fermilab; and study of the observed hadrons as the relativistic bound states of baryons and antibaryons

  1. Deep vadose zone remediation: technical and policy challenges, opportunities, and progress in achieving cleanup endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Truex, M.J.; Lee, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches. (authors)

  2. Deep vadose zone remediation: technical and policy challenges, opportunities, and progress in achieving cleanup endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Truex, M.J.; Lee, M.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Current requirements for site remediation and closure are standards-based and are often overly conservative, costly, and in some cases, technically impractical. Use of risk-informed alternate endpoints provides a means to achieve remediation goals that are permitted by regulations and are protective of human health and the environment. Alternate endpoints enable the establishment of a path for cleanup that may include intermediate remedial milestones and transition points and/or regulatory alternatives to standards-based remediation. A framework is presented that is centered around developing and refining conceptual models in conjunction with assessing risks and potential endpoints as part of a system-based assessment that integrates site data with scientific understanding of processes that control the distribution and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and pathways to receptors. This system-based assessment and subsequent implementation of the remediation strategy with appropriate monitoring are targeted at providing a holistic approach to addressing risks to human health and the environment. This holistic approach also enables effective predictive analysis of contaminant behavior to provide defensible criteria and data for making long-term decisions. Developing and implementing an alternate endpoint-based approach for remediation and waste site closure presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Categories of these challenges include scientific and technical, regulatory, institutional, and budget and resource allocation issues. Opportunities exist for developing and implementing systems-based approaches with respect to supportive characterization, monitoring, predictive modeling, and remediation approaches. (authors)

  3. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 is elevated in early-stage breast cancers with accelerated progression and poor clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michaelann; Sreedhar, Nandhini; Keshgegian, Albert; Sauter, Guido; Chernick, Michael R; Prendergast, George C; Wallon, U Margaretha

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of breast cancer patients are diagnosed with small, localized, early-stage tumors. These patients are typically thought to have a good prognosis for long-term disease-free survival, but epidemiological studies indicate that up to 30% may have a recurrence within 3 to 5 years of diagnosis. Identifying patients with a high risk of recurrence and/or progression is important because they could be more aggressively treated at diagnosis to improve their chances for disease-free survival. Recent evidence suggests that elevated levels of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-4, are associated with malignant progression of ductal carcinoma in situ, a precancerous lesion. To examine the association of TIMP-4 with survival outcomes, we conducted a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of 314 cases from patients with early-stage disease, defined as tumors smaller than 2 cm and no spread to lymph nodes (tumor-node-metastasis staging: T1N0MX). We found that tumors with elevated levels of TIMP-4 were correlated with a reduced probability of long-term disease-free survival, especially in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Our findings prompt further evaluation of TIMP-4 as a simple prognostic marker that may help identify patients with early-stage breast cancer who could benefit from more aggressive treatment at diagnosis.

  4. Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-26

    The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

  5. The Role of Myoepithelial Maspin in Breast Carcinoma Progression Diagnosis and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    myoepithelial tumors occurring within the sali- vary glands of the head and neck . In order to study the cell and molecular biology of myoepithelial cells...inhibitors, including maspin, are thought to regulate branching morphogenesis that occurs in the developing breast and salivary gland during embryological

  6. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The only way to perceive the real clinical course of disease and the prognostic significance of potential biomarkers is follow-up of patients who did not receive any kind of adjuvant therapy. Many studies have confirmed high levels ofinterleukin 8 (IL8) in HER2-enriched and basal-like (ER–) primary breast tumours, but less is ...

  7. Early Dysregulation of Cell Adhesion and Extracellular Matrix Pathways in Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lyndsey A.; Tripathi, Anusri; King, Chialin; Kavanah, Maureen; Mendez, Jane; Stone, Michael D.; de las Morenas, Antonio; Sebastiani, Paola; Rosenberg, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Proliferative breast lesions, such as simple ductal hyperplasia (SH) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), are candidate precursors to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer. To better understand the relationship of breast lesions to more advanced disease, we used microdissection and DNA microarrays to profile the gene expression of patient-matched histologically normal (HN), ADH, and DCIS from 12 patients with estrogen receptor positive sporadic breast cancer. SH were profiled from a subset of cases. We found 837 differentially expressed genes between DCIS-HN and 447 between ADH-HN, with >90% of the ADH-HN genes also present among the DCIS-HN genes. Only 61 genes were identified between ADH-DCIS. Expression differences were reproduced in an independent cohort of patient-matched lesions by quantitative real-time PCR. Many breast cancer-related genes and pathways were dysregulated in ADH and maintained in DCIS. Particularly, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix interactions were overrepresented. Focal adhesion was the top pathway in each gene set. We conclude that ADH and DCIS share highly similar gene expression and are distinct from HN. In contrast, SH appear more similar to HN. These data provide genetic evidence that ADH (but not SH) are often precursors to cancer and suggest cancer-related genetic changes, particularly adhesion and extracellular matrix pathways, are dysregulated before invasion and even before malignancy is apparent. These findings could lead to novel risk stratification, prevention, and treatment approaches. PMID:19700746

  8. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... significance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ... types characterized by a particularly poor prognosis (Aceto et al. ... Progesterone receptor status. PRlow. 70. 76.9. PRhigh. 21. 23.1. NA .... (M<88.82 pg/mg) had lower percentage of relapses and.

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is primarily focused on the previously hardly explored role of HIF-1 in breast cancer. HIF-1 is a transcription factor induced by hypoxia, but also by some oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and growth factors. Activated HIF-1 can induce angiogenesis, glycolysis, erythropoiesis, and other

  10. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  11. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M.

    2010-04-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  12. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S B; Michelsen, P K; Rasmussen, J J; Westergaard, C M [eds.

    2010-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009. (Author)

  13. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M. (eds.)

    2009-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  14. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M.

    2009-04-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. New activities in technology related to development of high temperature superconductors have been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008. (Author)

  15. Progress report [of] Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, April 1982 - March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.; Chaudhry, Ramesh

    1985-01-01

    The work done by the Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay during the period from April 1982 to March 1984 is described in the form of summaries. The main thrust of the work of the Division is towards designing, developing, fabricating and if needed, producing on a large scale various instruments, equipment and components required for the programmes of the BARC and the Department of Atomic Energy. The summaries describing the work are grouped under the headings:(1) vacuum, (2) surface analysis, (3) mass spectrometry, (4) electronics, (5) cryogenics, (6) crystals and detectors, (7) glass technology and devices, and (8) optoelectronics. A list of publications of the staff-members of the Division during the report period is given. (M.G.B.)

  16. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2008-04-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  17. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical Univ. of Denmark. Annual progress report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Korsholm, S.B.; Rasmussen, J.J. (eds.)

    2008-04-15

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. The activities in technology on investigations of radiation damage of fusion reactor materials have been phased out during 2007. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2007. (Author)

  18. Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Annual progress report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsholm, S.B.; Michelsen, P.K.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Westergaard, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its interaction with the plasma equilibrium and particles. The effort includes both first principles based modelling, and experimental observations of turbulence and of fast ion dynamics by collective Thomson scattering. Within fusion technology there are activities related to development of high temperature superconductors. Other activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2010. (Author)

  19. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics. Technical progress report, July 11, 1992--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in theoretical and experimental research funded by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG03-92ER54150, during the period July 11, 1992 through May 31, 1993. Four main tasks are reported: applied plasma physics theory, alpha particle diagnostic, edge and current density diagnostic, and plasma rotation drive. The report also discusses the research plans for the theory and experimental programs for the next grant year. Reports and publications supported by the grant during this period are listed in the final section.

  20. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming.

  1. Salt repository project: Technical progress report for the quarter 1 April--30 June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document reports the progress being made each quarter on the development of a geologic repository in salt for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Salt Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation

  2. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: Statistical spectroscopy, including: Random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of ergodicity; Group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; Electromagnetic and β transitions. Meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including: general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption, theory of the absorption operator (πNN vertex), theory of πN scattering. A list of publications is included

  3. Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaro, R.J.; Gurland, J.; Needleman, A.; Rice, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    Progress is reported on microscopic fracture mechanisms, including studies of void and crack initiation in steels in the absence and presence of hydrogen, the effects of hydrogen on ductile fracture in medium and high carbon steels; elastic--plastic crack growth including the quasi-stable growth of cracks in ductile solids under increasing load and conditions of instability; and elevated temperature rupture including analysis of the stress field near a crack tip in an elastic-nonlinear viscous material under tensile load as well as the processes of diffusion, and cavitation of grain boundaries in plastically creeping materials

  4. Theoretical nuclear physics. Task B. Technical progress report, August 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: (a) double delta interactions in pion double charge exchange; (b) isovector correlations in pion-nucleus scattering; (c) nuclear structure effects in pion single charge exchange; (d) a perspective on sequential transfer reactions; (e) inelastic and charge exchange scattering theory; (f) magnitude of the first order DWBA description of the two nuclear transfer reactions; (g) nonlocality effects on deuteron transfer reactions; (h) evaluation of external radial integrals in inelastic electron scattering; (i) experimental observables as a function of Dirac invariant amplitudes; (j) Dirac shell-model wavefunctions in inelastic electron scattering; and (k) impulse approximation Dirac theory of inelastic proton nucleus collective excitations. Publications are listed

  5. High energy particle physics at Purdue. Annual technical progress report, March 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Koltick, D.S.; Loeffler, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: a study of electron-positron annihilation using the High Resolution Spectrometer; experimental study of proton decay; gamma ray astrophysics; the DUMAND project; fundamental problems in the theory of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions; chi production by hadrons; study of collective phenomena; search for the onset of collective phenonmena; work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab; search for a deconfined quark-gluon phase of strongly interacting matter at the FNAL proton-antiproton collider; and development of an electrodeless drift chamber

  6. Physics of correlated systems. Technical progress report, December 1996 - June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    During the current funding period, which covers a period of approximately 2.5 years, the authors have tackled a number of challenging problems that involve nonperturbative particle-particle interactions in two qualitatively different areas: electron-electron interactions in photoionization and photodetachment, and atom-atom interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. The following discusses the progress achieved in these different areas. The emphasis in this summary will concentrate on approximately the last year of research accomplishments, although the bibliography below includes all research publications that were supported during the time period of this grant

  7. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following projects: systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies--drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors--monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield Lock and Dam remediation; Winfield cleanup survey; assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation--non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; assessment of environmental remediation storage technology; assessment of environmental remediation excavation technology; assessment of environmental remediation monitoring technology; and remediation of hazardous sites with steam reforming

  8. Plasma physics research (Tokapole II). Technical progress report, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress during the 27-month period, October 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983 on Tokapole II research is described. Tokapole II is a 4-node poloidal divertor tokamak that can also be run as an octupole. Research during this period has concentrated on studies of discharges with safety factor q less than one and on the identification of the shear Alfven wave resonance. Other topics include measurements of the loop voltage reduction through ECRH startup, plasma gun refueling, fluctuations and transport, pumped limiter studies, plasma-wall interactions, diagnostic development, polarization of electron cyclotron emission, and poloidal ohmic heating

  9. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory is summarized: statistical spectroscopy, including random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of erogodicity; group symmetries in spectral distribution theory; effective interactions; statistical reaction theory, applied to ''deep inelastic'' collisions of heavy ions, and to pion absorption by nuclei; meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, models for absorption, theory of the absorption operator (πNN vertex), theory of πN scattering. A list of publications is included

  10. Salt Repository Project technical progress report for the quarter 1 January--31 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document reports the progress being made each quarter on the development of a geologic repository in salt for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, a prime contractor of the US Department of energy (DOE) Salt Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. 23 refs., 1 fig

  11. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: (1) statistical spectroscopy, including: random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions; group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; electromagnetic and β transitions, limits to time-reversal symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon interaction; (2) meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including: general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption; and (3) meson currents in electromagnetic transitions

  12. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study. Third quarterly technical progress report, April-June, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The specific tasks of this study are to mathematically model the thermionic cogeneration burner, experimentally confirm the projected energy flows in a thermal mock-up, make a cost estimate of the burner, including manufacturing, installation and maintenance, review industries in general and determine what groups of industries would be able to use the electrical power generated in the process, select one or more industries out of those for an in-depth study, including determination of the performance required for a thermionic cogeneration system to be competitive in that industry. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  13. Technical Note: Robust measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile in breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Aili K., E-mail: aili.maki@sri.utoronto.ca; Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Yaffe, Martin J. [Departments of Medical Imaging and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to improve the repeatability of the measurement of the slice-sensitivity profile (SSP) in reconstructed breast tomosynthesis volumes. Methods: A grid of aluminum ball-bearings (BBs) within a PMMA phantom was imaged on breast tomosynthesis systems from three different manufacturers. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) values were measured for the SSPs of the BBs in the reconstructed volumes. The effect of transforming the volumes from a Cartesian coordinate system (CCS) to a cone-beam coordinate system (CBCS) on the variability in the FWHM values was assessed. Results: Transforming the volumes from a CCS to a CBCS before measuring the SSPs reduced the coefficient of variation (COV) in the measurements of FWHM in repeated measurements by 56% and reduced the dependence of the FWHM values on the location of the BBs within the reconstructed volume by 76%. Conclusions: Measuring the SSP in the volumes in a CBCS improves the robustness of the measurement.

  14. Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Juana M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ErbB2-positive breast cancer is characterized by highly aggressive phenotypes and reduced responsiveness to standard therapies. Although specific ErbB2-targeted therapies have been designed, only a small percentage of patients respond to these treatments and most of them eventually relapse. The existence of this population of particularly aggressive and non-responding or relapsing patients urges the search for novel therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids might constitute a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of ErbB2-positive breast tumors. We analyzed their antitumor potential in a well established and clinically relevant model of ErbB2-driven metastatic breast cancer: the MMTV-neu mouse. We also analyzed the expression of cannabinoid targets in a series of 87 human breast tumors. Results Our results show that both Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most abundant and potent cannabinoid in marijuana, and JWH-133, a non-psychotropic CB2 receptor-selective agonist, reduce tumor growth, tumor number, and the amount/severity of lung metastases in MMTV-neu mice. Histological analyses of the tumors revealed that cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cancer cell apoptosis, and impair tumor angiogenesis. Cannabinoid antitumoral action relies, at least partially, on the inhibition of the pro-tumorigenic Akt pathway. We also found that 91% of ErbB2-positive tumors express the non-psychotropic cannabinoid receptor CB2. Conclusions Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

  15. Superconducting fault current limiter. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, August 8, 1978-November 7, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Progress in the development of fault current limiters for superconducting power transmission systems is reported. The analysis and design of a magnetically switched resistive device and the experimental program were emphasized and reported. A transient heat transfer model was developed which indicates the parameters which are important in determining the thermal heating and recovery of the superconduting film. Designs for the switching coil and the S/C element were also carried out and are reported. A four-pole magnetic coil is recommended; this generates a magnetic field which is nearly perpendicular to spiral or helical S/C film geometrics. A spirally-designed, 3000 ohm limiter is shown to be able to fit within a .5 to 1m inner radius, .05 to .03 m wide, 1.3 to 3.9 m long annualr region. The experimental program has included work on materials development and on prepartion of the switching and thermal recovery experimental facility. The material development program has uncovered several serious short-comings of NbN as the S/C film material. Macroscopic holes and surface debris, and microscopic imperfections reduce the critical current density below the expected value and, in addition, cause nonuniform switching. Reasons for these effects are postulated, and a continuing, vigorous materials program is suggested in hopes of alleviating these problems. Virtually all of the experimental equipment had been installed, and so the magnetic switching and thermal recovery experiments can begin and progress during the next quarter. (LCL)

  16. An accelerator neutron source for BNCT. Technical progress report, 1 June 1993--31 May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1994-02-01

    This is the progress report for the project entitled, ''An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT.'' The progress report is for the period from July 1, 1993 to date. The overall objective of our research project is to develop an Accelerator Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (AENIF) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The AENIF consists of a 2.5 MeV high current proton accelerator, a lithium target to produce source neutrons, and a moderator/reflector assembly to obtain from the energetic source neutrons an epithermal neutron field suitable for BNCT treatments. Our project goals are to develop the non-accelerator components of the AENIF, and to specifically include in our development: (1) design, numerical simulation, and experimental verification of a target assembly which is capable of removing 75 kW of beam power; (2) re-optimization of the moderator assembly design based on in-phantom dose assessments using neutron spectra calculated in phantom and an energy-dependent neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE); (3) construction of a prototype moderator assembly and confirmation of its design by measurements; (4) design of the shielding of the accelerator and treatment rooms for an AENIF; and (5) design of a high energy beam transport system which is compatible with the shielding design and the thermal-hydraulic design

  17. Technical progress report, Contracts DE-AC02-81ER40014, 40015 and 40016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Progress Report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1980 through July 31, 1981, under contracts between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The shorter report period of nine months is due to a change to an earlier submission date this year for our proposal for support to begin February 1, 1982. Cyclotron operation, research, and development have been supported under contract DE-AC02-81ER40014. The AVF cyclotron has continued to provide reliable and versatile beams of protons, deuterons, 3 He and 4 He. A wide variety of research results in direct reactions, nuclear structure, and compound reaction mechanisms can be noted in this Progress Report, correlated in many cases to current problems in intermediate energy physics. Theoretical work on nuclear reactions, carried out under contract DE-AC02-81ER40015, has been well matched to our experimental programs in low and intermediate energy physics. One important result has been the recasting of the DWBA in an eikonal expansion suited to high energy reactions. Our efforts in intermediate energy physics, under contract DE-AC02-81ER40016, have emphasized pion scattering studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF and proton induced charge exchange reactions at IUCF. Data for an important test of hadronic charge symmetry have been completed at two energies, using elastic pion-deuteron scattering

  18. The role of technical progress in the process of recalculating oil reserves; Le role du progres technique dans le processus de renouvellement des reserves petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulard, J.N. [Total/Fina/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-08-01

    Contrary to the concept of resources (which is essentially a geological one), the notion of reserves designates the quantities that are technically and economically recoverable. Beyond the production-related effect, the reserves therefore evolve over time in accordance with numerous technical and economic parameters. Among these parameters, it can be seen that technical progress plays a considerable role throughout the process of converting resources into reserves, including progress in the identification, accessibility and processing of the resources, and improvements in economic viability. After having tackled the problem of measuring the 'technical progress effects' and citing examples, we demonstrate that the evolution in oil reserves is subject to three types of impact. These are a quantitative impact by significantly improving the recovery rates or making it possible to identify hitherto undetectable oil fields, a qualitative impact by widening the resource base thanks to the adoption of new categories of oil (in particular the so-called 'unconventional' oils) and by carrying out the gradual substitution between these resources of differing qualities. There is also a dynamic impact, through the acceleration of resource availability. Through these three approaches, technical progress makes makes it possible to ensure continuity in oil supply and contributes significantly to the recalculation of reserves. It therefore acts as a compensating factor, counterbalancing the progressive depletion of resources. (author)

  19. Retrospective study of the effect of disease progression on patient reported outcomes in HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC. Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102 were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%, lung (28% and liver (26% predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL.

