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  1. Stenosing tenosynovitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillemin, V.; Guerini, H.; Bard, H.; Morvan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Tenosynovitis refers to an inflammatory condition involving the synovial sheath of a tendon. Stenosing tenosynovitis is a peculiar entity caused by multiple factors, including local anatomy, mechanical factors, and hormonal factors. The main forms include de Quervain tendinopathy; trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis involving the flexor digitorum tendons); stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, or extensor comunis tendons; stenosing tenosynovitis o...

  2. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Stenosing tenosynovitis is a condition commonly known as “trigger finger.” It is sometimes also called “trigger thumb.” The tendons that bend the fingers glide easily with ...

  3. Aspects epidemiologiques et diagnostiques des stenoses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21.96%). The clinical symptomatologies were dominated by dysphagia (100%). Digestive endoscopy was realised in 83.78% cases and the eso-gastro-duodenal transit in 100% cases. Conclusion: The esophageal caustic's stenoses are still ...

  4. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty of Peripheral Bypass Stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoksbergen, Arjan W.J.; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Jacobs, Michael J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the success of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in treating peripheral bypass stenoses. Methods: Patients who received a femoropopliteal or femorocrural bypass graft for limb ischemia were included in a duplex surveillance program. If duplex ultrasound revealed a short (<2 cm) severe (peak systolic velocity ratio ≥ 4.5) stenosis, patients were scheduled for arteriography and PTA. Fifty-eight peripheral bypass stenoses in 39 grafts in 37 patients were treated with PTA. The cumulative primary patency of treated stenoses was calculated. Results: During the first year after PTA 31 (53%) treated lesions remained patent, 15 (26%) lesions restenosed at a median interval of 5.0 (range 1-12) months and 4 (7%) bypasses occluded. The cumulative primary patency of 58 treated graft stenoses at 1 year was 60% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46%-74%] and 55% (95% CI 41%-70%) at 2 years. Graft body stenoses showed a better 2-year cumulative primary patency (86%; 95% CI 68%-100%) compared with juxta-anastomotic lesions (45%; 95% CI 29%-62%; p < 0.05). Conclusion: PTA is justifiable as the initial treatment of peripheral bypass stenoses. Nevertheless, the restenosis rate is rather high, especially in juxta-anastomotic lesions. Continuation of duplex surveillance after PTA and timely reintervention is recommended

  5. Percutaneous catheter dilatation of carotid stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, K.; Mittermayer, C.; Ensinger, H.; Neff, W.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-one carotid artery stenoses were produced in thirty dogs by three different techniques. Twenty-three of these could be cured by transfemoral percutaneous catheter dilatation. High grade tight stenoses may present resistance which cannot be overcome by the catheter. Histological examination of the dilated vessels showed circumscribed changes in the vessel wall, with destruction of elastic membranes. From our experience of catheter dilatation of pelvic and lower limb arteries and of renal arteries, we consider it feasible to use this technique in selected patients with carotid stenosis. (orig.) [de

  6. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be asso...... was inserted since the patient had improved with CSF diversion. MRI verified reopening of the venous sinuses after shunt placement, and the patient remains asymptomatic with no signs of relapse after 3 years of follow-up....

  7. Ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy treated with misoprostol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Troels; Jensen, Boye L; Vinholt, Pernille Just

    2012-01-01

    A case of a 40-year-old man with chronic anaemia because of nonspecific ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy is presented. The diagnosis was made on the basis of capsule endoscopy, histology of resected ileum and no use of NSAIDs. He showed a clinical response to treatment with misoprostol...... phospholipids. Ex-vivo cyclooxygenase (COX) assays showed normal COX-1 and COX-2 activities. The clinical response to treatment with the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol suggests a defective prostaglandin E synthesis in the intestinal mucosa....

  8. RIBOMUNYL IN PROPHYLACTICS OF RELAPSE OF STENOSING LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Orlova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of ribomunyl in treatment and rehabilitation of 40 pediatric patients with relapsing stenosing laryngotracheitis, developed on the basis of acute respiratory viral infection was investigated. Treatment with ribomunyl recovers microbiocenose of nasopharynx and fauces, normalizes pulmonary ventilation and decreases liminal sensitivity of respiratory tract to the histamine.Key words: relapsing stenosing laryngotracheitis, ribomunyl, prophylactics, children.

  9. Tracheobronchial Stenoses in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Charlotte; Charles, Pierre; Terrier, Benjamin; Bussonne, Guillaume; Cohen, Pascal; Pagnoux, Christian; Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François; Guillevin, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tracheobronchial stenoses (TBSs) are potentially severe manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) that usually respond poorly to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. We describe 26 GPA patients with ≥1 tracheal (mainly subglottic, SGS) and/or bronchial stenosis(ses) (BS(s)). Sixteen patients had solitary SGS and 10 had ≥1 BS(s). The male/female sex ratio was 9:17, and the median age at GPA diagnosis was 32 years (3:13 and 28 years, respectively, for SGS patients). Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies were proteinase 3-positive in 65.5% of the patients (50% of those with SGS). Despite conventional GPA therapy, 62% patients experienced ≥1 stenosis relapse(s) (81% of SGS patients, for a total of 1–8 relapses per patient). None of the several systemic or endoscopic treatments prevented future relapses. Cyclophosphamide induction therapy was effective in 4/6 patients with BS(s) and in 1 patient with SGS among the 7 treated. After many relapses, rituximab achieved remission in 3/4 SGS patients. Endoscopic treatments (dilation, laser, corticosteroid injection, etc.) had only transient efficacy. Other GPA manifestations relapsed independently of TBSs. One SGS patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our findings confirmed that TBSs are severe GPA manifestations that evolve independently of other organ involvements and do not respond to conventional systemic regimens. As previously described, our population was younger and comprised more females than usual GPA patients, especially those with SGS. The small number of patients and the wide variety of local and systemic treatments prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions about the contribution of each procedure. However, cyclophosphamide seemed to effectively treat BSs, but not SGS, and rituximab may be of interest for SGS management. PMID:26266344

  10. Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexors - or trigger finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rames Mattar Junior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stenosing tenosynovitis of the fl exors, known as trigger fi nger, is a verycommon problem seen by the Occupational Medicine practitioners,the orthopaedic surgeon and the hand surgeon. The purpose of thischapter is to summarize information on aspects of this conditionlikely to be of interest and relevant to the health professionals. Topicscovered include clinical observations related to ethiology, risk factors,diagnosis and case management.

  11. Interobserver reliability of the Amsterdam Severity Scale in Stenosing Tenosynovitis (ASSiST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, W.F.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Mesman, T.; Dekker, J.; Hoeksma, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Interobserver reliability study. INTRODUCTION: A scale was developed to measure the severity of stenosing tenosynovitis: the Amsterdam Severity Scale in Stenosing Tenosynovitis (ASSiST). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To study the interobserver reliability of the ASSiST. METHODS: Patients

  12. Late hemodynamic failure following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for long and multifocal femoropopliteal stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Holstein, P

    1991-01-01

    separate segments were dilated. Following 98% initial technical success, 3-year patency was 68% for single short stenoses, as opposed to 20% for long and multifocal stenoses (p = 0.05, logrank test). Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicyclic acid was not found to influence occurrence of restenosis...

  13. Extracellular Vesicles in Bile as Markers of Malignant Biliary Stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severino, Valeria; Dumonceau, Jean Marc; Delhaye, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Algorithms for diagnosis of malignant common bile duct (CBD) stenoses are complex and lack accuracy. Malignant tumors secrete large numbers of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into surrounding fluids; EVs might therefore serve as biomarkers for diagnosis. We investigated whether...

  14. FDM Analysis for Blood Flow through Stenosed Tapered Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar DS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A computational model is developed to analyze the unsteady flow of blood through stenosed tapered narrow arteries, treating blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as Herschel-Bulkley fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as Newtonian fluid. The finite difference method is employed to solve the resulting system of nonlinear partial differential equations. The effects of stenosis height, peripheral layer thickness, yield stress, viscosity ratio, angle of tapering and power law index on the velocity, wall shear stress, flow rate and the longitudinal impedance are analyzed. It is found that the velocity and flow rate increase with the increase of the peripheral layer thickness and decrease with the increase of the angle of tapering and depth of the stenosis. It is observed that the flow rate decreases nonlinearly with the increase of the viscosity ratio and yield stress. The estimates of the increase in the longitudinal impedance to flow are considerably lower for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model compared with those of the single-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, it is concluded that the presence of the peripheral layer helps in the functioning of the diseased arterial system.

  15. Accuracy of 3 T MR angiography in vertebral artery stenosis and coincidence with other cerebrovascular stenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Ostium of vertebral artery (VA) is a common site of pseudostenosis on contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CE-MRA at 3 T in the evaluation of ostial stenosis of VA and to find associated coincidental stenoses using logistic regression analysis. One hundred and thirty-five VA ostial regions from 72 patients who received CE-MRA of neck vessels, intracranial time of flight (TOF) MRA, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity and specificity of the CE-MRA in detection of ostial stenosis were calculated with reference standard of DSA. Ostial stenosis on MRA was correlated with coincidental lesions in intracranial and cervical arteries by logistic regression analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the CE-MRA were 100% and 80.4% for detection of significant stenosis. In case of significant stenoses, CE-MRA showed a tendency of overestimation with a false-positive rate of 52.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the stenoses of middle cerebral artery (MCA) on TOF MRA was associated with significant stenoses of VA ostia (OR = 5.84, 95% confidence intervals 1.41-24.17). CE-MRA is sensitive in detection of VA ostial stenosis although it has high false-positive rate. True positive ostial stenosis should be considered in cases of coincidental stenoses of MCA on TOF MRA. (orig.)

  16. Accuracy of 3 T MR angiography in vertebral artery stenosis and coincidence with other cerebrovascular stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Ostium of vertebral artery (VA) is a common site of pseudostenosis on contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CE-MRA at 3 T in the evaluation of ostial stenosis of VA and to find associated coincidental stenoses using logistic regression analysis. One hundred and thirty-five VA ostial regions from 72 patients who received CE-MRA of neck vessels, intracranial time of flight (TOF) MRA, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity and specificity of the CE-MRA in detection of ostial stenosis were calculated with reference standard of DSA. Ostial stenosis on MRA was correlated with coincidental lesions in intracranial and cervical arteries by logistic regression analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the CE-MRA were 100% and 80.4% for detection of significant stenosis. In case of significant stenoses, CE-MRA showed a tendency of overestimation with a false-positive rate of 52.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the stenoses of middle cerebral artery (MCA) on TOF MRA was associated with significant stenoses of VA ostia (OR = 5.84, 95% confidence intervals 1.41-24.17). CE-MRA is sensitive in detection of VA ostial stenosis although it has high false-positive rate. True positive ostial stenosis should be considered in cases of coincidental stenoses of MCA on TOF MRA. (orig.)

  17. Treatment of intracranial stenoses using the Neuroform stent system: initial experience in five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Stefan; Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ringleb, Peter [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Division of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    We assessed the technical feasibility of balloon-assisted angioplasty with consecutive stenting using a flexible, self-expanding neurovascular stent for the treatment of intracranial arteriosclerotic vascular stenoses. Five consecutive patients with symptomatic drug-resistant stenoses of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) or the main stem of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were treated by balloon-assisted angioplasty with consecutive stenting using the Neuroform stent system. Balloon dilatation of the stenoses and consecutive stent placement with complete coverage of the stenoses was feasible in all patients. One patient suffered acute thrombosis distally to the stented vessel segment which was successfully treated by fibrinolysis, and one patient suffered acute subarachnoid and parenchymal hemorrhage probably due to vessel perforation. In the other three patients, no complications occurred during or immediately after angioplasty. All patients were free of further ischemic events up to the 6-month follow-up. Our findings demonstrate that the Neuroform stent system can used successfully for the treatment of intracranial stenoses of the ICA and the main stem of the MCA. Although immediate angiographic results are promising, long-term angiographic and clinical follow-up is essential to demonstrate long-term outcome. (orig.)

  18. Predictors of Stenosing Tenosynovitis in the Hand and Hand-Related Activity Limitations in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Horsten, N.C.; Hoeksma, A.F.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Knol, D.L.; van Schaardenburg, D.; Dekker, J.; Roorda, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ursum J, Horsten NC, Hoeksma AF, Dijkmans BA, Knol DL, van Schaardenburg D, Dekker J, Roorda LD. Predictors of stenosing tenosynovitis in the hand and hand-related activity limitations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To identify early predictors of stenosing tenosynovitis in the

  19. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of malignant disease of the breast arouses more controversy and emotion than that of any other form of malignant disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out and others are still in progress. In addition, research work continues in regard to other aspects of the disease, such as epidemiology, population screening, and endocrine factors; yet little is really known about the true biological nature of carcinoma of the breast. A vast amount of literature has accumulated on the treatment of ''operable'' carcinoma of the breast, but it is not proposed to discuss here the merits or demerits of the various suggested treatments. Instead this chapter will be confined to the practical management of carcinoma of the breast as seen from the point of view of radiotherapist. For this reason greater attention will be paid to the radiotherapy techniques as practised at the Christie Hospital

  20. Should incidental asymptomatic angiographic stenoses and occlusions be treated in patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-09-01

    The clinical importance of angiographically detected asymptomatic lower-limb stenoses and occlusions is unknown. This study aims to (i) assess the clinical outcome of asymptomatic lesions in the lower limb, (ii) identify predictors of clinical deterioration, and (iii) determine which asymptomatic lower-limb lesions should be treated at presentation.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.

  2. Prevalence of stenoses and occlusions of brain-supplying arteries in young stroke patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    von Sarnowski, Bettina

    2013-03-06

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is believed to be a minor cause of TIA and stroke in younger and middle-aged patients. However, data from large cohorts are limited. This study investigates the prevalence of extracranial and intracranial atherosclerosis in stroke and TIA patients aged 18-55 years in the multinational sifap1 study. METHODS: From the sifap1 cohort (n = 5,023), we analyzed a subset of patients with complete data from carotid ultrasound studies. Patients with arterial dissections, vasculitis, and mobile thrombi were excluded. Among the remaining 2,187 patients (men: n = 1,319; 18-44 years: n = 744), intracranial arteries were additionally examined with ultrasonography in 1,612 patients (73.7%). Patients were stratified by sex and age groups (younger: 18-44 years; middle-aged: 45-55 years). RESULTS: In patients with ischemic stroke, the overall prevalence of carotid artery stenoses and occlusions was 8.9% (younger: 4.9%; middle-aged: 11.0%), of which 81% were symptomatic. Nonstenotic carotid plaques were more common in men than in women (15.8% vs 7.7%; p < 0.001), and in middle-aged than in younger patients (17.0% vs 4.9%; p < 0.001). Supratentorial intracranial artery stenoses and occlusions amounted to 11.8%. Supratentorial stenoses occurred more frequently in middle-aged patients (13.0% vs 7.8%; p < 0.001), whereas occlusions were equally common (both 3.2%; not significant). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a substantial proportion of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenoses and occlusions in younger stroke patients. Intracranial stenoses and occlusions were even more prevalent than extracranial carotid artery disease. Together with nonstenotic plaques, one-fifth of patients (21.2%) had symptomatic or asymptomatic large-artery atherosclerosis, which should encourage future stroke prevention campaigns to target risk factor modification in young people.

  3. Functional and quantitative magnetic resonance myelography of symptomatic stenoses of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Knut [District Hospital Castle of Werneck, MRI Center of Excellence, Werneck (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Stadlbauer, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that functional, quantitative magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) allows standardized diagnosis of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses which show at least equal detectability compared to functional myelography and postmyelographic CT (pmCT) based on intra- and postoperative findings. We investigated 43 volunteers and 47 patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses using MRM in normal position as well as in flexion and extension in a standard whole-body MR scanner. Twenty volunteers were additionally examined under axial loading. All patients were investigated by functional myelography and pmCT and 10 patients had a functional lumbar MRM postoperatively. Range of motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes in normal position, flexion, extension, and under axial loading (volunteers) were assessed for each segment. Detectability was determined by using intraoperative findings, and postoperative freedom of symptoms was correlated with CSF volume changes in MRM. The ranges of motion in a standard whole-body MR scanner provide adequate scope for investigations into function (flexion and extension) in both volunteers and patients. Axial loading was associated with a mechanism of extension, albeit to a far smaller extent. Detectability of lumbar stenoses was 100 % for MRM, 58 % for conventional myelography, and 68 % for pmCT. Postoperative changes in CSF volume of levels with stenoses in MRM strongly correlated with freedom of symptoms (R = 0.772). This MRM method allows for exact diagnosis and reproducible quantification of stenoses, motion-related changes, and spondylolistheses of the lumbar spine. It may be useful for early detection of alterations in order to avoid neuronal compression. (orig.)

  4. Newly developed biodegradable stents for benign gastrointestinal tract stenoses: a preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Nitta, Norihisa; Furukawa, Akira; Andoh, Akira; Saito, Yasuharu; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    We developed an Ultraflex-type stent by knitting polylactic acid monofilaments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stent's clinical usefulness for treating benign stenoses in the gastrointestinal tract. The radial force of the biodegradable stent was compared with those of commercially available metallic stents. The measured radial force of the new biodegradable stent was higher than that of commercially available metallic stents. The biodegradable stents were applied in 2 patients with benign gastrointestinal stenoses. The first patient was a 19-year-old female with esophageal stenosis, due to drinking of caustic potash in an attempt to commit suicide. The second patient was a 75-year-old male who had a stenosis at the anastomotic site after esophageal cancer resection. In both cases, the placement of the stent was performed successfully, and the patients' complaints improved immediately after stent placement. There were no complications during stent placement. The stenosis had not recurred at the six-month follow-up examination. In conclusion, the newly developed biodegradable stents were useful in treating benign stenoses of the alimentary tract. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Efficacy of stent angioplasty for symptomatic stenoses of the proximal vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.; Mayer, T.E.; Henkes, H.; Kis, B.; Hamann, G.F.; Holtmannspoetter, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Kuehne, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of stent angioplasty in the treatment of symptomatic arteriosclerotic stenoses of the proximal vertebral artery (VA). Methods: Thirty-eight symptomatic stenoses of the vertebral origin were treated with flexible balloon-expandable coronary stents. Angiographic and clinical follow-up examinations were obtained in 26 patients at a mean of 11 months. Results: The immediate post-procedural angiographic results showed no residual stenosis in 33 vessels and mild residual stenoses in five vessels. Periprocedurally, there were two asymptomatic technical complications and one TIA. During follow-up re-stenosis could be detected in 10 cases (36%), and vessel occlusions in two patients. Two stents were broken. One of the restenosis caused a TIA within the follow-up period. Conclusions: Flexible balloon-expandable coronary stents proved to be save and effective in preventing vertebrobasilar stroke but were incapable to preserve the proximal vertebral artery lumen. For the VA origine an adequate stent, self-expanding, bioresorbable, or drug-eluting has to be found

  6. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong, E-mail: cheny102@163.com; Ye, Peng, E-mail: thomas19871223@163.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China); Jiang, Wen-jin, E-mail: 18653501187@163.com [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital (China); Ma, Shuo-yi, E-mail: mazelong123456789@126.com; Zhao, Jian-bo, E-mail: zhaojianbohgl@163.com; Zeng, Qing-le, E-mail: doctorzengqingle@126.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  7. Numerized image treatment process for stenoses automatic detection; Procede de traitement d`images numerisees pour la detection automatique de stenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makram-Ebeid Sherif

    1995-01-27

    Numerical image treatment process in angiography X-ray imaging for the automatic stenose detection, including at least pixel identification stage. Those last are situated on the vessel central lines, as it is called ``tracking`` step. This one includes one first filter operation brought to a satisfactory conclusion, applying on each image, recursive bidimensional selective low-pass N filter series, with losange support, including one of the main directions, which is regularly oriented in the image plan between 0 and {pi}-{pi}/N, from {pi}/N to {pi}/N, to detect each vessel part direction, like that where one filter answer is maximal. Uses: numerical angiography systems. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  8. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ACUTE STENOSING LARYNGOTRACHEITIS. WHAT DRUGS ARE DATA-BASED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Ogorodova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute stenosing laryngotracheitis is the most common cause of the upper respiratory tract obstruction in children at the age of 6 months to 6 years old. It is the rapidly occurring syndrome, consisting of barking cough, hoarseness, stridor. The disease can be associated with development of respiratory failure and asphyxia, so pediatricians and emergency care doctors must be well aware of rational pharmacotherapy of this condition. The review contains the descriptions of the drugs, which efficacy is confirmed by convincing evidence database. 

  9. Unsteady Blood Flow with Nanoparticles Through Stenosed Arteries in the Presence of Periodic Body Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatin Jamil, Dzuliana; Roslan, Rozaini; Abdulhameed, Mohammed; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Ghazali Kamardan, Muhamad

    2018-04-01

    The effects of nanoparticles such as Fe 3O4,TiO2, and Cu on blood flow inside a stenosed artery are studied. In this study, blood was modelled as non-Newtonian Bingham plastic fluid subjected to periodic body acceleration and slip velocity. The flow governing equations were solved analytically by using the perturbation method. By using the numerical approaches, the physiological parameters were analyzed, and the blood flow velocity distributions were generated graphically and discussed. From the flow results, the flow speed increases as slip velocity increases and decreases as the values of yield stress increases.

  10. Pulsatile Non-Newtonian Laminar Blood Flows through Arterial Double Stenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Golam Rabby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical investigation of non-Newtonian modeling effects on unsteady periodic flows in a two-dimensional (2D pipe with two idealized stenoses of 75% and 50% degrees, respectively. The governing Navier-Stokes equations have been modified using the Cartesian curvilinear coordinates to handle complex geometries. The investigation has been carried out to characterize four different non-Newtonian constitutive equations of blood, namely, the (i Carreau, (ii Cross, (iii Modified Casson, and (iv Quemada models. The Newtonian model has also been analyzed to study the physics of fluid and the results are compared with the non-Newtonian viscosity models. The numerical results are represented in terms of streamwise velocity, pressure distribution, and wall shear stress (WSS as well as the vorticity, streamlines, and vector plots indicating recirculation zones at the poststenotic region. The results of this study demonstrate a lower risk of thrombogenesis at the downstream of stenoses and inadequate blood supply to different organs of human body in the Newtonian model compared to the non-Newtonian ones.

  11. Two-Fluid Mathematical Models for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar DS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulsatile flow of blood through stenosed arteries is analyzed by assuming the blood as a two-fluid model with the suspension of all the erythrocytes in the core region as a non-Newtonian fluid and the plasma in the peripheral layer as a Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluid in the core region of the artery is assumed as a (i Herschel-Bulkley fluid and (ii Casson fluid. Perturbation method is used to solve the resulting system of non-linear partial differential equations. Expressions for various flow quantities are obtained for the two-fluid Casson model. Expressions of the flow quantities obtained by Sankar and Lee (2006 for the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model are used to get the data for comparison. It is found that the plug flow velocity and velocity distribution of the two-fluid Casson model are considerably higher than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. It is also observed that the pressure drop, plug core radius, wall shear stress and the resistance to flow are significantly very low for the two-fluid Casson model than those of the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model. Hence, the two-fluid Casson model would be more useful than the two-fluid Herschel-Bulkley model to analyze the blood flow through stenosed arteries.

  12. [The Allium ureteral stent in the management of ureteral stenoses, a retrospective, multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalino, M; Droupy, S; Ruffion, A; Fiard, G; Hutin, M; Poncet, D; Pereira, B; Paparel, P; Terrier, J-E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Allium ureteral stent in the management of patients initially treated with double J stents for the long-term treatment of stenoses. We performed a retrospective multicenter study involving 36 patients who received 37 Allium ureteral stents (metallic 24 Fr) between September 2011 and January 2015 in one of three French teaching hospital centers. The mean age of the patients was 63.8 years (min-max: 33-88 years) and most were women (70%). Of these patients, 5.6% had ureteral fistulae and 94.4% stenoses. Mean stenosis length was 4.15cm (min-max: 0.5-12cm). All analyses were two-tailed with an alpha risk of 0.05. Statistical significance was set at Pstents were removed due to migration (complication occurring in 18.9% of the studied population), infection (10.8%) or intolerance (8.1%). The other stents were removed after 1 year. Clinical effectiveness, defined as a lack of stenosis or fistula recurrence, was 52.8% after a mean follow-up of 7.1 months. Clinically effective in more than 50% of cases, the Allium ureteral stent appears to be an alternative to indwelling double J stents. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of Newtonian physiological blood flow through normal and stenosed carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Akhter, Most. Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate Newtonian physiological flows behavior on three dimensional idealized carotid artery (CA) and single stenosed (75% by area) carotid artery(SCA). The wall vessel is set as rigid during simulation. Bifurcated blood vessel are simulated by using three-dimensional flow analysis. Physiological and parabolic velocity profiles are set out to fix the conditions of inlet boundaries of artery. In other hand, physiological waveform is an important part of compilation and it is successfully done by utilization of Fourier series having sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 94 to 1120. Low Reynolds number k — ω model has been used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize the flow behavior of blood in two geometry, namely, (i) Normal carotid artery (CA) and (ii) Stenosed carotid artery (SCA). The Newtonian model has been used to study the physics of fluid. The findings of the two models are thoroughly compared in order to observe there behavioral sequence of flows. The numerical results were presented in terms of velocity, pressure, wall shear stress distributions and cross sectional velocities as well as the streamlines contour. Stenosis disturbs the normal pattern of blood flow through the artery as reduced area. At stenosis region velocity and peak Reynolds number rapidly increase and Reynolds number reach transitional and turbulent region. These flow fluctuation and turbulence have bad effect to the blood vessel which makes to accelerate the progress of stenosis.

