Sample records for breast rules breeze

  1. Warm Breeze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Middle-aged female painter Wang Yingchun is a first-grade artist at the Research Instituteof Chinese Painting. With a solid foundation in: Chinese painting, oil painting andsculpture she began to experiment in the early 1980s with stone carving, murals, folkart, landscapes, flowers and birds, cubism, expressionism and abstractionism. Living ina time of social transformation, she felt pressed to create her own artistic style. Aftervisiting South America, she produced a batch of works which drew the essence of theBeast Group and used a new technique, without sketching the contours of flowers, sothat the paintings look wild, romantic and exuberant. This painting Warm Breeze displaysWang’s style: While extensively studying the paintings of various schools, she makes hertraditional Chinese ink paintings tinted with modern color.

  2. Prediction of Breast Cancer using Rule Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar SINGH


    Full Text Available The current work proposes a model for prediction of breast cancer using the classification approach in data mining. The proposed model is based on various parameters, including symptoms of breast cancer, gene mutation and other risk factors causing breast cancer. Mutations have been predicted in breast cancer causing genes with the help of alignment of normal and abnormal gene sequences; then predicting the class label of breast cancer (risky or safe on the basis of IF-THEN rules, using Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this work, GA has used variable gene encoding mechanisms for chromosomes encoding, uniform population generations and selects two chromosomes by Roulette-Wheel selection technique for two-point crossover, which gives better solutions. The performance of the model is evaluated using the F score measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC by plotting points (Sensitivity V/s 1- Specificity.

  3. Developing a discrimination rule between breast cancer patients and controls using proteomics mass spectrometric data: A three-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Nagelkerke, N.


    To discriminate between breast cancer patients and controls, we used a three-step approach to obtain our decision rule. First, we ranked the mass/charge values using random forests, because it generates importance indices that take possible interactions into account. We observed that the top ranked

  4. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael


    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  5. Cosmic Rays in a Galactic Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andrew M


    Motivated by the discovery of the non-thermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through Galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a Galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to gamma-ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of $\\approx 200$ GV.

  6. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation (United States)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne


    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  7. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moisseeva


    Full Text Available This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  8. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.


    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  9. Sea Breeze Front Storm and Its Composite Analysis in Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] The aim was to study the sea breeze front storm and its composite analysis in Beibu Gulf. [Method] By dint of routine observation data, ground automatic meteorology data and European numerical mode grid data, rainstorm caused by sea breeze in Guangxi during 1990 and 2007 and the strong convection triggered by sea breeze on June 5 in 2008 were expounded. The main characteristics of the configuration of circulation in the low and high latitude of breeze front of middle scale were summarized. [Resu...

  10. Sea breezes and coastal jets in southeastern Spain (United States)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Palacio-Sese, Pablo; Kalthoff, Norbert; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Fiedler, Franz


    Sea breezes and low-level jet (LLJ) streams are studied in the region between the Eastern Castilla-La Mancha and the Mediterranean coast of southeastern Spain. The simplified concept of two-dimensional terrain and meteorological conditions explains the spatially and diurnally varying wind system consistently. The changes, as a function of time, height and distance to the coast, of temperature, pressure and wind as well as of certain observed phenomena, such as LLJs and strongly baroclinic zones, result from the response of the mesoscale flow to differential heating. Wind changes are generally found to be consistent with mesoscale changes in geostrophic winds as estimated from station pressure measurements. The LLJs mark the penetration depth of the sea breeze during daytime, where a baroclinic zone develops at the transition between continental air masses and marine air masses, typically at a distance of 150 km from the coast. The analysis is based on aerological data and ground-based measurements from the European Field Experiment in a Desertification Threatened Area (EFEDA) experiments in 1991 and 1994 as well as on 3-hourly data from three synoptic stations of the Spanish meteorological network for April-October in 1991 and 1994. After corrections were made for instrument errors and atmospheric tides, diurnal pressure variations document vertically integrated mass fluxes perpendicular to the coast. Amplitudes of diurnal pressure and temperature changes scatter significantly and are largest in midsummer. They are weakly correlated and pressure amplitudes remain large in spring and autumn when diurnal temperature changes are reduced. With about 6 h delay to the regular development of onshore winds at the coast during daytime, pronounced wind peaks are observed over the eastern plateau at Albacete and Barrax in the late afternoon. Case studies show that they are accompanied by development of baroclinically driven LLJs, whereas winds at Tomelloso, 220-km inland

  11. Accuracy of Wind Prediction Methods in the California Sea Breeze (United States)

    Sumers, B. D.; Dvorak, M. J.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.