  20. Technical success, technique efficacy and complications of minimally-invasive imaging-guided percutaneous ablation procedures of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Giovanni; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Fedeli, Maria Paola; Alì, Marco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review studies concerning imaging-guided minimally-invasive breast cancer treatments. An online database search was performed for English-language articles evaluating percutaneous breast cancer ablation. Pooled data and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Technical success, technique efficacy, minor and major complications were analysed, including ablation technique subgroup analysis and effect of tumour size on outcome. Forty-five studies were analysed, including 1,156 patients and 1,168 lesions. Radiofrequency (n=577; 50%), microwaves (n=78; 7%), laser (n=227; 19%), cryoablation (n=156; 13%) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, n=129; 11%) were used. Pooled technical success was 96% (95%CI 94-97%) [laser=98% (95-99%); HIFU=96% (90-98%); radiofrequency=96% (93-97%); cryoablation=95% (90-98%); microwave=93% (81-98%)]. Pooled technique efficacy was 75% (67-81%) [radiofrequency=82% (74-88); cryoablation=75% (51-90); laser=59% (35-79); HIFU=49% (26-74)]. Major complications pooled rate was 6% (4-8). Minor complications pooled rate was 8% (5-13%). Differences between techniques were not significant for technical success (p=0.449), major complications (p=0.181) or minor complications (p=0.762), but significant for technique efficacy (p=0.009). Tumour size did not impact on variables (p>0.142). Imaging-guided percutaneous ablation techniques of breast cancer have a high rate of technical success, while technique efficacy remains suboptimal. Complication rates are relatively low. • Imaging-guided ablation techniques for breast cancer are 96% technically successful. • Overall technique efficacy rate is 75% but largely inhomogeneous among studies. • Overall major and minor complication rates are low (6-8%).

  1. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY. TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1 THROUGH JUNE 30, 2003. Petten was provided with irradiation dimensional change data for both fuel compacts and H-451 graphite for design of the graphite sleeves that hold the fuel compacts to be irradiated in HFR-EU2. The Fuel Sample Product Specification for the Fuel Performance Irradiation Test Capsule MHR-2 was completed and approved. A Work Breakdown Structure was prepared for the development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated fuel performance requirements and work was initiated on preparation of schedules and a cost estimates for the test matrices

  2. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1 THROUGH AUGUST 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    OAK A271 GT-MHR COMERCIALiZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1 THROUGH AUGUST 31, 2003. In the process of fabricating the MHR-1 irradiation test capsule, Petten has advised that three thermocouples (out of 24) and the Self Powered Neutron detector were damaged during high temperature brazing with the upper capsule lid. Procurement of new TCs and SPN is in process but there will be a delay in the irradiation test of about nine weeks. Startup of the irradiation is now projected to be July or August 2004. In preparation for performing the nuclear design analysis activities required by the advanced fuel studies task, a complete 3-D nuclear design analysis is first being performed of the GT-MHR reference design. This will serve as the baseline for studies of the advanced fuel nuclear design performance

  3. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis

  4. Repository Technology Program: Technical progress report for the period May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document reports the progress made in the 13-month period from May 29, 1986--June 30, 1987, on the development of a second geologic repository in rocks other than those being considered for a first repository. Subsequent periods will be covered in reports to be issued on a semiannual basis. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), a prime contractor of the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program (RTP) Office in the Repository Technology and Transportation Division (RTTD) of the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR). The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the OWTD. 50 refs

  5. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  6. Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks and in particular to understand the role of turbulence. So that they can continue to study the physics that is most relevant to the fusion program, TEXT completed a significant device upgrade this year. The new capabilities of the device and new and innovative diagnostics were exploited in all main program areas including: (1) configuration studies; (2) electron cyclotron heating physics; (3) improved confinement modes; (4) edge physics/impurity studies; (5) central turbulence and transport; and (6) transient transport. Details of the progress in each of the research areas are described.

  7. Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks and in particular to understand the role of turbulence. So that they can continue to study the physics that is most relevant to the fusion program, TEXT completed a significant device upgrade this year. The new capabilities of the device and new and innovative diagnostics were exploited in all main program areas including: (1) configuration studies; (2) electron cyclotron heating physics; (3) improved confinement modes; (4) edge physics/impurity studies; (5) central turbulence and transport; and (6) transient transport. Details of the progress in each of the research areas are described

  8. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, October 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    Work carried out on the development of instrumentation and techniques for positron scintigraphy is discussed. Progress in positron imaging instrumentation and applications is detailed. The assembly and initial evaluation of the new multicrystal positron camera, PC-II, has been completed. Images have been obtained in both two and three-dimensions which demonstrate the basic physical properties of the instrument. Successful measurements using transverse section imaging have been carried out on animals and human volunteers. Physiological investigation using PC-II is proceeding. A flexible and accurate computer program has been developed for transverse section reconstruction of data acquired by PC-II. This program makes it possible to reconstruct both the activity distribution and the distribution of absorption. The program has been developed in such a way that it can handle variations in the data collection procedure. Clinical studies using PC-I and PC-II are being carried on in areas of heart, lung and brain

  9. [Geothermal system temperature-depth database and model for data analysis]. 5. quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, D.D.

    1998-04-25

    During this first quarter of the second year of the contract activity has involved several different tasks. The author has continued to work on three tasks most intensively during this quarter: the task of implementing the data base for geothermal system temperature-depth, the maintenance of the WWW site with the heat flow and gradient data base, and finally the development of a modeling capability for analysis of the geothermal system exploration data. The author has completed the task of developing a data base template for geothermal system temperature-depth data that can be used in conjunction with the regional data base that he had already developed and is now implementing it. Progress is described.

  10. Radioecology of natural systems in Colorado. Thirteenth technical progress report, May 1, 1974--April 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the behavior of fallout radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) in selected organisms and natural ecosystems in Colorado. Components of alpine tundra, montane forests, shortgrass plains, and freshwater lakes and streams are currently under investigation. A study on the effect of gut passage on the mean diameter of monodisperse PuO 2 microspheres was initiated. Studies on plutonium in the terrestrial environs of Rocky Flats were initiated in the summer of 1972. Soil movement measurements were conducted to bear on the question of plutonium stability in contaminated areas. The relative importance of root uptake versus aerial deposition was evaluated in the field utilizing a sod block transplant procedure. The study on radiation effects on shortgrass plains vegetation was continued with emphasis on long-term changes in community structure under chronic irradiation stress and recovery patterns. (U.S.)

  11. Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1985-May 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.; Blocker, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in both experimental and theoretical elementary particle research. Experimental activities include: construction of the Forward Electromagnetic Shower Counters for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF); a test run in the CDF, involving observation of a small number of proton-antiproton collisions; design of a self-contained single wire proportional chamber with pressure and temperature sensing for monitoring the gain of gases used by various components of the CDF; data acquisition, and calibration. Also included are a search for a dibaryon of strangeness=-1; hyperon weak radiative decay. Theoretical research is reported in the areas of quantum field theory, string theory, elementary particle phenomenology, cosmology, field theory in curved spacetimes, and cosmology. 34 refs

  12. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Progress during the past year is summarized for the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: Meson interactions with nucleons and nuclei, including inelastic scattering of pions, three-body theories of scattering and absorption of pions by deuterons, and π-p bremsstrahlung. Theory of the effective interaction, including behavior of the expansion in orders of the reaction matrix. Statistical spectroscopy including fluctuations in energy levels and excitation strengths, and sum rules and strength distributions for various excitation processes, including single-nucleon transfer, β decay and multipole giant resonances. Studies of the inverse scattering problem. Studies of nuclear symmetries, of nuclear clustering, and of general nuclear structure by α-transfer reactions, and of nuclear shapes by (d, 3 He) reactions. (U.S.)

  13. Scientific and technical progress in high-energy astrophysics at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, N.A.; Jayanthi, U.B.; Jardim, J.O.D.; Braga, J.; Santo, C.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in high-energy Astrophysics pertains to the study of compact objects in galactic nuclei, binary systems and pulsars. These aspects are best understood by the study of the emissions in X- and gamma rays of these objects through the temporal variation in flux and spectrum. The Southern Hemisphere offers some of the unique objects for investigations such as galactic center, the Vela pulsar etc. For high temporal and spectra resolution studies two telescopes 'GeLi' and 'Pulsar' were designed and constructed. To support these scientific activities, a program in balloon launching and data acquisition facilities has been developed since 1971. The 'Balloon Launching Center' of INPE has capacity to launch balloons of -850,000 m 3 with payloads weighting about 1,000 Kg. Taking advantage of these facilities, project 'Bantar', with the goal to measure the atmospheric gamma-ray radiation in the Antartic Region, is under progress. (Author) [pt

  14. Crystalline Repository Project: Technical progress report for the period October 1, 1982--May 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This document reports the progress made on the development of a second geologic repository in crystalline rocks during the duration of the Crystalline Repository Project from its inception in October 1982 to its termination in May 1986. The reporting elements are arranged by the work breakdown structure so that related studies are presented together. The studies are reported by the Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD), successor to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. OWTD is a prime contractor of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Repository Technology Program Office, itself the successor to the Crystalline Repository Project Office. The studies include work by other DOE prime contractors and by contractors to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. 151 refs

  15. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory's research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL)

  16. Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Program. Semiannual technical progress report, October 1, 1982-March 3, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report provides descriptions and results of the technical effort during the first half of FY 83 on the Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Program. The work on Integration and Management (WBS 01) includes the preparation of the Advanced Systems Concept Evaluation Plan and the Advanced Systems Technology Development Plan in addition to the program management activities. The Market Definition (WBS 03) efforts considered the application of the Modular Reactor System with reforming (MRS-R) to the production of methanol and ammonia and the refining of petroleum. Within the Plant Technology (WBS 13) task there were activities to develop anlytical methods for investigation of Coolant Transport Behavior and to define methods and criteria for High Temperature Structural Engineering design. In addition to the work on the advanced HTGR for process heat users, new activities were initiated in support of the HTGR-SC/C Lead plant Protect (WBS 30 and 31). The Plant Simulation task (WBS 31) was initiated to develop a computer code for simulation of plant operation and for plant transient systems analysis. The efforts on the advanced HTGR systems was performed under the Modular Systems task (WBS 41) to study the potential for multiple small reactors to provide lower costs, improved safety, and higher availability than the large monolithic core reactors

  17. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  18. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Semiannual technical progress report, June 1-December 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The project's first objective is to establish, analytically, the cost and performance of design choices within the boundaries of the basic proposed concept. With these cost and performance measures as a guide, the second project objective is to design a cost-effective Dual Curvature collector module and collector field array. The third objective is to establish technical and economic concept feasibility through prototype fabrication and test. The final objective is to define the Dual Curvature collector commercialization requirements. The Dual Curvature collector uses a unique reflector module consisting of a reflective film that is tensioned on a reflector support frame. The tensioned membrane (film) surface approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid that is capable of linear focusing when the surface tracks the sun's apparent motion in one axis. The reflective film can be backed by polystyrene foam with an air space between the film and the foam surfaces. This provides damping of the reflector surface to minimize the effect of wind gusts and physical impacts. The baseline collector is intended to operate at a concentration of ten (10) or greater with a nominal absorber temperature of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F). The Component Research and Analysis tasks which lead to the selection of a baseline collector configuration are discussed. Also, some preliminary results of the Collector Module Design task are presented.

  19. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  20. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  1. Homocysteine Is an Oncometabolite in Breast Cancer, Which Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    increase in breast cancer, which results in changes in gene expression in tumor cells helping the tumors to grow and metastasize. The molecular basis...in changes in gene expression in tumor cells helping the tumors to grow and metastasize. The molecular basis for the increase in the levels of this...diseases and also a pregnancy disorder known as preeclampsia . Polymorphisms in MTHFR that decrease the catalytic activity of the enzyme are common in the

  2. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  3. AZU-1: A Candidate Breast Tumor Suppressor and Biomarker for Tumor Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Schmeichel, Karen L; Mian, I. Saira; Lelie`vre, Sophie; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2000-02-04

    To identify genes misregulated in the final stages of breast carcinogenesis, we performed differential display to compare the gene expression patterns of the human tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, HMT-3522-T4-2, with those of their immediate premalignant progenitors, HMT-3522-S2. We identified a novel gene, called anti-zuai-1 (AZU-1), that was abundantly expressed in non- and premalignant cells and tissues but was appreciably reduced in breast tumor cell types and in primary tumors. The AZU-1 gene encodes an acidic 571-amino-acid protein containing at least two structurally distinct domains with potential protein-binding functions: an N-terminal serine and proline-rich domain with a predicted immunoglobulin-like fold and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. In HMT-3522 cells, the bulk of AZU-1 protein resided in a detergent-extractable cytoplasmic pool and was present at much lower levels in tumorigenic T4-2 cells than in their nonmalignant counterparts. Reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of T4-2 cells, by means described previously, was accompanied by the up-regulation of AZU-1. In addition, reexpression of AZU-1 in T4-2 cells, using viral vectors, was sufficient to reduce their malignant phenotype substantially, both in culture and in vivo. These results indicate that AZU-1 is a candidate breast tumor suppressor that may exert its effects by promoting correct tissue morphogenesis.

  4. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    From 2009 inclusive, NINA has received economic support for research on power lines and wildlife from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) through the RENERGI Programme. The project is named 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' (OPTIPOL). It is scheduled for 5 years (2009-1013) and is part of the activities within CEDREN, i.e. the Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (cf. http://www.cedren.no). With a grid close to 200 000 km overhead power-lines, the associated rights-of-way (ROW) affect huge land areas in Norway. The overall goal is to develop predict-ing tools for optimal routing of power lines from an environmental perspective and assess technical and economic solutions to minimize conflicts with wildlife and habitat conservation. Thus, the OPTIPOL rationale is based on the belief that the negative effects of electricity transmission and distribution can be reduced with respect to birds and mammals. OPTIPOL has several ambitious objectives, and is divided into sub-projects and specific tasks. From the first of November a PhD-student became part of the project, a position that will be held for 4 years. The main objective of the PhD-activities will be to assess how and why different wildlife species use deforested areas below power lines, evaluate possible positive and negative effects of power-line ROWs, and assess the possibilities for quality improvement. Another part of the project is dedicated the effects of linear structures on movement patterns and distribution in the landscape in native deer species. Here we will examine how different spatial scales influence the processes that guide movement patterns, and responses to linear structures. Another focus will be small game species, with mountain hare, capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse as model species. The main objective will be to assess the impact of transforming ROW habitats into attractive small-game foraging

  5. Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC). Technical progress report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of materials science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special forums are among the mechanisms used by the SSSC to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of SSSC activities from May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier reports. During the above period, the SSSC has continued to track and participate, when requested, in the development of a Federal initiative on advanced materials and processing. Specifically, the SSSC is presently planning the 1993 SSSC Forum (to be cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) and the Washington Materials Forum (WMF)). The thrust will be to highlight the Federal Advanced Materials and Processing Program (AMPP). In keeping with its charge to identify and highlight specific areas for scientific and technological opportunities, the SSSC continued to oversee the conduct of a study on biomolecular materials. Preliminary plans also were developed for a study on neutron science, however, further activity is pending. A proposed study on ultrasmall devices has been expanded and absorbed into a broader context; the BPA, with SSSC participation, is preparing to hold a program initiation meeting to evaluate the need for a study on information technology and hardware

  6. Advanced converter technology. Technical progress report, May 23, 1979-May 22, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banic, C. V.; Eckhouse, S. A.; Kornbrust, F. J.; Lipman, K.; Peterson, J. L.; Rosati, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define an advanced converter system employing 1980's technology in all subsystem and component areas for use in electrochemical energy storage systems. Additional experimental effort will validate elements of the advanced commutation circuitry on a full-scale breadboard basis. Improved models of battery electrical characteristics are beng defined and experimental apparatus is being designed to measure these characteristics and to enable better definition of the battery-power conditioner interface. Improvement of energy-storage system performance through modification of battery converter characteristics will also be investigated. During this first year of the contract, a new more advanced concept for power conditioning based on a concept defined by United Technologies Corporation for fuel cell use was evaluated. This high switching frequency concept has the potential for significantly reducing the size and cost of battery plant power conditioners. As a result, the Department of Energy authorized redirection of the program to first evaluate this new concept and then to reorient the program to adopt this concept as the primary one. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  7. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  8. Supramolecular structures for photochemical energy conversion. Technical progress report, 1993--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This research project is concerned with the design, synthesis and study by photochemical and spectroscopic methods of complex molecular devices that mimic some important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Properly engineered molecules of this type can functionally mimic photosynthetic light harvesting (singlet-singlet energy transfer between chromophores), photoprotection from light-initiated singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoid polyenes), and, most importantly, photoinduced multistep electron transfer to generate charge-separated states that preserve some of the photon energy as chemical potential. During the last three years, progress has been made on several fronts, all of which are related to the overall goal. A biomimetic system based on carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads has been constructed that demonstrates photoinduced transmembrane charge separation which in turn drives transmembrane proton transfer. Another investigation has focused on the use of proton transfer reactions to stabilize the initial products of photoinduced electron transfer and thereby increase the yield of long-lived charge separation. A third study has investigated the influence of rigid molecular geometries and short donor-acceptor separations on photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Finally, generation and quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by chlorophyll aggregates has been studied. All four studies are described and results are discussed.

  9. Ion rings for magnetic fusion. Technical progress report, August 1, 1993--June 1, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    In Our Proposal ''Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion'' of January 6, 1993, Stage I of our Proposed Program plan (the 12 months) consisted of the following tasks: Experiments on the existing ion ring experimental system IREX to test a new magnetically-controlled anode plasma source (MAP) for the ion beam diode injector; numerical simulations of ion ring formation to optimize design parameters for the field reversed ion ring experiment (FIREX) to be built and operated in Stage II; and designing the power supply for the FIREX injector and the magnetic field system using results for A and B. During the past 7 1/2 months our work has progressed according to the above plan. In addition to testing the MAP diode on IREX we have tested the EMFAPS (evaporating metal film anode plasma source) anode on the Sandia National Laboratories funded LION pulsed power generator. As a result of these experiments, described this paper, we have arrived at the conclusion that EMFAPS anode for the ion at present because the MAP diode beam diode injector is our preferred choice for is still in an early stage of development

  10. Nuclear structure theory. Technical progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes progress in the following areas of research: Spectral Averaging, including the theory of level densities and partition functions for interacting nucleons, spectral distributions for fixed symmetries, general studies of distributions (in particular of strength distributions) considered as multivariate processes, and applications to the secular behavior of fluctuation measures; spectral and strength fluctuations, including study of the transitions between different fluctuation patterns (i.e., between different types of quantum chaos) as a conserved symmetry is gradually broken, application of these results to determining values of, or upper bounds for, the goodness of symmetries in complex nuclei, reduction of values or bounds to statements about the nuclear Hamiltonian, in particular for time-reversal symmetry, and specific studies of quantum chaos; statistical theory of pion absorption, including analysis of the (π,p) inclusive reaction; and quark theory of nuclear matter, involving development of models which show two limiting behaviors - that of a Fermi gas of nucleons (quark clusters) at low density and of a Fermi gas of quarks at high density. Both variational and exact solutions of one model have been found. 9 refs

  11. University of Colorado at Boulder Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes experimental work carried out between October 1, 1990, the closing of our Progress Report, and August 14, 1991 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contract DE-FG02-ER40269 with the United States Department of Energy. This contract supports broadly based experimental work in intermediate energy nuclear physics. The program includes pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF and LAMPF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/NTOF. The first results of spin-transfer observables in the isovector (rvec p,rvec n) reaction are included in this report. Our data confirm the tentative result from (rvec p,rvec p') reactions that the nuclear isovector spin response shows neither longitudinal enhancement nor transverse queching. Our program in quasifree scattering of high energy pions shows solid evidence of isoscalar enhancement of the nuclear nonspin response. We include several comparisons of the quasifree scattering of different probes. Results from our efforts in the design of accelerator RF cavities are also included in this report

  12. Proton resonance spectroscopy. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1992--November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Work on chaos in the low-lying levels of nuclei has continued on several fronts. The major effort has been study of the 29 Si(p,γ) reaction with the goal of establishing a complete level scheme for 30 P and analyzing the eigenvalue fluctuations for evidence of chaos. These measurements are in progress, and the current status is described. A related topic is the search for different signatures of chaos which do not require the extremely high degree of completeness and purity necessary for eigenvalue analyses; those efforts are discussed in Sections 2 and 3. The possibility of studying both parity violation and time-reversal invariance violation with charged particle resonances has been explored by performing calculations using experimentally measured resonance parameters. Large enhancements are indeed available; the results are discussed in Sections 4 and 5. Preparations for an experimental study of parity violation using these techniques are ongoing. An undergraduate project searching for experimental evidence of a parity dependence of level density is discussed in Section 6. A number of improvements to the operation of the TUNL KN accelerator have been implemented in the past three years. These are described in Section 7

  13. Proton resonance spectroscopy. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1992--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Work on chaos in the low-lying levels of nuclei has continued on several fronts. The major effort has been study of the {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction with the goal of establishing a complete level scheme for {sup 30}P and analyzing the eigenvalue fluctuations for evidence of chaos. These measurements are in progress, and the current status is described. A related topic is the search for different signatures of chaos which do not require the extremely high degree of completeness and purity necessary for eigenvalue analyses; those efforts are discussed in Sections 2 and 3. The possibility of studying both parity violation and time-reversal invariance violation with charged particle resonances has been explored by performing calculations using experimentally measured resonance parameters. Large enhancements are indeed available; the results are discussed in Sections 4 and 5. Preparations for an experimental study of parity violation using these techniques are ongoing. An undergraduate project searching for experimental evidence of a parity dependence of level density is discussed in Section 6. A number of improvements to the operation of the TUNL KN accelerator have been implemented in the past three years. These are described in Section 7.