  14. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-28

    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  15. The value of 3D-CT angiography and duplex sonography in comparison to arteriography in carotid artery stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Wesner, F.; Hoepfner, M.; Schwarzenberg, H.; Heller, M.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the value of 3D-CT angiography, duplex sonography in comparison to selective digital subtraction angiography for evaluation of carotid artery stenoses. Methods: 30 patients with 51 stenoses of carotid artery underwent 3D-CT angiography, duplex sonography and angiography. Quantification of stenosis was determined according to the NASCET study and categorized into mild (0-29%), moderate (30-69%), severe (70-99%) and occluded (100%). Results: The agreement of 3D-CT angiography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was 62% (r=0.89; p [de

  16. Predictors of stenosing tenosynovitis in the hand and hand-related activity limitations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Horsten, N.C.; Hoeksma, A.F.; Dijkmans, B.A.; Knol, D.L.; Schaardenburg, D. van; Dekker, J.; Roorda, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify early predictors of stenosing tenosynovitis in the hand and hand-related activity limitations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Design: A longitudinal study of an inception cohort. Setting: A large outpatient clinic. Participants: Consecutive patients who attended

  17. Long-term outcome of tandem stenting for stenoses of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery and vertebral ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B; Wong, E H C; Jiang, W-J

    2009-04-01

    Patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis of the intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) have a poor prognosis, and those with coexistent intracranial and extracranial stenoses have worse outcomes despite medical therapy. Our aim was to study the long-term outcome of patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic tandem stenoses at the intracranial VBA and the vertebral artery ostium (VAO) after elective stent placement. Ten consecutive patients (mean age, 65.3 years) with this condition underwent elective stent placement at our institution between September 2001 and December 2007. Technical success was defined as stent placement of both VAO and intracranial VBA stenoses with complete stent coverage of the lesions, residual stenosis of VBA territory after 30 days. Technical success was obtained in 9 of 10 patients without any stroke or death within 30 days. During a median follow-up duration of 32 months, 1 patient had a fatal ischemic stroke in the VBA territory at 4 months, and the other 9 patients were free from stroke recurrence. Thus, the annual stroke rate in VBA territory (including any stroke or death within 30 days) was 3.8%. This pilot study shows that elective stent placement for patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic tandem stenoses at the intracranial VBA and VAO has an acceptable long-term outcome and may be considered as an alternative to medical therapy.

  18. Contemporary percutaneous treatment of unprotected left main coronary stenoses: initial results from a multicenter registry analysis 1994-1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Ellis (Stephen); H. Tamai (Hideo); K. Kosuga; A. Colombo (Antonio); D.R. Holmes Jr (David); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); C.L. Grines; P.L. Whitlow (Patrick); H.J. White; J. Moses; P.S. Teirstein (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.A. Bittl; M.R. Mooney; T.M. Shimshak; P.C. Block (Peter); R. Erbel (Raimund); M. Nobuyoshi (Masakiyo)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has been considered the therapy of choice for patients with unprotected left main (ULMT) coronary stenoses. Selected single-center reports suggest that the results of percutaneous intervention may now approach those of CABG. METHODS AND

  19. Quantification of iliac artery stenoses: a methodological comparative study between intravascular ultrasound, arteriography and duplex scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Skovgaard, Lene T

    1998-01-01

    66 y, admitted for either PTA (n=18) or femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery (n=20), were examined by IVUS, single plane arteriography and duplex scanning. The predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of IVUS were higher than the corresponding values for arteriography. Logistic...... regression analysis found that IVUS had a predictive value (p=0.0003) for diagnosing significant stenosis as defined by duplex scanning, but arteriography did not (p=0.1). However, this difference in usefulness as predictors did not reach significance. The agreement between arteriography and IVUS...... was relatively good. The conclusion is that IVUS seems to be superior to single-plane arteriography in predicting hemodynamically significant stenoses as defined by duplex scanning....

  20. Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow through a Tapered Overlapping Stenosed Artery with Variable Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of blood flow through a tapered and overlapping stenosed artery under the action of an externally applied magnetic field. The fluid (blood medium is assumed to be porous in nature. The variable viscosity of blood depending on hematocrit (percentage volume of erythrocytes is taken into account in order to improve resemblance to the real situation. The governing equation for laminar, incompressible and Newtonian fluid subject to the boundary conditions is solved by using a well known Frobenius method. The analytical expressions for velocity component, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and pressure gradient are obtained. The numerical values are extracted from these analytical expressions and are presented graphically. It is observed that the influence of hematocrit, magnetic field and the shape of artery have important impact on the velocity profile, pressure gradient and wall shear stress. Moreover, the effect of primary stenosis on the secondary one has been significantly observed.

  1. Quantification of iliac artery stenoses: a methodological comparative study between intravascular ultrasound, arteriography and duplex scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, K C; Rasmussen, John Bøje Grønvall; Skovgaard, Lene T

    1998-01-01

    Two morphological methods for quantifying the degree of stenoses in the iliac arteries, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and arteriography, were compared with duplex scanning, a method of evaluating the haemodynamic importance of the stenosis. A total of 38 patients, 20 women and 18 men, median age...... 66 y, admitted for either PTA (n=18) or femoro-femoral crossover bypass surgery (n=20), were examined by IVUS, single plane arteriography and duplex scanning. The predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and kappa value of IVUS were higher than the corresponding values for arteriography. Logistic...... regression analysis found that IVUS had a predictive value (p=0.0003) for diagnosing significant stenosis as defined by duplex scanning, but arteriography did not (p=0.1). However, this difference in usefulness as predictors did not reach significance. The agreement between arteriography and IVUS...

  2. Ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy treated with misoprostol: a case report with analysis of prostaglandin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Troels; Jensen, Boye L; Vinholt, Pernille J; Engvad, Birte; Stubbe, Jane

    2012-10-01

    A case of a 40-year-old man with chronic anaemia because of nonspecific ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy is presented. The diagnosis was made on the basis of capsule endoscopy, histology of resected ileum and no use of NSAIDs. He showed a clinical response to treatment with misoprostol, and therefore, he was investigated for a possible impairment in eicosanoid biosynthesis compared with healthy controls. No deficient synthesis of prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane was found on examination of metabolites in blood and urine. This suggests a normal release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids. Ex-vivo cyclooxygenase (COX) assays showed normal COX-1 and COX-2 activities. The clinical response to treatment with the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol suggests a defective prostaglandin E synthesis in the intestinal mucosa.

  3. Why can pulmonary vein stenoses created by radiofrequency catheter ablation worsen during and after follow-up ? A potential explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsaz Pierre-André

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiofrequency catheter ablation of excitation foci inside pulmonary veins (PV generates stenoses that can become quite severe during or after the follow-up period. Since severe PV stenoses have most often disastrous consequences, it would be important to know the underlying mechanism of this temporal evolution. The present study proposes a potential explanation based on mechanical considerations. Methods we have used a mathematical-physical model to examine the cyclic increase in axial wall stress induced in the proximal (= upstream, non-stenosed segment of a stenosed pulmonary vein during the forward flow phases. In a representative example, the value of this increase at peak flow was calculated for diameter stenoses (DS ranging from 1 to 99%. Results The increase becomes appreciable at a DS of roughly 30% and rise then strongly with further increasing DS value. At high DS values (e.g. > 90% the increase is approximately twice the value of the axial stress present in the PV during the zero-flow phase. Conclusion Since abnormal wall stresses are known to induce damages and abnormal biological processes (e.g., endothelium tears, elastic membrane fragmentations, matrix secretion, myofibroblast generation, etc in the vessel wall, it seems plausible that the supplementary axial stress experienced cyclically by the stenotic and the proximal segments of the PV is responsible for the often observed progressive reduction of the vessel lumen after healing of the ablation injury. In the light of this model, the only potentially effective therapy in these cases would be to reduce the DS as strongly as possible. This implies most probably stenting or surgery.

  4. Visual and Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Stenoses at Angiography Versus Fractional Flow Reserve: The Impact of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjedj, Julien; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Toth, Gabor; Ferrara, Angela; Pellicano, Mariano; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Floré, Vincent; Barbato, Emanuele; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    The correlation between angiographic assessment of coronary stenoses and fractional flow reserve (FFR) is weak. Whether and how risk factors impact the diagnostic accuracy of angiography is unknown. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of angiography by visual estimate and by quantitative coronary angiography when compared with FFR and evaluate the influence of risk factors (RF) on this accuracy. In 1382 coronary stenoses (1104 patients), percent diameter stenosis by visual estimation (DS VE ) and by quantitative coronary angiography (DS QCA ) was compared with FFR. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups, according to the presence of RFs, and the relationship between DS VE , DS QCA , and FFR was analyzed. Overall, DS VE was significantly higher than DS QCA ( P <0.0001); nonetheless, when examined by strata of DS, DS VE was significantly smaller than DS QCA in mild stenoses, although the reverse held true for severe stenoses. Compared with FFR, a large scatter was observed for both DS VE and DS QCA . When using a dichotomous FFR value of 0.80, C statistic was significantly higher for DS VE than for DS QCA (0.712 versus 0.640, respectively; P <0.001). C statistics for DS VE decreased progressively as RFs accumulated (0.776 for ≤1 RF, 0.750 for 2 RFs, 0.713 for 3 RFs and 0.627 for ≥4 RFs; P =0.0053). In addition, in diabetics, the relationship between FFR and angiographic indices was particularly weak (C statistics: 0.524 for DS VE and 0.511 for DS QCA ). Overall, DS VE has a better diagnostic accuracy than DS QCA to predict the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The predictive accuracy of angiography is moderate in patients with ≤1 RFs, but weakens as RFs accumulate, especially in diabetics. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Treatment of symptomatic high-grade intracranial stenoses with the balloon-expandable Pharos stent: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurre, W.; Berkefeld, J.; Mesnil de Rochemont, R. du; Sitzer, M.; Neumann-Haefelin, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report our first clinical experience with a CE-marked flexible monorail balloon-expandable stent for treatment of high-grade intracranial stenoses. Between April 2006 and November 2007 21 patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoses (>70%) were treated with the PHAROS stent. In seven patients, the procedure was performed during acute stroke intervention. Procedural success, clinical complication rates and mid-term follow-up data were prospectively recorded. During a median follow-up period of 7.3 months one additional patient died of an unknown cause 3 months after the intervention. A patient with a significant residual stenosis presented with a new stroke after further progression of the residual stenosis. None of the successfully treated patients experienced ipsilateral stroke. Recanalization of intracranial stenoses with the balloon-expandable Pharos stent is technically feasible. The periprocedural complication rate and mid-term follow-up results were in the range of previously reported case series. This pilot study was limited by the small sample size and severe morbidity of the included patients. Final evaluation of the efficacy of Pharos stent treatment demands further investigation. (orig.)

  6. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of tandem carotid artery stenoses: Investigation of neurological complications after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Yukinao; Takao, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Kouichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takayama, Sho; Fujimura, Soichiro; Masuda, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Mituyoshi; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Dahmani, Chihebeddine; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-09-14

    Combined extra- and intracranial carotid artery stenoses, particularly involving multiple lesions, show complex hemodynamic properties and represent a therapeutic dilemma. We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate whether insufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a 70-year-old man with tandem stenoses was the cause of aphasia and right hemiparesis after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of the extracranial stenosis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) was performed before and after balloon angioplasty and CAS in the patient. The geometrical and rheological conditions of the carotid arteries were determined, and computational meshes were generated from the patient-specific 3D-DSA datasets. CFD analysis was performed, and hemodynamic parameters such as mass flow, pressure, fractional flow reserve, and streamlines were calculated. Post-CAS simulations showed that the percentage of internal carotid artery mass flow from common carotid artery mass flow increased from 9% to 14% and CBF improved by only 5%. CFD analysis suggested that the neurological complications were caused by insufficient CBF rather than embolic events, and in tandem carotid stenoses, CAS for an extracranial lesion alone may not always sufficiently increase CBF. CFD enabled the noninvasive quantitative estimation of the effects of CAS of each stenotic segment on carotid flow.

  7. Complications after tracheal and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis for inflammatory and neoplastic stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Del Bon, Francesca; Paderno, Alberto; Grazioli, Paola; Mangili, Stefano; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero; Peretti, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate complications and success rates of tracheal resection and anastomosis (TRA) and cricotracheal resection and anastomosis (CTRA) in patients treated in 2 academic institutions. Retrospective charts review of 137 patients submitted to TRA/CTRA. Fifty (36.5%) had neoplastic (group A) and 87 (63.5%) benign (group B) stenoses. Using univariate analysis, age, medical comorbidities, previous radiotherapy, type of TRA/CTRA, association with neck dissection and thyroidectomy, length of resected airway, and preoperative tracheotomy were evaluated to identify factors predictive of complications and outcomes. The mean length of resected airway was 2.7 and 3 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Overall decannulation and complication rates for group A were 96% and 36%, and 99% and 46% for group B, respectively. Length of airway resected and presence of preoperative tracheotomy had a statistically significant effect on major surgical complications. Age older than 70 and cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities were significantly associated with the incidence of major medical complications. No statistically significant difference was found considering the complication rates of group A versus group B. Even though the overall success rate of TRA/CTRA is high, it should always be regarded as a major surgical procedure with a non-negligible incidence of complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Oxygenated and Deoxygenated Blood Flow through a Tapered Stenosed Arteries in Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    Full Text Available Current paper is focused on transient modeling of blood flow through a tapered stenosed arteries surrounded a by solenoid under the presence of heat transfer. The oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are considered here by the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluid (power law and Carreau-Yasuda models. The governing equations of bio magnetic fluid flow for an incompressible, laminar, homogeneous, non-Newtonian are solved by finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm for structured grid. Both magnetization and electric current source terms are well thought-out in momentum and energy equations. The effects of fluid viscosity model, Hartmann number, and magnetic number on wall shear stress, shearing stress at the stenosis throat and maximum temperature of the system are investigated and are optimized. The current study results are in agreement with some of the existing findings in the literature and are useful in thermal and mechanical design of spatially varying magnets to control the drug delivery and biomagnetic fluid flows through tapered arteries.

  9. Simulations of Magnetohemodynamics in Stenosed Arteries in Diabetic or Anemic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Alshare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile flow simulations of non-Newtonian blood flow in an axisymmetric multistenosed artery, subjected to a static magnetic field, are performed using FLUENT. The influence of artery size and magnetic field intensity on transient wall shear stress, mean shear stress, and pressure drop is investigated. Three different types of blood, namely, healthy, diabetic, and anemic are considered. It is found that using Newtonian viscosity model of blood in contrast to Carreau model underestimates the pressure drop and wall shear stress by nearly 34% and 40%, respectively. In addition, it is found that using a magnetic field increases the pressure drop by 15%. Generally, doubling the artery diameter reduces the wall shear stress approximately by 1.6 times. Also increasing the stenosis level from moderate to severe results in reduction of the shear stress by 1.6 times. Furthermore, doubling the diameter of moderately stenosed artery results in nearly 3-fold decrease in pressure drop. It is also found that diabetic blood results in higher shear stress and greater pressure drop in comparison to healthy blood, whereas anemic blood has a decreasing effect on both wall shear stress and pressure drop in comparison to healthy blood.

  10. Relationship between transit time and mechanical properties of a cell through a stenosed microchannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Shi, Huixin; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Lim, Chwee Teck; Li, Yu

    2018-01-24

    The changes in the mechanical properties of a cell are not only the cause of some diseases, but can also be a biomarker for some disease states. In recent times, microfluidic devices with built-in constrictions have been widely used to measure these changes. The transit time in such devices, defined as the time that a cell takes to pass through a constriction, has been found to be a crucial factor associated with the cell mechanical properties. Here, we use smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based numerical method, to explore the relationship between the transit time and mechanical properties of a cell. Three expressions of the transit time are developed from our simulation data, with respect to the stenosed size of constrictions, the shear modulus and bending modulus of cells, respectively. We show that a convergent constriction (the inlet is wider than the outlet), and a sharp-corner constriction (the constriction outlet is narrow) are better in identifying the differences in the transit time of cells. Moreover, the transit time increases and gradually approaches a constant as the shear modulus of cells increases, but increases first and then decreases as the bending modulus increases. These results suggest that the mechanical properties of cells can indeed be measured by analyzing their transit time, based on the recommended microfluidic device.

  11. Divergence-free smoothing for MRV data on stenosed carotid artery phantom flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chaehyuk; Ko, Seungbin; Song, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) is a versatile technique for measuring flow velocity using an MRI machine. It is frequently used for visualization and analysis of blood flows. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate hemodynamics parameters like wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) due to its low spatial resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio. We suggest a divergence-free smoothing (DFS) method to correct the erroneous velocity vectors obtained with MRV and improve the estimation accuracy of those parameters. Unlike previous studies on DFS for a wall-free flow, we developed a house code to apply a DFS method to a wall-bounded flow. A Hagen-Poiseuille flow and stenosed carotid artery phantom flows were measured with MRV. Each of them was analyzed for validation of the DFS code and confirmation on the accuracy improvement of hemodynamic parameters. We will discuss the effects of DFS on the improvement of the estimation accuracy of velocity vectors, WSS, OSI and etc in detail This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  12. Haemodynamic study of Flow in concentric and eccentric stenosed carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader S. M. Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of flow through arteries is gaining importance in the recent times due to onset of several cardio-vascular diseases like atherosclerosis (block in artery, aneurysms (bulging of artery, hypertension etc. The application of CFD will be useful in demonstrating the underlying mechanism of flow past the diseased arteries. In the present study, initially an approximate eccentric and concentric 50% stenosed carotid model is generated in ANSYS 12.0 based on patient data obtained from ultrasound Doppler scan. Later the percentage of stenosis is increased to 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% in both the cases. A transient analysis has been performed for several pulse cycles in ANSYS FLOTRAN for various percentage cases. The results obtained from ECN and CCN cases are compared to observe the changes in flow behavior in the downstream of stenosis as compared with normal case. The formation of vortices and flow separation zone in downstream in eccentric case is higher than in concentric case. Comparison of results concludes that, with the increase in severity of stenosis, the flow changes abruptly causing an increase in velocity and WSS at throat region. The simulation results obtained agree well with clinically observed data and available literature.

  13. No gender differences in prognosis and preventive treatment in patients with AMI without significant stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible gender differences in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and without significant stenoses on coronary angiography (CAG) regarding prognosis and use of secondary preventive medication. Design: Nationwide register-based cohort study. Patients...... a prescription for a lipid-lowering drug, beta-blocker, clopidogrel, or aspirin within 60 days of discharge. Results: During follow-up, 97 women and 60 men died, resulting in a crude female/male hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51 (95% CI 1.09-2.08). After adjustment for age, time-period, and comorbidity, the gender...... difference was attenuated (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.86-1.72). AMI recurrence was experienced by 28 women and 29 men with a female/male HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.52-1.48). After multivariable adjustment results were similar (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50-1.43). More women than men redeemed a prescription for lipid-lowering drugs...

  14. Actual review of diagnostics and endovascular therapy of intracranial arterial stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizewski, E.R.; Weber, R.; Forsting, M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 6 - 50 % of all ischemic strokes are caused by intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS). Despite medical prevention, patients with symptomatic IAS have a high annual risk for recurrent ischemic stroke of about 12 %, and up to 19 % in the case of high-grade IAS (≥ 70 %). Digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of IAS. However, noninvasive imaging techniques including CT angiography, MR angiography, or transcranial Doppler and duplex ultrasound examinations are used in the clinical routine to provide additional information about the brain structure and hemodynamic. However, for technical reasons, the grading of stenoses is sometimes difficult and inaccurate. To date, aspirin is recommended as the treatment of choice in the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with IAS. IAS patients who suffer a recurrent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while taking aspirin can be treated with endovascular stenting or angioplasty in specialized centers. The periprocedural complication rate of these endovascular techniques is about 2 - 7 % at experienced neuro-interventional centers. The rate of re-stenosis is reported between 10 and 40 % depending on patient age and stenosis location. Further randomized studies comparing medical secondary prevention and endovascular therapy are currently being performed. With regard to the improvement of endovascular methods and lower complication rates, the indication for endovascular therapy in IAS could be broadened especially for stenosis in the posterior circulation. (orig.)

  15. RECHERCHES Distribution anormale des apolipoprotéines CIII et diminution de la capacité d’efflux de cholestérol du plasma de sujets normolipidémiques présentant une maladie coronarienne précoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Il est maintenant bien établi que les triglycérides plasmatiques représentent un facteur de risque indépendant d’athérosclérose et des maladies cardiovasculaires qui en découlent [1]. L’hypertriglycéridémie est connue pour être associée à une surexpression des apolipoprotéines CIII (apoCIII. Les quantités et la distribution de ces apoCIII dans le plasma sont essentielles dans le métabolisme des triglycérides, et il existe de nombreuses études épidémiologiques mettant en évidence leur association avec le développement et la progression des lésions d’athérosclérose dans les maladies cardio-vasculaires (MCV. Les apoCIII et plus particulièrement les apoCIII liées aux particules riches en triglycérides sont considérées comme de nouveaux marqueurs/facteurs de risque des MCV associés aux triglycérides comme cela a été étudié et rapporté par P. Alaupovic dans l’article précédent [2]. En outre, un certain nombre de sujets jeunes ayant fait un accident ischémique grave, présentent un bilan lipidique considéré comme normal et qui ne permet pas de les identifier. Mais on sait aussi que des sujets coronariens, normolipidémiques à jeun, peuvent présenter un retard d’épuration postprandiale des triglycérides, détectable seulement après un repas test riche en graisses [3-5]. Les retards d’épuration postprandiaux et leur toxicité sont imputés aux chylomicrons remnants qui persistent trop longtemps dans la circulation et sont considérés comme très athérogènes [6]. Dans un travail préliminaire [7], nous avions comparé un petit groupe de sujets normolipidémiques à jeun (n = 10 mais présentant une maladie coronarienne précoce (groupe CAD et montré l’existence d’anomalies du métabolisme lipidique postprandial par comparaison à un groupe de sujets contrôles. Quatre à six heures après un repas gras (1 000 kcal et 60% de lipides, la réponse de la triglycéridémie

  16. Numerical investigation of MHD flow of blood and heat transfer in a stenosed arterial segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, Sreeparna; Shit, G.C., E-mail: gcs@math.jdvu.ac.in

    2017-02-15

    A numerical investigation of unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer has been performed with an aim to provide better understanding of blood flow through arteries under stenotic condition. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. The heat transfer characteristic has been analyzed by taking into consideration of the dissipation of energy due to applied magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. The vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman–Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The quantitative profile analysis of velocity, temperature and wall shear stress as well as Nusselt number is carried out over the entire arterial segment. The streamline and temperature contours have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the diseased artery, which alters significantly in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. Both the wall shear stress and Nusselt number increases with increasing magnetic field strength. However, wall shear stress decreases and Nusselt number enhances with Reynolds number. The results show that with an increase in the magnetic field strength upto 8 T, does not causes any damage to the arterial wall, but the study is significant for assessing temperature rise during hyperthermic treatment. - Highlights: • Fully numerical simulation is carried out for MHD blood flow in stenosed artery. • Dissipation of energy due to both magnetic field and blood viscosity is considered. • Strong Vortices are observed at the downstream of the stenosis in the arterial wall. • Flow reversal of blood is reduced by applying sufficient magnetic field strength. • Isothermal lines are strongly distorted in the presence of magnetic field strength.

  17. Quantification of coronary artery stenoses. Comparison of 64-slice and dual source CT angiography with cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Stephanie; Nikolaou, K.; Johnson, T.; Rist, C.; Knez, A.; Reiser, M.; Becker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Until now stenoses of the coronary arteries have been evaluated visually with CT angiography. Therefore, the results were highly dependent on subjective factors inherent in the examiner. New software tools for semiquantitative analysis (CT-QCA, quantitative coronary assessment) might be adequate to improve the diagnostic accuracy und reproducibility. CTAs of 20 patients were analyzed. Ten patients each were evaluated using 64-slice CT (64SCT) and dual source CT (DSCT) (Somatom Sensation 64 and Somatom Definition, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim), respectively. Two radiologists independently evaluated the data visually and with the help of a software tool (Syngo Circulation, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim). The results of the quantitative assessment of the invasive heart catheterization served as the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity as well as the correlation coefficient, the systematic error, and the interobserver agreement (kappa) were determined. In each of both patient groups 12 stenoses were detected. For the detection of stenoses >75%, sensitivity and specificity for the visual evaluation using the 64SCT were 100% and 90%, and with the CT-QCA both were 100%. For the DSCT sensitivity and specificity were 100% for both the visual and semiautomated evaluation. The Bland-Altman plot of the results of the 64SCT showed an overestimation of 3.3% (±62.7%/56.2%) compared to the heart catheterization. The results of the DSCT exhibited an overestimation of 6.2% (±33.1%/19.8%). The interobserver agreement of the CT-QCA and the visual evaluation showed a kappa value of 0.75 and for DSCT of 1.0. The results showed a good correlation of grading stenosis between the software-assisted evaluation and the results of the coronary catheter angiography. The promising results of the DSCT are due to a superior temporal resolution compared to the 64SCT. Confirmation of these data by trials in larger patient collectives is warranted. (orig.) [de

  18. The effects of cigarette smoke and nicotine on platelet thrombus formation in stenosed dog coronary arteries: inhibition with phentolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folts, J D; Bonebrake, F C

    1982-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine in vivo the effects of cigarette smoke on cyclic reductions in coronary flow due to platelet thrombus formation in the stenosed coronary arteries of anesthetized dogs. The circumflex coronary artery of 21 mongrel dogs was stenosed 60 - 80%, with blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flow probe. After the administration of cigarette smoke, plasma epinephrine was elevated nine times the control level (p less than 0.001) and peak mean blood pressure was elevated one and one-half times control (p less than 0.01). The hematocrit increased several percent (p less than 0.01) with cigarette smoke, although blood gases and pH remained unchanged. In all 21 dogs, spontaneous reductions in coronary blood flow were greatly exacerbated in the stenosed circumflex artery as evidenced by the number of flow reductions, the increased size of the reductions and the rate of flow reduction. Nicotine administered intravenously in doses comparable to those achieved through absorption of cigarette smoke by the lungs provoked similar responses of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and potentiation of the platelet thrombus formation. An alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, was given (3 mg/kg) intravenously to inhibit the exacerbated platelet thrombus formation due to cigarette smoke or infused nicotine. In 18 of 21 dogs, an acute occlusive platelet thrombus was prevented 15 minutes after phentolamine and after phentolamine and after a cigarette smoke or nicotine challenge. This study confirms a link between cigarette smoking, platelet formation, and the potential for humans to develop an acute occlusive platelet thrombus in a diseased and stenotic coronary artery.