    In this study, we investigate the accuracy of measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms and log law/power law scaling using data from two tall towers in coastal environments. We find that MCP algorithms accurately predict sea breeze winds and that log law/power law scaling methods struggle to predict 50-meter wind speeds. MCP methods have received significant attention as the wind industry has grown and the ability to accurately characterize the wind resource has become valuable. These methods are used to produce longer-term wind speed records from short-term measurement campaigns. A correlation is developed between the “target site,” where the developer is interested in building wind turbines, and a “reference site,” where long-term wind data is available. Up to twenty years of prior wind speeds are then are predicted. In this study, two existing MCP methods - linear regression and Mortimer’s method - are applied to predict 50-meter wind speeds at sites in the Salinas Valley and Redwood City, CA. The predictions are then verified with tall tower data. It is found that linear regression is poorly suited to MCP applications as the process produces inaccurate estimates of the cube of the wind speed at 50 meters. Meanwhile, Mortimer’s method, which bins data by direction and speed, is found to accurately predict the cube of the wind speed in both sea breeze and non-sea breeze conditions. We also find that log and power law are unstable predictors of wind speeds. While these methods produced accurate estimates of the average 50-meter wind speed at both sites, they predicted an average cube of the wind speed that was between 1.3 and 1.18 times the observed value. Inspection of time-series error reveals increased error in the mid-afternoon of the summer. This suggests that the cold sea breeze may disrupt the vertical temperature profile, create a stable atmosphere and violate the assumptions that allow log law scaling to work.

  12. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler


    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  13. Impacts of topography and land degradation on the sea breeze over eastern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, J.F.; Kroon, L.J.M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    A three-dimensional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model RAMS, version3b, is used to examine the impact of complex topography on the sea breeze under heterogeneous and degradation land use characteristics. In the study, it is shown that topography plays an important role in the sea-breeze circulation b

  14. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    in the northwest direction, and grow progressively while propagating towards the coast. Relationships between wind speed and wind sea height have been derived, and they fairly explain the generation of wind seas by the sea breeze system. Since, the land breeze...

  15. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin. (United States)

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina


    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin.

  16. Dispersal of seeds by the tropical sea breeze. (United States)

    Greene, D F; Quesada, M; Calogeropoulos, C


    Given the dependence of most wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed species on low relative humidity (RH) for abscission, and the minimization of RH in the early afternoon, there ought to be a marked directional bias in seed dispersal at sites with a strong local diurnal circulation. We filmed the abscission of seeds of five wind-dispersed tropical species near the coast of Mexico (Jalisco). We found that (1) most abscission occurred during the period from 10:00 to 17:00 hours; (2) there was a strong bias for landward dispersal due to the midday sea breeze; (3) the little nocturnal dispersal that occurred was toward the sea (due to the night land breeze); (4) there was no abscission in the absence of wind (i.e., indoors) except for one species; and (5) holding relative humidity constant, the proportion of seeds diurnally abscising is strongly correlated with horizontal wind speed. We predict that a similar bias (this time for upslope dispersal) for xerochastic dispersal will occur in complex terrain. We conclude that in coastal and mountainous terrain, dispersal models (and inverse modeling efforts) must include a directionality term.

  17. Hot Jupiter Breezes: Time-dependent Outflows from Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E


    We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from Hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inward from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time scale of the...