  14. Technical progress report for UTSI/CFFF MHD program completion and related activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, James N.; Muehlhauser, Joel W.

    1998-01-01

    Routine preventive maintenance of the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is being performed. Modernization programs, funded under subcontract from Foster Wheeler Development Corporation by the DOE HIPPS Program, have been completed on the coal processing system, the data acquisition and control system and the control room. Late in the quarter, all work was stopped on maintenance of the CFFF at DOE instruction. Environmental restoration actions continued with monitoring of groundwater wells and holding pond effluent. Progress is reported on the approved groundwater remediation plan. Actions are underway to dispose of spent seed/ash mixtures and excess coal remaining from the MHD POC program. The status of five (5) High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) projects is reported. A summary is included of the results attained with sol-gel experiments with buffer layers and YBCO. The status of the cost/performance study of electron beam and PLD deposition is pre-sented. A summary of work performed in diagnostics for real time control of HTS processes is presented

  15. TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR UTSI/CFFF MHD PROGRAM COMPLETION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. JAMES N. CHAPMAN; DR. JOEL W. MUEHLHAUSER

    1998-10-23

    Routine preventive maintenance of the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is being performed. Modernization programs, funded under subcontract from Foster Wheeler Development Corporation by the DOE HIPPS Program, have been completed on the coal processing system, the data acquisition and control system and the control room. Late in the quarter, all work was stopped on maintenance of the CFFF at DOE instruction. Environmental restoration actions continued with monitoring of groundwater wells and holding pond effluent. Progress is reported on the approved groundwater remediation plan. Actions are underway to dispose of spent seed/ash mixtures and excess coal remaining from the MHD POC program. The status of five (5) High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) projects is reported. A summary is included of the results attained with sol-gel experiments with buffer layers and YBCO. The status of the cost/performance study of electron beam and PLD deposition is pre-sented. A summary of work performed in diagnostics for real time control of HTS processes is presented.

  16. Nuclear structure theory: Technical progress report for period September 1, 1986-August 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes progress in the following areas of research: (1) quark theory of nuclear matter, including further development of models in one-dimension with analytic solutions, numerical studies, bound properties, inclusion of spin and isospin degrees of freedom, excitation properties and response function; electron scattering, including application of sum rules to deeply inelastic scattering, and of quark models of nuclei; charge exchange in pion-nucleus reactions, including models of isotensor optical potential, optical theorem for double charge exchange, and coupled-channel calculations of single charge exchange; a unified theory of reaction dynamics and nuclear structure for intermediate energies, including diagrammatic formulation and development of appropriate computer programs; weak interactions: a study of the neutrino mass-matrix; bounds for time reversal noninvariance in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, obtained from spectral and strength fluctuations in complex nuclei, and separately from detailed balance in compound nuclear reactions. The relative sensitivities of the two methods are discussed; fluctuation measures for the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator; random matrices and symmetry-breaking in atomic spectra data; saturation effects for spectral measures in many-particle systems; and finally fluctuation-free statistical spectroscopy, applied to state densities and partition functions, including accurate absolute calculations of nuclear level spacings

  17. Technical progress report to the Department of Energy on the Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of materials science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special forums are among the mechanisms used by the SSSC to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of SSSC activities from May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier reports. During the above period, the SSSC has continued to track and participate, when requested, in the development of a Federal initiative on advanced materials and processing. Specifically, the SSSC is presently planning the 1993 SSSC Forum (to be cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) and the Washington Materials Forum (WNM)). The thrust will be to highlight the Federal Advanced Materials and Processing Program (AMPP). In keeping with its charge to identify and highlight specific areas for scientific and technological opportunities, the SSSC continued to oversee the conduct of a study on biomolecular materials. Preliminary plans also have been developed for studies on neutron scattering science, on ultrasmall devices, and on molecular routes to materials

  18. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  19. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-01-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  20. Characterization of the expression of the pro-metastatic Mena(INV) isoform during breast tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Madeleine J; Hughes, Shannon K; Rohani, Nazanin; Moufarrej, Mira N; Jones, Joan G; Condeelis, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    Several functionally distinct isoforms of the actin regulatory Mena are produced by alternative splicing during tumor progression. Forced expression of the Mena(INV) isoform drives invasion, intravasation and metastasis. However, the abundance and distribution of endogenously expressed Mena(INV) within primary tumors during progression remain unknown, as most studies to date have only assessed relative mRNA levels from dissociated tumor samples. We have developed a Mena(INV) isoform-specific monoclonal antibody and used it to examine Mena(INV) expression patterns in mouse mammary and human breast tumors. Mena(INV) expression increases during tumor progression and to examine the relationship between Mena(INV) expression and markers for epithelial or mesenchymal status, stemness, stromal cell types and hypoxic regions. Further, while Mena(INV) robustly expressed in vascularized areas of the tumor, it is not confined to cells adjacent to blood vessels. Altogether, these data demonstrate the specificity and utility of the anti-Mena(INV)-isoform specific antibody, and provide the first description of endogenous Mena(INV) protein expression in mouse and human tumors.

  1. Estrogen receptor (ER)α-regulated lipocalin 2 expression in adipose tissue links obesity with breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Brian G; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J; Krum, Susan A; Calkin, Anna C; Parks, Brian W; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Slamon, Dennis J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Hevener, Andrea L

    2015-02-27

    Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of estrogen receptor (ER)α promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ERα action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ERα in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ERα knock-out (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ERα deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ERα binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Because adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ERα deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned medium from ERα-null adipocytes and medium containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a subset of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and promigratory effects of ERα-deficient adipocyte-conditioned medium on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. SLC22A17 and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ERα expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Re-Appraisal of Estrogen Receptor Negative/Progesterone Receptor Positive (ER-/PR+) Breast Cancer Phenotype: True Subtype or Technical Artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Niamh M; Coll, J M; Lowery, A J; Hynes, S O; Kerin, M J; Sheehan, M; Brodie, C; Sweeney, K J

    2017-09-11

    Expression of the ER and PR receptors is routinely quantified in breast cancer as a predictive marker of response to hormonal therapy. Accurate determination of ER and PR status is critical to the optimal selection of patients for targeted therapy. The existence of an ER-/PR+ subtype is controversial, with debate centred on whether this represents a true phenotype or a technical artefact on immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim of this study was to investigate the true incidence and clinico-pathological features of ER-/PR+ breast cancers in a tertiary referral symptomatic breast unit. Clinico-pathological data were collected on invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. IHC for ER and PR receptors was repeated on all cases which were ER-/PR+, with the same paraffin block used for the initial diagnostic testing. Concordance between the diagnostic and repeat IHC was determined using validated testing. Complete data, including ER and PR status were available for 697 patients diagnosed during the study period. On diagnostic IHC, the immunophenotype of the breast tumours was: ER+/PR+ in 396 (57%), ER-/PR- in 157 (23%), ER+/PR- in 88 (12%) and ER-/PR+ in 56 (8.6%) patients. On repeat IHC of 48/56 ER-/PR+ tumours 45.8% were ER+/PR+, 6% were ER+/PR- and 43.7% were ER-/PR- None of the cases were confirmed to be ER-/PR+. The ER-/PR+ phenotypic breast cancer is likely to be the result of technical artefact. Prompt reassessment of patients originally assigned to this subtype who re-present with symptoms should be considered to ensure appropriate clinical management.

  3. ''The dermal internal brassiere flap,'' a new modification of inferior pedicle breast reduction technic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Metin; Karakaş, Ali O; Dokuyucu, Recep; Türkmen, Arif

    2015-06-01

    The inferior pedicle mammaplasty is particularly applied to large breasts with a long sternal notch to nipple distance. The present study reports modifications developed to solve the bottoming-out deformity, the lack of upper pole fullness and the wound healing problems seen at the reverse T-zone, known disadvantages of the inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty, and evaluates postoperative sensation. A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 32 underwent the same technique. In this technique, two pairs of quadrangular and triangular flaps were planned from the skin of resection sites. The triangular dermal flaps and quadrangular flaps were suspended from the periosteum of the 2nd and 4th ribs, respectively. The distance from the nipple to inframammary fold was measured at the postoperative 1st month and 1st year. In the postoperative period, a nipple-inframammary fold distance increase of over 2 cm was determined as bottoming-out deformity. Sensation evaluations were performed by subjective and objective tests. The mean sternal notch to nipple distance was 35.00 cm. After operation, the mean distance between the sternal notch and the nipple was 20.00 cm. NAC examination revealed normal sensation in all patients. Whereas the preoperative mean areolar threshold value was 36.70 g/mm(2), the postoperative first-year mean areolar pressure threshold value was 35.50 g/mm(2) (p value was 25.30 g/mm(2), whereas the postoperative first-year mean nipple pressure threshold value was 26.00 g/mm(2) (p = 0.5471). The postoperative first-month mean sternal notch to nipple distance value of the patients was 20.00 cm, whereas the postoperative first-year mean sternal notch to nipple distance value of the patients was 20.00 cm, (p = 0.0648). The postoperative first-month mean nipple to submammary fold distance value of the patients was 10.50 cm, the postoperative first-year mean nipple to submammary fold distance value of the patients was 11.00 cm (p disadvantages of the inferior

  4. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  5. LMFBR flexible pipe joint development program. Annual technical progress report, government fiscal year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Currently, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code does not allow the use of flexible pipe joints (bellows) in Section III, Class 1 reactor primary piping systems. Studies have shown that the primary piping loops of LMFBR's could be simplified by using these joints. This simplification translates directly into shorter primary piping runs and reduced costs for the primary piping system. Further cost savings result through reduced vault sizes and reduced containment building diameter. In addition, the use of flexible joints localizes the motions from thermally-induced piping growth into components which are specifically designed to accommodate this motion. This reduces the stress levels in the piping system and its components. It is thus economically and structurally important that flexible piping joints be available to the LMFBR designer. The overall objective of the Flexible Joint Program is to provide this availability. This will be accomplished through the development of ASME rules which allow the appropriate use of such joints in Section III, Class 1 piping systems and through the development and demonstration of construction methods which satisfy these rules. The rule development includes analytic and testing methodology formulations which will be supported by subscale bellows testing. The construction development and demonstration encompass the design, fabrication, and in-sodium testing of prototypical LMFBR plant-size flexible pipe joints which meet all ASME rule requirements. The satisfactory completion of these developmental goals will result in an approved flexible pipe joint design for the LMFBR. Progress is summarized in the following efforts undertaken during 1977 to accomplish these goals: (1) code case support, (2) engineering and design, (3) material development, (4) testing, and (5) manufacturing development

  6. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation in a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  8. Theory of high-energy-collision processes. Technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Progress is described in the following areas: (1) several years ago, surprisingly simple expressions were obtained for the differential cross sections of e + e - → μ + μ - γ and e + e - → e + e - γ at high energies. Such simple expressions were generalized to twelve other similar radiative processes in QED and QCD. Afterwards, it was found that these results can be derived easily with the help of helicity amplitudes. This method is being investigated for many other radiative processes; (2) in the two-dimensional Ising model, the horizontal and vertical interaction energies are usually taken to be different. When this idea of different interactions in different directions is applied to the Z 2 lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, a limiting case is found which is exactly solvable. Contrary to numerical calculations at the symmetry point, the phase transition is found to be of second order; (3) on the subject of supersymmetry, general helicity and spin sum rules were obtained for massless and massive supermultiplets, and a functional integral approach was found as a natural setting for Witten's criterion for the occurrence of dynamic symmetry breaking of supersymmetry. A systematic and exhaustive analysis of explicit soft breaking of global supersymmetry has also been carried out using the methods of superfields; (4) the renormalization of the massless Thirring model in the neighborhood of g = -π/2 was studied. The results are consistent with those found previously by placing the model on a lattice; and (5) in studying the effect of laboratory temperature on scattering processes, it was found that transport phenomena play an important role. As a preparation for this study, an exactly solvable case of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation has been found and studied

  9. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado technical progress report, 1976 and proposal for continuation of contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1975 to November 1, 1976. The low energy nuclear physics section is dominated by light-ion reaction studies which span a wide range. These include both two-neutron and two-proton transfer reactions, charge exchange and inelastic scattering, as well as single nucleon transfer reactions. The nuclei studied vary widely in their mass and characteristics. These reaction studies have been aided by the multi-use scattering chamber which now allows the energy-loss-spectrometer beam preparation system (beam swinger) to shift from charged particle studies to neutron time-of-flight studies with a minimum loss of time. The intermediate energy section reflects the increase in activity accompanying the arrival of LAMPF data and the initiation of (p,d) studies at the Indiana separated-sector cyclotron. The nucleon removal results provided by the π beam at EPICS previous to completion of the spectrometer have shown that nuclear effects dominate this process, so that the widely used free interaction picture is inadequate. The section entitled ''Other Activities'' reveals continuing activities in new applications of nuclear techniques to problems in medicine and biology. Reactions important to astrophysics continue to be investigated and our trace-element program remains at a high level of activity. The theoretical section reports new progress in understanding magnitudes of two-step reactions by inclusion of finite-range effects. A new finite-range program which is fast and economical has been completed. Intermediate energy results include calculations of π-γ angular correlations, low energy π-nucleus interactions, as well as (p,d) and nucleon scattering calculations for intermediate energies

  10. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  11. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds)

  12. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  13. [Transposition of the cephalic vein in free flap breast reconstruction: Technical note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silhol, T; Suffee, T; Hivelin, M; Lantieri, L

    2018-02-01

    Free flaps have become a reliable practice for breast reconstruction. However, the venous congestion is still the most frequent reason of flap failure. It is due to bad quality of the internal mammary veins, a preferential superficial venous outflow of the flap or due to venous thrombosis. The transposition of the cephalic vein could useful in some cases. We describe the surgical technique and suggest an intraoperative algorithm. Seventeen patients (15 DIEP and 2 PAP) were included. Twenty nine point four percent had an unusable internal mammary vein, 23.5% a preferential superficial venous outflow and 47.1% a venous thrombosis. The length of the cephalic vein dissected varied from 15 to 25cm. The mean time of dissection was 39min. There was no flap failure after cephalic vein transposition. The sequelae were one or two scars on the arm without any functional morbidity. The transposition of the cephalic vein is a reliable, less morbid alternative in case of bad quality internal mammary vein with a good quality internal mammary artery, in case of an additional venous outflow necessity or in case of venous thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  15. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  17. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  18. ANX7 as a Bio-Marker in Prostate and Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Srivastava

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANX7 gene codes for a Ca2+-activated GTPase, which has been implicated in both exocytotic secretion in cells and control of growth. In this review, we summarize information regarding increased tumor frequency in the Anx7 knockout mice, ANX7 growth suppression of human cancer cell lines, and ANX7 expression in human tumor tissue micro-arrays. The loss of ANX7 is significant in metastatic and hormone refractory prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. In addition, ANX7 expression has prognostic value for predicting survival of breast cancer patients.

  19. I-NERI QUARTERLY TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT - JANUARY 1 - MARCH 31, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    codes. The three categories of experiments were performed in the facility; (1) upper pool cooling trip test, (2) LOFC experiment, (3) emissivity measurement experiment. (C) Prof. NO continued Task 3. (Prof NO) The experimental work of air ingress is going on without any concern: Geometry and size effect test has been completed. The conversion factor for internal surface area was obtained through this experiment. Burn-off test was performed and the uniformity of internal reaction was confirmed. (D) INEEL engineers continued to extend the diffusion model for multiple chemical species and made some calculations. (E) Prof. Lee and Martin at University of Michigan continued to analyze the effect of the stochastic fuel on the neutronic analysis and have initiated fuel depletion calculations for the VHTGR core. Progress during the past quarter includes: Further analysis of stochastic fuel geometry; Preliminary Monte Carlo depletion of full-core VHTGR; and Installation of MCNP5 on Unix cluster

  20. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, Kjetil; Bartzke, Gundula; Broeseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank; Jacobsen, Karl-Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaloey, Paal; May, Roel; Meaas, Roger; Nygaaard, Torgeir; Resnaes, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Thomassen, Joern

    2012-07-01

    birds in the database, compared to only 117 a year earlier. WP5 - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) toolbox for optimal route routing of power lines', has developed an LCP-pilot to demonstrate the LCP method, based on the impact studies were undertaken prior to construction of a 420 kV transmission line in Central Norway 2005. Relevant economic, ecological and technological environment criteria based on suggestions from interested users (NGOs, government, industry, etc.), was used. LCP-pilot and a fuzzy-logic approach of this was demonstrated in the first dialogue-based workshop, 23.-24. april 2012. The seminar, which had an emphasis on criteria definitions were followed up with a working seminar that focused criterion values ??on 20 november 2012. Lecture - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) Toolbox for Optimal Routing of Power Lines, -was presented and submitted as contributions to the conference report from 'The 10th ROW Conference' in Arizona, 'The 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA12) ' in Porto, Portugal, and 'The ESRI European User Conference' in Oslo. WP6 - 'Birds and camouflaging of power lines', has almost completed the final report, 'Power line camouflaging. An assessment of the ecological and technical challenges'. 'Because of the budget situation in CEDREN However, completion of the report postponed until the end of April 2013. WP7 - 'Effect of line marking / modifications remedial measures against bird mortality' has almost completed the final report 'Opportunities and limitations in terms of reducing mortality in birds due to collision and electrocution.' Due to overall budget situation in CEDREN the report deferred to the end of april 2013. WP8, 'guidelines for technological solutions that may reduce mortality in birds because of the power line's', has focused topics relating to the labeling, design, insulation, camouflage and wiring. The results, which are presented in the notes and articles, will be implemented in

  1. Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational......-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most...... notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected...