  19. Non-invasive prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses by contrast density difference in coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Michaela M., E-mail: michaela.hell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Dey, Damini [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Taper Building, Room A238, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Schmid, Jasmin; Schuhbaeck, Annika [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Overestimation of coronary lesions by coronary computed tomography angiography and subsequent unnecessary invasive coronary angiography and revascularization is a concern. • Differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve, were assessed. • At a threshold of ≥24%, contrast density difference predicted hemodynamically significant lesions with a specificity of 75%, sensitivity of 33%, PPV of 35% and NPV of 73%. • The determination of contrast density difference required less time than transluminal attenuation gradient measurement. - Abstract: Objectives: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. However, its ability to predict the hemodynamic significance of stenoses is limited. We assessed differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods: Lesion characteristics of 59 consecutive patients (72 lesions) in whom invasive FFR was performed in at least one coronary artery with moderate to high-grade stenoses in coronary CTA were evaluated by two experienced readers. Coronary CTA data sets were acquired on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner using retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition or prospectively ECG-triggered axial acquisition mode. Plaque volume and composition (non-calcified, calcified), remodeling index as well as contrast density difference (defined as the percentage decline in luminal CT attenuation/cross-sectional area over the lesion) were assessed using a semi-automatic software tool (Autoplaq). Additionally, the transluminal attenuation gradient (defined as the linear regression coefficient between intraluminal CT attenuation and length from the ostium) was determined

  20. Tocotrienols-induced inhibition of platelet thrombus formation and platelet aggregation in stenosed canine coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papasian Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplementation with tocotrienols has been shown to decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. Tocotrienols are plant-derived forms of vitamin E, which have potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, and neuroprotective properties. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent to which tocotrienols inhibit platelet aggregation and reduce coronary thrombosis, a major risk factor for stroke in humans. The present study was carried out to determine the comparative effects of α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, or tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF; a mixture of α- + γ- + δ-tocotrienols on in vivo platelet thrombosis and ex vivo platelet aggregation (PA after intravenous injection in anesthetized dogs, by using a mechanically stenosed circumflex coronary artery model (Folts' cyclic flow model. Results Collagen-induced platelet aggregation (PA in platelet rich plasma (PRP was decreased markedly after treatment with α-tocotrienol (59%; P P P P P Next, pharmacokinetic studies were carried out and tocol levels in canine plasma and platelets were measured. As expected, α-Tocopherol treatment increased levels of total tocopherols in post- vs pre-treatment specimens (57 vs 18 μg/mL in plasma, and 42 vs 10 μg/mL in platelets. However, treatment with α-tocopherol resulted in slightly decreased levels of tocotrienols in post- vs pre-treatment samples (1.4 vs 2.9 μg/mL in plasma and 2.3 vs 2.8 μg/mL in platelets. α-Tocotrienol treatment increased levels of both tocopherols and tocotrienols in post- vs pre-treatment samples (tocopherols, 45 vs 10 μg/mL in plasma and 28 vs 5 μg/mL in platelets; tocotrienols, 2.8 vs 0.9 μg/mL in plasma and 1.28 vs 1.02 μg/mL in platelets. Treatment with tocotrienols (TRF also increased levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols in post- vs pre-treatment samples (tocopherols, 68 vs 20 μg/mL in plasma and 31.4 vs 7.9 μg/mL in platelets; tocotrienols, 8.6 vs 1

  1. Variable-viscosity thermal hemodynamic slip flow conveying nanoparticles through a permeable-walled composite stenosed artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for simulating viscous, incompressible, steady-state blood flow containing copper nanoparticles and coupled heat transfer through a composite stenosed artery with permeable walls. Wall slip hydrodynamic and also thermal buoyancy effects are included. The artery is simulated as an isotropic elastic tube, following Joshi et al. (2009), and a variable viscosity formulation is employed for the flowing blood. The equations governing the transport phenomena are non-dimensionalized and the resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically in the steady state subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical computations are conducted to quantify the effects of relevant hemodynamic, thermophysical and nanoscale parameters emerging in the model on velocity and temperature profiles, wall shear stress, impedance resistance and also streamline distributions. The model may be applicable to drug fate transport modeling with nanoparticle agents and also to the optimized design of nanoscale medical devices for diagnosing stenotic diseases in circulatory systems.

  2. Is there a gender difference in noninvasive coronary imaging? Multislice computed tomography for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multislice computed tomography (MSCT coronary angiography is the foremost alternative to invasive coronary angiography. Methods We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT in female and male patients with suspected coronary disease. Altogether 50 women and 95 men underwent MSCT with 0.5 mm detector collimation. Coronary artery stenoses of at least 50% on conventional coronary angiography were considered significant. Results The coronary vessel diameters of all four main coronary artery branches were significantly larger in men than in women. The diagnostic accuracy of MSCT in identifying patients with coronary artery disease was significantly lower for women (72% compared with men (89%, p p p Conclusion Noninvasive coronary angiography with MSCT might be less accurate and sensitive for women than men. Also, women are exposed to a significantly higher effective radiation dose than men.

  3. 3-D flow characterization and shear stress in a stenosed carotid artery bifurcation model using stereoscopic PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Poepping, Tamie L

    2010-01-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation is a common site of atherosclerosis which is a major leading cause of ischemic stroke. The impact of stenosis in the atherosclerotic carotid artery is to disturb the flow pattern and produce regions with high shear rate, turbulence, and recirculation, which are key hemodynamic factors associated with plaque rupture, clot formation, and embolism. In order to characterize the disturbed flow in the stenosed carotid artery, stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in a transparent model with 50% stenosis under pulsatile flow conditions. Simulated ECG gating of the flowrate waveform provides external triggering required for volumetric reconstruction of the complex flow patterns. Based on the three-component velocity data in the lumen region, volumetric shear-stress patterns were derived.

  4. Influence of the coronary calcium score on the ability to rule out coronary artery stenoses by coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Schmid, Jasmin; Zimmer, Thomas; Muschiol, Gerd; Hell, Michaela M; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recent guidelines for the workup of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease include coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). However, its diagnostic value may be limited in patients with severe coronary calcification. We investigated the relationship between the extent of coronary calcium and the ability of coronary CTA to rule out significant stenoses in a series of consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 2614 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease in whom coronary calcium scoring and coronary CTA had been performed by Dual Source CT were analyzed. The ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenoses (fully evaluable coronary arteries and absence of any luminal stenosis >75%) was analyzed relative to the coronary calcium score. The median coronary calcium score was 12, with calcium present in 60.5% of all patients. Coronary CTA ruled out stenoses in 82% of patients, while in 18% of patients at least one stenosis was found or could not be excluded. The threshold above which coronary CTA permitted to rule out stenoses in less than 50% of patients was an "Agatston Score" of 287. This threshold was significantly lower for male patients (213 vs. 330), for patients with a heart rate >65 beats/min (157 vs. 317) and for patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (208 vs. 392). The evaluability of coronary arteries decreased with increasing amounts of calcium and differed significantly between heart rates ≤65 beats/min and >65 beats/min (p coronary CTA permits to rule out coronary artery stenoses in less than 50% of cases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of porous media of the stenosed artery wall to the coronary physiological diagnostic parameter: a computational fluid dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Viswanathan, Girish N; Badarudin, A; Salman Ahmed, N J

    2014-04-01

    Functional assessment of a coronary artery stenosis severity is generally assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is calculated from pressure measurements across the stenosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of porous media of the stenosed arterial wall on this diagnostic parameter. To understand the role of porous media on the diagnostic parameter FFR, a 3D computational simulations of the blood flow in rigid and porous stenotic artery wall models are carried out under steady state and transient conditions for three different percentage area stenoses (AS) corresponding to 70% (moderate), 80% (intermediate), and 90% (severe). Blood was modeled as a non Newtonian fluid. The variations of pressure drop across the stenosis and diagnostic parameter were studied in both models. The FFR decreased in proportion to the increase in the severity of the stenosis. The relationship between the percentage AS and the FFR was non linear and inversely related in both the models. The cut-off value of 0.75 for FFR was observed at 81.89% AS for the rigid artery model whereas 83.61% AS for the porous artery wall model. This study demonstrates that the porous media consideration on the stenotic arterial wall plays a substantial role in defining the cut-off value of FFR. We conclude that the effect of porous media on FFR, could lead to misinterpretation of the functional severity of the stenosis in the region of 81.89 %-83.61% AS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility of MR-guided angioplasty of femoral artery stenoses using real-time imaging and intraarterial contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzel, C.; Zorger, N.; Bachthaler, M.; Voelk, M.; Seitz, J.; Herold, T.; Feuerbach, S.; Lenhart, M.; Nitz, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To show the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) for guided interventional therapy of femoral and popliteal artery stenoses with commercially available materials supported by MR real-time imaging and intraarterial MR angiography. Materials and Methods: Three patients (1 female, 2 male), suffering from symptomatic arterial occlusive disease with stenoses of the femoral (n=2) or popliteal (n=1) arteries were included. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography was performed in each patient pre- and post-interventionally as standard of reference to quantify stenoses. The degree of the stenoses reached from 71-88%. The MR images were acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner (Magnetom Sonata; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). For MR-angiography, a Flash 3D sequence was utilized following injection of 5 mL diluted gadodiamide (Omniscan; Amersham Buchler, Braunschweig, Germany) via the arterial access. Two maximum intensity projections (MIP) were used as road maps and localizer for the interactive positioning of a continuously running 2D-FLASH sequence with a temporal solution of 2 images per second. During the intervention, an MR compatible monitor provided the image display inside the scanner room. Safety guidelines were followed during imaging in the presence of a conductive guidewire. The lesion was crossed by a commercially available balloon catheter (Wanda, Boston Scientific; Ratingen, Germany), which was mounted on a 0.035'' guidewire (Terumo; Leuven, Belgium). The visibility was provided by radiopaque markers embedded in the balloon and was improved by injection of 1 mL gadodiamide into the balloon. After dilation, the result was checked by intraarterial MR angiography and catheter angiography. Results: The stenoses could be correctly localized by intraarterial MR angiography. There was complete correlation between intraarterial MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography. The combination of guidewire and balloon was visible and the balloon was placed

  7. Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue can appear abnormal. In breast tomosynthesis, the x-ray tube moves in an arc over the compressed breast ... motion. Your breast will remain compressed while the x-ray tube moves from one side of your breast to ...

  8. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, changes in the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before ...

  9. Stenosing Tenosynovitis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Associated with the Plantar Capsular Accessory Ossicle at the Interphalangeal Joint of the Great Toe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ho Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder.

  10. Treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenoses with a balloon-expandable cobalt chromium stent (Coroflex Blue): procedural safety, efficacy, and midterm patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Zsolt; Miloslavski, Elina; Güthe, Thomas; Schmid, Elisabeth; Schul, Christoph; Albes, Guido; Henkes, Hans

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the coronary balloon-expandable cobalt chromium stent Coroflex Blue for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenoses (IAAS). Between March 2007 and October 2007, a total of 25 patients (20 male, age median 67 years) with 30 IAAS underwent endovascular treatment using Coroflex Blue stents (B. Braun, Germany). Location and degree of target stenoses before and after treatment and at follow-up and adverse clinical sequelae of treatment were registered. Angiographic follow-up was scheduled for 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after the treatment. The 30 treated lesions were located as follows: nine in intracranial-extradural internal carotid artery (ICA), three in intradural ICA, five in middle cerebral artery, eight in intradural vertebral artery, and five in basilar artery. The technical success rate was 100%. The degree of stenoses prior to and after treatment was 61 +/- 2% and 26 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE), respectively. A residual stenosis of <50% was achieved in 29 (97%) procedures. Treatment was uneventful in 28 out of 30 procedures (93%); one patient suffered a transient and one patient a permanent neurological deficit. Angiographic follow-up was available in all of the patients (100%) after 15.2 months (median) and showed significant (i.e., more than 50%) degree of recurrent stenosis in 11 (37%) of the lesions. Retreatment was performed in 11 (37%) lesions. The Coroflex Blue stent is easily inserted and safely deployed into intracranial arteries. The incidence of recurrent stenoses remains a concern. Stringent angiographic and clinical follow-up and retreatment are therefore mandatory.

  11. Treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenoses with a balloon-expandable cobalt chromium stent (Coroflex Blue): procedural safety, efficacy, and midterm patency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, Zsolt; Miloslavski, Elina; Albes, Guido [Katharinenhospital - Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Guethe, Thomas [Katharinenhospital - Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Katharinenhospital Klinikum, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Schmid, Elisabeth [Buergerhospital Klinikum, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Schul, Christoph [Katharinenhospital Klinikum, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Stuttgart (Germany); Henkes, Hans [Katharinenhospital - Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet der Universitaet, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated the coronary balloon-expandable cobalt chromium stent Coroflex Blue for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic arterial stenoses (IAAS). Between March 2007 and October 2007, a total of 25 patients (20 male, age median 67 years) with 30 IAAS underwent endovascular treatment using Coroflex Blue stents (B. Braun, Germany). Location and degree of target stenoses before and after treatment and at follow-up and adverse clinical sequelae of treatment were registered. Angiographic follow-up was scheduled for 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after the treatment. The 30 treated lesions were located as follows: nine in intracranial-extradural internal carotid artery (ICA), three in intradural ICA, five in middle cerebral artery, eight in intradural vertebral artery, and five in basilar artery. The technical success rate was 100%. The degree of stenoses prior to and after treatment was 61 {+-} 2% and 26 {+-} 3% (mean {+-} SE), respectively. A residual stenosis of <50% was achieved in 29 (97%) procedures. Treatment was uneventful in 28 out of 30 procedures (93%); one patient suffered a transient and one patient a permanent neurological deficit. Angiographic follow-up was available in all of the patients (100%) after 15.2 months (median) and showed significant (i.e., more than 50%) degree of recurrent stenosis in 11 (37%) of the lesions. Retreatment was performed in 11 (37%) lesions. The Coroflex Blue stent is easily inserted and safely deployed into intracranial arteries. The incidence of recurrent stenoses remains a concern. Stringent angiographic and clinical follow-up and retreatment are therefore mandatory. (orig.)

  12. Guyon's canal syndrome due to tortuous ulnar artery with DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, ligamentous injuries and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome, a rare presentation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous in...

  13. Impulsion of nanoparticles as a drug carrier for the theoretical investigation of stenosed arteries with induced magnetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, S.; Ijaz, S., E-mail: shagufta.me2011@yahoo.com

    2016-07-15

    In this paper hemodynamics of stenosis are discussed to predict effect of atherosclerosis by means of mathematical models in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The analysis is carried out using silver and copper nanoparticles as a drug carrier. Exact solution for the fluid temperature, velocity, axial induced magnetic field and current density distribution are obtained under mild stenosis approximation. The results indicate that with an increase in the concentration of nanoparticle hemodynamics effects of stenosis reduces throughout the inclined composite stenosed arteries. The considered analysis also summarizes that the drug silver nanoparticles is more efficient to reduce hemodynamics of stenosis when compare to the drug copper nanoparticle. In future this model could be helpful to predict important properties in some biomedical applications. - Highlights: • The contribution of copper and silver nanoparticles as drug carrier reveals that they are important to reduce hemodynamic of stenosis. • The heat is dissipated throughout the considered inclined artery with an increase in the nanoparticle volume fraction. • The stress on the wall of inclined arteries decreases with an increase in the magnetic Reynolds number and Strommers number.

  14. Actual review of diagnostics and endovascular therapy of intracranial arterial stenoses; Diagnostik und endovaskulaere Therapie intrakranieller arterieller Stenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Weber, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie; Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Giessen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-02-15

    Approximately 6 - 50 % of all ischemic strokes are caused by intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS). Despite medical prevention, patients with symptomatic IAS have a high annual risk for recurrent ischemic stroke of about 12 %, and up to 19 % in the case of high-grade IAS ({>=} 70 %). Digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of IAS. However, noninvasive imaging techniques including CT angiography, MR angiography, or transcranial Doppler and duplex ultrasound examinations are used in the clinical routine to provide additional information about the brain structure and hemodynamic. However, for technical reasons, the grading of stenoses is sometimes difficult and inaccurate. To date, aspirin is recommended as the treatment of choice in the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with IAS. IAS patients who suffer a recurrent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while taking aspirin can be treated with endovascular stenting or angioplasty in specialized centers. The periprocedural complication rate of these endovascular techniques is about 2 - 7 % at experienced neuro-interventional centers. The rate of re-stenosis is reported between 10 and 40 % depending on patient age and stenosis location. Further randomized studies comparing medical secondary prevention and endovascular therapy are currently being performed. With regard to the improvement of endovascular methods and lower complication rates, the indication for endovascular therapy in IAS could be broadened especially for stenosis in the posterior circulation. (orig.)

  15. Circumferential strain of carotid arteries does not differ between patients with advanced coronary artery disease and group without coronary stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Cygulska, Kamila; Cieślik-Guerra, Urszula; Uznańska-Loch, Barbara; Rechciński, Tomasz; Trzos, Ewa; Kurpesa, Małgorzata; Kasprzak, Jarosław D

    2016-09-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography is widely used for the analysis of myocardial function. Recently, circumferential strain (CS) of carotid arteries was postulated as novel indicator of vascular function. Our aim was to characterize and compare CS of carotid arteries in patients with advanced coronary artery disease and controls without significant coronary stenoses. We compared CS of both common carotid arteries (CCA) in the 25 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease (3VD) (mean age 69±9 years, 9 male) and in 16 age-matched subjects without significant coronary lesions (C) (69±8 years, 7 male). Additionally in 11 patients we estimated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and assessed the correlation between PWV and CS. Short-axis images of arteries were acquired for strain analysis with linear probe of echocardiograph. The assessment of CS was performed off-line by two observers. The intraobserver variability for the CS (coefficient of variation) were 4.9 and 5.4% for left and right CCA and interobserver variability were 11.7% and 12.5%, respectively. The mean CS for left and right CCA did not differ between compared groups. We did not find correlation between CS strain and PWV. The only difference was related to the more prevalent plaque presence and thicker intima-media complex (IMT) in 3VD (p=0.0039 for IMT of left CCA and p=0.016 for IMT of right CCA). The global CS of CCA, contrary to IMT, did not allow for differentiation between 3VD and C subjects. Despite good feasibility and concordance of CS measurements its clinical significance remains to be established. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the "smart" minimum FFR Algorithm in an unselected all comer population of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Barry; Johnson, Nils; McClure, John; Corcoran, David; Watkins, Stuart; Berry, Colin; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2017-07-01

    Using data from a commercial pressure wire system (St. Jude Medical) we previously developed an automated "smart" algorithm to determine a reproducible value for minimum FFR (smFFR) and confirmed that it correlated very closely with measurements made off-line by experienced coronary physiology core laboratories. In this study we used the same "smart" minimum algorithm to analyze data derived from a different, commercial pressure wire system (Philips Volcano) and compared the values obtained to both operator-defined steady state FFR and the online automated minimum FFR reported by the pressure wire analyser. For this analysis, we used the data collected during the VERIFY 2 study (Hennigan et al. in Circ Cardiovasc Interv, doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004016 ) in which we measured FFR in 257 intermediate coronary stenoses (mean DS 48%) in 197 patients. Maximal hyperaemia was induced using intravenous adenosine (140 mcg/kg/min). We recorded both the online minimum FFR generated by the analyser and the operator-reported steady state FFR. Subsequently, the raw pressure tracings were coded, anonymised and 256/257 were subjected to further off-line analysis using the smart minimum FFR (smFFR) algorithm. The operator-defined steady state FFR correlated well with smFFR: r = 0.988 (p 0.05 among methods were rare but in these cases the two automated algorithms almost always agreed with each other rather than with the operator-reported value. Within the VERIFY 2 dataset, experienced operators reported a similar FFR value to both an online automated minimum (Philips Volcano) and off-line "smart" minimum computer algorithm. Thus, treatment decisions and clinical studies using either method will produce nearly identical results.

  17. Multidetector CT evaluation of central airways stenoses: Comparison of virtual bronchoscopy, minimal-intensity projection, and multiplanar reformatted images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Sundarakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of virtual bronchoscopy, multiplanar reformatted images, and minimal-intensity projection in assessing airway stenoses. Settings and Design: It was a prospective study involving 150 patients with symptoms of major airway disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were selected for analysis based on the detection of major airway lesions on fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FB or routine axial images. Comparisons were made between axial images, virtual bronchoscopy (VB, minimal-intensity projection (minIP, and multiplanar reformatted (MPR images using FB as the gold standard. Lesions were evaluated in terms of degree of airway narrowing, distance from carina, length of the narrowed segment and visualization of airway distal to the lesion. Results: MPR images had the highest degree of agreement with FB (Κ = 0.76 in the depiction of degree of narrowing. minIP had the least degree of agreement with FB (Κ = 0.51 in this regard. The distal visualization was best on MPR images (84.2%, followed by axial images (80.7%, whereas FB could visualize the lesions only in 45.4% of the cases. VB had the best agreement with FB in assessing the segment length (Κ = 0.62. Overall there were no statistically significant differences in the measurement of the distance from the carina in the axial, minIP, and MPR images. MPR images had the highest overall degree of confidence, namely, 70.17% (n = 40. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction techniques were found to improve lesion evaluation compared with axial images alone. The technique of MPR images was the most useful for lesion evaluation and provided additional information useful for surgical and airway interventions in tracheobronchial stenosis. minIP was useful in the overall depiction of airway anatomy.

  18. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sag again. Alternative Names Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge References Higdon KK, Grotting JC. Mastopexy. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  19. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. They may be related to hormones. Girls who are going through puberty and women who are ...

  20. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar ...

  1. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  2. Sirolimus-eluting stents for the treatment of symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery stenoses: Early experience and 6-month follow-up; Die Behandlung symptomatischer extrakranieller Stenosen der Arteria vertebralis mit sirolimusbeschichteten Stents: erste Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse nach 6 Monaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Kastner, M.; Froehler, W.; Meindl, S.; Zisch, R. [Krankenhaus Wels (Austria). Institut fuer Radiologie

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and morphological effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with stenoses in the extracranial vertebral artery and to assess the 6-month results. Materials and Methods: Sirolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 8 stenoses of the extracranial vertebral artery in 7 patients with symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Seven stenoses were located at the ostium, and one further cranially in segment V 1. The mean grade diameter of the stenoses was 85.1% (60.9%-98.3%). Clinical and angiographic follow-up was performed over a period of 6 months in all patients. Results: All lesions were successfully stented with a residual stenosis of 20.2% (0.0-38.5%). Clinically, all patients showed resolution or improvement of the symptoms after stenting. After 6 months, 5 of the 8 stenoses developed intimal hyperplasia with a stenosis grade >50%. The mean measured grade of stenosis after 6 months was 56.2% (0.0-94.1%). Five patients had no clinical symptoms of a vertebrobasilar insufficiency while two had recurrent symptoms. Conclusion: Sirolimus-eluting stents in the extracranial vertebral artery have a high and unsatisfactory re-stenosis rate after 6 months. (orig.)

  3. Use of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent in the treatment of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina: preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ruimin; Li Fenbao; Zhang Mingqiu; Wu Gang; Han Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a new kind of Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system and evaluate its feasibility and preliminary effect for managing multiple airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina. Methods: The Y-shaped metallic stent delivery system consisted of three-tier structure. The inner-tier was composed of four parallel guiding tubes, which was used for two guidewires and two threads passing through, the middle-tier was delivery catheter, which contained the four guiding tubes, and the outer-tier was introducer sheath. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, 15 patients with multiple stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina were treated with the new covered self-expandable Y-shaped metallic stents. Results: Stent placement in the tracheo-bronchial tree was technically successful in all patients with obliteration of the dyspnea immediately after stent placement, and SaO2 was increased form preoperative 75%-89% to postoperative 96%-99%. During follow-up a period of 3-58 weeks (M 22 weeks), all stenosis were resolved without stent-related complications, and the general physical of all 15 patents was improved with no occurrence of obviously dyspnea and bleeding. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was improved from preoperative 26%-45% to postoperative 72%-95%. Five patients died of the following causes unrelated to stent insertion: multiple organ failure (n=3), cachexia (n=1) and pulmonary infection caused by gastrobronehial fistula (n=1), and the remaining 10 patients were alive with no evidence of dyspnea at the time of this report. Conclusion: Deployment of the covered Y-shaped metallic stent with the use of Y metallic stent delivery system in the management of airway stenoses involving the lower trachea and the tracheal carina was a simple and safe procedure and with a good short-term clinical efficacy. (authors)

  4. Guyon's canal syndrome due to tortuous ulnar artery with DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, ligamentous injuries and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome, a rare presentation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem

    2009-12-23

    The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous injury and subsequently these were confirmed on surgery.Although it is a rare syndrome, early diagnosis and treatment prevents permanent neurological deficits and improve patient's quality of life.

  5. Dense Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may lose breast density as a result of hormonal changes experienced during menopause. However, some younger women may have fatty breasts while some elderly women have dense breasts. Much of what determines a woman's ... and hormonal factors also affect a woman's breast density. About ...

  6. Sixty-four slice spiral CT angiography does not predict the functional relevance of coronary artery stenoses in patients with stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, Marcus; Hack, Nicolas; Hahn, Klaus; Tiling, Reinhold; Jakobs, Tobias; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian; Ziegler, Franz von; Knez, Andreas; Koenig, Andreas; Klauss, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spiral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography using 64-slice technique in the detection of functionally relevant coronary artery stenoses (CAS). Thirty-eight patients (62±11 years, 28 men) with stable angina (26 with suspected and 12 with known coronary artery disease) were investigated using 64-slice MDCT angiography and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (gated SPECT); a subgroup of 30 patients had additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stenoses with luminal narrowing of ≥50% were defined as ''significant'' in MDCT angiography and ICA. MDCT angiography was compared with gated SPECT and the combination of gated SPECT plus ICA with respect to the detection of functionally relevant CAS. The sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values of MDCT angiography in detecting reversible perfusion defects on gated SPECT were 63%, 80%, 94% and 32%, respectively, in vessel-based analysis and 71%, 62%, 72% and 60%, respectively, in patient-based analysis. If only reversible perfusion defects on gated SPECT with CAS ≥50% on ICA were considered, the sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values were, respectively, 85%, 79%, 98% and 33% for vessel-based analysis and 85%, 59%, 83% and 61% for patient-based analysis. Sixty-four slice MDCT angiography failed to predict the functional relevance of CAS, but had a high negative predictive value in the exclusion of functionally relevant CAS in symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  7. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  8. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiate to the breast. Fatty acid imbalance. An imbalance of fatty acids within the cells may affect the sensitivity of breast tissue to circulating hormones. Medication use. Certain hormonal medications, including some infertility treatments and oral birth ...

  9. Breast Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ends. What you can expect Begin with a visual examination of your breasts Sit or stand shirtless ... to the next section. If you have a disability that makes it difficult to examine your breasts ...