  18. Obesity phenotypes and resorption percentage after breast autologous fat grafting: Rule of low-grade inflammation (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Sarlo, Francesca; De Angelis, Barbara; De Lorenzo, Antonio; Cervelli, Valerio


    Background: One of the main reasons why the breast fat grafting was questioned is that there may be lipofilling resorption. In the literature, the resorption rate reported over the 1st year is highly variable (20–90%). Objective: The aim of this work was to identify the biochemical and clinical parameters, which increase fat graft maintenance in breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A sample of 19 patients was treated with fat grafting mixed with platelet-rich plasma. A complete screening of anthropometry, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters was assessed using the standardized equipment. Pre- and post-operative evaluation was performed, which included a complete clinical examination, photographic assessment, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the soft tissue, and ultrasound. The follow-up period was 2 years. Results: The authors divided the results into two types of patients: “responder” and “not a responder.” In the “responder” group patients with normal weight, gynoid fat distribution, obese, with normal blood biochemical parameters, and atherogenic indices but with high preoperative values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (174.49) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (2.65) showed a greater increase of fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months after the last lipofilling session. In the “not responder group” patients with overweight, android fat distribution, obese, high values of atherogenic indices, but with normal preoperative NLR and PLR ratios showed a lower fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: We assume, the problem of fat resorption may be resolved by analysis of body composition and by examine the predictive role of preoperative markers of low-grade inflammation. PMID:27656603

  19. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields (United States)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.


    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  20. Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)


    In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)

  1. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal Mediterranean site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria;


    at about 600 m from the coastline in a flat open area at the foot of a mountain chain located in a region of complex orography. We study the seasonal behaviour of the sea-land breeze circulation by analysing two years of hourly data of wind speed and direction, temperature, radiation and relative humidity......We present a study on the characteristics of the sea breeze flow at a coastal site located in the centre of the Mediterranean basin at the southern tip of Italy. This study is finalized to add new data on breeze circulations over a narrow peninsula and present a unique experimental coastal site...... from a surface meteorological station, eighteen-months data from a wind profiler, and two-year data from the ECMWF analysis. Results show that breezes dominate the local circulation and play a major role for the local climate. They are modulated by the season, through the sea-land temperature...

  2. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze. (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos


    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  3. Scaling Characteristics of Developing Sea Breezes Simulated in a Water Tank (United States)

    Yuan, Renmin; Sun, Jianning; Luo, Tao; Wu, Xuping


    Sea-breeze circulations in a stably stratified environment have been simulated in a water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two halves representing land and sea; the land side was heated from the bottom of the tank, and the sea side was insulated by an underlying sponge slab. The temperature profiles over both land and sea sides, the land-sea temperature difference, and the horizontal temperature distributions were measured. Particle tracking velocimetry was applied to obtain the two-dimensional velocity field orthogonal to the coastline. It was shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea, and a strong updraft occurring at the sea-breeze front. The dimensionless governing parameters are calculated from the measurements and used to characterize the developing sea breezes. The analysis confirms the scaling laws for sea-breeze velocity and depth. The results indicate that the scaling characteristics of the sea-breeze translation speed during the developing period are different to those during the following maintaining period. A criterion for the onset of the sea breeze is proposed based on these results.

  4. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele


    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of

  5. Numerical study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two environmental flows (United States)

    Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai


    The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore environmental flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel environmental flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore environmental flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.

  6. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele


    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be

  7. Breeze transients as triggers for the initiation of deep moist convection on mountains slopes (United States)

    Giaiotti, D.; Stel, F.; Gladich, I.; Giacomini, A.


    Deep moist convection frequency is characterized by seasonal and diurnal cycles, related to the interplay between the different elements which force and sustain it: onset, instability, wind pattern. Besides the instability diurnal cycles, the low level triggers initiating the convective motions are considered responsible for the modulations of the cycle. In some areas, like in the southern side of the Alpine ridge, the onset and the reversal of breezes produce microscale areas of flow convergence, at the lower levels, due breezes transients and breezes interaction with the orography. This work presents a numerical analysis of the convection initiation generated by breezes transients. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been used to make simplified case studies and real cases simulations in which orography, solar radiation exposure and sea surface temperature variations are considered. General results support the thesis that the daily modulation of thunderstorm development is significantly accounted by the trigger effect of breezes transients, when synoptic winds are negligible of course. The results produced by the large set of simulations are compared with the climatological data of convective cells development in the Northeastern Italian region.