  2. BRD7 inhibits the Warburg effect and tumor progression through inactivation of HIF1α/LDHA axis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Weihong; Luo, Yanwei; Wang, Xinye; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hui; Wang, Heran; Fu, Yaojie; Liu, Shanshan; Yin, Shanghelin; Li, Jianglei; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Songqing; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Wei; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Guiyuan; Ren, Caiping; Tan, Ming; Zhou, Ming

    2018-05-03

    The bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) was first identified as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and has critical roles in cancer development and progression. However, the regulatory roles and mechanisms of BRD7 in cancer metabolism are still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BRD7 was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and was identified as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. Meanwhile, BRD7 could suppress cell proliferation, initiate cell apoptosis and reduce aerobic glycolysis, suggesting that BRD7 plays a tumor suppressive roles in breast cancer. Mechanistically, BRD7 could negatively regulate a critical glycolytic enzyme LDHA through directly interaction with its upstream transcription factor, HIF1α, facilitating degradation of HIF1α mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, restoring the expression of LDHA in breast cancer cells could reverse the effect of BRD7 on aerobic glycolysis, cell proliferation, and tumor formation, as well as the expression of cell cycle and apopotosis related molecules such as cyclin D1, CDK4, P21, and c-PARP both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that BRD7 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and represses the glycolysis and tumor progression through inactivation of HIF1α/LDHA transcription axis.

  3. Palbociclib Combined with Fulvestrant in Premenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer and Prior Progression on Endocrine Therapy: PALOMA-3 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Loi, Sherene; André, Fabrice; Harbeck, Nadia; Verma, Sunil; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Puyana Theall, Kathy; Hoffman, Justin; Zhang, Ke; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was assessed in premenopausal women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ET). One hundred eight premenopausal endocrine-refractory women ≥18 years with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ABC were among 521 women randomized 2:1 (347:174) to fulvestrant (500 mg) ± goserelin with either palbociclib (125 mg/day orally, 3 weeks on, 1 week off) or placebo. This analysis assessed whether the overall tolerable safety profile and significant progression-free survival (PFS) improvement extended to premenopausal women. Potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and ovarian suppression with goserelin were assessed via plasma pharmacokinetics and biochemical analyses, respectively. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01942135) RESULTS: Median PFS for premenopausal women in the palbociclib ( n  = 72) versus placebo arm ( n  = 36) was 9.5 versus 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.87), and consistent with the significant PFS improvement in the same arms for postmenopausal women. Any-grade and grade ≤3 neutropenia, leukopenia, and infections were among the most frequent adverse events reported in the palbociclib arm with concurrent goserelin administration. Hormone concentrations were similar between treatment arms and confirmed sustained ovarian suppression. Clinically relevant DDIs were not observed. Palbociclib combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for premenopausal women with prior endocrine-resistant HR+/HER2- ABC. Inclusion of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in pivotal combination ET trials facilitates access to novel drugs for young women and should be considered as a new standard for clinical trial design. PALOMA-3, the first registrational

  4. WAVE3 is a Biomarker for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    insure reproducibility of the results. f) Repeat tasks a to e for the specimens with questionable results. Completed. See below Task 7: A BC TMA...miRs 570, 542, 103, 107 and 302, all of which have been found to be deregulated during cancer progression and metastasis [26,33,39–44], therefore

  5. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  6. Modeling the impacts of climate change and technical progress on the wheat yield in inland China: An autoregressive distributed lag approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shiyan; Song, Genxin; Qin, Yaochen; Ye, Xinyue; Lee, Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of climate change and technical progress on the wheat yield per unit area from 1970 to 2014 in Henan, the largest agricultural province in China, using an autoregressive distributed lag approach. The bounded F-test for cointegration among the model variables yielded evidence of a long-run relationship among climate change, technical progress, and the wheat yield per unit area. In the long run, agricultural machinery and fertilizer use both had significantly positive impacts on the per unit area wheat yield. A 1% increase in the aggregate quantity of fertilizer use increased the wheat yield by 0.19%. Additionally, a 1% increase in machine use increased the wheat yield by 0.21%. In contrast, precipitation during the wheat growth period (from emergence to maturity, consisting of the period from last October to June) led to a decrease in the wheat yield per unit area. In the short run, the coefficient of the aggregate quantity of fertilizer used was negative. Land size had a significantly positive impact on the per unit area wheat yield in the short run. There was no significant short-run or long-run impact of temperature on the wheat yield per unit area in Henan Province. The results of our analysis suggest that climate change had a weak impact on the wheat yield, while technical progress played an important role in increasing the wheat yield per unit area. The results of this study have implications for national and local agriculture policies under climate change. To design well-targeted agriculture adaptation policies for the future and to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on the wheat yield, climate change and technical progress factors should be considered simultaneously. In addition, adaptive measures associated with technical progress should be given more attention.

  7. Modeling the impacts of climate change and technical progress on the wheat yield in inland China: An autoregressive distributed lag approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Zhai

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the impacts of climate change and technical progress on the wheat yield per unit area from 1970 to 2014 in Henan, the largest agricultural province in China, using an autoregressive distributed lag approach. The bounded F-test for cointegration among the model variables yielded evidence of a long-run relationship among climate change, technical progress, and the wheat yield per unit area. In the long run, agricultural machinery and fertilizer use both had significantly positive impacts on the per unit area wheat yield. A 1% increase in the aggregate quantity of fertilizer use increased the wheat yield by 0.19%. Additionally, a 1% increase in machine use increased the wheat yield by 0.21%. In contrast, precipitation during the wheat growth period (from emergence to maturity, consisting of the period from last October to June led to a decrease in the wheat yield per unit area. In the short run, the coefficient of the aggregate quantity of fertilizer used was negative. Land size had a significantly positive impact on the per unit area wheat yield in the short run. There was no significant short-run or long-run impact of temperature on the wheat yield per unit area in Henan Province. The results of our analysis suggest that climate change had a weak impact on the wheat yield, while technical progress played an important role in increasing the wheat yield per unit area. The results of this study have implications for national and local agriculture policies under climate change. To design well-targeted agriculture adaptation policies for the future and to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on the wheat yield, climate change and technical progress factors should be considered simultaneously. In addition, adaptive measures associated with technical progress should be given more attention.

  8. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out by personnel at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from about August 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982, under contract with the Department of Energy. The intermediate energy studies summarized in this report were carried out at the meson physics facilities at Los Alamos (LAMPF), the cyclotron at Indiana University (IUCF), and the meson physics facilities at Vancouver (TRIUMF). This year, for the first time, intermediate energy experimental studies are being reported in separate documents from the low energy and theoretical nuclear physics efforts. Experimental studies are reported on pion-nucleus interactions, charge exchange reactions, nucleon transfer reactions, and apparatus development

  9. 1996 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Summaries of the researches are grouped into programs as follows: research and development in food and agriculture; research and development in health, environment and industry which includes all the PNRI research projects in 1996; scientific and technological services; and the nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards of the institute

  10. 1997 technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards.

  11. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    During the present contract period Phaedrus has begun operation as a true tandem mirror. This was accomplished by achieving the rf sustained mode in which the plug densities were built up by a combination of central cell gas puffing and plug ICRH following stream gun turn off. It was demonstrated that the tandem mirror plasma could be sustained by plug ICRH for up to 1 msec following decay of the external plasma. In this mode plasma characteristics were no longer dominated by problems associated with a high conductivity stream gun plasma in the external region (as was the case in many previous experiments in Phaedrus). Among these problems were (1) line tying which significantly reduced instabilities in a way that would not apply to reactors and (2) low electron temperatures which had been held to approx. 20 eV

  12. 1999 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards

  13. 1999 technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards.

  14. 1996 technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Summaries of the researches are grouped into programs as follows: research and development in food and agriculture; research and development in health, environment and industry which includes all the PNRI research projects in 1996; scientific and technological services; and the nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards of the institute.

  15. 1997 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in the fields of agriculture, environment and industry, scientific and technological services and nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards

  16. Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; R.C. Greenlund

    2002-12-31

    Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide product with little salt and no hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gas generating capability, which, if isolated from high alkali conditions, would pose no reactivity concerns. The US aluminum industry has historically, along with the steel industry, been a leader in recycling metal. The findings from this project, increased metal recovery, improved salt recycling, and demonstrated end uses for oxide residues, will go a long way in helping the aluminum industry obtain 100% material utilization and zero discharge.

  17. 1995 technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Summaries of the researches are grouped into programs as follows: research and development which covers all the PNRI research projects in 1994; scientific and technological services; and the nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards of the institute

  18. Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Ronney

    2004-08-26

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. The corona generator can also be used as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. Higher peak pressures and faster pressure rise times were realized consistently in all test chambers versus standard spark plug ignition. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder to The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions including cylinder pressure monitoring. A ceramic corona electrode has been designed that fits in the new test engine and is capable of withstanding the pressures and temperatures encountered inside the combustion chamber. The corona ignition system was tested on the engine and an increase in both peak pressure and IMEP were seen in the initial test. There are issues that must be addressed before on-engine testing can continue such as EMF interference from the corona generator and electrical insulation on portions of the piston and cylinder head to prevent arcing. The EMF issue can be solved with proper shielding and grounding and various ceramic coatings are being researched for electrical insulation.

  19. Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, G.R.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    During the past quartile (two month period) most attention has been concentrated on the problem of definition critical temperature at which ''wet'' corrosion first became operable. It has been shown that, in principle, ''wet'' corrosion processes can not be ignored for Yucca Mountain, even for initial times, when the temperature of the surface of containers is well above the boiling temperature of water for the prevailing conditions. This is because the surfaces are covered by highly hydrophilic oxides (e.g. Fe 2 O 3 , NiO, Cr 2 O 3 ) that will hydrate to the form of corresponding hydroxides, which are proton conductors, at least when in the ''wet'' condition. Because proton conduction and the presence of ''bound'' water are all that are required for the external environment to support metallic corrosion in either its general or localized form. Thus, the temperature of dehydration of the hydroxide, e.g. M(OH) 2 → MO + H 2 O(g), is a better criterion for the upper temperature limit for ''wet'' corrosion than is the boiling temperature of ''bulk'' water. During this first task, we have reviewed the existing thermodynamic data base for the dehydration of metal hydroxides and analytical expressions have been developed that allow the upper temperature limit to be estimated

  20. Hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis in middle age obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglan; McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Slater, Andrew; Huang, Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamus-adipocyte axis is associated with an antiobesity and anticancer phenotype in animal models of melanoma and colon cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator in the hypothalamus leading to preferential sympathoneural activation of adipose tissue and the ensuing resistance to obesity and cancer. Here, we generated middle age obese mice by high fat diet feeding for a year and investigated the effects of hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF on a hormone receptor-positive mammary tumor model. The recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-mediated overexpression of BDNF led to marked weight loss and decrease of adiposity without change of food intake. BDNF gene therapy improved glucose tolerance, alleviated steatosis, reduced leptin level, inhibited mouse breast cancer EO771 growth, and prevented the metastasis. The reduced tumor growth in BDNF-treated mice was associated with reduced angiogenesis, decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced adipocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation. Moreover, BDNF gene therapy reduced inflammation markers in the hypothalamus, the mammary gland, the subcutaneous fat, and the mammary tumor. Our results suggest that manipulating a single gene in the brain may influence multiple mechanisms implicated in obesity-cancer association and provide a target for the prevention and treatment of both obesity and cancer.

  1. In Vivo Investigation of Breast Cancer Progression by Use of an Internal Control1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, John; Haller, Jodi; Shih, Helen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging of breast cancer has been considered for detecting functional and molecular characteristics of diseases in clinical and preclinical settings. Applied to laboratory research, photonic investigations offer a highly versatile tool for preclinical imaging and drug discovery. A particular advantage of the optical method is the availability of multiple spectral bands for performing imaging. Herein, we capitalize on this feature to demonstrate how it is possible to use different wavelengths to offer internal controls and significantly improve the observation accuracy in molecular imaging applications. In particular, we show the independent in vivo detection of cysteine proteases along with tumor permeability and interstitial volume measurements using a dual-wavelength approach. To generate results with a view toward clinically geared studies, a transgenic Her2/neu mouse model that spontaneously developed mammary tumors was used. In vivo findings were validated against conventional ex vivo tests such as histology and Western blot analyses. By correcting for biodistribution parameters, the dual-wavelength method increases the accuracy of molecular observations by separating true molecular target from probe biodistribution. As such, the method is highly appropriate for molecular imaging studies where often probe delivery and target presence are not independently assessed. On the basis of these findings, we propose the dual-wavelength/normalization approach as an essential method for drug discovery and preclinical imaging studies. PMID:19242603

  2. Analysis of Changes in SUMO-2/3 Modification during Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramonian, Divya; Raghunayakula, Sarita; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    SUMOylation is an essential posttranslational modification and regulates many cellular processes. Dysregulation of SUMOylation plays a critical role in metastasis, yet how its perturbation affects this lethal process of cancer is not well understood. We found that SUMO-2/3 modification is greatly...... in metastatic cells. Targets with altered SUMOylation are involved in cell cycle, migration, inflammation, glycolysis, gene expression, and SUMO/ubiquitin pathways, suggesting that perturbations of SUMO-2/3 modification might contribute to metastasis by affecting these processes. Consistent with this, up...... progression and metastasis....

  3. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets : Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. Methods: 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have

  4. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets: Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Janine; ten Voorde, Marloes; van Engen, Ruben E.; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; Pijnappel, Ruud; Droogh-de Greve, Kitty; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2015-01-01

    To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have one additional image

  5. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication

  6. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  7. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index

  8. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  9. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  10. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-01-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index

  11. Correlations of differentially expressed gap junction connexins Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx43 and Cx46 with breast cancer progression and prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivett Teleki

    Full Text Available Connexins and their cell membrane channels contribute to the control of cell proliferation and compartmental functions in breast glands and their deregulation is linked to breast carcinogenesis. Our aim was to correlate connexin expression with tumor progression and prognosis in primary breast cancers.Meta-analysis of connexin isotype expression data of 1809 and 1899 breast cancers from the Affymetrix and Illumina array platforms, respectively, was performed. Expressed connexins were also monitored at the protein level in tissue microarrays of 127 patients equally representing all tumor grades, using immunofluorescence and multilayer, multichannel digital microscopy. Prognostic correlations were plotted in Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using the log-rank test and cox-regression analysis in univariate and multivariate models.The expression of GJA1/Cx43, GJA3/Cx46 and GJB2/Cx26 and, for the first time, GJA6/Cx30 and GJB1/Cx32 was revealed both in normal human mammary glands and breast carcinomas. Within their subfamilies these connexins can form homo- and heterocellular epithelial channels. In cancer, the array datasets cross-validated each other's prognostic results. In line with the significant correlations found at mRNA level, elevated Cx43 protein levels were linked with significantly improved breast cancer outcome, offering Cx43 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker stronger than vascular invasion or necrosis. As a contrary, elevated Cx30 mRNA and protein levels were associated with a reduced disease outcome offering Cx30 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker outperforming mitotic index and necrosis. Elevated versus low Cx43 protein levels allowed the stratification of grade 2 tumors into good and poor relapse free survival subgroups, respectively. Also, elevated versus low Cx30 levels stratified grade 3 patients into poor and good overall survival subgroups, respectively.Differential expression of Cx43 and Cx

  12. A case report of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing pathological complete response to weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab treatment following disease progression during anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Shigematsu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the addition of bevacizumab to standard adjuvant chemotherapy is not recommended in unselected triple negative breast cancer, the potent effect on tumor shrinkage should be considered in the treatment of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing disease progression during standard NAC.

  13. Progesterone receptor blockade in human breast cancer cells decreases cell cycle progression through G2/M by repressing G2/M genes

    OpenAIRE

    Clare, Susan E.; Gupta, Akash; Choi, MiRan; Ranjan, Manish; Lee, Oukseub; Wang, Jun; Ivancic, David Z.; Kim, J. Julie; Khan, Seema A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The synthesis of specific, potent progesterone antagonists adds potential agents to the breast cancer prevention and treatment armamentarium. The identification of individuals who will benefit from these agents will be a critical factor for their clinical success. Methods We utilized telapristone acetate (TPA; CDB-4124) to understand the effects of progesterone receptor (PR) blockade on proliferation, apoptosis, promoter binding, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. We then...

  14. Limited utility of tissue micro-arrays in detecting intra-tumoral heterogeneity in stem cell characteristics and tumor progression markers in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kündig, Pascale; Giesen, Charlotte; Jackson, Hartland; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Papassotirolopus, Bärbel; Freiberger, Sandra Nicole; Aquino, Catharine; Opitz, Lennart; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2018-05-08

    Intra-tumoral heterogeneity has been recently addressed in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. A concept describing the origin of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is the cancer stem-cell hypothesis, proposing the existence of cancer stem cells that can self-renew limitlessly and therefore lead to tumor progression. Clonal evolution in accumulated single cell genomic alterations is a further possible explanation in carcinogenesis. In this study, we addressed the question whether intra-tumoral heterogeneity can be reliably detected in tissue-micro-arrays in breast cancer by comparing expression levels of conventional predictive/prognostic tumor markers, tumor progression markers and stem cell markers between central and peripheral tumor areas. We analyzed immunohistochemical expression and/or gene amplification status of conventional prognostic tumor markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6), tumor progression markers (PTEN, PIK3CA, p53, Ki-67) and stem cell markers (mTOR, SOX2, SOX9, SOX10, SLUG, CD44, CD24, TWIST) in 372 tissue-micro-array samples from 72 breast cancer patients. Expression levels were compared between central and peripheral tumor tissue areas and were correlated to histopathological grading. 15 selected cases additionally underwent RNA sequencing for transcriptome analysis. No significant difference in any of the analyzed between central and peripheral tumor areas was seen with any of the analyzed methods/or results that showed difference. Except mTOR, PIK3CA and SOX9 (nuclear) protein expression, all markers correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with histopathological grading both in central and peripheral areas. Our results suggest that intra-tumoral heterogeneity of stem-cell and tumor-progression markers cannot be reliably addressed in tissue-micro-array samples in breast cancer. However, most markers correlated strongly with histopathological grading confirming prognostic information as expression profiles were independent on the site of the

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996

  16. Progression criteria for cancer antigen 15.3 and carcinoembryonic antigen in metastatic breast cancer compared by computer simulation of marker data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Hyltoft Petersen, P; Dombernowsky, P

    2000-01-01

    .3 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations were combined with representative values for background variations in a computer simulation model. Fifteen criteria for assessment of longitudinal tumor marker data were obtained from the literature and computerized. Altogether, 7200 different patients, each based on 50......BACKGROUND: We investigated the utility of computer simulation models for performance comparisons of different tumor marker assessment criteria to define progression or nonprogression of metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Clinically relevant values for progressive cancer antigen 15...... of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation model is a fast, effective, and inexpensive approach for comparing the diagnostic potential of assessment criteria during clinically relevant conditions of steady-state and progressive disease. The model systems can be used to generate tumor marker assessment...