  10. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Treatment Following Your Treatment Plan Managing Side Effects and Supportive Care Managing Pain Quality of Life Survival and Risk of Recurrence Breast Cancer Recurrence Unique Issues for Young Women Treatment During Pregnancy Treatment for Breast Cancer in ...

  11. Breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as: Cysts, which are, fluid-filled sacs Fibroadenomas , which are, noncancerous solid growths Lipomas, which are, noncancerous fatty lumps that can occur anywhere in the body, including the breasts Breast cancers can also be seen with ultrasound. ...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  13. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen patients presenting with lymphoma involving the breast are described. Seven fulfilled the criteria for primary breast lymphoma, while the other 9 had evidence. (sometimes only detected after extensive staging procedures) of concurrent lymphomatous involvement outside the breast. Histological diagnoses of the so- ...

  14. Case report of a pair of siblings with cryptogenic multifocal ulcerating stenosing enteritis: A rare disease easily to be misdiagnosed as Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Lingjie; Liu, Rongbei; Wang, Mengyu; Jiang, Zhinong; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Qian

    2017-08-01

    The rare disease cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE) is characterized by multiple and recurring small intestinal ulcers with stenosis of unknown causes. In clinic, it is difficult to be differentiated from the inflammatory bowel disease, especially the Crohn disease. Here we report a pair of siblings who suffered from long-time anemia and abdominal pain and misdiagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for many years. They were finally diagnosed with CMUSE with intestinal obstruction. They both accepted surgical treatment and recovered well. No abdominal symptom appeared in the two-year follow-up. This report underscores that CMUSE patients may have a long course of suffering from anemia and abdominal pain, normal inflammatory markers and normal colon, and sometimes have a family history of CMUSE. Surgery of segmental bowel resection is a good way to solve intractable intestinal obstruction in CMUSE.

  15. 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries from 2D angiographic projections using non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS for accurate modelling of coronary stenoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Galassi

    Full Text Available Assessment of coronary stenosis severity is crucial in clinical practice. This study proposes a novel method to generate 3D models of stenotic coronary arteries, directly from 2D coronary images, and suitable for immediate assessment of the stenosis severity.From multiple 2D X-ray coronary arteriogram projections, 2D vessels were extracted. A 3D centreline was reconstructed as intersection of surfaces from corresponding branches. Next, 3D luminal contours were generated in a two-step process: first, a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS circular contour was designed and, second, its control points were adjusted to interpolate computed 3D boundary points. Finally, a 3D surface was generated as an interpolation across the control points of the contours and used in the analysis of the severity of a lesion. To evaluate the method, we compared 3D reconstructed lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, an invasive imaging modality that enables high-resolution endoluminal visualization of lesion anatomy.Validation was performed on routine clinical data. Analysis of paired cross-sectional area discrepancies indicated that the proposed method more closely represented OCT contours than conventional approaches in luminal surface reconstruction, with overall root-mean-square errors ranging from 0.213mm2 to 1.013mm2, and maximum error of 1.837mm2. Comparison of volume reduction due to a lesion with corresponding FFR measurement suggests that the method may help in estimating the physiological significance of a lesion.The algorithm accurately reconstructed 3D models of lesioned arteries and enabled quantitative assessment of stenoses. The proposed method has the potential to allow immediate analysis of the stenoses in clinical practice, thereby providing incremental diagnostic and prognostic information to guide treatments in real time and without the need for invasive techniques.

  16. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  19. Breast Pain in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of breast pain). Surgery from a biopsy, breast reduction (making your breasts smaller), or a mastectomy (removing ... breasts. A breast sonogram. This painless test uses sound waves to make a picture of the lump. ...

  20. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... to close the skin flaps. Breast reconstruction with implants is usually done in two stages, or surgeries. ...

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Angiography Versus Hemodynamics to Predict the Natural History of Coronary Stenoses: Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography in Multivessel Evaluation 2 Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Barbato, Emanuele; Toth, Gabor G; Gahl, Brigitta; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Fournier, Stephane; Milkas, Anastasios; Bartunek, Jozef; Vanderheyden, Marc; Pijls, Nico; Tonino, Pim; Fearon, William F; Jüni, Peter; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2018-04-03

    Among patients with documented stable coronary artery disease and in whom no revascularization was performed, we compared the respective values of angiographic diameter stenosis (DS) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in predicting natural history. The present analysis included the 607 patients from the FAME 2 trial (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography in Multivessel Evaluation 2) in whom no revascularization was performed. FFR varied from 0.20 to 1.00 (average 0.74±0.16), and DS (by quantitative coronary analysis) varied from 8% to 98% (average 53±15). The primary end point, defined as vessel-oriented clinical end point (VOCE) at 2 years, was a composite of prospectively adjudicated cardiac death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, vessel-related urgent, and not urgent revascularization. The stenoses were divided into 4 groups according to FFR and %DS values: positive concordance (FFR≤0.80; DS≥50%), negative concordance (FFR>0.80; DS0.80; DS≥50%). The rate of VOCE was highest in the positive concordance group (log rank: X 2 =80.96; P =0.001) and lowest in the negative concordance group. The rate of VOCE was higher in the positive mismatch group than in the negative mismatch group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.67; P =0.001). There was no significant difference in VOCE between the positive concordance and positive mismatch groups (FFR≤0.80; hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.09; P =0.149) and no significant difference in rate of VOCE between the negative mismatch and negative concordance groups (FFR>0.80; hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-3.74; P =0.067). In patients with stable coronary disease, physiology (FFR) is a more important determinant of the natural history of coronary stenoses than anatomy (DS). URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01132495. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Outpatient primary stent-PTA in a symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis under protection; Ambulante primaere Stent-PTA einer symptomatischen Arteria-carotis-interna-Stenose unter Protektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany); Roth, M. [Abt. Neurologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany); Brinckmann, W. [Gefaesschirurgie, Guestrower Krankenhaus (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a 69 year old patient, with a symptomatic ICA stenosis a stent implantation was performed under outpatient conditions. An interdisciplinary consensus was reached that the patient was suitable for outpatient therapy. In accordance with the NASCET criteria, the patient was to be classified to the high-risk group. Within 120 days before the intervention, the following clinical symptoms had occurred: 1 TIA, 2 amaurosis fugax. In the diagnostic angiography a right postbulbar ICA stenosis of 97% was verified. The stent application and subsequent PTA were performed under protection using a filter system. The transfemoral route was always fitted with an endovascular closure system. The neck vessels were followed-up by means of colour coded duplex sonography (CCDS) on days 1, 30, 180 and 360. A contrast-medium intensified MRI was performed on the 5{sup th} day post-intervention. The implantation of the stent and PTA were done without any complications. Atheromatous plaque fragments were found in the protection system. A plaque embolism was excluded clinically and in the contrast-medium intensified MRI 5 days after the intervention. After 360 days, no restenosis was found in the CCDS, the ECA was perfused. The method presented is low in complications and shows a high success rate. If patient recruitment is adequate, this intervention can be performed on an outpatient basis. (orig.) [German] Bei einem 69-jaehrigen Patienten mit symptomatischer Arteria-carotis-interna- (ACI-) Stenose erfolgte unter ambulanten Bedingungen eine primaere Stentimplantation. In einem interdisziplinaeren Konsens, bestehend aus interventionellem Radiologen, Neurologen und Gefaesschirurgen, wurde festgelegt, ob der Patient sich fuer eine ambulante Therapie eignet. Gemaess den NASCET-Kriterien war der Patient der High-Risk-Gruppe zuzuordnen. Innerhalb der letzten 120 Tage vor der Intervention traten folgende Symptome auf: 1 TIA, 2 Amaurosis fugax. In der diagnostischen selektiven 4-Gefaess

  4. Correlation of duplex sonographic stenosis grading by means of cross-sectionally determined and MRI-based blood volume quantification in unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery; Korrelation von duplexsonographischer Stenosegraduierung mittels Querschnittsflaechenbestimmung und MR-tomographischer Blutvolumenflussquantifizierung bei unilateraler Stenose der Arteria carotis interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, K.W.; Kilian, A.K.; Dueber, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Mannheim (Germany); Meairs, S. [Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: correlation of duplex ultrasonographic grading of unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and ICA blood volume flow (BVF) quantification. Materials and methods: using a 2D cine phase-contrast MR technique, 62 patients with unilateral ICA stenosis at the level of the bifurcation between 50% and 98% and 20 age-matched normal controls were examined. BVF was measured in the stenosed ICA. Ultrasonographic grading of stenoses was based on cross-sectional duplex sonography (color Doppler flow imaging [CDFI], real-time compound imaging) and compared to the changes in BVF in the stenosed ICA. Results: there was no statistically significant difference in BVF in stenoses of the ICA up to 70% and in normal controls. ICA stenoses greater 70% began to be hemodynamically relevant. With increasing stenosis, a decrease in BVF in the ipsilateral ICA was determined with a high and linear correlation of r = -0.83. Normal controls showed a BVF in an ICA of 247.0 {+-} 32.0 ml/min, patients with 70% stenosis a mean BVF of 225.3 {+-} 32.2 ml/min (P = 0.4) without significant reduction, patients with 80% stenosis a significant reduction of BVF to a mean flow of 184.0 {+-} 53.8 ml/min (P < 0.005), patients with 90% stenosis a reduction of the mean BVF in the stenosed ICA to 84.6 {+-} 41.9 ml/min (P < 0.0005) and patients with stenoses > 95% a mean BVF of only 26.0 {+-} 4.0 ml/min (P < 0.0005). In patients with unilateral ICA stenosis greater than 81%, a significant decrease of BVF in the stenosed ICA was documented. (orig.)

  5. [Comparison of Diagnostic Values of Instantaneous Wave-Free R atio and Fractional Flow R eserve With Noninvasive Methods for Evaluating Myocardial Ischemia in Assessment of the Functional Significance of Intermediate Coronary Stenoses in Patients With Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansheles, A A; Sergienko, B V; Darenskiy, I D; Gramovich, V V; Zharova, A E; Mitroshkin, G M; Matchin, G Y; Atanesyan, V R

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) with noninvasive methods in assessment of the functional significance of moderate coronary stenoses in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD). We included in this study 50 patients with chronic or suspected IHD and moderate coronary stenoses (50-70%; 74 stenoses). Values of iFR and FFR were determined within 10 days after noninvasive stress tests (combination of stress-echo and SPECT). The values of iFR and FFR were compared with the results of noninvasive methods by ROC-analysis. Coronary artery stenosis was considered functionally important if at least one of noninvasive tests (stress-echo or SPECT) demonstrated positive result. The results of noninvasive stress-tests were positive in 14 patients (28%). ROC area under the curve (AUC) for iFR - 0.961±0.019 (95%CI 0.888-0.992). The best cut-off point for iFR is 0.92 (sensitivity 100, specificity 84%). ROC AUC for FFR - 0.893±0.041 (95%CI 0.79-0.96). The best cut-off point for FFR is 0.81 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 69%). There was no significant difference between iFR and FFR ROC-curves (р=0.0845). The values of iFR and FFR have equivalent agreement with the results of noninvasive tests commonly used to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with moderate coronary stenoses.

  6. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  7. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  8. Early results of endovascular treatment of patients with bilateral stenoses of the internal carotid arteries using proximal protection systems at 30-day follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latacz, Paweł; Simka, Marian; Popiela, Tadeusz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Mrowiecki, Tomasz

    Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) with use of proximal protection systems (PPS) plays an very important role as alternative treatment modality, especially in patients with critical, symptomatic lesions. This study was single-centre study to evaluate the technical and clinical success of proximal protection devices as the first choice for embolic protection in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with bilateral, advanced lesions of carotid arteries (bilateral stenoses or stenosis and occlusion). This was a post hoc analysis, with 30-day follow up. We analyzed results of treatment of 38 patients who underwent 38 CAS with PPS, 17 such procedures in asymptomatic (group A), and 21 in symptomatic individuals (group B). The GORE ® Flow Reversal System (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) was used in 2 patients, and the Mo.Ma Ultra device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) in 36 patients. Mean age was 68±7 years, 65% percent of patient were male. There were no procedural and during 30-day follow-up neurologic events. Intolerance of occlusion system occurred in 4 patients (11%) in both groups with any later symptoms. Risk factors of this adverse event comprised: lesions of the left internal carotid lesion and coexisiting diabetes mellitus. CAS in high risk patients with bilateral lesions of carotid arteries with the use of PPS seems to be a relatively very safe procedure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  9. Breast augmentation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care - open Images Breast lift (mastopexy) - series Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series Breast augmentation - series References Maxwell GP, Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  10. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  11. Breast pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast pain is from hormonal fluctuations from menstruation, pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and breastfeeding. Breast pain can also be associated with fibrocystic breast disease, but it is a very unusual symptom of breast cancer.

  12. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  13. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interpret on mammograms. In breasts that are dense, meaning there is a lot of ducts, glands, fibrous ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  14. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  15. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  16. Solving the Issue of Restenosis After Stenting of Intracranial Stenoses: Experience with Two Thin-Strut Drug-Eluting Stents (DES)—Taxus Element™ and Resolute Integrity™

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurre, Wiebke, E-mail: wiebke.kurre@gmx.de; Aguilar-Pérez, Marta [Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie (Germany); Fischer, Sebastian [Universitätsklinikum Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum GmbH, Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Neuroradiologie und Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Arnold, Guy [Klinikverbund Südwest, Klinikum Sindelfingen, Klinik für Neurologie (Germany); Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäzner, Hansjörg [Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik für Neurologie (Germany); Henkes, Hans [Klinikum Stuttgart, Klinik für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThin-strut, flexible DES are suitable for intracranial stenting and may improve long-term vessel patency. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with two new-generation DES for the treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all patients treated with Taxus Element™ or Resolute Integrity™ stent for an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis between March 2011 and August 2013. Technical success was defined as the ability to deploy the device at the desired location and reduce the degree of stenosis below 50 %. All procedure-related strokes were recorded. Control angiography was scheduled after 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. A luminal narrowing ≥50 % was regarded as a restenosis. Stroke recurrence in the territory of the treated artery was reported.ResultsIn the defined period we treated 101 patients harboring 117 intracranial stenoses. The procedure was successful in 100 (85.5 %) lesions. Procedure-related strokes occurred in 10 (9.9 %) patients with a permanent morbidity in 3 (3.0 %). Follow-up angiography was available for 83 of 100 (83.0 %) successfully treated lesions with an average of 355 days (IQR 153–482 days). Three (3.6 %) asymptomatic restenoses were detected. All occurred after treatment with Resolute Integrity™, none after Taxus Element™ (p = 0.059). New strokes in the territory of the treated artery were encountered in 2 (2.6 %) occasions.ConclusionThin-strut DES improve long-term patency and reduce the risk of subsequent stroke. Differences between devices may exist. Feasibility is comparable to bare-metal balloon-mounted stents and procedure-related strokes occurred within the expected range.

  17. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissouni, Soundouss; Raissouni, Ferdaous; Rais, Ghizlane; Aitelhaj, Meryem; Lkhoyaali, Siham; Latib, Rachida; Mohtaram, Amina; Rais, Fadoua; Mrabti, Hind; Kabbaj, Nawal; Amrani, Naima; Errihani, Hassan

    2012-08-09

    Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  18. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni Soundouss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Case presentation A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. Conclusion We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  19. Combined use of 64-slice computed tomography angiography and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for the detection of functionally relevant coronary artery stenoses. First results in a clinical setting concerning patients with stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.; Hack, N.; Tiling, R.; Jakobs, T.; Nikolaou, K.; Becker, C.; Ziegler, F. von; Knez, A.; Koenig, A.; Klauss, V.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In patients with stable angina pectoris both morphological and functional information about the coronary artery tree should be present before revascularization therapy is performed. High accuracy was shown for spiral computed tomography (MDCT) angiography acquired with a 64-slice CT scanner compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in detecting obstructive'' coronary artery disease (CAD). Gated myocardial SPECT (MPI) is an established method for the noninvasive assessment of functional significance of coronary stenoses. Aim of the study was to evaluate the combination of 64-slice CT angiography plus MPI in comparison to ICA plus MPI in the detection of hemodynamically relevant coronary artery stenoses in a clinical setting. Patients, methods: 30 patients (63 ± 10.8 years, 23 men) with stable angina (21 with suspected, 9 with known CAD) were investigated. MPI, 64-slice CT angiography and ICA were performed, reversible and fixed perfusion defects were allocated to determining lesions separately for MDCT angiography and ICA. The combination of MDCT angiography plus MPI was compared to the results of ICA plus MPI. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value for the combination of MDCT angiography plus MPI was 85%, 97%, 98% and 79%, respectively, on a vessel-based and 93%, 87%, 93% and 88%, respectively, on a patient-based level. 19 coronary arteries with stenoses =50% in both ICA and MDCT angiography showed no ischemia in MPI. Conclusion: The combination of 64-slice CT angiography and gated myocardial SPECT enabled a comprehensive non-invasive view of the anatomical and functional status of the coronary artery tree. (orig.)

  20. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  1. Breast Augmentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Previous articles'·3 detailed the technique and the indi- cations for breast augmentation. This article deals ... or subcutaneous mastectomy are excluded. In this series, a Dow-Corning, Dacron-backed, ..... is not considered a major procedure, or in any way difficult to perform, judgement is all-important, and ...

  2. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  3. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  4. Breast Calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and require no further testing or follow-up. Microcalcifications. These show up as fine, white specks, similar to grains of salt. They're usually noncancerous, but certain patterns can be an early sign of cancer. If breast calcifications appear suspicious on your initial mammogram, you ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses ... of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast ...

  8. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... age 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  11. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and your ability to participate in physical activities. ... under the breasts Nerve pain Restricted activity Poor self-image related to large breasts Difficulty fitting into bras ...

  12. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of angiographic view image for the detection of coronary artery stenoses by 64-detector row CT. A pilot study comparison with conventional post-processing methods and axial images alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Sato, Kozo; Tanami, Yutaka; Yamada, Minoru; Anzai, Toshihisa; Kawamura, Akio; Ueno, Koji; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2009-01-01

    The angiographic view (AGV) image is a new post-processing method that is similar to conventional coronary angiography (CAG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its accuracy for coronary stenosis detection by 64-detector row computed tomography (CT). CT evaluation results of 17 patients were compared with the results of invasive CAG on a coronary segment basis concerning the presence of stenoses >50% diameter reduction. All images of the 3 viewing methods (combination of conventional methods, AGV image alone, and axial images alone) were evaluated in consensus by 3 cardiovascular radiologists. Among 196 assessable segments, invasive CAG showed significant coronary artery stenoses in 44 segments. 43 of 44 lesions were detected with the AGV image, and absence of significant stenosis was correctly identified in 135 of 152 segments (sensitivity 98%; specificity 89%; accuracy 91%; positive predictive value 72%, negative predictive value 99%). The sensitivity of the AGV image was the same as that of conventional methods (98%). There was no significant difference in accuracy between the AGV image (91%) and conventional methods (94%). The accuracy of the AGV image was significantly higher than the axial images alone (78%). AGV image shows promise as a post-processing method for identifying coronary artery stenosis with high accuracy. (author)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of angiographic view image for the detection of coronary artery stenoses by 64-detector row CT: a pilot study comparison with conventional post-processing methods and axial images alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Sato, Kozo; Tanami, Yutaka; Yamada, Minoru; Anzai, Toshihisa; Kawamura, Akio; Ueno, Koji; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2009-04-01

    The angiographic view (AGV) image is a new post-processing method that is similar to conventional coronary angiography (CAG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its accuracy for coronary stenosis detection by 64-detector row computed tomography (CT). CT evaluation results of 17 patients were compared with the results of invasive CAG on a coronary segment basis concerning the presence of stenoses>50% diameter reduction. All images of the 3 viewing methods (combination of conventional methods, AGV image alone, and axial images alone) were evaluated in consensus by 3 cardiovascular radiologists. Among 196 assessable segments, invasive CAG showed significant coronary artery stenoses in 44 segments. 43 of 44 lesions were detected with the AGV image, and absence of significant stenosis was correctly identified in 135 of 152 segments (sensitivity 98%; specificity 89%; accuracy 91%; positive predictive value 72%, negative predictive value 99%). The sensitivity of the AGV image was the same as that of conventional methods (98%). There was no significant difference in accuracy between the AGV image (91%) and conventional methods (94%). The accuracy of the AGV image was significantly higher than the axial images alone (78%). AGV image shows promise as a post-processing method for identifying coronary artery stenosis with high accuracy.

  15. Fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, A

    2007-01-01

    The presence of supernumerary breast (or polymastia) is not uncommon; however, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue are rare. The present article reports a case of fibroadenoma developing in the supernumerary breast located below the normal left pectoral breast in a 26-year-old woman. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination of both pectoral breasts revealed no abnormalities but a mass was found in the third breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breast and the histopathological examination showed an intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma within the breast tissue.

  16. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type. Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast called ... March 14, 2017. Torrente J, Brem RF. Minimally invasive image-guided ... B. Cancer of the breast. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, ...

  17. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  18. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  19. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  20. Radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boljesikova, E.; Ligacova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast carcinoma, reduces local recurrences about 20% (after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy), reduces 15 y mortality for cancer about 5%. The irradiation volumes can cover whole breast ± boost, partial breast, chest wall and regional lymph nodes. In contribution are analysed indications of radiotherapy, radiation techniques with focus on new trends, altered fractionation, partial breast irradiation and toxicity. (author)

  1. Breasts and Bras (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Breasts and Bras KidsHealth / For Kids / Breasts and Bras What's in ... more likely to have larger breasts. Getting a Bra Once a girl has breasts, a bra is ...

  2. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  3. Olaparib In Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-17

    Metastatic Breast Cancer; Invasive Breast Cancer; Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA1); Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA2); CHEK2 Gene Mutation; ATM Gene Mutation; PALB2 Gene Mutation; RAD51 Gene Mutation; BRIP1 Gene Mutation; NBN Gene Mutation

  4. Endovascular therapy of high-degree stenoses of the neck vessels-stent-supported percutaneous angioplasty of the carotid artery without cerebral protection; Endovaskulaere Behandlung hochgradiger Halsgefaessstenosen - Stentgestuetzte perkutane Angioplastie der Arteria Carotis ohne Protektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C.; Kucinski, T.; Eckert, B.; Wittkugel, O.; Zeumer, H. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany); Roether, J. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: Technical essentials and therapeutic results of carotid stenting without cerebral protection are presented. Materials and methods: In 161 patients, 167 high grade carotid stenoses were stented, followed by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, with subsequent evaluation of the clinical and angiographic results. Diffusion-weighted MRI was carried out in 108 patients to detect cerebral sequelae. Results: Endovascular therapy was successful (residual stenosis <25%) in 166 stenoses (99.4%). Twelve patients (7.5%) had cerebrovascular complications within the 30-day perioperative period, seven of which occurred during the procedure. After treatment, diffusion-weighted MRI disclosed at least one new cerebral lesion in 40 patients (37%), which were symptomatic in six patients. Conclusion: Even without cerebral protection, high grade carotid stenosis can be safely treated with stent-protected percutaneous angioplasty. Microemboli detected by postoperative MRI are infrequently symptomatic. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es werden die Durchfuehrung der direkten Stentangioplastie der A.ccarotis ohne zerebrale Protektion und die Ergebnisse dieses Behandlungsverfahrens beschrieben. Methoden: Bei 161 Patienten wurden 167 hochgradige Karotisstenosen durch Platzieren eines Stents mit anschliessender perkutaner transluminaler Angioplastie behandelt. Die Behandlungsergebnisse wurden klinisch und angiographisch bewertet. 108 Patienten wurden mit diffusionsgewichteter MRT zum Nachweis klinisch stummer Infarkte untersucht. Ergebnisse: 166 Stenosen (99,4%) wurden erfolgreich behandelt (Reststenose <25%). Im perioperativen Zeitraum von 30 Tagen trat bei insgesamt 12 Patienten eine zerebrovaskulaere Komplikation auf (7,5%), 7 Patienten erlitten die Komplikation waehrend des Eingriffs. Nach der Behandlung hatten 40 Patienten (37%) mindestens eine neue zerebrale Diffusionsstoerung, 6 davon mit klinischen Symptomen. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der stentgestuetzten perkutanen Angioplastie

  5. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  6. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  7. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  8. Gastric obstruction secondary to metastatic breast cancer: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Tasadooq

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal tract soft tissues metastasis is a well-known occurrence with invasive lobular breast cancer subtypes. Gastric involvement is more common, with reports of both diffuse and localized involvements. Usually, a gastric localized involvement presents as wall thickening with an appearance similar to that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour; rarely does a localized metastatic deposit grow aggressively to present as a large tumour causing obstructive symptoms. Our case highlights one such unusual presentation in a patient presenting with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on a similar presentation occurring from a localized metastasis. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman awaiting an outpatient oral gastroduodenoscopy for symptoms of intermittent vomiting, epigastric pains and weight loss of six weeks’ duration presented acutely with symptoms of haematemesis and abdominal distension. An initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a grossly dilated stomach with a locally advanced stenosing tumour mass at the pylorus. Our patient had a history of left mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by adjuvant endocrine therapy for an oestrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive, grade 2, invasive lobular breast cancer. The oral gastroduodenoscopy confirmed the computed tomography findings; biopsies of the pyloric mass on immunohistochemistry stains were strongly positive for pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid proteins, consistent with an invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis. She received a palliative gastrojejunal bypass and her adjuvant endocrine treatment was switched over to exemestane. Conclusion Our case highlights the aggressive behaviour of a localized gastric metastasis that is unusual and unexpected. Gastrointestinal symptomatology can be non-specific and, at times, non-diagnostic on

  9. Changes to Your Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lumps to be cancer. Should I wear a bra? top Wearing a bra can help support and protect your breasts. If ... breasts start to grow, try wearing a sports bra with a snug fit for support. Are you ...

  10. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the other breast may consider a bilateral mastectomy, meaning both breasts are removed. This includes women with ... Fluorouracil (5-FU, Adrucil) Gemcitabine (Gemzar) Methotrexate (multiple brand names) Paclitaxel (Taxol) Protein-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane) Vinorelbine ( ...

  11. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  12. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  13. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Breast Biopsy - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Cancer - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual ...

  14. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  15. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your breast skin to stretch and lose elasticity. Gravity. Over time, gravity causes ligaments in the breasts to stretch and ... You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase ...