  8. Large-eddy simulation of sea breeze at an idealized peninsular site (United States)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Anabor, Vagner; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Maldaner, Silvana


    A high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) has been performed to simulate a sea-breeze circulation over an idealized peninsular domain. The simulation is forced with the surface latent/sensible heat fluxes and the large-scale horizontal pressure gradient that are obtained from a mesoscale simulation. This methodology allows the investigation of the physical phenomena that are peculiar for a sea-breeze circulation and that generally require spatial resolution approximately equal to 100 m or less. Here, small-scale dynamical effects associated to these phenomena, i.e. the interaction between the sea-breeze front with the convective turbulence generated over-land, the formation of the zero-velocity layer, and the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, are investigated. Results from the present numerical study have revealed the formation of a zero-velocity layer that is initially near the ground then it rises to define a well-marked sea-breeze depth. Scaling analysis applied to the LES output fields reveals that during the phase of inland penetration the scaling laws for sea-breeze strength and depth have both a proportionality coefficient equal to 0.15.

  9. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills


    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  10. Warm Breeze from the starboard bow: a new population of neutral helium in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Sokół, J M; Swaczyna, P; Grzedzielski, S; Alexashov, D B; Izmodenov, V V; Moebius, E; Leonard, T; Fuselier, S A; Wurz, P; McComas, D J


    We investigate the signals from neutral He atoms observed from Earth orbit in 2010 by IBEX. The full He signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral He that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately two-fold slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ~7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ~19deg from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems a long-term feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere, which brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. Possible sources for the Warm Breeze include (1) the secondary population of inters...

  11. Urban effects of Chennai on sea breeze induced convection and precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matthew Simpson; Sethu Raman; R Suresh; U C Mohanty


    Doppler radar derived wind speed and direction profiles showed a well developed sea breeze circulation over the Chennai, India region on 28 June, 2003. Rainfall totals in excess of 100 mm resulted from convection along the sea breeze front. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front was observed in radar reflectivity imagery. High-resolution MM5 simulations were used to investigate the influence of Chennai urban land use on sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation. A comparison of observed and simulated 10 m wind speed and direction over Chennai showed that the model was able to simulate the timing and strength of the sea breeze. Urban effects are shown to increase the near surface air temperature over Chennai by 3.0 K during the early morning hours. The larger surface temperature gradient along the coast due to urban effects increased onshore flow by 4.0m s−1. Model sensitivity study revealed that precipitation totals were enhanced by 25 mm over a large region 150 km west of Chennai due to urban effects. Deficiency in model physics related to night-time forecasts are addressed.

  12. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  13. Breezes Along the Coast of Tamaulipas, Northeastern Mexico: Contribution to the Wind Energy Potencial (United States)

    Orozco, J. M.; Rivas, D.


    The near-surface wind along the coast of northeastern Mexico and western Gulf of Mexico, with emphasis on the breeze regime, is characterized. Wind data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the period from 2000 to 2010 are used, which are validated by comparison with surface in-situ observations (weather stations). The validation shows a good agreement between the NARR product and the observations. The preliminary results show that the diurnal frequency associated with breezes has a significant contribution to the variability of the wind in the study area. This suggests that the breeze regime can be important for the wind power generation, and given the extensive coastal plain of Tamaulipas, the implementation of electricity-generation prototypes in the area is possible.

  14. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for...

  15. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain size, however, the resulting land breeze becomes weak and becomes mixed up with other thermal convections like thermals. This study seeks to identify a scale threshold to distinguish the effects between land breeze and thermals. Two-dimensional simulations were performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate thermals and land breeze. Their horizontal scale features were analyzed using the wavelet transform. The thermals developed over a homogeneous landscape under dry or wet conditions have an initial scale of 2-5 km during their early stage of development. The scale jumps to 10-15 km when condensation occurs. The solution of an analytical model indicates that the reduced degree of atmospheric instability due to the release of condensation potential heat could be one of the contributing factors for the increase in scale.The land breeze, on the other hand, has a major scale identical to the size of the landscape heterogeneity throughout various stages of development. The results suggest that the effects of land breeze can be clearly distinguished from those of thermals only if the size of the landscape heterogeneity is larger than the scale threshold of about 5 km for dry atmospheric processes or about 15 km for moist ones.