  17. Progress of the correlation study between mammographic appearances and expression of p53, Ki-67 in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors. The occurrence and development of breast cancer are often accompanied by abnormal gene expression. It has been well accepted that p53, Ki -67 are the commonly used biological indicators for clinical endocrine therapy and prognosis prediction. The oncogene expression reflects the malignant biological behavior of breast cancer from different perspectives. Those aggressive behaviors cause a variety of changes in histopathology and thus in imaging. Therefore, the imaging features of breast cancer may indirectly demonstrate the status of p53, Ki-67. Until now, because of its facility, low cost and high accuracy, mammography is still the preferred method in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The relationship of mammographic appearances and gene expression in patients with breast cancer has potential clinical value in preoperative evaluation and planning of non-surgical treatment for those who are not able to perform immunohistochemistry. (authors)

  18. Progesterone receptor blockade in human breast cancer cells decreases cell cycle progression through G2/M by repressing G2/M genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Susan E; Gupta, Akash; Choi, MiRan; Ranjan, Manish; Lee, Oukseub; Wang, Jun; Ivancic, David Z; Kim, J Julie; Khan, Seema A

    2016-05-23

    The synthesis of specific, potent progesterone antagonists adds potential agents to the breast cancer prevention and treatment armamentarium. The identification of individuals who will benefit from these agents will be a critical factor for their clinical success. We utilized telapristone acetate (TPA; CDB-4124) to understand the effects of progesterone receptor (PR) blockade on proliferation, apoptosis, promoter binding, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. We then identified a set of genes that overlap with human breast luteal-phase expressed genes and signify progesterone activity in both normal breast cells and breast cancer cell lines. TPA administration to T47D cells results in a 30 % decrease in cell number at 24 h, which is maintained over 72 h only in the presence of estradiol. Blockade of progesterone signaling by TPA for 24 h results in fewer cells in G2/M, attributable to decreased expression of genes that facilitate the G2/M transition. Gene expression data suggest that TPA affects several mechanisms that progesterone utilizes to control gene expression, including specific post-translational modifications, and nucleosomal organization and higher order chromatin structure, which regulate access of PR to its DNA binding sites. By comparing genes induced by the progestin R5020 in T47D cells with those increased in the luteal-phase normal breast, we have identified a set of genes that predict functional progesterone signaling in tissue. These data will facilitate an understanding of the ways in which drugs such as TPA may be utilized for the prevention, and possibly the therapy, of human breast cancer.

  19. Progesterone receptor blockade in human breast cancer cells decreases cell cycle progression through G2/M by repressing G2/M genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, Susan E.; Gupta, Akash; Choi, MiRan; Ranjan, Manish; Lee, Oukseub; Wang, Jun; Ivancic, David Z.; Kim, J. Julie; Khan, Seema A.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of specific, potent progesterone antagonists adds potential agents to the breast cancer prevention and treatment armamentarium. The identification of individuals who will benefit from these agents will be a critical factor for their clinical success. We utilized telapristone acetate (TPA; CDB-4124) to understand the effects of progesterone receptor (PR) blockade on proliferation, apoptosis, promoter binding, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. We then identified a set of genes that overlap with human breast luteal-phase expressed genes and signify progesterone activity in both normal breast cells and breast cancer cell lines. TPA administration to T47D cells results in a 30 % decrease in cell number at 24 h, which is maintained over 72 h only in the presence of estradiol. Blockade of progesterone signaling by TPA for 24 h results in fewer cells in G2/M, attributable to decreased expression of genes that facilitate the G2/M transition. Gene expression data suggest that TPA affects several mechanisms that progesterone utilizes to control gene expression, including specific post-translational modifications, and nucleosomal organization and higher order chromatin structure, which regulate access of PR to its DNA binding sites. By comparing genes induced by the progestin R5020 in T47D cells with those increased in the luteal-phase normal breast, we have identified a set of genes that predict functional progesterone signaling in tissue. These data will facilitate an understanding of the ways in which drugs such as TPA may be utilized for the prevention, and possibly the therapy, of human breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2355-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  1. Progress in HER2 testing in breast cancer: multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and automated immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moelans, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic changes in sporadic breast cancer is amplification of the HER2 gene, usually resulting in protein overexpression on the cell membrane and growth activation of the cells. Breast cancer patients that have this HER2 amplification have a worse prognosis but can be

  2. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    of genistein and other flavonoids in human breast cancer cells in vitro, Nutr Cancer, 27: 31-40, 1997. 13 de la,P.C., Otero-Franqui,E., Martinez...properties of genistein and other flavonoids in human breast cancer cells in vitro, Nutr Cancer, 27: 31-40, 1997. 3 Okabe,Y., Shimazu,T. and Tanimoto,H

  3. Inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate upregulates C-reactive protein via C/EBPβ and potentiates breast cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, E.S.; Cha, Y.; Ham, M.; Jung, J.; Kim, S.G.; Hwang, S.; Kleemann, R.; Moon, A.

    2014-01-01

    A crucial role of the inflammatory lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in breast cancer aggressiveness has been reported. Recent clinical studies have suggested that C-reactive protein (CRP) has a role in breast cancer development. However, limited information is available on the molecular basis for

  4. P38 delta MAPK promotes breast cancer progression and lung metastasis by enhancing cell proliferation and cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, M; Canals, D; Adada, M; Coant, N; Salama, M F; Helke, K L; Arthur, J S; Shroyer, K R; Kitatani, K; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    2017-11-23

    The protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) delta isoform (p38δ) is a poorly studied member of the MAPK family. Data analysis from The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that p38δ is highly expressed in all types of human breast cancers. Using a human breast cancer tissue array, we confirmed elevation in cancer tissue. The breast cancer mouse model, MMTV-PyMT (PyMT), developed breast tumors with lung metastasis; however, mice deleted in p38δ (PyMT/p38δ -/- ) exhibited delayed primary tumor formation and highly reduced lung metastatic burden. At the cellular level, we demonstrate that targeting of p38δ in breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 resulted in a reduced rate of cell proliferation. In addition, cells lacking p38δ also displayed an increased cell-matrix adhesion and reduced cell detachment. This effect on cell adhesion was molecularly supported by the regulation of the focal adhesion kinase by p38δ in the human breast cell lines. These studies define a previously unappreciated role for p38δ in breast cancer development and evolution by regulating tumor growth and altering metastatic properties. This study proposes MAPK p38δ protein as a key factor in breast cancer. Lack of p38δ resulted in reduced primary tumor size and blocked the metastatic potential to the lungs.

  5. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  6. HSP90 inhibition is effective in breast cancer: a phase II trial of tanespimycin (17-AAG) plus trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer progressing on trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shanu; Stopeck, Alison; Linden, Hannah; Solit, David; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Rosen, Neal; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Dickler, Maura; Moynahan, Mary E; Sugarman, Steven; Ma, Weining; Patil, Sujata; Norton, Larry; Hannah, Alison L; Hudis, Clifford

    2011-08-01

    HSP90 is a chaperone protein required for the stability of a variety of client proteins. 17-Demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a natural product that binds to HSP90 and inhibits its activity, thereby inducing the degradation of these clients. In preclinical studies, HER2 is one of the most sensitive known client proteins of 17-AAG. On the basis of these data and activity in a phase I study, we conducted a phase II study of 17-AAG (tanespimycin) with trastuzumab in advanced trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive breast cancer. We enrolled patients with metastatic HER2(+) breast cancer whose disease had previously progressed on trastuzumab. All patients received weekly treatment with tanespimycin at 450 mg/m(2) intravenously and trastuzumab at a conventional dose. Therapy was continued until disease progression. The primary endpoint was response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Thirty-one patients were enrolled with a median age of 53 years and a median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of 90%. The most common toxicities, largely grade 1, were diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, and headache. The overall response rate was 22%, the clinical benefit rate [complete response + partial response + stable disease] was 59%, the median progression-free survival was 6 months (95% CI: 4-9), and the median overall survival was 17 months (95% CI: 16-28). This is the first phase II study to definitively show RECIST-defined responses for 17-AAG in solid tumors. Tanespimycin plus trastuzumab has significant anticancer activity in patients with HER2-positive, metastatic breast cancer previously progressing on trastuzumab. Further research exploring this therapeutic interaction and the activity of HSP90 inhibitors is clearly warranted. ©2011 AACR.

  7. [Psychological assessment of patients who have ++undergone breast reconstruction using 2 different technics: autologous tissue versus prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchelli, S; Leone, M S; Passarelli, B; Perniciaro, G; Capelli, M; Baracco, G; Alberisio, A; Santi, P L

    1995-05-01

    Breast reconstruction has become an available option for most patients undergoing mastectomy: in fact many authors agree that breast reconstruction does not interfere with possible therapies and improves the quality of life of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychological adjustment of patients who had immediate or delayed reconstruction using 2 different methods: implants and autologous tissues. The study population (115 patients) was derived from patients who underwent breast reconstruction in the period January 1988-December 1991, in follow-up at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; no patient was undergoing psychological therapy. 58 patients underwent breast reconstruction using implants and 57 using Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap (TRAMF). Informations were gathered, including the patient's age, the number of offspring, the marital status, the scholastic education, the job and the relapse between mastectomy and reconstruction. The psychological instruments consisted in three standardized self-administered questionnaires: Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI), Eysenk Personality Inventory (EPQ-R). These tests were chosen to gauge the psychological distress, such anxiety, anger, depression and psychosocial maladjustment. To better perform the changes of body image after breast reconstruction, women were requested to answer three more specific questions about the sexual desire, physical image and social relationships. The 102 patients assessed in this study indicate low incidence of psychological distress and adaptive coping strategies. Impairment was reported, regarding body image, by patients undergoing delayed reconstruction; in these patients higher scores in distress tests were observed.

  8. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  9. Technical Note: Validation of two methods to determine contact area between breast and compression paddle in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; de Groot, Jerry E; van Lier, Monique G J T B; Highnam, Ralph P; den Heeten, Gerard J; Grimbergen, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of two methods of determining the contact area between the compression paddle and the breast in mammography. An accurate method to determine the contact area is essential to accurately calculate the average compression pressure applied by the paddle. For a set of 300 breast compressions, we measured the contact areas between breast and paddle, both capacitively using a transparent foil with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coating attached to the paddle, and retrospectively from the obtained mammograms using image processing software (Volpara Enterprise, algorithm version 1.5.2). A gold standard was obtained from video images of the compressed breast. During each compression, the breast was illuminated from the sides in order to create a dark shadow on the video image where the breast was in contact with the compression paddle. We manually segmented the shadows captured at the time of x-ray exposure and measured their areas. We found a strong correlation between the manual segmentations and the capacitive measurements [r = 0.989, 95% CI (0.987, 0.992)] and between the manual segmentations and the image processing software [r = 0.978, 95% CI (0.972, 0.982)]. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -0.0038 dm 2 for the capacitive measurement (SD 0.0658, 95% limits of agreement [-0.1329, 0.1252]) and -0.0035 dm 2 for the image processing software [SD 0.0962, 95% limits of agreement (-0.1921, 0.1850)]. The size of the contact area between the paddle and the breast can be determined accurately and precisely, both in real-time using the capacitive method, and retrospectively using image processing software. This result is beneficial for scientific research, data analysis and quality control systems that depend on one of these two methods for determining the average pressure on the breast during mammographic compression. © 2017 Sigmascreening B.V. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  11. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  12. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-04-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  13. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Mortimer, Joanne E; Schroeder, E Todd; Courneya, Kerry; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Buchanan, Thomas A; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments. This study is a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effects of a 16-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention on MetS in 100 breast cancer survivors. Main inclusion criteria are histologically-confirmed breast cancer stage I-III, completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation within 6 months prior to initiation of the study, sedentary, and free from musculoskeletal disorders. The primary endpoint is MetS; secondary endpoints include: muscle strength, shoulder function, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone mineral density, and QOL. Participants randomized to the Exercise group participate in 3 supervised weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Participants randomized to the Control group are offered the same intervention after the 16-week period of observation. This is the one of few RCTs examining the effects of exercise on MetS in breast cancer survivors. Results will contribute a better understanding of metabolic disease-related effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training and inform

  14. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  15. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  16. Technical Note: Validation of two methods to determine contact area between breast and compression paddle in mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; de Groot, Jerry E.; van Lier, Monique G. J. T. B.; Highnam, Ralph P.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of two methods of determining the contact area between the compression paddle and the breast in mammography. An accurate method to determine the contact area is essential to accurately calculate the average compression pressure applied by the paddle. Methods: For a

  17. Evaluation of the technical performance of three different commercial digital breast tomosynthesis systems in the clinical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, A.; Castillo, M.; Garayoa, J.; Chevalier, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to research and evaluate the performance of three different digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems in the clinical environment (Siemens Mammomat Inspiration, Hologic Selenia Dimensions, and Fujifilm Amulet Innovality). The characterization included the study of the

  18. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental research on nuclear structure and reactions both published and in progress is summarized. Included are fusion reactions, strongly damped heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure at high angular momentum. A list of publications is included

  19. Effect of point defects on mechanical properties of metals. Technical progress report, January 1, 1978--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, M.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on deformation behavior of niobium single crystals below 77 0 K, the effect of electron irradiation on the deformation behavior of niobium single crystals, and surface film softening phenomenon in Ni plated iron single crystals

  20. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  1. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. Progress in resolving open design issues from the outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this publication the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design is presented. It comprises the Plant Design Specifications, the Safety Principles and Environmental Criteria, the Site Requirements and Site Design Assumptions. The outline of the key features of the ITER-FEAT design includes main physical parameters and assessment, design overview and preliminary safety assessment, cost and schedule

  2. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars

  3. Technical Note: Multipurpose CT, ultrasound, and MRI breast phantom for use in radiotherapy and minimally invasive interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ruschin@sunnybrook.ca; Chin, Lee; Ravi, Ananth; McCann, Claire [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Phounsy, William [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Yoo, Tae Sun [Institute of Health Policy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M6 (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a multipurpose gel-based breast phantom consisting of a simulated tumor with realistic imaging properties in CT, ultrasound and MRI, or a postsurgical cavity on CT. Applications for the phantom include: deformable image registration (DIR) quality assurance (QA), autosegmentation validation, and localization testing and training for minimally invasive image-guided procedures such as those involving catheter or needle insertion. Methods: A thermoplastic mask of a typical breast patient lying supine was generated and then filled to make an array of phantoms. The background simulated breast tissue consisted of 32.4 g each of ballistic gelatin (BG) powder and Metamusil™ (MM) dissolved in 800 ml of water. Simulated tumors were added using the following recipe: 12 g of barium sulfate (1.4% v/v) plus 0.000 14 g copper sulfate plus 0.7 g of MM plus 7.2 g of BG all dissolved in 75 ml of water. The phantom was evaluated quantitatively in CT by comparing Hounsfield units (HUs) with actual breast tissue. For ultrasound and MRI, the phantoms were assessed based on subjective image quality and signal-difference to noise (SDNR) ratio, respectively. The stiffness of the phantom was evaluated based on ultrasound elastography measurements to yield an average Young’s modulus. In addition, subjective tactile assessment of phantom was performed under needle insertion. Results: The simulated breast tissue had a mean background value of 24 HU on CT imaging, which more closely resembles fibroglandular tissue (40 HU) as opposed to adipose (−100 HU). The tumor had a mean CT number of 45 HU, which yielded a qualitatively realistic image contrast relative to the background either as an intact tumor or postsurgical cavity. The tumor appeared qualitatively realistic on ultrasound images, exhibiting hypoechoic characteristics compared to background. On MRI, the tumor exhibited a SDNR of 3.7. The average Young’s modulus was computed to be 15.8 ± 0.7 kPa (1 SD

  4. Gene expression profiling leads to discovery of correlation of matrix metalloproteinase 11 and heparanase 2 in breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Khaybullin, Ravil; Zhang, Yanping; Xia, Amy; Qi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify biomarkers involved in breast cancer, gene expression profiling was conducted using human breast cancer tissues. Total RNAs were extracted from 150 clinical patient tissues covering three breast cancer subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, and Triple negative) as well as normal tissues. The expression profiles of a total of 50,739 genes were established from a training set of 32 samples using the Agilent Sure Print G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray technology. Data were analyzed using Agilent Gene Spring GX 12.6 software. The expression of several genes was validated using real-time RT-qPCR. Data analysis with Agilent GeneSpring GX 12.6 software showed distinct expression patterns between cancer and normal tissue samples. A group of 28 promising genes were identified with ≥ 10-fold changes of expression level and p-values < 0.05. In particular, MMP11 and HPSE2 were closely examined due to the important roles they play in cancer cell growth and migration. Real-time RT-qPCR analyses of both training and testing sets validated the gene expression profiles of MMP11 and HPSE2. Our findings identified these 2 genes as a novel breast cancer biomarker gene set, which may facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in breast cancer clinical therapies

  5. Does depression decrease the moderating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between illness perception and fear of progression in breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong Won; Min, Yul Ha

    2018-02-01

    Fear of progression (FOP) is a prevalent concern among breast cancer patients that affect their adjustment to disease. This study examined whether self-efficacy moderates the effect of illness perception (IP) on FOP and whether the moderating effect of self-efficacy depends on the level of depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional survey including brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ), FOP short form, general self-efficacy scale, and the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale were administered to 245 patients with breast cancer in Korea. Self-efficacy moderated the negative impact of the patients' perception of chronic timeline and a greater emotional impact of the illness on FOP. However, the moderating effect of self-efficacy of the BIPQ timeline and emotions on FOP depended on level of depressive symptoms. The findings underscore the importance of considering the IP as determinants of FOP, as well as of self-efficacy and depression as the moderating factors in the relationship between IP and FOP, suggesting the need to enhance self-efficacy and depressive symptoms in order to compensate the negative impact of IP on FOP in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  7. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...... superconductors. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2009....

  8. Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark - Annual Progress Report 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom - Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics research focuses on turbulence and transport, and its...... been initiated in 2008. Minor activities are system analysis, initiative to involve Danish industry in ITER contracts and public information. A summary is presented of the results obtained in the Research Unit during 2008....

  9. Technical progress, the concept of individualized cancer treatment and the innovation of computer-assisted radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, K.; Tanneberger, S.; Matschke, S.