  16. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What you can expect Breast reconstruction begins with placement of a breast implant or tissue expander, either at the time of your mastectomy surgery (immediate reconstruction) or during a later procedure (delayed reconstruction). ...

  17. Breast enlargement in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done to rule out certain diseases: Blood hormone level tests Breast ultrasound Liver and kidney function studies Mammogram TREATMENT Often no treatment is needed. Breast growth in newborns and young boys often goes away ...

  18. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guluzar Arzu Turan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 317-323

  19. Tamoxifen for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the common cancers. Hormonal therapy along with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are vital modalities for the management of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the most widely used hormonal therapy for more than two decades. In this article we review the benefits, dose, duration and timing of Tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapy, tamoxifen.

  20. [Breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Berclaz, Gilles; Langer, Igor; Pittet-Cuenod, Brigitte; Delaloye, Jean-François

    2007-10-24

    Breast conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. For patients who choice or need a mastectomy, breast reconstruction provides an acceptable alternative. Breast cancer surgery has been evolving through minimally invasive approaches. Sentinel node biopsy has already remplaced axillary lymph node dissection in the evaluation of the axilla. Local ablation of the tumor may be a valuable alternative to surgery in the future.

  1. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  2. Plasmacytoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... is equally essential (7,9,10). The possibility of diagnosing a breast extramedullary plasmacytoma is approximately. 0.01% (7,8,9). The clinical diagnosis of a breast plasmacytoma is difficult, if not impossible, because presentation mimics common breast lesions such as adenocarcinoma or a fibroadenoma.

  3. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  4. Contralateral breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with family history of breast cancer is associated with a 15.4% probability of simultaneous ... second breast is the history of having had cancer in the opposite breast. 5' 15 The important factors that point to ... contralateral mirror image biopsy at the time of definitive surgery as a means of detecting an occult second ...

  5. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  6. Inflammatory breast cancer in accessory abdominal breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Miles, MD, MPH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast tissue results from failure of the embryologic mammary ridge, also known as the milk line, to involute. As a result, ectopic breast tissue can develop anywhere along this ridge, which extends from the axilla—the most common location—to the groin. Primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue is uncommon but has been reported in multiple prior studies. We present a rare case of inflammatory breast cancer presenting in upper abdominal accessory breast tissue in women with a personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, and highlight the challenges of both diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in accessory breast tissue.

  7. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge and practice of BSE and knowledge on breast cancer. Responses on awareness on breast cancer were weighed using a 3-point. Likert's scale. ... have shown no significant effect of regular BSE on breast cancer ... Table 1: Characteristics of women surveyed concerning breast self-examination and breast cancer.

  8. Breast is best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This pamphlet on breast feeding provides information on the Belagio Guidelines, an explanation of how breast feeding decreases fertility, and a description of how child spacing impacts on child survival. 10 steps to promote breast feeding are listed for hospitals: 1) have a policy that is communicated to all health care staff; 2) train all health care staff; 3) inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding; 4) help mothers initiate breast feeding within a half hour after birth; 5) demonstrate to mothers how to lactate and how to maintain lactation even when separated from their infants; 6) withhold any food or drink for infants unless medically indicated; 7) keep mothers and infants together during the first 24 hours; 8) encourage breast feeding on demand; 9) withhold use of pacifiers; and 10) establish breast feeding support groups for mothers released from the hospital. The Belagio Guidelines communicate the findings from prospective studies in 8 countries that maximum birth spacing is achieved when mothers fully breast feed infants. Full breast feeding means no supplemental food or liquid during the first 6 months after giving birth; the infant is fed solely on breast milk. Prolactin levels, luteinizing hormone, and the altered gonadotrophin-releasing hormone are currently considered responsible for suppression of ovulation. Even after return of menses breast feeding women have a reduced chance of pregnancy. Frequency of suckling is associated with gonadotrophin secretion and reduced fertility. Night time breast feeding is considered particularly important in delaying the return of fertility. Longer child spacing, as assisted by prolonged and full breast feeding, contributes to healthier infants. Breast feeding also contributes to improved maternal health and psychosocial benefits. Women should use breast feeding and lactational amenorrhea as a family planning method and as a means of empowering women. The return of menses

  9. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two......-stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during...... of reoperation was significantly higher following the one-stage procedure. For both procedures, the majority of reoperations were due to asymmetry or displacement of the implant. In conclusion, non-radiated one- and two-stage delayed breast implant reconstructions are associated with substantial risks...

  12. Benign breast lesions in Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignant breast diseases. But the prevalence of breast cancer is increasing especially in communities that hitherto reported low incidence; a recent report from Ibadan cancer registry, showed that ... Table Relative frequency of breast lesions in Kano. Histological No. % of breast % of benign breast diagnosis lesions lesions.

  13. Breast abscesses after breast conserving therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa [National Kyoto Hospital (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Breast abscess after breast conserving therapy is a rare complication and the study of this cause has not been reported. A retrospective review of 190 patients undergoing breast conserving therapy in our institution revealed 4 patients with breast abscess (mean age, 50.6 years; range, 47-57 years and median follow up 4 months; 1-11 months). Risk factors which were common to all patients were: fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical treatment; wide excision, adjuvant therapy; oral administration of tamoxifen (TAM), radiation therapy (RT) to ipsilateral whole breast; total dose of 50 Gy and skin desquamation by RT; level I or II. Other important risk factors in 3 patients were repeated aspirations of seroma post operatively and 2 patients received chemotherapy; CAF. Cultures from one abscess grew staphylococcus aureus, one grew staphylococcus epidermidis, and two were sterile. Breast abscess may be caused by a variety of factors and it is often difficult to specify the cause. This suggests that careful observation will be necessary to determine the cause. (author)

  14. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  15. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of the breast - partial radiation therapy; Partial external beam radiation - breast; Intensity-modulated radiation therapy - breast cancer; IMRT - breast cancer WBRT; Adjuvant partial breast - IMRT; APBI - IMRT; ...

  16. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  17. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  19. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incidence of breast cancer subtypes by race/ethnicity, poverty, and state. Journal of the National Cancer Institute ... PubMed Abstract] Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ ...

  2. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  3. Breast prothesis leakage and malignant changes of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Taha; Kutty, Rajyashree

    2009-04-01

    A breast implant is a prosthesis used to enhance the size of a woman's breasts. Silicon implants are most commonly used, but as with all surgical implants it has some complications. The question is whether it can induce breast cancer? During the last year, a case of reconstructed breast with prosthesis which leaked was presented. The aim of this report is to review current literature to evaluate whether there are reported correlations between breast cancer and breast implants. The conclusion derived from this report is that there is no available evidence directly correlating breast cancer to breast implants.

  4. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Oxalate induces breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Andrés M; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L; Pucci, Oscar A; Gil, German A

    2015-10-22

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  6. Oxalate induces breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.

    2015-01-01

    Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis. We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis. To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate. We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells

  7. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  8. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  9. Neuroendocrine breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-08-13

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast lump. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasonography showed a 2.4 cm nodule, probably a benign lesion (BI-RADS 3). A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and revealed proliferative epithelial papillary lesion. She was submitted to excisional biopsy and histology showed endocrine breast cancer well differentiated (G1). Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for synaptophysin. These breast cancers are characterised for their excellent prognosis and conservative treatment is almost always enough to obtain patient cure.

  10. Breast cancer predisposition syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemel, Deborah; Domchek, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Xeroradiography of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaf, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Xeroradiography is a simple method of radiographic examination of the breast, it is readily interpreted, and with good technic xeroradiography can afford a more accurate identification of tumor calcifications and the periphery of the tumors. Xeroradiography of the breast must be faced as a complemental method and when associated with the informations of the medical history, the clinical examination and informations of other complemental methods will afford an effective evaluation of women with breast disease. (Author) [pt

  12. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  13. Bilateral breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Jo; Oh, Ki Keun

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate 311 breast cancer patients admitted to Yong Dong Severance Hospital Between October 1st 1985 and July 31th 1989, and were able to obtain the following conclusions. 1) There were 14(4.5%) bilateral breast cancers among the 311 confirmed breast cancers. 2) Among the bilateral breast cancers, 5(31%) were synchronous and 9(69%) metachronous. 3) Average interval between the first and the second breast cancer in metachronous cancers was 3.8 year(1-15 years). 4) Bilateral breast cancer was most prevalent in the fifth decade (6/14) with the mean age of 47 years. 5) Film mammogram and sonomammogram showed findings of typical breast malignancies. There was no additional specific findings for each cancer in bilateral breast cancers which was different from unilateral cancers. Therefor, in the patients with unilateral breast cancer, possibility of the second lesion in the contralateral side must be considered and a close follow up observation should be done for at least 3 years

  14. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  15. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  16. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  17. Breast-feeding after breast cancer in childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camune, Barbara; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society in 2007, about 178,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States. Of these, 25% have tumors in their childbearing years and may desire future opportunities for pregnancy and lactation. Although there is a multitude of options related to preserving fertility, little is known about the residual effects of breast cancer treatment and the ability to breast-feed afterward. This article describes the epidemiological relationship between breast cancer and pregnancy and lactation. Basic types of treatment for breast cancer including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are reviewed. Practical information on how to support breast-feeding after breast cancer is included.

  18. Breast edema in breast cancer patients following breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Hanne; Gebruers, Nick; Beyers, Tinne; De Monie, Anne-Caroline; Tjalma, Wiebren

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used in breast cancer treatment. Despite its benefits, some women will be troubled by breast edema. Breast edema may cause an unsatisfactory cosmetic result, influencing the quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the incidence of breast edema and to identify risk factors of breast edema in breast cancer patients following BCS and radiotherapy. A systematic literature search was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase) until June 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) research studies that included female breast cancer patients who were treated with BCS and radiotherapy and (2) studies that investigated the incidence of breast edema and/or risk factors of breast edema. Exclusion criteria were (1) reviews or case studies and (2) studies published before 1995. We identified in total 28 papers which represented 4,011 patients. There was a great variation in the incidence of breast edema (0-90.4 %). We identified several possible risk factors for breast edema namely increasing irradiated breast volume, increasing boost volume, the use of a photon boost, increasing breast separation, a higher density of the breast tissue, a large tumor, a higher specimen weight, postoperative infection, acute postoperative toxicity, and diabetes mellitus. However, their prognostic value remains uncertain. Breast edema is a common complaint after BCS and radiotherapy. A number of possible risk factors associated with breast edema were identified, but further research is warranted.

  19. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  20. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  1. Oncoplastic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Raghu Ram; Querci Della Rovere, Guidubaldo

    2012-06-01

    Breast Surgery is now a recognized subspecialty of General Surgery abroad with structured training for designated 'Oncoplastic Breast Surgeons'. Oncoplastic Breast surgery is probably one of the most interesting and challenging new developments over the past 20 years. The aims of Oncoplastic surgery are wide local excision of the cancer coupled with partial reconstruction of the defect to achieve a cosmetically acceptable result. Avoidance of mastectomy and consequent reduction of psychological morbidity are the principal goals in the development of various oncoplastic techniques. The use of plastic surgical techniques not only ensures good cosmetic outcome, but also allows the cancer surgeon to remove the tumour with greater volume of surrounding tissue, thus extending the boundaries of breast conserving surgery. Proper patient selection and careful planning after proper radiological and clinical assessment are the two essential prerequisites before undertaking oncoplastic breast surgery. Oncoplastic surgery involves both volume displacement and volume replacement techniques. Some commonly used volume displacement procedures are described in the article. The need for adjustment of contralateral breast should also be anticipated at the time of planning breast conserving surgery, which can be done either at the same time as breast cancer surgery or as a delayed setting.

  2. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants underwent Clinical Breast Examination (CBE), breast transillumination ... with low 5-year survival (of 39%). In the past, resource allocation for health was skewed towards infectious dis- eases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Currently however, a rapidly ... tality by up to 25-30 % in women over 50 years old (2-. 4).

  3. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  4. Management of Breast Fibroadenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Ron; Skornick, Yehuda; Kaplan, Ofer

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify from the literature and clinical experience a rational approach to management of fibroadenomas of the breast. METHOD Recent literature on detection, diagnosis, and natural history of fibroadenomas was reviewed. Experience with over 4,000 women evaluated in the breast clinic at the Tel- Aviv Medical Center contributed to the management strategies suggested by review of the literature. RESULTS Fibroadenomas of the breast are common, accounting for 50% of all breast biopsies performed. Physical examination, sonography, and fine needle aspiration are effective in distinguishing fibroadenomas from breast cancer. Transformation from fibroadenoma to cancer is rare; regression or resolution is frequent, supporting conservative approaches to follow-up and management. CONCLUSION Age-based algorithms that allow for conservative management and that limit excision to patients whose fibroadenomas fail to regress are presented. PMID:9754521

  5. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  6. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  7. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  8. The characterization of breast anatomical metrics using dedicated breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ying; Boone, John M.; Yang, Kai; Packard, Nathan J.; McKenney, Sarah E.; Prionas, Nicolas D.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate anatomical characterization of the breast is useful in breast phantom development and computer modeling of breast imaging technologies. Capitalizing on the three-dimensional capabilities of dedicated breast CT (bCT), a number of parameters which describe breast shape and fibroglandular distribution are defined. Methods: Among 219 bCT data sets, the effective diameter and length of the pendant breast as well as the breast volume were measured and characterized for each bra cup size. The volume glandular fraction (VGF) was determined as a function of patient age, BIRADS density, bra cup size, and breast diameter. The glandular fraction was examined in coronal and sagittal planes of the breast, and the radial distribution of breast glandular fraction within a coronal bCT image was examined for three breast regions. The areal glandular fraction (AGF) was estimated from two-dimensional projections of the breast (simulated by projecting bCT data sets) and was compared to the corresponding VGF. Results: The effective breast diameter and length increase with increasing bra cup size. The mean breast diameters (± standard error) of bra cup sizes A∕AA, B, C, and D∕DD were 11.1±0.5, 11.4±0.3, 13.0±0.2, and 13.7±0.2 cm, respectively. VGF was lower among older women and those with larger breast diameter and larger bra cup size. VGF increased as a function of the reported BIRADS density. AGF increased with VGF. Fibroglandular tissue was distributed primarily in the central portion of the breast. Conclusions: Breast metrics were examined and a number of parameters were defined which may be useful for breast modeling. The reported data may provide researchers with useful information for characterizing the breast for various imaging or dosimetry tasks. PMID:21626952

  9. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  10. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  11. Oncoplastic breast surgery: comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, N; Pesce, M; Santi, P L; Raposio, E

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Western populations, affecting 12.5% of women, with 1.38 million patients per year. Breast-conserving surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy replaced the radical and modified-radical procedures of Halsted and Patey as the standard of care for early-stage breast cancer once the overall and disease-free survival rates of breast-conserving surgery were demonstrated to be equivalent to those of mastectomy. However, excision of >20% of breast tissue, low or centrally located cancer, and large-sized breasts with various grades of breast ptosis, result a in unacceptable cosmetic outcomes. Oncoplastic breast surgery evolved from the breast-conserving surgery by broadening its general indication to achieve wider excision margins without compromising on the cosmetic outcomes. Thus, oncoplastic breast surgery can be defined as a tumor-specific immediate breast reconstruction method that applies aesthetically derived breast reduction techniques to the field of breast cancer surgery and allows for higher volume excision with no aesthetic compromise. However, contralateral breast symmetrization should be regarded as an intrinsic component of the oncoplastic surgery. The main procedures involved are volume-displacement or volume-replacement techniques, which depend on breast size and cancer size/location. Volume-displacement or reshaping procedures apply the plastic surgery principles to transpose a dermo-glandular flap of breast tissue into the defect site, while volume-replacement techniques use autologous tissues to replace the volume loss that follows tumor resection. Furthermore, these procedures are more complex and time-consuming than those involved in breast-conserving surgery. Based on current literature, the authors analyze the different techniques and indications of the oncoplastic breast surgery, determining its complication rate, in order to help both surgeons and their patients in the decision-making stage of

  12. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Coping With a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Coping with breast cancer A breast cancer diagnosis can cause a wide range of ... as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting ...

  15. Mesenchymal breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schickman, R.; Leibman, A.J.; Handa, P.; Kornmehl, A.; Abadi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal breast lesions encompass a variety of breast diseases. Many of these lesions are rare with only a few case reports in the literature. This article reviews the imaging findings of selected mesenchymal breast lesions, their clinical presentations and method of diagnosis. Mesenchymal lesions are diverse and include haemangioma, granular cell tumour, myofibroblastoma, fibromatosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. It is important for radiologists to be aware of these lesions as some of them may have malignant potential or demonstrate imaging features that overlap with other malignant lesions

  16. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...

  17. Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100189.htm Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  18. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2005:167. Breast lift About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  20. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  1. Breast milk jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes) or when babies who show signs of hunger are given pacifiers. Breast milk jaundice may run ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  2. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  3. Radiology of the breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.; Bertrand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the breasts are visualized on conventional chest radiographs, detail is insufficient for accurate imaging, and as a result, mammography for optimum detail has been developed. Ductograms (galactograms) are used in selected cases with serous or blood discharge from the nipples. This discussion of mammography concerns itself with the following: 1. Some of the epidemiologic aspects of breast cancer (particularly in females). 2. The controversy concerning radiation in mammography. 3. The radiologic techniques of examination of the breast-with brief mention of other methods of imaging. 4. The roentgen signs of abnormality as observed radiographically and how these signs are related to the pathologic aspects of disease of the breast, some of which are controversial. 5. Tabulation of roentgen signs and morphology into lesions that are definitely benign, definitely malignant, and indeterminate, requiring biopsy

  4. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  5. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It also does not involve cutting of the abdominal muscle and is a free flap. This type of ... figure out the safest ways to perform everyday activities. Does breast reconstruction affect the ability to check ...

  6. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them or to undergo additional reconstructive surgery. Photo courtesy of Walter Peters, Ph.D., M.D., F. ... placement of silicone gel-filled breast implants. Photo courtesy of Walter Peters, Ph.D., M.D., F. ...

  7. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  8. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... with inflammatory breast cancer, but, due to the importance of radiation therapy in treating this disease, experts ...

  9. Breast lump removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clips will be placed inside the breast to mark the area of tissue removal. This makes the ... Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 23. Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases ...

  10. MEDECINE NUCLEAIRE ET MALADIE CORONARIENNE : EVALUATION DE TRACEURS DE LA PERFUSION MYOCARDIQUE ET DE LA PLAQUE D'ATHEROME VULNERABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Broisat, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY CAUSE OF MORTALITY WORLDWIDE. NUCLEAR MEDICINE IS THE MAJOR IMAGING TECHNIQUE FOR DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOWING OF THIS DISEASE. PERFUSION : NOWADAYS, MAJOR RADIOACTIVE AGENTS USED IN CLINICAL PRACTICE ARE MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION TRACERS. THE REFERENCE TRACER IS THALLIUM-201. HOWEVER, 201TL PRESENTS SOME DRAWBACKS. 99MTCN-NOET HAS BEEN PROPOSED FOR ITS REPLACEMENT. THIS STUDY SHOWS THAT IN CONTRAST WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES REALIZED IN VITRO ON CARDIOMYOCYTES,...

  11. Breast nocardiosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-01

    Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection occurring in immunocompromised patients. Worldwidely, about four cases of nocardiosis of the breast have been previously reported, but none of these were in Korea. We describe a case of breast nocardiosis associated with pulmonary infection in a patient with Cushing's disease. In our patient, multiple, well-defined, conglomerated, tubular-shaped, isodense mass was revealed at mammography, and an irregular-shaped, ill-defined, heterogeneous echoic mass with movable debris at ultrasonography.

  12. Phantom breast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom breast syndrome is a type of condition in which patients have a sensation of residual breast tissue and can include both non-painful sensations as well as phantom breast pain. The incidence varies in different studies, ranging from approximately 30% to as high as 80% of patients after mastectomy. It seriously affects quality of life through the combined impact of physical disability and emotional distress. The breast cancer incidence rate in India as well as Western countries has risen in recent years while survival rates have improved; this has effectively increased the number of women for whom post-treatment quality of life is important. In this context, chronic pain following treatment for breast cancer surgery is a significantly under-recognized and under-treated problem. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain may arise following breast cancer surgery due to surgical trauma. The cause of these syndromes is damage to various nerves during surgery. There are a number of assumed factors causing or perpetuating persistent neuropathic pain after breast cancer surgery. Most well-established risk factors for developing phantom breast pain and other related neuropathic pain syndromes are severe acute postoperative pain and greater postoperative use of analgesics. Based upon current evidence, the goals of prophylactic strategies could first target optimal peri-operative pain control and minimizing damage to nerves during surgery. There is some evidence that chronic pain and sensory abnormalities do decrease over time. The main group of oral medications studied includes anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, mexilitine, topical lidocaine, cannabinoids, topical capsaicin and glysine antagonists. Neuromodulation techniques such as motor cortex stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal drug therapies have been used to treat various neuropathic pain syndromes.

  13. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  14. Contraception and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhothisuwan, Kris

    2004-10-01

    Oral contraceptive use is weakly associated with breast cancer risk in the general population, but the association among women with a familial predisposition to breast cancer is less clear. Recent studies indicating that oral contraception may increase the risk of breast cancer more in subjects who are BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutation carriers. Features of hormonal contraceptive use, such as duration of use, age at first use, and the dose and type of hormone within the contraceptives, have little effect on breast cancer risk. Women who begin use before age 20 have higher relative risks of having breast cancer diagnosed while they are using combined oral contraceptives and in the 5 years after stopping than do women who begin use at older ages. Given that on influence of oral contraceptives on the breast has been hypothesized to be greatest before the cellular differentiation that occurs with a first pregnancy. A significant trend of increasing risk with first use before age 20 years was observed. Among women diagnosed at ages 30 to 34 years the relative risk associated with recent oral contraceptive use was 1.54 if use began before age 20 years and 1.13 it use began at older ages.

  15. [Pregnancy and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Torres, Nicolás; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    association of breast cancer and pregnancy is not common. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the pregnancy, young age, stage, treatment, prognosis and mortality of women with breast cancer during pregnancy. retrospective analysis from March 1992 to February 2009, 16 patients were included with breast cancer and pregnancy. They were analized: histological characteristic of tumor, therapeutic response of the oncological treatment, evolution of the pregnancy. From of baby born: Apgar and weight. The woman's mortality with breast cancer during pregnancy was evaluated for age group and for interval of time between late pregnancy and diagnosis posterior of breast cancer and pregnancy. characteristic predominant clinicohistological: stage III (81.2%), T3-T4 (75%), N+ 93.7%, invasive ductal carcinoma (87.5%), histological grade 2-3 (93.7%), receptor estrogeno positive (43.7%); RPpositive (25%); HER-2/neu positive (31.2%). 27 chemotherapy cycles were applied with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy, there were not severe adverse effects for the mothers and the baby born exposed to chemotherapy. The mean time to disease recurrence was 18.8 months (range, 6-62 months). The rate of mortality for specific age (breast cancer and pregnancy.

  16. Percutaneous therapy of inoperable biliary stenoses and occlusions with a new self-expanding nitinol stent (SMART); Perkutane Therapie inoperabler maligner Stenosen und Verschluesse der Gallenwege mit einem neu entwickelten selbstexpandierbaren Nitinolstent (SMART)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorger, N.; Lenhart, M.; Strotzer, M.; Paetzel, C.; Hamer, O.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2002-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment of malignant biliary stenoses and occlusions using a new stent. Methods: In a prospective study, 25 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were treated with SMART stents. The handling and the quality of stent expansion were documented. Stent function was assessed 2-4 days after intervention by cholangiography and laboratory tests. A follow-up was performed three months, after stent placement. Results: All lesions were treated successfully, with a total of 35 stents implanted. In 14 patients a further balloon dilatation was performed after stent placement (8-10 mm diameter/40-80 mm length). The mean serum bilirubin level decreased significantly from 11.6 mg/dl to 4.6 mg/dl after intervention (p<0.05). The follow-up showed a mean serum bilirubin level at 4.0 mg/dl. In 4 cases (16%) a further intervention (PTCD or stent) was performed. Six patients died due to tumor progression. The stents proved to be patent in 79% (n=15) of patients alive at the time of follow-up. Conclusions: Placement of the SMART stent for the therapy of malignant biliary lesions yields good technical and clinical results. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der technischen Handhabung und Effizienz eines neu entwickelten Stents zur Therapie maligner Gallenwegsstenosen und Verschluesse. Material und Methodik: In einer prospektiven Studie wurden 25 Patienten mit Verschlussikterus bei maligner Gallengangsstenose palliativ mit dem SMART {sup trademark} -Stent behandelt. Evaluiert wurden die Handhabung des Stents und die Qualitaet der Stententfaltung. Die Stentfunktion wurde nach 2-4 Tagen ueber eine liegende interne/externe Drainage cholangiographisch sowie anhand des Verlaufs der Laborparameter kontrolliert. Eine zusaetzliche Kontrolle der Stentfunktion erfolgte nach drei Monaten. Dabei wurden das subjektive Wohlbefinden des Patienten, der aktuelle Gesamtbilirubinspiegel im Serum und die Anzahl weiterer, im Nachsorgezeitraum durchgefuehrter

  17. Tomosynthesis Breast Imaging Early Detection and Characterization of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamberg, Leena

    2000-01-01

    A digital tomosynthesis mammography method was developed with which to obtain tomographic images of the breast by acquiring a series of low radiation dose images as the x-ray tube moves in an arc above the breast...

  18. Computer aided breast density evaluation in cone beam breast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Ning, Ruola

    2011-03-01

    Cone Beam Breast CT is a three-dimensional breast imaging modality with high contrast resolution and no tissue overlap. With these advantages, it is possible to measure volumetric breast density accurately and quantitatively with CBBCT 3D images. Three major breast components need to be segmented: skin, fat and glandular tissue. In this research, a modified morphological processing is applied to the CBBCT images to detect and remove the skin of the breast. After the skin is removed, a 2-step fuzzy clustering scheme is applied to the CBBCT image volume to adaptively cluster the image voxels into fat and glandular tissue areas based on the intensity of each voxel. Finally, the CBBCT breast volume images are divided into three categories: skin, fat and glands. Clinical data is used and the quantitative CBBCT breast density evaluation results are compared with the mammogram-based BIRADS breast density categories.