  16. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan


    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  17. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  18. The Effects of Highly Detailed Urban Roughness Parameters on a Sea-Breeze Numerical Simulation (United States)

    Varquez, Alvin Christopher G.; Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu


    We consider the effects of detailed urban roughness parameters on a sea-breeze simulation. An urban roughness database, constructed using a new aerodynamic parametrization derived from large-eddy simulations, was incorporated as a surface boundary condition in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting model. The zero-plane displacement and aerodynamic roughness length at several densely built-up urban grids were three times larger than conventional values due to the consideration of building-height variability. A comparison between simulations from the modified model and its default version, which uses uniform roughness parameters within a conventional method, was conducted for a 2-month period during summer. Results showed a significant improvement in the simulation of surface wind speed but not with temperature. From the 2-month study period, a day with an evident sea-breeze penetration was selected and simulated at higher temporal resolution. Sea-breeze penetration weakened and was more delayed over urbanized areas. The slow sea-breeze penetration also lessened heat advection downwind allowing stronger turbulent mixing and a deeper boundary layer above urban areas. Horizontal wind-speed reduction due to the increased urban surface drag reached heights of several hundreds of metres due to the strong convection.

  19. Idealised numerical simulations of aerodynamic roughness length effects on sea breeze characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtenjak, M.T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst.


    A two-dimensional hydrostatic meso-{gamma}-scale model was used to study possible effects of a step change in roughness on the daytime sea breeze. Idealised numerical simulations with the length of aerodynamical roughness (z{sub 0}) ranging from 0.05 m to 1.0 m and by an increase of 0.05 m in all land grid points were made. Two z{sub 0} effects could be pointed out: an increase in the mixing process and a reduction in the wind speeds in the surface layer. An increase of both heights and magnitudes of the sea breeze circulation, caused by a vertical extension of the turbulent field, followed a faster inland penetration of the sea breeze. The second effect resulting from a successive increase in z{sub 0} values was a retardation of the sea breeze front near the ground, visible in its slope. This effect allowed the already faster inland penetration of the marine air high above the land. (orig.)

  20. Characteristics of Sea Breeze Front Development with Various Synoptic Conditions and Its Impact on Lower Troposphere Ozone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo-Eun JI; Soon-Hwan LEE; Hwa-Woon LEE


    To examine the correlation between the sizes of sea breeze fronts and pollutants under the influence of synoptic fields,a numerical simulation was conducted in the southeast coastal area of the Korean Peninsula,where relatively high concentrations of pollutants occur because of the presence of various kinds of industrial developments.Sea breeze and sea breeze front days during the period 2005-09 were identified using wind profiler data and,according to the results,the number of days were 72 and 53,respectively.When synoptic forcing was weak,sea breeze fronts moved fast both in horizontal fields and in terms of wind velocity,while in thc case of strong synoptic forcing,sea breeze fronts remained at the coast or moved slowly due to strong opposing flows.In this case,the sea breeze front development function and horizontal potential temperature difference were larger than with weak synoptic forcing.The ozone concentration that moves together with sea breeze fronts was also formed along the frontal surfaces.Ozone advection and diffusion in the case of strong synoptic forcing was suppressed at the frontal surface and the concentration gradient was large.The vertical distribution of ozone was very low due to the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) being low.

  1. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, Shane [Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department, NV (United States)


    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  2. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL) (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.