    1985-01-01

    After a first step of cancerogenesis, the further development of the tumor is an individual process. At the end of this process the tumor is formed as an individual in the individual. The individuality of cancer exists on the level of organs, tissues and cells and includes an individual tumor-host relationship. Today, optimized cancer treatment requires a most precise biological characterization possible of the tumor and of the tumor-host relationship, which will provide objective information about the individual character of every tumor. Routine analysis and strict therapeutic consideration of the clinical and biological individuality of human cancer can offer real chances for the improvement of cancer treatment. A routine acquisition of individual tumor characteristics will be possible only if methods and equipment are available for the registration of suitable parameters. In this context technical innovations have an essential influence on the realization of the concept of individualized cancer treatment. With the method of flow cytophotometry and other techniques examples are given in how far the ideas of individual cancer management can be realized by introduction of new technical solutions into medical research and clinical practice. Unfortunately there is still a lack of methodology in individualizing cancer treatment. The individualization of radiotherapy is connected to an extremely high degree of technical innovations. Particularly this refers to the topometrical description of the target volume in relation to the adjacent anatomical structures and the body contour as well as the fitting of isodoses to the shape and size of the target volume. As an example of innovation of a technical solution for individual radiotherapy planning the computer-assisted radiotherapy planning system DOPSY is described. (author)

  10. Quantitatively characterizing the microstructural features of breast ductal carcinoma tissues in different progression stages by Mueller matrix microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; Elson, Daniel S; Ma, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Polarization imaging has been recognized as a potentially powerful technique for probing the microstructural information and optical properties of complex biological specimens. Recently, we have reported a Mueller matrix microscope by adding the polarization state generator and analyzer (PSG and PSA) to a commercial transmission-light microscope, and applied it to differentiate human liver and cervical cancerous tissues with fibrosis. In this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope for quantitative detection of human breast ductal carcinoma samples at different stages. The Mueller matrix polar decomposition and transformation parameters of the breast ductal tissues in different regions and at different stages are calculated and analyzed. For more quantitative comparisons, several widely-used image texture feature parameters are also calculated to characterize the difference in the polarimetric images. The experimental results indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope and the polarization parameters can facilitate the quantitative detection of breast ductal carcinoma tissues at different stages.

  11. Studies in chemical dynamics and radiation chemistry. Technical progress report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Research progress in the following areas is reported: low energy electron scattering; photoelectron spectrometry; elementary reactions by photolysis at variable wavelengths; collisions in crossed molecular beams; and, diffusion kinetics in the radiation chemistry of water. Publications related to the work are included. (JGB)

  12. Sodium boiling detection in LMFBRs (Phase I). 5th quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1975--October 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.W.; McCormick, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress summarized includes the design of a gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments and an experiment showing that neutronic noise and acoustic noise caused by sodium boiling are highly correlated in a wide frequency band about the bubble repetition frequency

  13. Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Program. Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimblott, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Quarterly Progress Report on NERI Proposal No.99-0010 for the Development of an Experiment and Calculation Based Model to Describe the Effects of Radiation on Non-standard Aqueous Systems Like Those Encountered in the Advanced Light Water Reactor

  14. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: complexation and transport of actinides. First technical progress report (work period 01.97 - 12.97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckau, G.

    1998-08-01

    The present report describes progress within the first year of the EC-project 'Effects of Humic Substances on the Migration of Radionuclides: Complexation and Transport of Actinides'. The project is conducted within the EC-Cluster 'Radionuclide Transport/Retardation Processes'. Contrary to formal requirements of the Commission, this report with a great deal of detail is established already after one year of project work. It is scheduled to be followed by a second technical progress report covering the second year of the project. In agreement with the contractual obligations a final report of similar technical detail will also be generated. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator (FZK/INE) with strong support from the other three task leaders (BGS, CEA-SGC and RMC-E). More detailed results are given by individual contributions of the project partners in 13 annexes. In the executive summary report the origin of results presented is given, also serving as guidance for finding more detailed results in the annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. (orig.)

  15. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  16. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  17. Mel-18 negatively regulates INK4a/ARF-independent cell cycle progression via Akt inactivation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Shin, Dong-Hui; Oh, Mi-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Yongseok; Kong, Gu

    2008-06-01

    Mel-18, a polycomb group (PcG) protein, has been suggested as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. Previously, we reported that Mel-18 has antiproliferative activity in breast cancer cells. However, its functional mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of Mel-18 in human breast cancer. We saw an inverse correlation between Mel-18 and phospho-Akt, which were expressed at low and high levels, respectively, in primary breast tumor tissues from 40 breast cancer patients. The effect of Mel-18 on cell growth was examined in two breast cancer cell lines, SK-BR-3 and T-47D, which express relatively low and high levels of endogenous Mel-18, respectively. On Mel-18 overexpression in SK-BR-3 cells, cell growth was attenuated and G(1) arrest was observed. Likewise, suppression of Mel-18 by antisense expression in T-47D cells led to enhanced cell growth and accelerated G(1)-S phase transition. In these cells, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-4 and Cdk2 activities were affected by Mel-18, which were mediated by changes in cyclin D1 expression and p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at Thr(157), but not by INK4a/ARF genes. The changes were both dependent on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) was reduced by Mel-18 overexpression in SK-BR-3 cells and enhanced by Mel-18 suppression in T-47D cells. Akt-mediated cytoplasmic localization of p27(Kip1) was inhibited by Mel-18 in SK-BR-3 cells. Moreover, Mel-18 overexpression showed reduced glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation, beta-catenin nuclear localization, T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor promoter activity, and cyclin D1 mRNA level. Taken together, we established a linear relationship between Mel-18-->Akt-->G(1) phase regulators.

  18. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities: Technical progress report for the period January, February, March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Mississippi State University is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Additionally, technical support of the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided

  19. Research and development on optically pumped polarized ion sources. Technical progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1985-07-01

    During the past year we have studied the relaxation times in an optically pumped 23 Na vapor target, studied the effects of radiation trapping on the polarization in a Na vapor target, and have studied the effects of spin exchange collisions on a beam of fast H 0 atoms as they pass through a polarized alkali target. This research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na or other alkali vapor targets used for the production of polarized H - ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source as well as discussing the progress of our research on optically pumped Na or other alkali vapor targets. 81 refs., 9 figs

  20. Technical progress report of biological research on the Volcanic Island Surtsey and its environs for the period 1965--1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: changes in shoreline and surface of the island due to volcanic activity; colonization of microorganisms, algae, lichens, and vascular plants; introduction of insects and other arthropods by wind, water, and man; transport of invertebrates to the island by flotsam of the sea; species and nesting habits of birds on the island; behavior of seals on beaches of the island; and future trends of Surtsey ecosystems. (HLW)

  1. Research proposal and annual report No. 16. Part B. Technical progress, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: RNA synthesis in yeast; regulation of nitrogen metabolism; biological toxicity of intracellular radioisotope decay; the mechanism of energy conversion in chloroplasts; promoting vibrations in spin-orbital coupling in vibrationally deficient molecules; electronic excitation and hydrogen bonding; macromolecular biophysics; the synthesis and maturation of RNA; electronic response properties of biomolecular systems; chromosome structure and function and chromosome damage; DNA replication and chromosome structure; and influence of phospholipids on the dynamic properties of rhodopsin. (HLW)

  2. Research proposal and annual report No. 16. Part B. Technical progress, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: RNA synthesis in yeast; regulation of nitrogen metabolism; biological toxicity of intracellular radioisotope decay; the mechanism of energy conversion in chloroplasts; promoting vibrations in spin-orbital coupling in vibrationally deficient molecules; electronic excitation and hydrogen bonding; macromolecular biophysics; the synthesis and maturation of RNA; electronic response properties of biomolecular systems; chromosome structure and function and chromosome damage; DNA replication and chromosome structure; and influence of phospholipids on the dynamic properties of rhodopsin

  3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Inscribes a Gene Expression Profile for Angiogenic Factors and Cancer Progression in Breast Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Oh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-11R by IGF-1 is associated with the risk and progression of many types of cancer, although despite this it remains unclear how activated IGF-1 R contributes to cancer progression. In this study, gene expression changes elicited by IGF-1 were profiled in breast epithelial cells. We noted that many genes are functionally linked to cancer progression and angiogenesis. To validate some of the changes observed, the RNA and/or protein was confirmed for c-fos, cytochrome P4501Al, cytochrome P450 1131, interleukin-1 beta, fas ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase plasminogen activator. Nuclear proteins were also temporally monitored to address how gene expression changes were regulated. We found that IGF-1 stimulated the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated AKT, hypoxic-inducible factor-1 alpha, and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, which correlated with temporal changes in gene expression. Next, the promoter regions of IGF-1-regulated genes were searched in silico. The promoters of genes that clustered together had similar regulatory regions. In summary, IGF-1 inscribes a gene expression profile relevant to cancer progression, and this study provides insight into the mechanism(s whereby some of these changes occur.

  4. Progressive resistance training and stretching following surgery for breast cancer: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Leigh C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently 1 in 11 women over the age of 60 in Australia are diagnosed with breast cancer. Following treatment, most breast cancer patients are left with shoulder and arm impairments which can impact significantly on quality of life and interfere substantially with activities of daily living. The primary aim of the proposed study is to determine whether upper limb impairments can be prevented by undertaking an exercise program of prolonged stretching and resistance training, commencing soon after surgery. Methods/design We will recruit 180 women who have had surgery for early stage breast cancer to a multicenter single-blind randomized controlled trial. At 4 weeks post surgery, women will be randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a usual care (control group. Women allocated to the exercise group will perform exercises daily, and will be supervised once a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, women will be given a home-based training program to continue indefinitely. Women in the usual care group will receive the same care as is now typically provided, i.e. a visit by the physiotherapist and occupational therapist while an inpatient, and receipt of pamphlets. All subjects will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months later. The primary measure is arm symptoms, derived from a breast cancer specific questionnaire (BR23. In addition, range of motion, strength, swelling, pain and quality of life will be assessed. Discussion This study will determine whether exercise commencing soon after surgery can prevent secondary problems associated with treatment of breast cancer, and will thus provide the basis for successful rehabilitation and reduction in ongoing problems and health care use. Additionally, it will identify whether strengthening exercises reduce the incidence of arm swelling. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012606000050550.

  5. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  6. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  7. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  8. Vinorelbine-based salvage therapy in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients progressing during trastuzumab-containing regimens: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vinka-alkaloyd vinorelbine is a potentially valuable treatment in patients with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant advanced breast cancer. We sought to document the clinical activity of vinorelbine-based salvage treatments in this clinical setting. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 424 consecutive women receiving trastuzumab-based therapy for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. Of these, 299 were identified as progressing during the initial trastuzumab-based treatment, and 77 received vinorelbine-based therapy as first salvage treatment. Central review of pathological specimens revealed that 70 patients had HER2-amplification detected by FISH. For these patients we determined overall response rate (ORR = complete-CR + partial-PR and clinical benefit (CB = CR+PR+ Stable disease lasting at least 6 months, time to progression (TTP and overall survival (OS from the initiation of vinorelbine-based salvage therapy. Results In 60 patients who were evaluable for tumor response, ORR and CB rates were 28% (95% C.I. 18%-41% and 50% (95% C.I. 38%-62%, respectively. Median follow-up from the initiation of salvage therapy was 15 months (range 1–63 months. Median TTP and OS were 7.1 months (95% C.I. 6.6–7.7 months and 21 months (95% C.I. 14.3–27.7 months, respectively. No differences in clinical outcomes were observed according to whether vinorelbine was administered as a single agent or in combination with other cytostatics, or whether trastuzumab was stopped or continued beyond disease progression. Conclusion our findings suggests that vinorelbine-based combinations are active and should be further evaluated in studies conducted in trastuzumab-resistant patients, including those evaluating newer HER2-targeting agents.

  9. Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Program. Annual technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This report provides descriptions and results of the technical effort during FY81 on the Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor Program. The FY81 work was organized according to the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the National HTGR Program, and fell within five of the WBS tasks. The work on Market Definition and Development (WBS 03) was associated with estimating product costs for HTGR systems and their alternatives, projecting markets and market penetrations for these systems, and providing costs and market input to application analyses and component design. The Plant Technology (WBS 13) effort was mainly in the development of the systems dynamic computer code, STAR, for the transient analysis of HTGR's in reformer applications. The analysis of pebble bed reactors (PBR) was performed under Technology Transfer (WBS 15). The effort on components and systems within the nuclear heat source for reforming plants was performed under High Temperature Nuclear Heat Source (WBS 42)

  10. Realization of radiation-chemical processes in national economy-important stage of scientific and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, A.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Realization of energy resourses of the atomic power engineering will greatly contribute to the scientific and technological progress. The dominat role play the radiochemical methods of properties modification applied for the well-known materials and for the production of materials with modern operating characteristics necessary for their application in different branches of industry and agriculture. Radiation modeling of products from polyolefine, wood-plastic and concrete-polymer materials are considered as well as the processes in ''thin'' units of agitating systems. The future developments and present state of the art of radiation sources are presented

  11. Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS). Technical progress report ampersand continuation proposal, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the CAMOS to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of CAMOS activities from February 1, 1993 to January 31, 1994. The details of prior activities are discussed in earlier progress reports. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the CAMOS study on the field that is being conducted by the Panel on the Future of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (FAMOS). During the above period, CAMOS has continued to track and participate in, when requested, discussions on the health of the field. Much of the perspective of CAMOS has been presented in the recently-published report Research Briefing on Selected Opportunities in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences. That report has served as the basis for briefings to representatives of the federal government as well as the community-at-large. In keeping with its charge to monitor the health of the field, CAMOS launched a study designed to highlight future directions of the field

  12. Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganatha R Somasagara

    Full Text Available The consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries, has been suggested to have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds and secondary metabolites that contribute to their biological properties.Current study investigates the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of strawberry (MESB fruits in leukaemia (CEM and breast cancer (T47D cell lines ex vivo, and its cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive potential in mice models. Results of MTT, trypan blue and LDH assays suggested that MESB can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, irrespective of origin, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of mice bearing breast adenocarcinoma with MESB blocked the proliferation of tumor cells in a time-dependent manner and resulted in extended life span. Histological and immunohistochemical studies suggest that MESB treatment affected tumor cell proliferation by activating apoptosis and did not result in any side effects. Finally, we show that MESB can induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activating p73 in breast cancer cells, when tumor suppressor gene p53 is mutated.The present study reveals that strawberry fruits possess both cancer preventive and therapeutic values and we discuss the mechanism by which it is achieved.

  13. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To fulfil the criteria for primary breast lymphoma, the following characteristics were reqUired: (I) technically adequate specimens; (iI) mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate in close association; (iil) no evidence of concurrent widespread disease; and (iv) no previous. Haematology/Oncology Division, Department of ...

  14. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. [Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses progress that has been made on the following seven problems: (1) (e, e'p) at high momentum transfer; (2) post,acceleration effects in two-nucleon interferometry of heavy-ion collisions; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV; (4) chiral symmetry breaking in nuclei and picnic atom anomaly; (5) atomic screening on nuclear astronomical reactions; (6) QCD related work (coherent pion production from skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation, QCD in 1 + 1 dimensions, and correlation functions in the QCD vacuum), and (7) kaonic hydrogen atom experiment. The problems deal with various topics mostly in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. We place priority on (1) and (2), and describe them somewhat in detail below. Other problems are our on-going projects, but we are placing lower priority on them in the second and third year

  15. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion: Atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past three years of the grant. This research project is designed to study various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements will provide total cross sections (TCS) initially, and once the angular positioning apparatus is installed, will provide angular differential cross sections (ADCS)

  16. AFCT/TFCT/ISFS Program. Technical progress report for the period October 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1978-02-01

    This is the eighth in a series of quarterly progress reports on studies performed for the Alternate Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technologies/International Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (AFCT/TFCT/ISFS) Program, formerly the LWR Fuel Recycle Program. This program is designed to provide information needed by industry to close the back end of the power reactor fuel cycle. During the past quarter, studies were conducted in the following tasks: Survey of Current Technology of Fuel Handling Techniques; Investigation of Air Cleaning Processes for Removing Tributyl Phosphate (TBP) from Off-Gas Streams; Study of Iodine Chemistry in Process Solutions; Electropolishing to Decontaminate Metallic Waste from Alternate and Thorium Converter Fuel Cycles; and U.S. Scale Transport, Dispersion and Removal Mode Comparison Safety Criticality Experiments. (11 figs., 7 tables)

  17. Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Technical progress report, July 1975--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurland, J.; Rice, J.R.; Asaro, R.J.; Needleman, A.

    1976-07-01

    Major studies have been started on (1) The conditions governing the localization of plastic flow at the onset of rupture. Specific calculations of critical conditions for a number of material models have been made possible through a theoretical framework by which localization is formulated as a constitutive instability, in the form of a bifurcation into a localized mode from a state of previously homogeneous deformation, and (2) The strength of interfaces with and without the presence of dissolved segregants. Criteria for brittle vs. ductile response of an interface were developed on the basis of dislocation mechanisms and thermodynamic relations, and applied to hydrogen embrittlement. Further progress has been achieved in the analysis of stress and deformation at a crack tip by the application of the large-strain elastic-plastic finite element program developed over the last two years. Work has continued on particle and sub-boundary strengthening in steels and an experimental study of fracture initiation at particles was begun

  18. AFCT/TFCT/ISFS Program. Technical progress report for the period April 1, 1978--June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1978-08-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly progress reports on studies performed for the Alternate Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technologies/International Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (AFCT/TFCT/ISFS) Program. This program provides information needed by industry to close the back end of the power reactor fuel cycle. During the past quarter, studies were conducted in the following tasks: thorium resource price analyses; spent fuel receipt and storage; investigation of air cleaning processes for removing TBP from off-gas streams; study of iodine chemistry in process solutions, high-level waste treatment; electropolishing to decontaminate metallic waste from alternate and thorium converter fuel cycles; U.S. scale transport, dispersion and removal model comparison; safety criticality experiments; and criticality research in support of thorium fuel cycle.

  19. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  20. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of commercializing a biotechnology that uses plants to remediate soils, sediments, surface waters, and groundwaters contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. This technology, known as phytoremediation, is particularly suited to remediation of soils or water where low levels of contaminants are widespread. Project objectives are to provide an accurate estimate of the capability and rate of phytoremediation for removal of contaminants of concern from soils and groundwaters at Department of Energy (DOE) sites and to develop data suitable for engineering design and economic feasibility evaluations, including methods for destruction or final disposition of plants containing contaminants of concern. The bioremediation systems being evaluated could be less expensive than soil removal and treatment systems, given the areal extent and topography of sites under consideration and the investment of energy and money in soil-moving and -treating processes. In situ technology may receive regulatory acceptance more easily than ex situ treatments requiring excavation, processing, and replacement of surface soils. In addition, phytoremediation may be viable for cleanup of contaminated waters, either as the primary treatment or the final polishing stage, depending on the contaminant concentrations and process economics considerations

  1. Projects at the Western Environmental Technology Office. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of commercializing a biotechnology that uses plants to remediate soils, sediments, surface waters, and groundwaters contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. This technology, known as phytoremediation, is particularly suited to remediation of soils or water where low levels of contaminants are widespread. Project objectives are to provide an accurate estimate of the capability and rate of phytoremediation for removal of contaminants of concern from soils and groundwaters at Department of Energy (DOE) sites and to develop data suitable for engineering design and economic feasibility evaluations, including methods for destruction or final disposition of plants containing contaminants of concern. The bioremediation systems being evaluated could be less expensive than soil removal and treatment systems, given the areal extent and topography of sites under consideration and the investment of energy and money in soil-moving and -treating processes. In situ technology may receive regulatory acceptance more easily than ex situ treatments requiring excavation, processing, and replacement of surface soils. In addition, phytoremediation may be viable for cleanup of contaminated waters, either as the primary treatment or the final polishing stage, depending on the contaminant concentrations and process economics considerations.