  19. Aluminium and the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  1. The Role of Oncoplastic Breast Surgery in Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Mustafa; Sert, İsmail; İnal, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss indications, advantages, disadvantages, oncologic and aesthetic results of Oncoplastic Surgery (OBS). Pubmed and Medline database were searched for articles published between 1998 and 2014 for keywords: oncoplastic breast surgery, therapeutic mammoplasty, oncoplastic breast reduction, synchrenous reconstructions. Role of OBS in breast cancer surgery, its aspects to be considered, its value and results have been interpreted. This technique has advantages by providing more extensive tumourectomy, yielding better aesthetic results compared with breast conserving surgery, allowing oncoplastic reduction in breast cancer patients with macromastia, with higher patient satisfaction and quality of life and by being inexpensive due to single session practice. As for its disadvantages are: re-excision is more difficult, risk for mastectomy is higher, it is depent on the Surgeron's experience, it has a risk for delay in adjuvant therapies and its requirement for additional imaging studies during management. Main indications are patients with small tumour/breast volume, macromastia, multifocality, procedures which can disrupt breast cosmesis such as surgeries for upper inner breas tquadrient tumours. Contraindications are positive margin problems after wide excision, diffuse malign microcalsifications, inflammatory breast cancer, history of radiotherapy and patients' preferences. Despite low evidence level, Oncoplastic Breast Surgery seems to be both reliable and acceptable in terms of oncologic and aesthetic aspects. Oncoplastic Breast Surgery increase the application rate of breast conserving surgery by obviating practical limitations and improve the results of breast conserving surgery. Correct patient and technique choice in OBS is vital for optimization of post surgical.

  2. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  3. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  4. Causes of breast lumps (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  5. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    -Richardson's .... breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas ... lobular carcinoma. Malignant breast tumours of all kinds are most common in the age group 40-49 years (Table 2). Almost all (94.4%) cancers occur after age 29 years.

  6. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  7. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  8. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  9. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  10. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Kwong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncoplastic breast conservation surgery has given a new light to the options of performing breast conserving surgery by combining oncological principles of breast cancer surgery with plastic surgery techniques. The ultimate oncoplastic achievement would be the conversion of what normally would be considered as an oncologic and/or cosmetic failure when using standard techniques of breast conserving surgery into both oncological and cosmetic success and to avoid mastectomy where possible. Most Techniques are fairly well established. However surgical techniques may also need to be adjusted based on the cohorts that the treatment is offered to. For example, for larger breasts, the technique is more forgiving. However for smaller breast, there is still a limitation of the cosmetic outcome when a high percentage of breast volume has been excised no matter how good the technique or the surgeon is. Various aspects of oncoplastic breast surgery technique will be discussed and its applicability to Asian Cohorts.

  11. Gravidomimetic Prevention of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic peptide can prevent breast cancer, we utilized a standard model to induce breast cancer in rats and initiated a dose-finding study in which four log doses...

  12. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk with your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  13. Breast carcinoma: a conservative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campelo Gentil, F. de.

    1977-01-01

    Some factors inherent to classic therapeutic for breast carcinoma are analysed: immunology and immunotherapy; post-operative radiotherapy; multicentricity and chimiotherapy; surgery. A therapeutic schedule based on this analysis is proposed for the initial breast carcinoma. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Breast cancer and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabben, Laura; Mueller, Michel D

    2017-08-29

    Background In the past decades the incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) increased. Possible explanations are the trend to postpone childbearing and the general increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Materials and methods A sytematic review of the literature was performed with the aim to report on incidence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast cancer during pregnancy. We also cover the issue of pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer including fertility preservation and prognosis. Results Ultrasound is the imaging method of choice in pregnancy, but mammography can also be performed as the fetal irradiation dose is low. To avoid a delay in diagnosis every sonographic mass in pregnant women which does not clearly correspond to a cyst needs further investigation by biopsy. Treatment should follow as close as possible the guidelines for non-pregnant patients. Administration of chemotherapy is possible after the first trimester. There is a large body of evidence for the use of anthracyclines. In contrast radiotherapy, trastuzumab and antihormonal treatment by tamoxifen are contraindicated during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not seem to influence prognosis. Most adverse obstetric outcomes are related to preterm delivery, which should therefore, whenever possible, be avoided. Young patients with breast cancer and incomplete family planning should be referred for counseling about fertility preservation options before the initiation of adjuvant treatment. A pregnancy following breast cancer does not have a negative impact on prognosis. Conclusion Multidisciplinary management of women with breast cancer in pregnancy is mandatory and data should be collected to allow further improvement in management.

  15. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  16. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  17. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences. PMID:24592003

  19. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  20. Bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors, currently being used in oncology to prevent or delay bone morbidity in cancer. Oral and intravenous formulations of bisphosphonates have been found to be efficacious in preventing skeletal-related events such as bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia of malignancy, in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer. Bisphosphonates are also used to prevent bone loss associated with anti-estrogen therapy using aromatase inhibitors. In addition to its role in preventing bone resorption, several pre-clinical studies have noted an anti-tumor role as well. Recent research effort has particularly focused on investigating an adjuvant role for bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Recently, few randomized trials have found a beneficial effect for adjuvant use of the aminobisphosphonate, zoledronate, in older patients who are post-menopausal. This review article will summarize the various clinical studies investigating the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sestak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials with tamoxifen have clearly shown that the risk of developing oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer can be reduced by at least 50% with prophylactic agents. The current challenge is to find new agents which achieve this or better efficacy, but with fewer side effects. Recent results indicate that the SERM raloxifene has similar efficacy to tamoxifen, but leads to fewer endometrial cancers, gynecological symptoms, and thromboembolic events. Results for contralateral tumors in adjuvant trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be able to prevent up to 70%–80% of ER-positive breast cancers, and this is currently being investigated in two large prevention trials, one using anastrozole (IBIS-II and the other exemestane (MAP.3. New agents are needed for receptor negative breast cancer and several possibilities are currently under investigation.

  2. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  3. Estrogen effects on the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.E.; Goldblum, L.E.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Gayler, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Estrogen is frequently used in postmenopausal women for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and for prevention of osteoporosis. Little mention of estrogen effects on the postmenopausal breast is found in the literature. It has been suggested that estrogen replacement therapy may cause proliferative changes in the breast, manifested by mammographically dense breasts. The authors present five patients in whom the fibroglandular tissue dramatically increased after initiation of hormonal therapy. One patient's mammogram returned to baseline 2 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. Recognition of the estrogen effect is important since appearing densities are cause for suspicion in the postmenopausal breast and since very dense breasts can obscure masses

  4. Pregnancy-associated Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Ashley S

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer refers to breast cancer that is diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The incidence is increasing as more women delay childbearing. Breast cancer can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy while protecting the fetus and mother with excellent outcomes for both. Avoiding diagnostic delays is vital to prognosis. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging, management, and prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Relevant current literature is reviewed.

  5. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  6. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key resul...

  7. [Phyllodes breast tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedníková, I; Černá, M; Hlaváčková, M; Hes, O

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumour is a breast tumour occurring very rarely. It accounts for only in 1% of all cases of breast tumour. The diagnosis of phyllodes tumours can be difficult in consideration of the small number of cases. Treatment of phyllodes tumours is always surgical. In 2004-2013, we operated on twelve female patients with phyllodes tumours out of the total number of 1564 surgeries for breast tumours (0.8%) at the Department of Surgery at Teaching Hospital in Pilsen. We evaluated the age, the biological behaviour of the tumour depending on the tumour size and duration, the distant metastases, therapy and survival. The average age at the time of surgery was fifty years (2684), the duration of disease to the surgical solution ranged from one month to ten years. Tumour size was in the range of two to twenty-nine centimetres, tumours measuring less than five centimetres were always benign. Tumour excision for benign phyllodes tumour was performed seven times. Malignant phyllodes tumour was diagnosed five times with mastectomy performed in each case, and the axilla was exenterated in three cases where nodes were benign in each of them. In one case, mastectomy was followed by radiotherapy because the tumour reached the edge of the resected part; the other patients were only monitored. In two patients, tumour spreading into the lungs was diagnosed at five to ten months after breast surgery. One patient with generalized disease died, the other ones live with no local recurrence of this disease. Median survival is fifty-two months; the disease-free interval is fifty months. The results show that if phyllodes tumour is diagnosed in time, it is almost exclusively benign. If the case history is longer and the tumour is growing, the likelihood of malignancy increases. Surgical treatment is also sufficient in the case of malignant forms. The breast surgery does not need to be supplemented with exenteration of axilla.Key words: breast - phyllodes tumour.

  8. Hamartoma Breast, Chondromatous Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an exceedingly rare case of hamartoma of breast with predominantly chondroid stroma. A 45 year old lady presented with a mobile lump in the upper outer quadrant of left breast, clinically diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Mammography and FNAC were not done. She underwent lumpectomy and we received the specimen measuring 7x5x3cm. Cut surface of which revealed grey white nodule with glistening surface. Histopathologically we found a circumscribed lesion with predominantly mature hyaline cartilage separated by fibrocollagenous bands.

  9. Breast cancer imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadel, Renee M

    2011-05-01

    Conventional mammography is a screening procedure constrained by low specificity in the detection of breast cancer. Approximately 40% of women undergoing mammography screening have dense breast tissue, and conventional mammographic imaging has a sensitivity range of only 50%-85% for malignant lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now recommended for breast cancer screening in high-risk patients. However, approximately 15% of patients cannot tolerate MRI. These are the clinical situations in which positron emission mammography (PEM) and breast-specific gamma (BSG) camera systems fulfill a need for primary breast cancer imaging. Because breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among women, many nuclear medicine imaging techniques are essential in the evaluation and therapy of patients with this disease. Nuclear medicine surgical techniques consist of sentinel lymph node localization and the use of radiolabeled seeds for intraoperative localization of nonpalpable breast cancers. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the PEM Flex Solo II scanner, which has the capability for stereotactic biopsy, with an array of pixelated lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals, position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PS-PMT), and a spatial resolution of 2.4 mm. Clear PEM is a scanner in development with cerium-doped LYSO (LYSO:Ce) crystals, multipixel avalanche photodiodes, depth of interaction measurement with a resolution of 1.3 mm. The Dilon 6800 Gamma Camera is a BSG device approved by the FDA with stereotactic biopsy guidance capability, a pixelated array of sodium iodide crystals, PS-PMTs, and an extrinsic spatial resolution of 6 mm at 3 cm from the camera. GE has just received clearance from the FDA for a molecular breast imaging camera, the Discovery NM 750 b, with pixelated cadmium zinc telluride crystals, semiconductor photoelements and an extrinsic resolution of 3.5 mm at 3 cm. The Society of

  10. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  12. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye

    1993-01-01

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  15. Mammography: interobserver variability in breast density assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, E. A.; Zonderland, H. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kriege, M.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Burger, C. W.; Ansink, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the interobserver variability of breast density assessment according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and to examine potential associations between breast density and risk factors for breast cancer. Four experienced breast radiologists received

  16. Lymphosarcoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... This report describes the mammographic and histological features of'a typical breast lesion. It emphasises the difficulty in differentiating it from carcinoma. CASE REPORT. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the professorial surgical unit of the Johannesburg General Hospital. She had been referred for a ...

  17. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  18. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  19. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The provider will ask about your medical history. A breast exam may be done. If you take medicines (including aspirin, supplements, or herbs), ask your doctor whether you need to stop taking these before the biopsy. Tell your doctor if you may be ...

  20. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  1. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunoediting is the process by which the immune system protects the host from tumor development and guides the somatic evolution of tumors by eliminating highly immunogenic tumor cells. A fundamental dogma of tumor immunology and of cancer immunosurveillance in particular is that cancer cells express antigens that differentiate them from their nontransformed counterparts. Molecular studies clearly show that these antigens were often products of mutated cellular genes, aberrantly expressed normal genes, or genes encoding viral proteins. There is a strict correlation between genetic instability and the immune landscape of a breast cancer. Mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer is associated with new cancer-associated genes and new cancer antigens. Frequencies of somatic mutations or mutational burden can be related to the immunogenicity of breast cancer. We believe that molecular subtypes of breast cancer that are triple negative, luminal B-like or HER2-positive have a high mutational burden and can be considered immunogenic. The increasing knowledge of the immune system's capacity to not only recognize and destroy cancer, but also to shape cancer immunogenicity will develop more informed attempts to control cancer via immunological approaches. To be effective in breast cancer, immunotherapies will have to increase the quality or quantity of immune effector cells, reveal additional protective tumor antigens, and/or eliminate cancer-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms. Multiple immunotherapy approaches are under investigation in patients with breast cancer. These include vaccine approaches to elicit strong specific immune responses to tumor antigens such as WT-1, HER2 and NY-ESO-1, approaches involving adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded, naturally arising or genetically engineered tumor-specific lymphocytes, therapeutic administration of monoclonal antibodies to target and eliminate tumor cells, and approaches that inhibit or destroy the molecular or

  3. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  4. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13 mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.

  5. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer shell that is filled ...

  6. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first full-term baby, and certain breast conditions. Obesity is also a risk factor for breast cancer ... with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutations? Does gender of offspring have an ... differences in breast cancer risk. Develop surrogate markers to ...

  7. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, called BI-RADS , to group different types of breast density. This ... findings. Doctors who review mammograms are called radiologists . BI-RADS classifies breast density into four categories, as follows: ( ...

  8. Concurrent breast stroma sarcoma and breast carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most important health problems in the world and affects a great number of women over the entire globe. This group of tumors rarely presents as bilateral disease and, when it does happen, normally occurs within the same histological type. We report a rare case of concurrent bilateral breast cancer with two different histology types, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma, in a 42-year-old woman referred to our hospital. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman admitted to our institute in August 1999, presented with a nodule in the left breast of 3.0 × 2.5 cm, and, in the right breast, one of 1.0 cm, suspected of malignancy and with a clinically negative armpit. Biopsies had revealed invasive mammary carcinoma (right breast and sarcoma (left breast. She was submitted to bilateral modified radical mastectomy. A histological study showed an invasive mammary carcinoma degree II lobular pleomorphic type with invasion of seven of the 19 excised axillary nodes in the right breast and, in the left breast, a sarcoma of the mammary stroma, for which the immunohistochemistry study was negative for epithelial biomarkers and positive for vimentin. Later, she was submitted for chemotherapy (six cycles of 75 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by radiotherapy of the thoracic wall and axillary nodes on the left. Hormone receptors were positive in the tumor of the right breast, and tamoxifen, 20 mg, was prescribed on a daily basis (five years followed by letrozole, 2.5 mg, also daily (five years. She presented no sign of negative evolution in the last consultation. Conclusion The risk of development of bilateral breast cancer is about 1% each year within a similar histological type, but it is higher in tumors with lobular histology. In this case, the patient presented, simultaneously, two histologically distinct tumors, thus evidencing a rare situation.

  9. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Eng, Charis

    2017-10-20

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients with and without cancer, and none have investigated distant body-site microbiomes outside of the gut. We hypothesize that cancerous breast tissue is associated with a microbiomic profile distinct from that of benign breast tissue, and that microbiomes of more distant sites, the oral cavity and urinary tract, will reflect dysbiosis as well. Fifty-seven women with invasive breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and 21 healthy women undergoing cosmetic breast surgery were enrolled. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified from urine, oral rinse and surgically collected breast tissue, sequenced, and processed through a QIIME-based bioinformatics pipeline. Cancer patient breast tissue microbiomes clustered significantly differently from non-cancer patients ( p =0.03), largely driven by decreased relative abundance of Methylobacterium in cancer patients (median 0.10 vs. 0.24, p =0.03). There were no significant differences in oral rinse samples. Differences in urinary microbiomes were largely explained by menopausal status, with peri/postmenopausal women showing decreased levels of Lactobacillus . Independent of menopausal status, however, cancer patients had increased levels of gram-positive organisms including Corynebacterium ( p <0.01), Staphylococcus ( p =0.02) , Actinomyces ( p <0.01), and Propionibacteriaceae ( p <0.01). Our observations suggest that the local breast microbiota differ in patients with and without breast cancer. Cancer patient urinary microbiomes were

  10. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our under...

  11. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram; Mehwish Iqbal; Muhammad Daniyal; Asmat Ullah Khan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in ...

  12. Primary Breast Adenocarcinoma in Ectopic Breast Tissue in the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason McMaster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue.

  13. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  14. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  15. Breast appearance and function after breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.S.; Nield, J.M.; Adler, G.F.; Clingan, P.R. (Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Inst. of Oncology and Radiotherapy)

    1990-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1985, 247 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. One hundred and twenty of these patients form the basis of this report, having replied to an 11-point structured questionnaire evaluating breast appearance and breast, shoulder and arm function. Good to perfect cosmetic, functional and overall scores are shown to be in the range 61-89%. The extent of primary surgery and axillary irradiation are the major factors affecting the cosmetic appearance. Other problems with cosmetic and functional assessment from subjective and objective view points are also discussed. (orig.).

  16. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  17. Breast Abscess: A Brief Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast infections commonly affect women aged between 18 and 50 years and are categorized as lactational and non-lactational infections. The infection can affect the skin overlying the breast when it can be a primary event or, it may occur secondary to mastitis and/or, secondary to a lesion in the skin. The commoner clinical findings consist of a tender, hard breast mass with erythema of the overlying skin. Needle aspiration yields pus cultures of which yield the infecting microorganisms. In practice, treatment is usually empiric consisting of bed rest, frequent nursing, fluids, Acetaminophen for pain and fever and a course of antibiotics. The other common line of treatment for breast abscess consists of incision and drainage with primary and/or, secondary closure. This brief communication on breast abscess gives an overview of the possible etiologies, clinical signs and symptoms and the treatment lines for breast abscess.

  18. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  19. Extreme oncoplastic breast surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bordoni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The surgical treatment for multicentric breast cancers remains controversial even though emerging evidences show good oncological and aesthetic outcomes following oncoplastic conserving breast surgery.

  20. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  1. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  2. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  3. UBMD (untitled breast milk drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'UBMD' (2002-present by Margaret Morgan is a series of untitled breast milk drawings rendered in pencil, gouache and human breast milk. The drawings combine two representational systems, the indexical and the mimetic, to appropriate Rosalind Krauss' terms on photography: Milk squirted directly from the artist's breast leaves a dark trace of lines, drips and splashes, a direct record of the action, an index no less immediate than the action of light on a photosensitive surface.

  4. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-08

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  5. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  6. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  7. [Breast angiosarcoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, Houssine; Noun, Mohammed; Hermas, Saïd; Samouh, Naïma; Benayad, Samira; Karkouri, Mehdi; Zamiati, Soumaya

    2013-06-01

    The breast angiosarcoma is an endothelial malign tumor. Its prevalence is about 0.04% of all breast malignant tumors. The characteristics of angiosarcoma are its malignancy and its clinical and radiologic polymorphism. The breast angiocarcinoma has a bad prognostic because of the frequency of metastases and recurrence. The purpose of this paper is to report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of breast angiosarcoma, a rare but aggressive tumor, based on a review of one case. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  10. Breast composition: Measurement and clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekpo, E.U.; Hogg, P.; Highnam, R.; McEntee, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast density is a measure of the extent of radiodense fibroglandular tissue in the breast. The risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of missing cancer at screening rise with higher breast density. In this paper, the historical background to breast density measurement is outlined and current evidence based practice is explained. The relevance of breast density knowledge to mammographic practice and image interpretation is considered in the light of clinical assessment and notification of mammographic breast density (MBD). The current work also discusses risk stratification for decision-making regarding screening frequency and better modalities for earlier detection of breast cancer in the dense breast. Automated volumetric approaches are explained while ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging are introduced as valuable adjuncts to digital mammography for imaging the dense breast. The work concludes on the important note that screened women should be notified of their breast density, and such notification should be accompanied with clear and adequate information about breast density and cancer risk, strategies associated with lower MBD, as well as best screening intervals and pathways for women with dense breasts. Adoption of these strategies may be crucial to early detection and treatment of cancer and improving survival from the disease. - Highlights: • Breast density is associated with breast cancer risk and interval breast cancer. • Breast density can be measured manually or automatically. • Radiographic exposure factors impact on breast density measurements. • Dense breast often require imaging with three-dimensional modalities. • National breast density data could enable breast cancer risk stratification.

  11. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  12. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  13. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  14. Primary breast lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julen, Olivier; Dellacasa, Ilaria; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Borish, Bettina; Bouchardy, Christine; Capanna, Federica; Vlastos, Georges; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2009-07-22

    The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  15. Primary breast lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Thérèse Vlastos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.

  16. Dynamics of breast fibroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, Yu.M. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk RSFSR, Moscow. Pervyj Moskovskij Meditsinskij Inst.)

    1981-11-01

    Medical examination of 219 patients with breast fibroadenomas within the period of 2 to 10 years made it possible to study the time course of tumor development depending on proliferative activity. Four variants of the time course have been defined: a) absence of changes, b) increase, c) decrease, e) disappearance. Enlarged sizes were noted in 37 (31.6%) patients with fibroadenoma or with proliferation only. Fibroadenomas without signs of proliferation did not enlarge. Part of them (72.7%) decreased during observation.

  17. Nodular breast lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Sahagun, E.; Pena, J.; Mendez, J.

    1996-01-01

    We attempt to correlate the histological types [in three cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), one case of T-cell NHL and one of Hodgkin's disease] with the radiological presentation and compare our findings with the literature reviewed. Among the mammographic studies, performed over and 18-month period, we have assessed five patients (four women and one man, aged as having lymphoma. the man presented bilateral involvement. Both mammography and a broader study with ultrasound and chest and abdominal CT scan were performed in every case. Four patients underwent breast ultrasound. The definitive diagnosis was based on biopsy in all cases. Three of the five cases involved primary lymphomas and the other two were secondary. Four patients presented NHL and the remaining patient had Hodgkin's disease. In mammography, the nodules showed different degrees of margin definition. In ultrasound, all the lesion were hypoechoic. The radiological diagnosis of breast lymphoma is difficult in the absence of a previous diagnosis of lymphoma. This lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis in the presence of a breast nodule associated with axillary lymph nodes, especially when the latter are bilateral. (Author)

  18. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer

  19. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical students play an important role in creating a supportive environment within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical students must possess the appropriate knowledge concerning breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators.

  20. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  1. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... in the evil eye [30] while 96.8% of Arab-speaking women in Qatar attributed its occurrence to fate/destiny and less than one-fifth to. Gods' punishment and bad luck [31]. As observed elsewhere. [6,18,28,32] the commonest symptom of breast cancer identified by our respondents was breast lump. However ...

  2. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  3. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  4. The Relationship between Breast Size and Breast Milk Volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was to determine if there is any relationship between breast size and the quantity of milk produced during sucking in 57 primiparas who practiced exclusive breast –feeding. The infants' ages range between 6 and 24 weeks with a mean age of 8.13 (5.2) weeks. There were 31 male and 26 female infants.

  5. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Roganovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p < 0.001, while the difference between breast tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p = 0.20. 

  7. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John

    2013-04-01

    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  9. A patient with angiosarcoma of the breast after breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Rie; Mitsuo, Manabu; Hanioka, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    An 89-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (right AC region, T2N0M0, stage 2A, invasive ductal carcinoma, papillotubular type) for right breast cancer in February 2005. She received postoperative radiotherapy to the residual breast. She then developed marked edema of the right arm and right breast. A mass developed in the right breast in March 2011 and March 2013. This was originally suspected to be an ipsilateral breast recurrence of the cancer, but turned to be angiosarcoma after developing recurrent mass in March 2013, which histopathology was proved to be showed angiosarcoma of the breast. The patient subsequently had repeated intradermal and subcutaneous metastases and recurrence. She is currently receiving chemotherapy with docetaxel (30 mg/m 2 biweekly). This interesting case of angiosarcoma of the breast after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer is reported. (author)

  10. BREAST CANCER IN KUMASI, GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... SUMMARY. Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women. Objective: To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching. Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: The study was conducted at the Komfo. Anokye Teaching ...

  11. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  12. Massive Neurofibroma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued eMachines Customer

    connected with the central nervous system, less associated with benign tumors and can cause spine and brain tumors. It has a frequency of 1 in 40,000 people. Breast neurofibromas are usually associated with NF 1. Neurofibromas of the breast are classified in two types; dermal and plexiform. Dermal neurofibromas.

  13. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  14. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) ... age groups wit11 less emphasis 011 the elderly. Breast cancer has, however, been found to be a serious disease in terms of incidence and mor- tality in older women.GJ .... a disease of the relatively young in our environ- men t.

  15. Breast Reshaping Following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindigni, Vincenzo; Scarpa, Carlotta; Tommasini, Antonio; Toffanin, Maria Cristina; Masetto, Laura; Pavan, Chiara; Bassetto, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a worldwide problem that affects millions of people from a medical and psychological point of view. To solve the related complications, patients should lose weight with the consequent need to be subjected to body contouring due to the presence of a loose and redundant skin. We report our experience in the treatment of the post-bariatric breast. We considered all the post-bariatric patients subjected to a breast reshaping, and we viewed the features of the breast, the type of surgery performed, the outcomes, and the complications. All patients filled out BREAST-Q surveys both preoperatively and after 6 months to study the rate of satisfaction. Ninety post-bariatric patients underwent breast reshaping in the last 5 years. The average age was 40 years old. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 5 years. The most represented ptosis was second grade; the favorite technique has been mastopexy with parenchymal remodelling and augmentation with autologous tissue. The mean duration of the surgery has been 3 h. The most represented complications have been delayed healing, unfavorable scarring, hematoma, and seroma. Statistically significant improvements were observed in satisfaction with breast appearance, psychological, and physical well-being. Breast reshaping in post-bariatric patients is a big challenge and only a careful analysis of the degree of ptosis of the breast, its volume and shape, and a clear communication with the patients about the real outcomes and complications can make the winning surgeon.

  16. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  17. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  18. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  19. [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, G; Zanotti, S; Cambrini, P; Montroni, I; Pellegrini, A; Montanari, E; Santini, D; Taffurelli, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples. Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region. Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue. We report the case of a 21 years-old female evaluated by the medical staff after founding a solid nodular mass by suspect axillary lymphadenopathy. Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases. The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast. Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual. In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties. Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  20. Localized scleroderma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opere, Elisa; Oleaga, Laura; Ibanez, Teresa; Grande, Domingo [Department of Radiology, Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    We report a 44-year-old patient with right-breast morphea. Mammography, MRI and needle biopsy were used for assessment of the case. Mammography demonstrated thickening of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The MRI showed replacement of the subcutaneous and breast fat by a low signal intensity, non-enhancing tissue. Skin biopsy confirmed the histological features of scleroderma. (orig.)