  2. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  3. Progress of the radioactive waste management at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and the role of an IAEA technical co-operation project in this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nang, N.T.; Ngoc, O.V.; Nhu Thuy, T.T.; Nghi, D.V.; Thu, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    At present, the main radioactive waste generator in Vietnam is the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). For safe management of radioactive waste generated from this nuclear center, in 1982 Soviet specialists newly constructed one combined technology system for low level radioactive waste management. The existing system consists of two main parts, a Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Station and a Storage/Disposal Facility. The liquid treatment station can in principle meet the needs for this nuclear center but disposal technology and storage/disposal facilities are not good enough both with respect to safety and economy, especially the storage/disposal facility placed in Dalat, the tourist city. In order to help DNRI and Vietnam to solve the radioactive waste management problem, the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project VIE/9/007 was implemented in Vietnam. The facilities and IAEA experts provided under this project gradually help to develop radioactive waste management at DNRI, Vietnam. This paper outlines progress under way in the management of the radioactive waste at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam, and the role of the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project in this process. (author)

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery as Anxiety Reducing Interventions in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Charalambous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test the effectiveness of guided imagery (GI and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR as stress reducing interventions in patients with prostate and breast cancer who undergo chemotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to either the control group or the intervention group (PMR and GI. Patients were observed for a total duration of 3 weeks and assessed with the SAS and BECK-II questionnaires for anxiety and depression, respectively, in addiotion to two biological markers (saliva cortisol and saliva amylase (trial registration number: NCT01275872. Results. 256 patients were registered and 236 were randomly assigned. In total 104 were randomised to the control group and 104 to the intervention group. Intervention’s mean anxiety score and depression score changes were significantly different compared to the control’s (b=-29.4, p<0.001; b=-29.4, p<0.001, resp.. Intervention group’s cortisol levels before the intervention (0.30±0.25 gradually decreased up to week 3 (0.16±0.18, whilst the control group’s cortisol levels before the intervention (0.21±0.22 gradually increased up to week 3 (0.44±0.35. The same interaction appears for the Amylase levels (p<0.001. Conclusions. The findings showed that patients with prostate and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment can benefit from PMR and GI sessions to reduce their anxiety and depression.

  5. Nemaha Uplift seismotectonic study: regional tectonics and seismicity of eastern Kansas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.W.

    1979-11-01

    Progress and results of all work on this project to the end of its second year, or September 30, 1978, were reported in NUREG/CR-0666, published March 1979. Project third-year activites and results include the following: continued operation of a regional microearthquake monitoring network which detected and located 26 regional events between October 1, 1978, and August 2, 1979; designing and building a triggering system to allow digitized recording of microearthquakes by a modified exploration seismography; continued surface and subsurface studies of selected areas along the Nemaha Uplift-Keweenanan Mafic belt trend; continued study of Precambrian rock types from recently drilled wells; beginning compilation of a fault catalog; terrain analysis and lineament studies which indicate that the alignment of stream drainages and divides are strongly controlled by basement and subsurface structure; continued reduction of gravity data for northeastern Kansas (a Bouguer gravity map probably will be available late Fall 1979); modification of the exploration seismograph system to a more efficient 12-channel Mini-Sosie system and completion of several line-miles of reflection profiling; and beginning integration of data from Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Iowa co-investigators. All major goals for FY 1979 were accomplished. 2 figures

  6. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies. Technical progress report, 1 November 1993--31 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a national and international center for information exchange by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results obtained by the Institute contribute to the progress of nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power as a basic energy source. Close collaborative relationships have been developed with other university and national laboratory fusion groups, both in the US and abroad. In addition to its primary focus on mainstream fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in fusion-sidestream fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, space plasmas and astrophysics, statistical mechanics, fluid dynamics, and accelerator physics. Important research discoveries are briefly described

  7. Exotic atoms: Hadronic and muonic atoms 1969--1997. Technical progress report, February 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunselman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since this is a terminal progress-report it is a synopsis over the total time of the grant. The author has utilized exotic hadronic and muonic atoms as tools to access information concerning questions to do with particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. The information has answered fundamental questions about lepton conservations, quark models, tests of the CPT theorem, QED energies, and nuclear structure. The present experiments involve reactions with a variety of hydrogen isotopic mixtures to form solid targets to produce muonic hydrogen isotope atoms. The method relies on muon capture by a proton and transfer of the muon from the proton to a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections of the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, and are emitted from the surface of the layer and escape into a vacuum region. A second solid hydrogen isotopic target is produced downstream on which the muonic hydrogen atom can react and the time of flight measured

  8. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group: Task A: Technical progress report, December 1, 1986 to November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyea, E.D.; Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Martin, H.J.; Ogren, H.O.; Zieminski, A.

    1987-05-01

    Data collection on the production of the KKπ state in π - , K - , and p-bar induced reactions is reported, with partial wave analysis in progress. Work on the design of a target calorimeter and data taking for a muon scattering experiment at CERN is completed. Analysis of a fixed-target jet experiment is reported. A dimuon detector has been prepared for an experiment at Fermilab to study hadronic processes yielding high mass dimuons and associated particles. Participation in the coordination and writing of software for the DO collider detector at Fermilab is reported. Some results from the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) are reported, including direct observation of several decay modes of the charmed mesons, directly observed meson resonances, baryon resonances, and some discoveries concerning the tau lepton. Activity is reported in the building of hardware for the muon upgrade for the Mark2 detector at the SLC and the building of the beam position monitors for the SLC, and microprocessors for Mark2 data analysis. Involvement in the SLC polarization collaboration is also reported

  9. Intermediate-energy nuclear physics. Task C. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-October 1, 1983. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following experimental studies: (1) excitation of giant resonances in 118 Sn in inelastic pion scattering at 130 MeV; (2) giant dipole excitations of 40 Ca by inelastic pion scattering; (3) charge symmetry test using the π + and π - elastic scattering from deuterium at 143 and 256 MeV; (4) binding energy effects on the isospin amplitudes in p-shell nuclei; (5) the energy dependence of the 14 C (π + ,π 0 ) 14 N reaction to the IAS; (6) the ( 3 He,t) reaction at 2 GeV; (7) analyzing power in the (polarized p,n) IAS transitions; (8) the excitation of the 1/2 + (2.36) MeV state in the 24Mg (polarized p,d) reaction from 27 to 150 MeV; (9) the energy dependence of the (polarized p,d) reaction for 54 Fe and 140 Ce; and (10) the energy dependence of the 7 Li(p,d) 6 Li reaction. Publications are listed

  10. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  11. 1991 Technical progress report of the University of South Carolina's High Energy Physics Group, February 1990--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina includes five teaching faculty members, one research faculty member, and five graduate students. Profs. Childers, Darden, and Wilson devote most of their research effort to Fermilab experiment E789, which is designed to observe charmless two-body decays of b-flavored mesons and baryons. Prof. Wilson works on Fermilab experiment E687 which studies charm physics in the wide-band photon beam. Profs. Rosenfeld and Wang participate in the AMY collaboration, which studies electron-positron interactions using the TRISTAN collider at KEK. Prof. Rosenfeld and one student collaborate with personnel from KEK and INS, Tokyo, on an experiment to detect a 17 keV neutrino in the β-decay spectrum of 63 Ni. Members of the group also participate in Fermilab Proposal P803 which will search for the oscillation of muon neutrino to tau neutrino with sensitivity better than a factor of 40 than previously achieved and in Superconducting Super Collider activities which include the development of an imaging preradiator. A brief discussion is given on progress made for each program

  12. Identification of sulfur heterocycles in coal liquids and shale oils. Technical progress report, August 1, 1980-May 1, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. L.; Castle, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur heterocycle separation scheme which was described in the last progress report was evaluated for quantitative recovery of individual components. The results indicate that recoveries can range from 10% to approx. 30% depending on the structure of the compound. During this period, 23 unsubstituted sulfur-containing heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized in oder to confirm GC/MS identifications and for biological testing. The four possible 3-ring heterocycles and the thirteen possible 4-ring heterocycles were tested for mutagenic activity in the histidine reversion (Ames assay) system. One of the 3-ring isomers, naphtho(1,2-b)-thiophene, and six of the 4-ring isomers induced mutations in Salmonella test strains. One of these compounds, phenanthro(3,4-b)thiophene, displayed approximately the same mutagenic activity as benzo(a)pyrene. A two-step adsorption chromatographic procedure was developed in order to fractionate synthetic fuels into various chemical-type classes for studying the relative concentrations and mutagenic activities of the various types. An SRC-II Heavy Distillate was fractionated into aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocycles, indoles and carbazoles, azaarenes, and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was found that the amino-PAH fraction contained most of the mutagenic activity. A survey was made for compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in their structures. A number of these compounds were detected by GC using nitrogen- and sulfur-selective detection.

  13. ITER technology R and D progress report. Report by the Director. ITER technical advisory committee meeting, 25-27 June 2000, St. Petersburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overall philosophy for the ITER design has been to use established approaches through detailed analysis and to validate their application to ITER through technology R and D, including fabrication of full scale or scalable models of key components. All this R and D work has been done for ITER under collaboration among the Home Teams, with a total resource of about 660 KIUA. R and D issues for ITER-FEAT are almost the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Major developments and fabrication have been completed and tests have significantly progressed. The technical output from the R and D validates the technologies and confirms the manufacturing techniques and quality assurance incorporated in the ITER design, and supports the manufacturing cost estimates for important key cost drivers. The testing of models is continuing to demonstrate their performance margin and/or to optimize their operational use. Their realisation offers insights useful for a possible future collaborative construction activity. Valuable and relevant experience has already been gained in the management of industrial scale, cross-party ventures. The successful progress of these projects increases confidence in the possibility of jointly constructing ITER in an international project framework. The R and D present status is summarized in the following: details are given in Chapters 2 and 3. Significant efforts and resources have been devoted to the Seven Large R and D Projects which cover all the major key components of the basic machine of ITER and their maintenance tools

  14. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Chase, Gary; Lu, Mei

    2004-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  15. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Lu, Mei

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  16. Genome-wide allelotyping of a new in vitro model system reveals early events in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Meng, Zhen Hang; Sayeed, Aejaz; Shalaby, Refaat; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Dairkee, Shanaz H

    2002-10-15

    Toward the goal of identifying early genetic losses, which mediate the release of human breast epithelium from replicative suppression leading to cellular immortalization, we have used a newly developed in vitro model system. This system consists of epithelial cultures derived from noncancerous breast tissue, treated with the chemical carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and continuously passaged to yield cell populations culminating in the immortal phenotype. Genome-wide allelotyping of early passage N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-exposed cell populations revealed aberrations at >10% (18 of 169) loci examined. Allelic losses encompassing chromosomes 6q24-6q27, implicating immortalization-associated candidate genes, hZAC and SEN6, occurred in two independently derived cell lines before the Hayflick limit. Additional LOH sites were present in one cell line at 3p11-3p26, 11p15, and 20p12-13. Allelic losses reported in this cell line preceded detectable levels of telomerase activity and the occurrence of p53-related aberrations. Information gained from the search for early immortalization-associated genetic deletions in cultured cells was applied in a novel approach toward the analysis of morphologically normal terminal ductal lobular units microdissected from 20 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ. Notably, clonal allelic losses at chromosome 3p24 and 6q24 were an early occurrence in adjoining terminal ductal lobular units of a proportion of primary tumors, which displayed loss of heterozygosity (3 of 11 and 3 of 6, respectively). The biological insights provided by the new model system reported here strongly suggest that early allelic losses delineated in immortalized cultures and validated in vivo could serve as surrogate endpoints to assist in the identification and intervention of high-risk benign breast tissue, which sustains the potential for continuous proliferation.

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opdenaker LM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lynn M Opdenaker,1,2 Kimberly M Arnold,1,3 Ryan T Pohlig,3,4 Jayasree S Padmanabhan,1 Daniel C Flynn,1,3 Jennifer Sims-Mourtada1–3 1Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health Services, Inc., Newark, Delaware, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Biostatistics Core Facility, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA Abstract: In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity has been used to identify cancer stem-like cells within the tumor. The presence and quantity of these cells are believed to predict the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Therefore, identification and eradication of these cells would be necessary to cure the patient. However, there are 19 different ALDH isoforms that could contribute to the enzyme activity. ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are among the isoforms mostly responsible for the increased ALDH activity observed in these stem-like cells, although the main isoforms vary in different tissues and tumor types. In the study reported here, we attempted to determine if ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3, specifically, correlate with tumor stage, grade, and hormone-receptor status in breast-cancer patients. While there was no significant correlation between ALDH1A1 and any of the parameters tested, we were able to identify a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 and tumor stage in triple-negative cancers. In addition, ALDH1A3 was negatively correlated with estrogen-receptor status. Our data suggest that ALDH1A3 could be utilized as a marker to identify stem-like cells within triple-negative tumors. Keywords: breast tumor, ALDH, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, stem-like cells, triple-negative cancer

  18. Expression of Cyclophilin B is Associated with Malignant Progression and Regulation of Genes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Feng; Flegler, Ayanna J.; Du, Pan; Lin, Simon; Clevenger, Charles V.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a 21-kDa protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity that functions as a transcriptional inducer for Stat5 and as a ligand for CD147. To better understand the global function of CypB in breast cancer, T47D cells with a small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CypB were generated. Subsequent expression profiling analysis showed that 663 transcripts were regulated by CypB knockdown, and that many of these gene products contributed to cell proliferation, ...

  19. Humic substances in performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal: Actinide and iodine migration in the far-field. First technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckau, G.

    2003-04-01

    The present project is one in a series of research activities supported by the European Commission on the role of humic substances for the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal. These activities started in the mid eighties within the MIRAGE project (MIgration of RAdionuclides in the GEosphere) with the most recent project being ''Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation and transport of actinides (HUMICS)'' (FI4W-CT96-0028). The HUMICS project was conducted within the fourths framework of the European Commissions research program. It started January 1997 and had a duration of three years. The results of the HUMICS project can be found in three open technical progress reports and a final report [1-4]. In analogy with the HUMICS project, the present project makes use of annual technical progress reports where individual results are published as papers in the form of annexes. By this approach, results rapidly become available to interested parties in a compact form before their publication in various scientific journals and conference proceedings. Furthermore, some of the more preliminary and/or detailed results are not likely to appear in scientific journals and proceedings. The present project is conducted within the fifths framework of the European Commissions research program. It started November 2001 and has a duration of three years. The present report covers the first project year, i.e. November 2001 to September 2002. The project is divided into eight different work packages. These are (i) ''Critical assessment of experimental methods'', (ii) ''Generation and characterization of humic substances'', (iii) ''Radionuclide humate interaction data by designed system investigations'', (iv) ''Characterization of radionuclide humate complexes'', (v) ''Natural chemical analogue studies'', (vi) ''Radionuclide transport experiments'', (vii) ''Model development'', and (viii) ''Performance assessment''. Division of work into

  20. Continuous Fiber Wound Ceramic Composite (CFCC) for Commercial Water Reactor Fuel. Technical progress report for period ending April 1, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Our program began on August 1, 1999. As of April 1, 2000, the progress has been in materials selection and test planning. Three subcontracts are in place (McDermott Technologies Inc. for continuous fiber reinforced ceramic tubing fabrication, Swales Aerospace for LOCA testing of tubes, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for In Reactor testing of tubes). With regard to materials selection we visited McDermott Technologies Inc. a number of times, including on February 23, 2000 to discuss the Draft Material Selection and Fabrication Report. The changes discussed at this meeting were implemented and the final version of this report is attached (attachment 1). McDermott Technologies Inc. will produce one type of tubing: Alumina oxide (Nextel 610) fiber, a carbon coating (left in place), and alumina-yttria matrix. A potentially desirable CFCC material of silicon carbide fiber with spinel matrix was discussed. That material selection was not adopted primarily due to material availability and cost. Gamma Engineering is exploring the available tube coatings at Northwestern University as a mechanism for reducing the permeability of the tubes, and thus, will use coating as a differentiating factor in the testing of tubing in the LOCA test as well as the In-Reactor Test. The conclusion of the Material Selection and Fabrication Report lists the possible coatings under evaluation. With regard to Test Planning, the MIT and Swales Aerospace have submitted draft Test Plans. MIT is attempting to accommodate an increased number of test specimens by evaluating alternative test configurations. Swales Aerospace held a design review at their facilities on February 24, 2000 and various engineering alternatives and safety issues were addressed. The final Test Plans are not expected until just before testing begins to allow for incorporation of changes during ''dry runs.''

  1. Regulation of CNKSR2 protein stability by the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2, and its role in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Diana; Surendran, Arun; Thulaseedharan, Jissa V; Nair, Asha S

    2018-03-13

    Smurf2 E3 ubiquitin ligase physically associates with and regulate the stability of distinct cellular protein substrates. The multi-functional scaffold protein Connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of ras 2 (CNKSR2) plays a key role in regulating cell proliferation, and differentiation through multiple receptor tyrosine kinase pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the interaction between Smurf2 and CNKSR2 has any significant role in the post transcriptional regulation of CNKSR2 expression in breast cancer. Here we demonstrate a novel interaction of CNKSR2 with Smurf2 by co-immunoprecipitation, indirect immunofluorescence studies, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, which can ubiquitinate, but stabilize CNKSR2 by protecting it from proteasome mediated degradation. CNKSR2 protein levels were significantly increased upon forced overexpression of Smurf2, indicating the role of Smurf2 in regulating the stability of CNKSR2. Conversely, Smurf2 knockdown resulted in a marked decrease in the protein level expression of CNKSR2 by facilitating enhanced polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and reduced the proliferation and clonogenic survival of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Tissue microarray data from 84 patients with various stages of mammary carcinoma, including (in order of increasing malignant potential) normal, usual hyperplasia, fibrocystic changes, fibroadenoma, carcinoma-in-situ, and invasive ductal carcinoma showed a statistically significant association between Smurf2 and CNKSR2 expression, which is also well correlated with the ER, PR, and HER2 status of the tissue samples. A comparatively high expression of Smurf2 and CNKSR2 was observed when the expression of ER and PR was low, and HER2 was high. Consistently, both Smurf2 and CNKSR2 showed an integrated expression in MCF10 breast progression model cell lines. Altogether, our findings reveal that Smurf2 is a novel positive regulator of CNKSR2 and suggest that Smurf

  2. Destabilization of mitochondrial functions as a target against breast cancer progression: Role of TPP{sup +}-linked-polyhydroxybenzoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian [Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Santiago 8380453 (Chile); Laboratory of Antioxidants, Nutrition and Food Technology Institute, University of Chile, El Líbano 5524, Santiago 7830490 (Chile); Fuentes-Retamal, Sebastián; Guzmán-Rivera, Daniela; Peredo-Silva, Liliana [Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Santiago 8380453 (Chile); Madrid-Rojas, Matías; Rebolledo, Solange [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Metropolitan Educational Sciences University, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago 7760197 (Chile); Castro-Castillo, Vicente [Department of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santos Dumont 964, Santiago 8380494 (Chile); Pavani, Mario; Catalán, Mabel; Maya, Juan Diego [Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Santiago 8380453 (Chile); Jara, José A. [Unit of Pharmacology and Pharmacogenetics, Institute of Dental Sciences Research (ICOD), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile, Sergio Livingstone Polhammer 94, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Parra, Eduardo [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tarapacá, Av. General Velásquez 1775, Arica 1000007 (Chile); Calaf, Gloria M. [Institute for Advanced Research, University of Tarapacá, Antofagasta 1520, Arica 1001236 (Chile); and others

    2016-10-15

    Mitochondrion is an accepted molecular target in cancer treatment since it exhibits a higher transmembrane potential in cancer cells, making it susceptible to be targeted by lipophilic-delocalized cations of triphenylphosphonium (TPP{sup +}). Thus, we evaluated five TPP{sup +}-linked decyl polyhydroxybenzoates as potential cytotoxic agents in several human breast cancer cell lines that differ in estrogen receptor and HER2/neu expression, and in metabolic profile. Results showed that all cell lines tested were sensitive to the cytotoxic action of these compounds. The mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity would be triggered by their weak uncoupling effect on the oxidative phosphorylation system, while having a wider and safer therapeutic range than other uncouplers and a significant lowering in transmembrane potential. Noteworthy, while the TPP{sup +}-derivatives alone led to almost negligible losses of ATP, when these were added in the presence of an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor, the levels of ATP fell greatly. Overall, data presented suggest that decyl polyhydroxybenzoates-TPP{sup +} and its derivatives warrant future investigation as potential anti-tumor agents. - Highlights: • TPP{sup +}-polyhydroxybenzoates are cytotoxic to various subtypes of breast cancer cells. • Cytotoxicity is not-dependent on the expression of estrogen/growth factor receptors. • Cytotoxicity appears to be triggered by a weak mitochondrial uncoupling effect. • Effects include loss of transmembrane potential and apoptosis was detected. • TPP{sup +}-polyhydroxybenzoates inhibit migration of highly metastatic cells.

  3. Destabilization of mitochondrial functions as a target against breast cancer progression: Role of TPP+-linked-polyhydroxybenzoates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian; Fuentes-Retamal, Sebastián; Guzmán-Rivera, Daniela; Peredo-Silva, Liliana; Madrid-Rojas, Matías; Rebolledo, Solange; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Pavani, Mario; Catalán, Mabel; Maya, Juan Diego; Jara, José A.; Parra, Eduardo; Calaf, Gloria M.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrion is an accepted molecular target in cancer treatment since it exhibits a higher transmembrane potential in cancer cells, making it susceptible to be targeted by lipophilic-delocalized cations of triphenylphosphonium (TPP + ). Thus, we evaluated five TPP + -linked decyl polyhydroxybenzoates as potential cytotoxic agents in several human breast cancer cell lines that differ in estrogen receptor and HER2/neu expression, and in metabolic profile. Results showed that all cell lines tested were sensitive to the cytotoxic action of these compounds. The mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity would be triggered by their weak uncoupling effect on the oxidative phosphorylation system, while having a wider and safer therapeutic range than other uncouplers and a significant lowering in transmembrane potential. Noteworthy, while the TPP + -derivatives alone led to almost negligible losses of ATP, when these were added in the presence of an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor, the levels of ATP fell greatly. Overall, data presented suggest that decyl polyhydroxybenzoates-TPP + and its derivatives warrant future investigation as potential anti-tumor agents. - Highlights: • TPP + -polyhydroxybenzoates are cytotoxic to various subtypes of breast cancer cells. • Cytotoxicity is not-dependent on the expression of estrogen/growth factor receptors. • Cytotoxicity appears to be triggered by a weak mitochondrial uncoupling effect. • Effects include loss of transmembrane potential and apoptosis was detected. • TPP + -polyhydroxybenzoates inhibit migration of highly metastatic cells.

  4. Gradient phenomenon of multidrug resistance gene expression in breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy is related to disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Litviakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good response to NAC while the expression increase associated with poor response to NAC. In 25% of patients there was no such change in studied gene expression that means the lack of a gradient phenomenon. The objective was to study whether gradient phenomenon for MDR gene expression during NAC is related to disease free survival in breast cancer patients. Five-year metastasis-free survival in patients having a gradient phenomenon was 73 % versus 39 % in patients who lack a gradient phenomenon (log-rank test p=0,0018. So, the presence of a gradient phenomenon in patients is appeared to be associated with a good disease prognosis. It is assumed that the gradiThe paper examined 106 patients with breast cancer (BC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NАС. In the biopsy material, derived from primary tumor before NAC and surgical samples after chemotherapy the expression of 8 multidrug resistance genes (MDR ABCB1, АВСВ2, ABCC1, ABCC2, АВСС5, ABCG1, ABCG2 и MVP was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. During the NAC course 75 % of patients manifested gradient phenomenon for gene expression that means a unidirectional change in the expression of all five MDR genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1 и ABCG2 closely associated with the NAC efficacy: the reduction in MDR gene expression was related to good

  5. Surrogacy of progression free survival for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer studies: Meta-analyses of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Madan G; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2017-02-01

    PFS is often used as a surrogate endpoint for OS in metastatic breast cancer studies. We have evaluated the association of treatment effect on PFS with significant HR OS (and how this association is affected by other factors) in published prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. A systematic literature search in PubMed identified prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. Treatment effects on PFS were determined using hazard ratio (HR PFS ), increase in median PFS (ΔMED PFS ) and % increase in median PFS (%ΔMED PFS ). Diagnostic accuracy of PFS measures (HR PFS , ΔMED PFS and %ΔMED PFS ) in predicting significant HR OS was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and classification tree approach (CART). Seventy-four cases (i.e., treatment to control comparisons) from 65 individual publications were identified for the analyses. Of these, 16 cases reported significant treatment effect on HR OS at 5% level of significance. Median number of deaths reported in these cases were 153. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) for diagnostic measures as HR PFS , ΔMED PFS and %ΔMED PFS were 0.69, 0.70 and 0.75, respectively. Classification tree results identified %ΔMED PFS and number of deaths as diagnostic measure for significant HR OS . Only 7.9% (3/39) cases with ΔMED PFS shorter than 48.27% reported significant HR OS . There were 7 cases with ΔMED PFS of 48.27% or more and number of deaths reported as 227 or more - of these 5 cases reported significant HR OS . %ΔMED PFS was found to be a better diagnostic measure for predicting significant HR OS . Our analysis results also suggest that consideration of total number of deaths may further improve its diagnostic performance. Based on our study results, the studies with 50% improvement in median PFS are more likely to produce significant HR OS if the total number of OS events at the time of analysis is 227 or more. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Features of formation spirituality pictures of the world in youth in in the era of information-highlytechnological scientific and technical progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Polishchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause necessity of formation of a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmos at young generation at the present stage of development much crisis world and, including, the Ukrainian society is proved. In the article the necessity of formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world at young generation at the present stage of development bagalicious the world and, in particular, of the Ukrainian society. The proposed definition of new terms: anthropocosmos is a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmic spirituality, anthropocosmic worldview and other anthropocentric concepts and definitions in contemporary philosophical and pedagogical discourse. The presented model of the formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual worldview of the young generation in the information and high-tech scientific and technical progress and the author’s interpretation of its philosophical, educational, pedagogical and spiritual essence. It is proved, that having generated in consciousness of the young man a anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world, will allow it in conditions of inevitable crash in the near future of a human civilization, if it will not solve present global-civilizational crises and will not avoid geocosmic accidents, to understand sense space-ekzoplanete lives which will be esclusivi, and, therefore, crisis-free, conflict-free, comprehensive and meaningful, anthropocosmos-highly spiritual (divine M. Berdyaev, and, therefore, progressive and virtually eternal as the life of society, which is composed of such anthropocosmos educated individuals. Solved zagalnoosvitnioi sense anthropocosmos spiritual world picture, which is to solve the problem of the choice of life strategies of mankind, the search for new ways of civilization development, in particular, resettlement anthropocosmos-conscious part of humanity for exoplanets space with the aim of preserving the gene pool of humanity and creation of human cosmically

  7. Xeroradiography of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaf, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Xeroradiography is a simple method of radiographic examination of the breast, it is readily interpreted, and with good technic xeroradiography can afford a more accurate identification of tumor calcifications and the periphery of the tumors. Xeroradiography of the breast must be faced as a complemental method and when associated with the informations of the medical history, the clinical examination and informations of other complemental methods will afford an effective evaluation of women with breast disease. (Author) [pt

  8. Surgical excision of the breast giant fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia by Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block: a case report and brief technical description: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Shim, Junho; Kim, Ikthae

    2017-02-01

    A 22-years-old female patient at 171 cm and 67 kg visited the Department of Breast Surgery of the hospital with a mass accompanied with pain on the left side breast as chief complaints. Since physical examination revealed a suspected huge mass, breast surgeon decided to perform surgical excision and requested anesthesia to our department. Surgery of breast tumor is often under local anesthesia. However, in case of big size tumor, surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The patient feared general anesthesia. Unlike abdominal surgery, there is no need to control visceral pain for breast and anterior thoracic wall surgery. Therefore, we decided to perform resection under regional anesthesia. Herein, we report a successful anesthetic and pain management of the patient undergoing excision of a huge breast fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia using Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block.

  9. Is progression-free survival a more relevant endpoint than overall survival in first-line HR+/HER2− metastatic breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Forsythe,1 David Chandiwana,2 Janina Barth,3 Marroon Thabane,4 Johan Baeck,5 Anastasiya Shor,1 Gabriel Tremblay6 1Health Technology Assessment Evidence, Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, USA; 2Global Value and Access, Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3German Market Access, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany; 4Health Policy and Patient Access, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Dorval, QC, Canada; 5Global Medical Affairs (Oncology Business Unit, Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 6Health Economics, Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, USA Background: Hormone receptor-positive (HR+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative (HER2−, metastatic breast cancer (MBC accounts for 73% of all MBCs. Endocrine therapy (ET is the basis of first-line (1L therapy for patients with HR+/HER2− MBC. Novel therapies have demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS compared to ET. The clinical relevance of PFS is being debated, as there is no proven direct correlation with overall survival (OS benefit to date. We reviewed studies of HR+/HER2− MBC to assess PFS and other factors that influence OS and treatment response, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods: The Embase®, Medline®, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched to identify studies in adult women with HR+/HER2− MBC, published between January 2006 and January 2017, and written in English. Phase II and III randomized controlled trials (RCTs, observational, and retrospective studies were included. Results: Seventy-nine RCTs were identified: 58 (73% in the 1L+ setting and 21 (27% in second-line or greater settings. PFS hazard ratios (HRs were reported in 61 (77% studies; 31 (39% reported significant PFS improvements. OS was reported in 44 (41% studies; 12 (15% reported significant OS improvements. Significant improvements in both PFS and OS were reported in only 6 (8% studies

  10. Hypoxia-induced secretion of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal stem cell promotes breast cancer cell progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shun-Pei; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Tseng, Kuo-Fung; Lee, Oscar K

    2013-01-01

    In solid tumors, a decreased oxygen and nutrient supply creates a hypoxic microenvironment in the central region. This hypoxic condition induces molecular responses of normal and cancer cells in the local area, including angiogenesis, metabolic changes, and metastasis. In addition, other cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to be recruited into the hypoxic area of solid tumors. In our previous study, we found that hypoxic condition induces the secretion of growth factors and cytokines in MSCs, and here we demonstrate that elevated secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by MSCs under hypoxia promotes the growth, motility, and invasive ability of breast cancer cells. It was found that TGF-β1 promoter activity was regulated by hypoxia, and the major hypoxia-regulated element was located between bp -1030 to -666 in front of the TGF-β1 promoter region. In ChIP assay, the results revealed that HIF-1 was bound to the hypoxia response element (HRE) of TGF-β1 promoter. Collectively, the results indicate that hypoxia microenvironment can enhance cancer cell growth through the paracrine effects of the MSCs by driving their TGF-β1 gene expression and secretion. Therefore, extra caution has to be exercised when considering hypoxia pretreatment of MSCs before cell transplantation into patients for therapeutic purposes, particularly in patients susceptible to tumor growth.

  11. Mesonic atoms. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunselman, R.

    1981-01-01

    Research on mesic atoms during 1981 is reported. This includes measurement of x-rays from pionic hydrogen and pionic deuterium; muonic K, L, and M x-ray spectra of mercury 199 and mercury 201; and pionic chromium 54, scandium 45, vanadium 51, manganese 55, and iron

  12. 1986 PAEC Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Presented are on-going research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in the fields of agriculture and natural resources, health and nutrition, supportive research, nuclear applications services, industry and energy, and other scientific and technological services and information system. (ELC)

  13. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed in the first four years of IRIS, from October 1999 to October 2003. It provides a panoramic of the project status and design effort, with emphasis on the current status, since two previous reports have very extensively documented the work performed, from inception to early 2002.

  14. Exotic atoms. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunselman, R.

    1994-01-01

    The experiments use a variety of hydrogen isotopic mixtures to form solid targets for muons to produce muonic hydrogen isotope atoms that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from a proton to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections (RT effect), and are emitted from the surface of the layer. A second solid hydrogen isotopic target is produced downstream on which the muonic hydrogen atom can react. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes of energy dependence of transfer, production rates, and muon molecular formation. The processes include muon catalyzed fusion of muonic tritium with deuterium which is the most possible candidate for energy production fusion. Our interest is the nuclear physics reaction rates and to use the muonic hydrogen isotopes in vacuum for energy level measurements. The method uses time of flight and is reminiscent of double scattering experiments. Two other experiments are in the development stages. First to measure the energy dependence of the Ramsauer-Townsend cross section in tritium where it has not been measured. The measurements would be compared to deuterium and calculations. Second, kaonic atoms, hypernuclei, and kaon-nucleon scattering at DAPHNE

  15. Transformation of alkylating regimen of thiotepa into tepa determines the disease progression through GSTP1 gene polymorphism for metastatic breast cancer patients receiving thiotepa containing salvage chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinna; Wang, Xiaoli; Song, Qingkun; Yang, Huabing; Zhu, Xishan; Yu, Jing; Song, Guohong; Di, Lijun; Ren, Jun; Shao, Hong; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2015-11-01

    The shifts to second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were widely required based on pharmaceutical molecular profiles to reach out precision medicine. The emerging precise treatment of cancer requires the implementation of clarified pharmacogenetic profiles which are capable of elucidating the predictive responses to cancer chemotherapy. Therefore we were interested in the analysis of the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene) alleles to identify pharmacological links with predictors of clinical responses and toxicities. 93 MBC patients receiving thiotepa plus docetaxel chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Optimized CYP3A5, CYP2B6, and GSTP1 were predominantly selected as candidate genes and their three SNPs (CYP2B6 G516T, CYP3A5 A6986G, and GSTP1 A313G) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate, and chemo-related toxicities were recorded. GSTP1 A313G (rs1695) was identified to be related with disease progression. In particular, patients harboring AG/GG genotype demonstrated a statistically longer PFS than those with AA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that AG/GG genotype was associated with both clinical responses and liver-localized metastatic lesions. No correlation was found between these three SNPs and chemotherapy-induced toxicity. These results suggest that the GSTP1 polymorphism is a novel prognostic marker for clinical response to thiotepa-containing chemotherapy regimens. Such evidence could provide insight into the role of pharmacogenetics to deprive of biases in shifting regimens solely by empirical choices.

  16. Tangential breast irradiation - rationale and methods for improving dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, A.J.; Mayles, W.P.M.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years there have been great advances and innovations in all technical aspects of radiotherapy, including three dimensional (3D) computer planning, patient immobilization, radiation delivery and treatment verification. Despite this progress, the technique of tangential breast irradiation has changed little over this period and has not exploited these advances. There is increasing evidence that dose inhomogeneity within the breast is greater than at other anatomical sites, especially in women with large breasts. This paper is a review of the factors contributing to poor dosimetry in the breast, the clinical consequences of an inhomogeneous dose distribution, and how breast dosimetry could be improved by considering each of the stages from planning to accurate treatment delivery. It also highlights the particular problem of women with large breasts who may be more likely to have a poorer outcome after a fractionated course of radiotherapy than women with small/medium-sized breasts, and supports the clinical impression that such women are also more likely to have greater inhomogenicity when 3D treatment plans are examined. Preliminary data from our current computed tomography (CT) planning study are presented to support these observations. (author)

  17. Progress in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring - Proceedings of the technical days organised by the SFRP Environment Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Dominique; Calvez, Marianne; Rivasseau, Corinne Cea; Monfort, Marguerite; Manificat, Guillaume; Pierrard, Olivier; Couvez, Celine; Masson, Olivier; Bruno, Valerie; Renaud, Philippe; Genova, Zhana; Reynal, Nathalie; Le Coz, Eric; Tchilian, Nathalie; Diana, Jean-Jacques; Beguinel, Philippe; Cortes, Pierre; Puydarrieux, Stephane; Brun, Thierry; Devin, Patrick; Clavel, Benoit; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Gontier, Gilles; Delloye, Thierry; Mailliat, Alain; Ferreri, Giovanni; LECLERC, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    The Environment Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the progress made in the domain of emissions tracking and environment radioactivity monitoring. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Environment monitoring at the global, national and local scale: historical overview (Dominique CALMET, CEA); 2 - Evolution of radioactivity monitoring in the environment from 1960 to the present day (Guillaume MANIFICAT, IRSN); 3 - Euratom's legal framework (Zhana GENOVA, CTE); 4 - Main regulatory changes during the last decade (Nathalie REYNAL, ASN); 5 - Progress of standardization works on radioactive effluent emissions control and environment monitoring (Philippe BEGUINEL, BNEN); 6 - From operators' self-monitoring to ASN's inspections: a many components control system (Eric LE COZ, ASN); 7 - Control of effluents and emissions management at CEA Centres (Marianne CALVEZ, CEA); 8 - Liquid and gaseous effluents of ITER experimental facility: description and impacts (Pierre CORTES, IO); 9 - Effluents and emissions management strategy at AREVA NC La Hague facility (Stephane PUYDARRIEUX, AREVA); 10 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities ongoing deconstruction: from dimensioning to real effluents (Benoit CLAVEL, EDF); 11 - Radionuclides decontamination process for liquid effluents using micro-algae at the laboratory scale (Corinne RIVASSEAU, CEA); 12 - Radioactive effluents from nuclear medicine services: management, monitoring and impact measurement methods (Nathalie TCHILIAN, ASN); 13 - Evolution history of effluents management and environment monitoring at the Solvay La Rochelle site (Thierry DELLOYE, SOLVAY); 14 - Different international approaches in effluents management and monitoring: example of French and German gaseous effluents - regulation, analyses, accounting rules (Jean-Jacques DIANA, ASN); 15 - Environment

  18. Development of a new technic for breast attenuation correction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using computational methods; Desenvolvimento de uma nova tecnica para correcao da atenuacao por tecidos moles em cintilografia de perfusao miocardica utilizando metodos computacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de

    2015-07-01

    Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X{sup 2} for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods

  19. Materials testing and requirements for the ERDA nuclear-powered artificial heart. Technical progress report, July 15, 1974--May 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.D.; Coleman, D.L.; Leigh, A.; Hufferd, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress on the materials research and development effort for the ERDA-sponsored nuclear-powered artificial heart program is presented. Progress made during the first three years on hydrogel grafting and biological studies is summarized. Progress during the fourth year on studies of implanted artificial hearts, development of albumin surfaces, and in vitro mechanical studies is presented. (U.S.)

  20. A clinical randomized controlled trial of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Jin; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2015-02-01

    To examine effects of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in Chinese female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. A total of 170 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n = 85) receiving music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training plus routine nursing care and the control group (n = 85) receiving routine nursing care. Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training were performed twice a day within 48 h after radical mastectomy, once in the early morning (6a.m.-8a.m.) and once in the evening (9p.m.-11p.m.), for 30 min per session until discharged from the hospital. A general linear model with univariate analysis showed that the intervention group patients had significant improvement in depression and anxiety in the effects of group (F = 20.31, P Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training can reduce depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.