  1. Localized scleroderma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opere, Elisa; Oleaga, Laura; Ibanez, Teresa; Grande, Domingo

    2002-01-01

    We report a 44-year-old patient with right-breast morphea. Mammography, MRI and needle biopsy were used for assessment of the case. Mammography demonstrated thickening of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The MRI showed replacement of the subcutaneous and breast fat by a low signal intensity, non-enhancing tissue. Skin biopsy confirmed the histological features of scleroderma. (orig.)

  2. Preoperative Breast Pain Predicts Persistent Breast Pain and Disability After Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; Schmidt, Brian; Levine, Jon D; Abrams, Gary; Elboim, Charles; Esserman, Laura; Hamolsky, Deborah; Mastick, Judy; Paul, Steven M; Cooper, Bruce; Kober, Kord; Dodd, Marylin; Dunn, Laura; Aouizerat, Bradley; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 30% of the women report pain in the affected breast before breast cancer surgery. The purpose of this secondary analysis of our prospective study was to determine how women who experienced both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain (n=107) differed from women who did not report preoperative breast pain and did (n=158) or did not (n=122) experience persistent postsurgical breast pain. Differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated. Linear mixed effects (LME) modeling was used to evaluate for group differences in symptom severity, function, sensation, and quality of life (QOL) over time. Between-group differences in demographic and clinical characteristics as well as trajectories of shoulder function and QOL were identified. Women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain were younger; were more likely to report swelling, strange sensations, hardness, and numbness in the affected breast before surgery; and were more likely to have reconstruction at the time of surgery. Women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain had more biopsies in the prior year, more lymph nodes removed, and reported more severe acute postsurgical pain than women without preoperative breast pain. The LME modeling revealed significant group effects for most outcomes evaluated. Over the six months of the study, women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical pain had persistently poorer shoulder flexion and physical well-being than women without preoperative breast pain. Investigations of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of preoperative breast pain, as well as interventions for this high-risk group, are needed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preoperative Breast Pain Predicts Persistent Breast Pain and Disability Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J.; Schmidt, Brian; Levine, Jon D.; Abrams, Gary; Elboim, Charles; Esserman, Laura; Hamolsky, Deborah; Mastick, Judy; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce; Kober, Kord; Dodd, Marylin; Dunn, Laura; Aouizerat, Bradley; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Approximately 30% of women report pain in the affected breast prior to breast cancer surgery. Objectives The purpose of this secondary analysis of our prospective study was to determine how women who experienced both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain (n=107) differed from women who did not report preoperative breast pain and did (n=158) or did not (n=122) experience persistent postsurgical breast pain. Methods Differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated. Linear mixed effects (LME) modeling was used to evaluate for group differences in symptom severity, function, sensation, and quality of life (QOL) over time. Results Between-group differences in demographic and clinical characteristics as well as trajectories of shoulder function and QOL were identified. Women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain were younger; were more likely to report swelling, strange sensations, hardness, and numbness in the affected breast prior to surgery; and were more likely to have reconstruction at the time of surgery. Women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical breast pain had more biopsies in the prior year, more lymph nodes removed, and reported more severe acute postsurgical pain than women without preoperative breast pain. LME modeling revealed significant group effects for the majority of outcomes evaluated. Over the six months of the study, women with both preoperative and persistent postsurgical pain had persistently poorer shoulder flexion and physical well-being than women without preoperative breast pain. Conclusion Investigations of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of preoperative breast pain, as well as interventions for this high risk group, are needed. PMID:25527442

  4. Malignant cysts of the male breast.

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbings, W. S.; George, B. D.; Boyle, S.; Plowman, P. N.; Gilmore, O. J.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of male breast carcinoma presenting as cystic swellings are reported. Cysts of the male breast are rare, but unlike cysts in female breasts are more likely to represent significant pathology. We recommend consideration of excision biopsy of isolated cysts in male breasts.

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  6. CONTINUING EDUCATION 111 Breast Cancer In Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reported overall survival rate for breast cancer in pregnancy is poor,. reflecting the more advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. An approach to the management of breast cancer in pregnancy is presented by a case illustration and a review of literature. KEY WORDS: Breast Cancer, Pregnancy, Management breast ...

  7. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  8. Implementation of Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Hooley, Regina J

    2017-05-01

    Whole-breast screening ultrasonography is being increasingly implemented in breast imaging centers because numerous studies have shown the benefit of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts and breast density notification laws are becoming more widespread. This article reviews the numerous considerations involved in integrating a screening ultrasonography program into a busy practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging diagnosis of breast tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Oh, Ki Keun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of breast tuberculosis. The authors evaluated the radiologic findings of five cases of surgically confirmed tuberculosis of the breast. Patients were examined with mammography (n=5), ultrasonography (n=3), and MRI (n=2). All patients were female. Four patients had unilateral lesion and the remaining one patient had bilateral breast tuberculosis. Mammographic findings were mainly radiopaque mass density without secondary signs. Two patients showed secondary signs such as skin thickening, parenchymal distortion, and nipple retraction. Ultrasonographic findings were variable but helpful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion, MRI findings were more helpful in differentiating abscess from malignant lesions. Radiologic findings were useful to diagnose tuberculosis of the breast, but fine needle aspiration biopsy and culture were needed for suspicious radiologic findings

  10. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, T. P.; Lash, T. L.; Damkier, P.

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  11. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes......Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...

  13. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  14. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  15. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  16. Breast reconstruction: State of the arts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nemr, M.; Rimareix, F.; Karsenti, G.; Acevedo-Henao, C.M.; Heymann, S.; Bourgier, C.; El Husseiny, G.; Marsiglia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Radical mastectomy is still required in many cases, such as inflammatory breast cancer, multicentric breast cancer, large tumour volume and small breast size. In this setting, immediate breast reconstruction is more and more offered for breast cancer patients. But such plastic surgery is still debated, owing to risks of implant complications when postoperative radiotherapy of chest wall is mandatory in locoregional breast cancer management. Here, the review is focused on different type of immediate breast reconstruction and on risk of implants complications with or without postoperative radiotherapy. (authors)

  17. MR imaging of the augmented breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huch, R.A.; Debatin, J.F.; Wiesner, W.; Krestin, G.P.; Kuenzi, W.

    1998-01-01

    Mammographic evaluation of the augmented breast is challenging, since breast implants obscure significant amount of breast tissue while diminishing the effect of compression. Posttherapeutic scarring can make mammographic interpretation even more difficult. MRI has thus evolved into the modality of choice for diagnosing implant complications as well as detection of primary or recurrent breast cancer in these patient population. The present article attemps to give an overview of the MR findings of different breast augmentation and reconstruction techniques, i. e. prosthetic breast implants, breast reconstruction with autogenous tissue, free silicone injections and fat grafts, and their complications. (orig.)

  18. Recurrent breast sparganosis: Clinical and radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yoon; Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report a case of recurrent sparganosis of the breast within 6 months following surgical removal of worms from the breast. The patient was referred to our hospital with a palpable mass in the right breast. On admission, breast ultrasonography revealed a tortuous tubular hypoechoic lesion with indistinct margins within a surrounding hyperechoic area, which strongly suggested sparganosis. We performed surgical excision and confirmed sparganosis. After 6 months, the patient detected a new mass in her right breast and visited our hospital. Breast ultrasonography revealed similar features in a different area of the same breast. We confirmed recurrent sparganosis surgically.

  19. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  20. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtype...

  2. Ultrasound Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Lumps after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Shida, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. The appropriate treatment for breast lumps after breast augmentation with autologous fat grafting must be selected according to the nature of the lumps. Ultrasound is essential for diagnosing the breast lump type and determining the best treatment.

  3. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  4. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  5. Fibroadenoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, T.E.; Graaf, P.W. de; Nieuwenhuizen, C.W.E.A.; Kievit, H.C.E.; Bakker, C.J.G.; Otter, Willem den

    1991-01-01

    Fibroadenoma, a common benign tumor of the breast, is mammographi-cally, sonographically and by physical examination, well characterized. In spite of this, its presence as a tumor provokes surgical evaluation. Even though its presence is not associated with any increased risk for development of a primary malignant tumor of the breast, most surgical textbooks state that excision is mandatory. The removal of these lesions results in deformity, morbidity and expenditure of sources; neverthe-less, any perceived risk of malignancy by the patient and a conservative clinical attitude are responsible for a large number of surgical procedures for this benign condition. Except in cases where a fibro-adenoma causes the patient physical or psycho-logical discomfort by its presence, if a technique were developed to characterize fibroadenomas more specifically in vivo, unnecessary surgery could possibly be avoided, especially in young women. Early studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) attempted to characterize fibroadenomas in vivo on the basis of characteristic morphology, signal intensity, T 1 and T 2 relaxation times and enhancement with para-magnetic contrast. While the findings of these studies did improve the MR image characterization of fibroadenomas, the morphological data did not provide more information than mammography or sonography. This article describes a breast imaging and spectroscopy system which improves upon previous MRI studies of fibroadenomas through image optimization and characterization using a mixed spin-echo inversion recovery imaging sequence. In this study the use of these techniques to characterize an individual case of fibro-adenoma is demonstrated. This study features in vivo 31 P-MR spectro-scopic data demonstrating for the first time the application of in vivo spectroscopy for this type of pathology. (author). 24 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  7. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  8. Dynamics of breast fibroadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkov, Yu.M.

    1981-01-01

    Medical examination of 219 patients with breast fibroadenomas within the period of 2 to 10 years made it possible to study the time course of tumor development depending on proliferative activity. Four variants of the time course have been defined: a) absence of changes, b) increase, c) decrease, e) disappearance. Enlarged sizes were noted in 37 (31.6%) patients with fibroadenoma or with proliferation only. Fibroadenomas without signs of proliferation did not enlarge. Part of them (72.7%) decreased during observation [ru

  9. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  10. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  11. Breast hamartomas – Differential consideration in slow developing breast asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cazorla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast hamartoma is a relatively rare entity with an incidence of approximately 0.7% of benign breast masses. Hamartomas may become large and cause breast asymmetry. Hamartomas, although benign, have the potential for malignant transformation and should be treated or monitored closely when encountered especially if microcalcifications or speculated lesions are seen within the mass. The following cases demonstrate two of the largest documented harmartomas since they were recognized as distinct entities in the early 1970's. Proper referral to the appropriate specialists can result in earlier detection and resolution of symptoms.

  12. Current breast imaging modalities, advances, and impact on breast care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Storm, Erik S; Atkinson, Lisa; Kenny, Eileen; Mitchell, Lisa S

    2013-09-01

    Mammography will continue as the breast cancer screening imaging study of choice for the foreseeable future. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely available adjunctive studies for women with suspicious mammographic or clinical findings, and MRI is a screening tool for women with specific increased risks for breast cancer. Options for diagnosis will continue to evolve and progress. This article discusses a wide variety of imaging options currently used and in development, their strengths, limitations, and potential future roles in the continuing pursuit of early breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative combination of therapeutic mammoplasty and expandable-implant breast augmentation for immediate partial breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.H. Choo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A “novel” oncoplastic technique herein termed “augmentation-therapeutic mastopexy” is described for partial breast reconstruction during the treatment of a patient with bilateral breast cancer. It enabled adequate treatment of her cancer while reshaping the breast and achieving the desired larger breast size. It should be considered in selected breast-conservation patients who wish to maintain or increase their breast size.

  14. Spectrum of benign breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanzada, T.W.; Samad, A.; Sushel, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequencies of various benign breast diseases (BBD) in female patients in three private hospitals of Hyderabad. Methodology: This is a prospective cohort study of all female patients visiting the surgical clinic with breast problems. This study was conducted at Isra University Hospital Hyderabad and two other private hospitals of Hyderabad over a period of about three years starting from March 2004 to February 2007. All female patients visiting the surgical clinic with breast problems were included in the study. Patients with obvious clinical features of malignancy or those who on work up were diagnosed as carcinoma were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 275 patients were included in the study. About 44% (120/275) patients belonged to third decade of life (age between: 21-30 years) followed by 33% from forth decade (age between: 31- 40 years). Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease, seen in 27% (75/275) of patients, followed by fibrocystic disease seen in about 21% (57/275) patients. Conclusion: Benign Breast Diseases (BBD) are common problems in females of reproductive age. Fibroadenoma is the commonest of all benign breast disease in our set up mostly seen in second and third decade of life. Fibrocystic disease of the breast is the next common BBD whose incidence increases with increasing age. (author)

  15. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  16. Eating Disorders and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katie M; Whelan, Denis R; Sandler, Dale P; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2017-02-01

    Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect overall and reproductive health and may also affect breast cancer risk. We studied the association between self-reported eating disorders and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. In 2003-2009, the Sister Study enrolled women ages 35-74 years who had a sister with breast cancer but had never had it themselves. Using data from 47,813 women, we estimated adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between eating disorders and invasive breast cancer over a median of 5.4 years of follow-up. Three percent (n = 1,569) of participants reported a history of an eating disorder. Compared with women who never had an eating disorder, women who reported eating disorders in the past had reduced breast cancer risk (HR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.92). In this large prospective, observational cohort study, we observed an inverse association between having a history of an eating disorder and invasive breast cancer. Historical eating disorders may be associated with a long-term reduction in breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 206-11. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemibatwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, inframammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate.

  18. PET-guided breast biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinyak, Judith E; Schilling, Kathy; Berg, Wendie A; Narayanan, Deepa; Mayberry, Jennifer P; Rai, Rajesh; Dupree, Elizabeth B; Shusterman, Denise K; Gittleman, Mark A; Luo, Weidong; Matthews, Chris G

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging, using positron emission tomography (PET), has become an integral step in the evaluation of many patients with malignancy. However, its use in patients with breast cancer has been limited by the lower levels of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in some breast malignancies compared to other cancers, the small size of many breast cancers, and the need for biopsy under PET guidance. High-resolution breast PET, or positron emission mammography (PEM), with biopsy guidance software, now addresses these issues. We report a prospective, multicenter study designed to test the efficacy and safety of PEM biopsy guidance software in women with FDG-avid breast lesions worrisome for malignancy. The intervention chosen was vacuum-assisted core biopsy. Nineteen subjects underwent a total of 24 PEM-guided biopsies. All lesions were successfully targeted and sampled as determined by post-biopsy image scan evaluation, specimen imaging, and pathologic concordance. Invasive cancer was identified in 13 of 24 lesions (54%), while four (17%) were high-risk lesions and three of these were upgraded to malignancy at excision. No serious adverse events occurred and all patients found the procedure to cause only minimal to mild discomfort. High-resolution PEM-guided breast biopsy is both safe and effective for the sampling of PET-depicted breast lesions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Imaging Management of Breast Density, a Controversial Risk Factor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.

  20. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2, phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes.

  1. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  2. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  3. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves ... a link to this page included, e.g., “Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves ...

  4. Serum FAS and the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newschaffer, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...) as a means of breast cancer early detection. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is associated with poor breast cancer prognosis and is elevated in both breast cancer and in situ disease compared to normal breast tissue...

  5. Comprehensive diagnosis of breast fibroadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, A.I.; Minkov, Yu.M.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive use of mass screening among women over the last years brought about an increase in the detection of breast fibroadenomas-tumors of dyshormonal origin. Taking into account their prevalence and possible malignancy the problems of clinical radiodiagnosis and management become urgent. Altogether 421 patients have been examined using the clinical, X-ray, thermographic and cytological methods for detection, diagnosis and determination of the proliferative activity in breast fibroadenoma. Two- and ten year periods of follow up of 219 women permitted studying the character of dynamic changes in fibroadenoma. Examination schemes for women with breast fibroadenoma have been developed on the basis of the data obtained

  6. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...... included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...

  7. Reconstructive breast implantation after mastectomy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Fryzek, Jon P; Hölmich, Lisbet R

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical reports have raised concern about local complications following breast implantation used in reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, but there is a shortage of epidemiological studies in this area. OBJECTIVE: To assess in a prospective epidemiological manner the occurrence of short......-term local complications in a nationwide implantation registry. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast prospectively collects preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative information on Danish women undergoing breast augmentation. Through the registry, we...... collected data on short-term local complications among 574 women who underwent postmastectomy reconstruction with breast implants from June 1, 1999, through July 24, 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complication incidence rates. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of the women who underwent initial implantation...

  8. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  9. Pattern of breast diseases: preliminary report of breast clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.; Rasool, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find out the pattern of breast disease in this part of the county and create public awareness about breast diseases especially cancer. Design: Ac cross sectional and cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Department of Surgery, Jinnah Hospital /Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore from March 1999 to July 2000. Subjects and Methods: All the female patients reported were included in this study. They were diagnosed by history, physical examination and rel event investigations like ultrasonography, mammography, FNAS and biopsy. Appropriate medical and surgical management was carried out. The breast cancer was treated according to TNA staging system by multidisciplinary approach. Method of breast self examination (BSE) was taught with the help of charts and brochures. Results: The age ranged from 10 years to 75 years. Maximum number of patients (30%) was seen between 20-29 years of age while 15 (1%) cases did not suffer from any disease. Among 1485 patients the common conditions were non cyclical mastalgia in 362 (24.37%), fibroadenoma in 289 (19.46%), fibrocystic disease in 276(17.98%) breast abscess in 149 (10%) and breast cancer (6.19%). Other diseases were puberty mastitis 49(3.2%), galactocele 40(2.69%), accessory breast 45(3%) and nipple discharge 28(1.88%). Among the palpable lumps, breast caner accounted for 11.75%. The commonest age of presentation of breast cancer was 5th decade (31%) followed by 4th decade (26%). Majority of cancer patients (45%) presented in stage III. All the women with beast abscesses were lactating. Non cyclical mastalgia was commonly seen in 4th decade (30.66%) while 44.63% patients of fibroadenoma reported in the 2nd decade. Fibrocystic disease was reported between 3rd and 4th decade (62.17%). Conclusion: Commonest being conditions were non cyclical mastalgia followed by fibroadenoma while breast cancer contributed a significant percentage of palpable lumps. Due to effective public awareness

  10. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  11. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  12. BILATERAL BREAST CANCER: DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursaru, Manuela; Jari, Irma; Gheorghe, Liliana; Naum, A G; Scripcariu, V; Negru, D

    2016-01-01

    To assess bilateral breast cancer patients, initially diagnosed with stage II unilateral breast cancer. 113 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer diagnosed between 1983 and 2011 were assessed. Of these, 8 patients had bilateral breast cancer: 7 patients with metachronous bilateral breast cancer and 1 patient with synchronous breast cancer. Breast ultrasound, mammography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to diagnose recurrence, loco regional and distant metastasis. Age at diagnosis ranged from 37 to 59 years, with a maximum age incidence in the 4th decade (age between: 31-40 years). The average time interval between the two breast cancers was 8.125 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma. All eight patients with bilateral breast cancer had at least one type of recurrence/metastasis, mostly in the liver, and statistically the pleuropulmonary and liver metastases were the most frequent causes of death. Patients in the 4th decade diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer are at risk of developing bilateral breast cancer. In metachronous breast cancer, the time interval between the detection of the second breast cancer and death is directly proportional to the time interval between the two breast cancers. TASTASES, DEATH.

  13. Breast compression in mammography: pressure distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustler, Magnus; Andersson, Ingvar; Brorson, Håkan; Fröjd, Patrik; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders; Zackrisson, Sophia; Förnvik, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Breast compression is important in mammography in order to improve image quality, better separate tissue components, and reduce absorbed dose to the breast. In this study we use a method to measure and visualize the distribution of pressure over a compressed breast in mammography. To measure and describe the pressure distribution over the breast as a result of applied breast compression in mammography. One hundred and three women aged 40.7-74.3 years (median, 48.9 years) invited for mammographic screening consented to take part in this study. They were subjected to two additional breast compressions of the left breast (standard force and approximately 50% reduction). Pressure images of the compressed breast were obtained using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors placed underneath the compression plate. Subjects rated their experience of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Four pressure patterns were identified, fitting 81 of the 103 breasts, which were grouped accordingly. The remaining 22 breasts were found to correspond to a combination of any two patterns. Two groups (43 breasts) showed pressure mainly over the juxtathoracic part of the breast, had significantly greater breast thickness (P = 0.003) and had a lower mean pressure over dense tissue (P force increased average breast thickness by 1.8 mm (P force being absorbed in juxtathoracic structures.

  14. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  15. Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-03-01

    Breast density is known as a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Clinical assessment of breast density during screening mammography is often done by radiologists through visual evaluation or by a computer program. Automated computer methods offer the potential for non-subjective density assessments. With the rapid development and increased utilization of tomosynthesis clinically, there is a practical need for systems to provide automated breast density measurements in tomosynthesis like those available in mammography. QuantraTM is a software package using physical modeling of mammography systems, and performs volumetric assessment of breast tissue composition for conventional mammography. In this paper, we describe recent developments to extend Quantra to calculate breast density using tomosynthesis projection images. Our development took advantage of the combo imaging mode of Hologic Selenia DimensionsTM system, which allowed co-registered conventional 2D mammogram and 3D tomosynthesis images to be acquired in a single compression. We used the Quantra results of 2D mammograms as a reference to refine the new processing algorithm for tomosynthesis images. This paper describes details of the new algorithm and provides some preliminary results.

  16. Our experience in breast conserving surgery in breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study presents the long-term results of patients who had breast conserving surgery at our clinic because of breast cancer. Methods: The data of 99 patients, who had breast conserving surgery because of breast cancer between January 2005 and December 2013 at Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical School’s Department of General Surgery, were retrospectively evaluated. The analyses of the study were conducted by the SPSS 21.0 program. Results: The total number of patients was 99 and the mean age was 51.11 ± 9.62 (31-74. The most frequently seen pathology was infiltrative ductal carcinoma and it was detected in 62 (62.6% patients. 88.7% (87 cases of the cases received adjuvant radiotherapy in the post-op period. Following the mean follow-up period of 38.86 ± 23.43 (5-92 months, only one patient passed away. Further, 1 patient underwent surgery again after having local recurrence 70 months later and 3 patients also underwent surgery again upon detecting that they had tumors on the surgical border. Conclusion: After obtaining acceptable oncological results, the fundamental approach in the surgical treatment of breast cancers is to select the method that will have the least negative effect on the patient’s quality of life. At this point, selecting breast conserving surgery over radical surgical methods is an appropriate approach for suitable patients chosen carefully.

  17. Association between breast cancer, breast density, and body adiposity evaluated by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenlian; Huang, Peng; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of reliable methods with which to measure breast density from 2D mammograms, numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between breast cancer and breast density. The goal of this study was to study the association between breast cancer and body adiposity, as well as breast density quantitatively assessed from 3D MRI breast images. Breast density was calculated from 3D T1-weighted MRI images. The thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer was used as a surrogate marker for body adiposity. We evaluated the correlation between breast density, age, body adiposity, and breast cancer. Breast density was calculated for 410 patients with unilateral invasive breast cancer, 73 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 361 controls without breast cancer. Breast density was inversely related to age and the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer. Breast cancer was only positively associated with body adiposity and age. Age and body adiposity are predictive of breast density. Breast cancer was not associated with breast density; however, it was associated with the thickness of the upper abdominal adipose layer, a surrogate marker for body adiposity. Our results based on a limited number of patients warrant further investigations. (orig.)

  18. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  19. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  20. The evolving role of the breast physician in the multidisciplinary breast team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan; Spillane, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    Breast physicians are medical practitioners trained in the diagnosis and management of breast disease. This relatively small group of specialized clinicians has a unique and expanding role in multidisciplinary breast teams in Australia and New Zealand. With minimal available published works, this article studies the varied roles that breast physicians carry out and the way they participate in the multidisciplinary team. Investigation of their current roles in breast medicine identified breast physicians providing a broad range of clinical care in public and private breast clinics and breast screening programmes as well as holding academic and administrative positions in clinical and non-clinical organizations. Numerous benefits for patients and for specialist breast clinicians working in partnership with breast physicians were identified. Breast surgeons are often the most advantaged by the contributions made by the breast physician to the multidisciplinary breast-care team with breast physicians particularly adding value to the service provided by breast surgeons. Breast physicians are well-trained, highly valuable members of the multidisciplinary breast team with a skill set that may enhance patient care at all stages from diagnosis to treatment to follow up.

  1. Aging changes in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Aging changes in the breast URL of this page: // ...

  2. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a needle. Another example is a simple fibroadenoma . Simple fibroadenomas usually shrink or go away on their own. ... Cyst: A sac or pouch filled with fluid. Fibroadenoma: A type of solid, benign breast mass. Hormone: ...

  3. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... the time a woman is taking the pills, notes Leslie Ford, M.D., associate director for NCI's ...

  4. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  5. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    -analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta...

  6. The Ethics of Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior.

  7. MHC Genes and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pillai, Shiv

    2000-01-01

    Tumors are believed to emerge only when immune surveillance fails. We wished to ascertain whether the failure to inherit putative protective alleles of HLA class II genes is linked to the development of breast cancer...

  8. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A. [Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Division of Experimental Oncology

    1997-09-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention.

  9. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  10. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  12. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  13. Paget Disease of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Review & Outcomes Award Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management ... understand what causes Paget disease of the breast. The most widely accepted theory is that cancer cells from a tumor inside ...

  14. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid the need for using a form (external prosthesis) inside your bra What breast reconstruction might do: Improve your self-esteem and body image Partially erase the physical reminders of your ...

  15. Oncoplastic breast surgery: current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Merisa; Peled, Anne Warren; Sbitany, Hani

    2015-04-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has dramatically evolved over the past 20 years, with oncoplastic surgery gaining increased popularity. This field of breast surgery allows for complete resection of tumor, preservation of normal parenchyma tissue, and the use of local or regional tissue for immediate breast reconstruction at the time of partial mastectomy. These techniques extend the options for breast conservation surgery, improve aesthetic outcomes, have high patient satisfaction and result in better control of tumor margins. This article will detail the approach to evaluating and treating patients undergoing oncoplastic reconstruction. Different oncoplastic approaches will be described and applied to an oncoplastic reconstructive algorithm. Surgical complications, oncologic outcomes and aesthetic outcomes are reviewed.

  16. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle while your baby is still calm, before hunger starts. Have someone else give your baby the ... too long. When leaving breast milk with a child care provider, label the container with your child's ...

  17. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Funen/rest of Denmark. As multidisciplinary teams were introduced gradually in the rest of Denmark from 1994, the screening effect was slightly underestimated. RESULTS: Over 14 years, women targeted by screening in Funen experienced a 22% (95% confidence interval 11%-32%) reduction in breast cancer......OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...

  18. Cadherin-11 and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Stephen W

    2005-01-01

    .... In year one of this grant we showed that the presence of the cadherin-11 splice variant promotes invasion of cadherin-11 positive breast cancer cells, perhaps by promoting cell-ECM interactions...

  19. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  20. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether...... untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic...... breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations...

  1. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider about the risks and benefits before taking hormone therapy . You may want to avoid taking estrogen combined with progesterone or progestin. If you have a family history of breast cancer, ask your provider about genetic ...

  2. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  3. Breast conservation surgery: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan; Achuthan, Raj; Turton, Philip; Lansdown, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Breast conservation surgery is available to the vast majority of women with breast cancer. The combination of neoadjuvant therapies and oncoplastic surgical techniques allows even large tumours to be managed with a breast-conserving approach. The relationship between breast size and the volume of tissue to be excised determines the need for volume displacement or replacement. Such an approach can also be used in the management of carefully selected cases of multifocal or multicentric breast cancer. The role of novel techniques, such as endoscopic breast surgery and radiofrequency ablation, is yet to be precisely defined.

  4. Pathological findings in breast reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titley, O G; Armstrong, A P; Christie, J L; Fatah, M F

    1996-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of pathological findings in 157 female patients undergoing breast reduction is presented. In 33 months 295 breasts were reduced. 25.6% of these patients had an abnormal pathology report, but no cases of premalignant disease or breast cancer were found. A postal questionnaire sent to consultant members of the British Association of Plastic Surgeons in 1994 found 89% routinely sent breast reduction tissue for pathological study. 42% had seen at least one case of breast cancer reported from this tissue. Recommendations for the use of pathology in breast reduction surgery are proposed.

  5. Breast Conservation Surgery: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast conservation surgery is available to the vast majority of women with breast cancer. The combination of neoadjuvant therapies and oncoplastic surgical techniques allows even large tumours to be managed with a breast-conserving approach. The relationship between breast size and the volume of tissue to be excised determines the need for volume displacement or replacement. Such an approach can also be used in the management of carefully selected cases of multifocal or multicentric breast cancer. The role of novel techniques, such as endoscopic breast surgery and radiofrequency ablation, is yet to be precisely defined.

  6. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guek Eng; Mayer, Erica L; Partridge, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally, breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and within the years following have been referred to collectively as pregnancy-associated breast cancer. However, increasing evidence suggests that breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is a different entity from that diagnosed postpartum, both in terms of prognosis and biology. Given the increasing number of women who find themselves diagnosed with breast cancer during or following a pregnancy, future research and discussion should separate these two into distinct groups: breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and breast cancer diagnosed postpartum in an effort to enhance our understanding to inform and improve clinical management and counseling.

  7. Breast post-radiotherapy angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, O.; Ocampo, P.; Repetto, M.; Schulz, D.; Rompato, S.; Batagelj, E.; Spadavecchia, G.

    2007-01-01

    Breast angiosarcoma after radiotherapy represents a rare pathology that have been increasing in the recent years because of the tendency to treat breast cancer with conservative therapeutic treatments. The forecast depends on the histological degree being the majority of high degree, with frequent lymphatic and local recurrences plus distance metastasis. The selected treatment is the mastectomy and also should be considered the adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  8. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  9. Polyamines in Human Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Büyükuslu

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal food for all newborns and infants. It involves macro nutrients and functional compounds for growth and development. The composition of breast milk differs between preterm and term milk. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition to their de novo polyamine synthesis, cells can take up polyamines from extracellular sources, such as food, and intestinal microbiota. Breast milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines...

  10. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  11. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    RG . Demonstration of receptors for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 on Hs578T human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:26045-8...Interaction Profiles in Breast Cancer Reveal Altered Chromatin Architecture Michael J. Zeitz1*, Ferhat Ay2, Julia D. Heidmann1, Paula L. Lerner1...Illumina sequencing data have been submitted to the GEO database accession number: GSE49521. Mapping and Filtering of 4C Reads We first de -multiplexed the

  12. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  13. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  14. [Antidepressive agents and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, M; Matheson, I

    1997-11-10

    Postpartum blues occurs in 50-80% of women. A few percent of the cases are classified as serious postpartum depression, requiring antidepressant treatment. There is a growing understanding that women should continue to breast-feed in this situation. Data concerning the transfer of antidepressants into breast milk has been researched. Calculations of the infant relative dose via breast milk were done for the drugs concerned. Few antidepressants have been studied at steady state conditions in nursing mothers. Nortriptyline and amitriptyline have minimal relative doses and can be used when breast-feeding. Doxepine should be avoided, as should lithium, which has a significant transfer. Among the serotonine-reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine has been well studied in breast milk. Since fluoxetine has a long half life and a high transfer, sertraline and possibly paroxetine are better alternatives, but the latter has not yet been studied in repeated doses. Moclobemide also lacks data from multiple dose studies, but extrapolation to steady state indicates that the relative dose is small. More observational studies should be carried out in infants breast-fed by mothers using antidepressants. In the meantime, doctors prescribing antidepressant drugs to nursing mothers should see that the infants are monitored for side effects.

  15. Clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, H P

    1975-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm in women, and 6% will develop it during their normal life expectancy. There is a group who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. The recent improvement in cure rates seems to be jue chiefly to earlier diagnosis rather than to improved methods of therapy. The physician, by careful periodic breast examinations and by the judicious use of diagnostic aids such as mammography and thermography, especially in the high risk group, has a golden opportunity to pick up cancer in a localized stage where the prognosis for cure with appropriate therapy is excellent. A tentative diagnosis of breast cancer (Table XI) can be made with a fair degree of accuracy by taking a careful history, utilizing and combining available statistics about the frequency, median age, characteristic symptom complexes of the common breast lesions and factors related to a high mammary carcinoma risk, and by a systematic and thorough breast examination supplemented with diagnostic aids when appropriate. However, biopsy and histologic examination is mandatory in all patients with a) true, three dimentional, dominant lumps even if diagnostic aids are negative except for cysts which can be safely aspirated under controlled conditions; b) suspicious lesions found by diagnostic aids even though there are no clinical findings; c) serous, serosanguineous, bloody, or watery nipple discharge; and d) other signs of cancer, i.e. eczema of the nipple, axillary adenopathy, etc., in order to determine with absolute accuracy whether the lesion is benign or malignant.

  16. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. CYTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAST CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dakovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Continual increasing of breast cancer in young women, its rare discovery in the early stage (stage I, as well as high mortality from this disease, are the facts that explain why the breast cancer is a target for many scientists. Thanks to the Greek scientist Papanicolaou and his report (l928, a successful battle with the most frequent carcinoma in women - PVU carcinoma, has begun.With the development of exfoliative, brushing and fine needle aspiration cytological methods, the impressive results have been achieved. While cytologic methods are used more and more in the breast oncopathology worldwide, up to this moment their applications have been rare in our country, which is one more reason for this study reason more for this study.By using the exfoliative and fine needle aspiration cytology, 50 patients were examined. The following cells were discovered: foamy macrophages, lipoprotein background, mastitis, eritrocytes, ductal tumorous papilles, apocrine metaplasia and ductal carcinomas. Furthermore, cytological caracteristics of the breast cancers and both advantages and limitations of the cytologic methods were pointed out. It was concluded that, using cytological methods, discovery of both precancerous breast lesions and breast cancer was possible in the earli stage. Also, sufficient knowledge of histopathology was necessary for correct interpretation of cytological results because of frequent mimicry in oncologic pathology.

  18. Breast carcinoma during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairy, Gamal A.; Abdulkarim, Huda A.

    2008-01-01

    The medical records of patients with pregnancy associated breastcarcinoma were critically reviewed to identify the tumor characteristics,maternal details, type of treatment delivered and disease outcome. Over thelast 5 years, there were 5 patients out of 220 giving a percentage prevalenceof 2.27%. The median age at presentation was 33 years. Three patients werediagnosed by the sixth week of gestational age. Three out of 5 presented withstage IIIA. Four patients has >6 positive axillary lymph nodes and grade IIIdisease. So in spite of the discovery of the tumor in the early weeks ofpregnancy, our patients presented with advanced disease, which is consistentwith the presentation of breast carcinoma in non-pregnant women in this partof the world. So it could be an ignored disease, which become evident withthe pregnancy. We highly encourage the obstetricians to perform thoroughbreast examination during the prenatal period with prompt referral of anysuspicious cases. (author)

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  20. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Periareolar Approach in Oncoplastic Breast Conservative Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Marco; Giannasi, Silvia; Klinger, Francesco; Caviggioli, Fabio; Bandi, Valeria; Banzatti, Barbara; Forcellini, Davide; Maione, Luca; Catania, Barbara; Vinci, Valeriano; Lisa, Andrea; Cornegliani, Guido; Siliprandi, Mattia; Tinterri, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer represents the most frequent cancer in female population. Nowadays breast conservative surgery (BCS) is an accepted option for breast malignancies, and its indications has been extended thanks to the advent of oncoplastic surgery, reducing both mastectomy and re-excision rate, avoiding at the same time breast deformities. From January 2008 to November 2011, 84 women underwent BCS with periareolar approach for oncoplastic volume replacement. We divided patients into four groups analyzing breast size and resection volume (Group 1: small-moderate sized breast with resection breast with resection >20%; Group 3: big sized breast with resection breast with resection >20%). We evaluated patients' satisfaction regarding final esthetic outcome using the specific module "Satisfaction with outcome" of the Breast-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. The mean age was 52.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 11.2 months. During the follow-up, 12 patients have been lost. We obtained high satisfaction mean value with Breast-Q questionnaire in each group: 75.8 in group 1, 63.4 in group 2, 81.1 in group 3, 69.7 in group 4. Periareolar approach as oncoplastic volume replacement technique is useful in correction of breast deformity after BCS: it is a versatile technique that can be easily adapted for any breast tumor location and for wide glandular resection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pembrolizumab and Ruxolitinib Phosphate in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stage IV Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Delayed breast cellulitis: An evolving complication of breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Newlin, Heather; Morris, Christopher G.; Haigh, Linda S.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed breast cellulitis (DBC) is characterized by the late onset of breast erythema, edema, tenderness, and warmth. This retrospective study analyzes the risk factors and clinical course of DBC. Methods and Materials: From 1985 through 2004, 580 sequential women with 601 stage T0-2N0-1 breast cancers underwent breast conserving therapy. Cases of DBC were identified according to accepted clinical criteria: diffuse breast erythema, edema, tenderness, and warmth occurring >3 months after definitive surgery and >3 weeks after radiotherapy. Potential risk factors analyzed included patient comorbidity, operative technique, acute complications, and details of adjunctive therapy. Response to treatment and long-term outcome were analyzed to characterize the natural course of this syndrome. Results: Of the 601 cases, 16%, 52%, and 32% were Stage 0, I, and II, respectively. The overall incidence of DBC was 8% (50/601). Obesity, ecchymoses, T stage, the presence and aspiration of a breast hematoma/seroma, removal of >5 axillary lymph nodes, and arm lymphedema were significantly associated with DBC. The median time to onset of DBC from the date of definitive surgery was 226 days. Ninety-two percent of DBC patients were empirically treated with antibiotics. Fourteen percent required more invasive intervention. Twenty-two percent had recurrent episodes of DBC. Ultimately, 2 patients (4%) underwent mastectomy for intractable breast pain related to DBC. Conclusion: Although multifactorial, we believe DBC is primarily related to a bacterial infection in the setting of impaired lymphatic drainage and may appear months after completion of radiotherapy. Invasive testing before a trial of antibiotics is generally not recommended

  5. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast

  6. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  7. The clinical course of immediate breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Friis, Søren; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed.......The number of women suitable for breast conserving treatment as well as immediate reconstruction after breast cancer has been increasing, and studies of complications hereafter are needed....

  8. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jiun-Horng; Gertig, Dorota M; Chen, Xiaoqing; Dite, Gillian S; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; McCredie, Margaret RE; Giles, Graham G; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John L; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Because CYP17 can influence the degree of exposure of breast tissues to oestrogen, the interaction between polymorphisms in this gene and hormonal risk factors is of particular interest. We attempted to replicate the findings of studies assessing such interactions with the -34T?C polymorphism. Methods Risk factor and CYP17 genotyping data were derived from a large Australian population-based case-control-family study of 1,284 breast cancer cases and 679 controls. Crude and adjust...

  9. Mammography in breast screening and in the evaluation and management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyesoh, C.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the importance of breast screening most especially amongst women above the age of 40 years.the limitation of the screening procedure is due to lack of special machines and power awareness campaigns. the application of Mammography and ultrasound in the examination of the breast and other breast imaging techniques will be considered in this paper. The paper will look at the indications for mammography, indications for breast ultrasound, signs of breast carcinoma on mammography, breast enlargement and also the need for breast ultrasound in cases of discrete Mammography

  10. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  11. Glypican-3 Expression in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Tsai

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Immunohistochemical staining with TMA was convenient and feasible for analyzing Glypican-3 expression status in breast cancer. However, our preliminary results show that Glypican-3 expression had no significant prognostic value in breast cancer.

  12. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  13. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others. Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.......5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis. In addition, the relationship between...... benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years. Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin...

  14. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  15. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  16. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk What's in this ...

  17. Genomic features of lobular breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  18. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  19. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2000-01-01

    .... The scope of work includes identifying abnormal breast lesions on contrast-enhanced breast MRI, performing in vivo MRS to detect choline in the abnormal lesion, and obtaining cells from the tumor...

  1. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  2. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  3. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  4. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  5. Ultrasonic Morphological Analyzers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lizzi, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve ultrasonic classification of breast lesions and guide decisions regarding biopsy requirements, especially for small lesions and those in young, dense breasts...

  6. Extreme oncoplastic breast surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Daniele; Cadenelli, Pierfrancesco; Falco, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Manna, Paola; Tessone, Ariel; Ornelli, Matteo; Magalotti, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    So called "extreme oncoplastic surgery" is emerging as a new promising concept in breast cancer surgery allowing successful breast conservation in selected patients with multicentric tumors. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with a multicentric breast cancer and successfully treated with an oncoplastic technique consisting in three radical lumpectomies followed by breast reshaping and simultaneous contralateral symmetrization. According to our experience, oncoplastic conserving breast surgery could represent a better option than the combination of mastectomy, reconstruction and radiation therapy, in terms of quality of life for selected patients affected by multicentric breast cancer. The surgical treatment for multicentric breast cancers remains controversial even though emerging evidences show good oncological and aesthetic outcomes following oncoplastic conserving breast surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  8. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  9. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  10. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can ...

  11. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert B

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  12. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  13. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Lung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT and digital mammography (DM for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. Result. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8% mass lesions, 12 (20.3% focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2% architecture distortion, 23 (39.0% calcifications, and 1 (1.7% intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (<0.001 between the BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Conclusion. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  14. The adjunctive digital breast tomosynthesis in diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lung; Liang, Huei-Lung; Chou, Chen-Pin; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8%) mass lesions, 12 (20.3%) focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2%) architecture distortion, 23 (39.0%) calcifications, and 1 (1.7%) intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  15. Psychosomatic breast and alexithymic breast: A Bionian psychosomatic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat, Luc

    2016-02-01

    The author develops the concept of 'psychosomatic breast' in both clinical and theoretical terms, a concept developed by Bion (1962b) to account for a breast in charge of primary symbolization and of the psychosomatic integration of the infant's raw physiological, emotional and sensory experiences. As such, the psychosomatic breast is a prototype, a core in the mother endowed with the capacity for reverie insofar as the transformative function of the latter not only pertains to the primary symbolization of emotional life, but also to its secondary symbolization. The author contends that a primal failure in the transformation of such raw emotional and sensory experiences through the reverie of primary objects results in the incorporation of an 'alexithymic breast' - a kind of obstructive object that has become impervious to communication via projective identification and has been internalized as a source of psychic and physical breakdown. This early deficiency in parental reverie is experienced by the infant as a primitive disaster that establishes a point of fixation, a fault line in psychosomatic organization which the individual is likely to regress to, at a later stage, by developing physical illness. The author illustrates the dynamics and the economy of the conflict between psychosomatic and alexithymic breasts thanks to fragments from the analysis of a woman who developed cancer in the course of her psychoanalysis and was eventually cured. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  17. AR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Rahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR, a member of the steroid hormone receptor family status has become increasingly important as both a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. AR is expressed in up to 90% of estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer, and to a lesser degree, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2 amplified tumors. In the former, AR signaling has been correlated with a better prognosis given its inhibitory activity in estrogen dependent disease, though conversely has also been shown to increase resistance to anti-estrogen therapies such as tamoxifen. AR blockade can mitigate this resistance, and thus serves as a potential target in ER-positive breast cancer. In HER2 amplified breast cancer, studies are somewhat conflicting, though most show either no effect or are associated with poorer survival. Much of the available data on AR signaling is in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, which is an aggressive disease with inferior outcomes comparative to other breast cancer subtypes. At present, there are no approved targeted therapies in TNBC, making study of the AR signaling pathway compelling. Gene expression profiling studies have also identified a luminal androgen receptor (LAR subtype that is dependent on AR signaling in TNBC. Regardless, there seems to be an association between AR expression and improved outcomes in TNBC. Despite lower pathologic complete response (pCR rates with neoadjuvant therapy, patients with AR-expressing TNBC have been shown to have a better prognosis than those that are AR-negative. Clinical studies targeting AR have shown somewhat promising results. In this paper we review the literature on the biology of AR in breast cancer and its prognostic and predictive roles. We also present our thoughts on therapeutic strategies.

  18. Innovative combination of therapeutic mammoplasty and expandable-implant breast augmentation for immediate partial breast reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, A.M.H.; Forouhi, P.; Malata, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Therapeutic mammoplasty is used in the treatment of suitably-sized and appropriately-located breast cancers to achieve adequate cancer excision, resulting in well-shaped but smaller breasts. In patients wishing to maintain or increase their breast size, simultaneous augmentation will be required. Presentation of case: A 48-year-old female underwent an “augmentation-therapeutic mastopexy”. She required mastectomy for a multifocal cancer of the right breast and breast conservat...

  19. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic ami...

  20. Extreme oncoplastic breast surgery: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, Daniele; Cadenelli, Pierfrancesco; Falco, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Manna, Paola; Tessone, Ariel; Ornelli, Matteo; Magalotti, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: So called “extreme oncoplastic surgery” is emerging as a new promising concept in breast cancer surgery allowing successful breast conservation in selected patients with multicentric tumors. Presentation of case: We report the case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with a multicentric breast cancer and successfully treated with an oncoplastic technique consisting in three radical lumpectomies followed by breast reshaping and simultaneous contralateral symmetrization. Discu...

  1. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast c...

  2. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  3. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  4. Breast tuberculosis in outpatient practice: Case reports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB can resemble a breast abscess, fibroadenoma or carcinoma (2). The most important of these differentials is carcinoma of the breast because of the inherent consequences of the treatment. The role of the laboratory in diagnosis of breast TB is therefore paramount. Histological confirmation requires demonstration of acid ...

  5. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  8. Breast Evaluation Findings in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Ikpeme

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Patients presenting for breast evaluation in Calabar do so for screening mainly. Patients below 38 are nearly equally affected by malignant breast disease as their older counterparts. The commonest breast pattern was fatty replaced. Digital mammography should be available in all tertiary institutions.

  9. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong Tingkun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  10. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  11. Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the breast cancer knowledge and awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination ...

  12. Multimodal Imaging of Hypoxia in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chughtai, K

    2012-01-01

    Knowing “what” and “where” brings us closer to “how”. In this project, we have used mass spectrometers to know “what” is present inside breast cancer cells and “where” these molecules are located in human breast tumor xenograft models. Understanding the molecular composition of breast tumors is a

  13. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  14. Objectively measured breast symmetry has no influence on quality of life in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, R; Krois, W; Mittlböck, M; Dubsky, P; Jakesz, R; Gnant, M; Fitzal, F

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates how quality of life (QoL) of breast cancer patients is related to breast symmetry. We objectively measured breast symmetry using the breast analyzing tool (BAT) in 101 patients after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer at different time points during follow up. We correlated the results with the quality of life measured at the same time using the breast image scale (BIS), the EORTC QLQ-BR23 scale and a not validated sexual score scale. Age, tumour size, tumour/breast relation and the use of oncoplastic surgery were also correlated with symmetry and quality of life scales. Using multivariate analyses, independent parameters for an improved quality of life were identified. Mean age was 56 (±11.6), and 75.2% of patients had T1 or T2 tumours. Patient age (p = 0.03) and tumour size (p = 0.01) significantly influenced objectively measured breast symmetry. The cosmetic result was important for 53% of patients while 48% found it not important. Independent from this, neither overall quality of life nor breast self esteem was influenced by breast symmetry in our patients. After breast cancer surgery, breast symmetry is not a major factor for patients' quality of life and breast self esteem. Cosmetic result seems to be less important than oncologic outcome in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast Cancer Biology: Clinical Implications for Breast Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Janet K; Jagsi, Reshma; Woodward, Wendy A; Ho, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Historically, prognosis and treatment decision making for breast cancer patients have been dictated by the anatomic extent of tumor spread. However, in recent years, "breast cancer" has proven to be a collection of unique phenotypes with distinct prognoses, patterns of failure, and treatment responses. Recent advances in biologically based assays and targeted therapies designed to exploit these unique phenotypes have profoundly altered systemic therapy practice patterns and treatment outcomes. Data associating locoregional outcomes with tumor biology are emerging. However, the likelihood of obtaining level I evidence for fundamental radiation therapy questions within each of the specific subtypes in the immediate future is low. As such, this review aims to summarize the existing data and provide practical context for the incorporation of breast tumor biology into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  17. Breast Reconstruction Following Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernd; Marx, Mario; Untch, Michael; Faridi, Andree

    2015-08-31

    About 8000 breast reconstructions after mastectomy are per - formed in Germany each year. It has become more difficult to advise patients because of the wide variety of heterologous and autologous techniques that are now available and because of changes in the recommendations about radiotherapy. This article is based on a review of pertinent articles (2005-2014) that were retrieved by a selective search employing the search terms "mastectomy" and "breast reconstruction." The goal of reconstruction is to achieve an oncologically safe and aestically satisfactory result for the patient over the long term. Heterologous, i.e., implant-based, breast reconstruction (IBR) and autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are complementary techniques. Immediate reconstruction preserves the skin of the breast and its natural form and prevents the psychological trauma associated with mastectomy. If post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is not indicated, implant-based reconstruction with or without a net/acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a common option. Complications such as seroma formation, infection, and explantation are significantly more common when an ADM is used (15.3% vs. 5.4% ). If PMRT is performed, then the complication rate of implant-based breast reconstruction is 1 to 48% ; in particular, Baker grade III/IV capsular fibrosis occurs in 7 to 22% of patients, and the prosthesis must be explanted in 9 to 41% . Primary or, preferably, secondary autologous reconstruction is an alternative. The results of ABR are more stable over the long term, but the operation is markedly more complex. Autologous breast reconstruction after PMRT does not increase the risk of serious complications (20.5% vs. 17.9% without radiotherapy). No randomized controlled trials have yet been conducted to compare the reconstructive techniques with each other. If radiotherapy will not be performed, immediate reconstruction with an implant is recommended. On the other hand, if post-mastectomy radiotherapy

  18. Oncoplastic and reconstructive surgery of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Moustapha

    2013-08-01

    Oncoplastic surgery has been widely developed during the last decade. The combination of a large tumor resection performed by the breast surgeon and the immediate breast reconstruction by the plastic surgeon has numerous advantages. This technique provides safer resection with larger margins and immediate aesthetic results. During the last decade, we have used an algorithm in oncoplastic surgery: Small and moderate size breast tumors (T₁₋₂) are considered the best indications for conserving breast surgery. Depending on the breast size and tumor/breast size relation, determinesthe reconstructive technique is used. A glandular flap, as a part of breast reduction techniques, was raised from the breast itself to fill defects after tumorectomy in large-size breast. However, contralateral breast reduction is necessary to achieve breast symmetry. In the case of smaller breast size, partial breast reconstruction is performed using pedicled flaps (LD or muscle sparing LD, TDAP, LICAP, SAAP) harvested from the back and/or the axillary region. Adequate symmetry is obtained without operating on the contralateral breast. Adjuvant radiotherapy can be started after 4-6 weeks postoperatively. In total 119 patients, in whom bilateral breast remodeling techniques and pedicled flaps were used in 26 and 93 patients respectively. In three cases, margins were involved with the tumor. Wider excision was done in two patients. Total mastectomy was performed in the third patient. With an average follow-up of 4 years, further surgery was indicated in only three patients because of fat necrosis. Converting to total mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction with a DIEAP flap was necessary in one patient at 2 years after the initial partial breast reconstruction with a TDAP because of major fat necrosis. Aesthetic results and patient satisfaction are promising, however, longer follow-up is still required to confirm our 4-year-follow-up outcome. Oncoplastic surgery offers a better

  19. Environmental Estrogens and Breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    llmiawati llmiawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies revealed that various man-made chemicals disrupting properties with endocrine- contribute in the development of breast cancer.objective: To review the state of the science of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC and their role in the development of breast cancer.Methods: Key papers on experimental and epidemiologic studies examining the associations between EDC and breast cancer were searched throJgh the Google Sch-olar and pubMedusing Results: EDC effects depend on the level and timing of exposure, with critical window on developmentalstages. Diethylstilbestrol(DES and bispIenolA(BpA aretwo thoroughlystudied environmental estrogenic compounds. Epidemiological studies showed increased breast cancer incident in women exposed to DES during gestation. ExperimentalstuQies revealed that BPA induces architectural and gene expression froRte changes ir i"J"rt r;;;"ry gtand, with the stroma of fetal mammary gland as the primary target. ihe effects of these environmental estrogens are mostly mediated through the estrogen ieceptors a and B. Their exposure may further sensitize the mammary tissuelo the hit or otner carcinogens. Epigenome alteration in the mammary gland has also been implicated in its neoplastic dLvelopre"nt.Conclusions: Fetal and perinatal stages are the critical exposure windows to environmental estrogens and multiple mechanism is irnplicated in the development of breast cancer resulted from this exposure.

  20. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.