    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  3. Duct Excision is Still Necessary to Rule out Breast Cancer in Patients Presenting with Spontaneous Bloodstained Nipple Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Foulkes


    Full Text Available Introduction. Spontaneous nipple discharge is the third most common reason for presentation to a symptomatic breast clinic. Benign and malignant causes of spontaneous nipple discharge continue to be difficult to distinguish. We analyse our experience of duct excisions for spontaneous nipple discharge to try to identify features that raise suspicion of breast cancer and to identify features indicative of benign disease that would be suitable for nonoperative management. Methods. Details of one hundred and ninety-four patients who underwent duct excision for spontaneous nipple discharge between 1995 and 2005 were analysed. Results. Malignant disease was identified in 11 (5.7% patients, 4 invasive and 7 insitu, which was 10.2% of those presenting with bloodstained discharge. All patients with malignant disease had bloodstained discharge. Discharge due to malignant disease was more likely to be bloodstained than that due to benign causes (Fisher's exact test, 2-tailed P value = 0.00134. Conclusion. Our findings do not support a policy of conservative management of spontaneous bloodstained nipple discharge. Cases of demonstrable spontaneous bloodstained nipple discharge should undergo duct excision to prevent malignant lesions being missed.

  4. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, Shane [Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department, NV (United States)


    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  5. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Sweeney


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Wei-jun; SHEN Tong-li; DING Zhi-ying; SONG Jie-hui


    The 2003-2006 observations were utilized to analyze the surface characteristics of summer land-sea breezes along the coastland of Guangxi and the Weather Research and Forecast model was applied to simulate the breeze structure on August 1-2,2006.Results show that 1)the intensity and distributions of the breezes reproduced from improved urban underlying surface were close to observations.In the daytime the coastwise urban band was a convergent belt of sea breeze,corresponding to the centers of torrential rains; in the nighttime hours the surface of the Gulf of Tonkin(the Vietnamese name)or the Northern Bay(the Chinese name)acted as a convergent zone of land breezes,likely to produce convectivecloud cluster; 2)the experiment on urbanization showed the heat island effect enhancing(weakening)the sea(land)breeze development.Furthermore,the heat island effect mitigated the atmospheric cooling viaradiation over the cities in the night,weakening sinking motion correspondingly,thereby suppressing the dominant factor responsible for the steady development of temperature inversion.As a result,the inversion vigor was reduced greatly,but nevertheless no strong effect of the decreased subsidence was found upon the inversion height.

  7. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)


    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  8. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.


    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  9. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay (United States)


    and Mr. Richard Lind, to whom I owe great appreciation. I would like to thank Mr. Mike Cook again for making me an expert in Matlab . He also assisted...such as aircraft, lidar , radiosondes and wind profilers, have been used over the years to measure the horizontal and vertical movement of sea breeze...useful, and it was made easy due to the existing MATLAB HFR_Progs toolbox. Using harmonic analysis for winds was not a common idea, but it provided

  10. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy) (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes


    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  11. A sea breeze induced thunderstorm over an inland station over Indian South Peninsula - A case study (United States)

    Bhate, Jyoti; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.


    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present a rare case study of the genesis of the thunderstorm that occurred on 4th May 2011 at 1500Z over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), one of the tropical inland stations (100 km) near to the east coast of the Indian peninsula. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convection over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, to bridge the gap of lack of high resolutional spatial observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique. The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability

  12. Incorporation of expert variability into breast cancer treatment recommendation in designing clinical protocol guided fuzzy rule system models. (United States)

    Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ying; John, Robert I; Ellis, Ian O


    It has been often demonstrated that clinicians exhibit both inter-expert and intra-expert variability when making difficult decisions. In contrast, the vast majority of computerized models that aim to provide automated support for such decisions do not explicitly recognize or replicate this variability. Furthermore, the perfect consistency of computerized models is often presented as a de facto benefit. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to incorporate variability within a fuzzy inference system using non-stationary fuzzy sets in order to replicate human variability. We apply our approach to a decision problem concerning the recommendation of post-operative breast cancer treatment; specifically, whether or not to administer chemotherapy based on assessment of five clinical variables: NPI (the Nottingham Prognostic Index), estrogen receptor status, vascular invasion, age and lymph node status. In doing so, we explore whether such explicit modeling of variability provides any performance advantage over a more conventional fuzzy approach, when tested on a set of 1310 unselected cases collected over a fourteen year period at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. The experimental results show that the standard fuzzy inference system (that does not model variability) achieves overall agreement to clinical practice around 84.6% (95% CI: 84.1-84.9%), while the non-stationary fuzzy model can significantly increase performance to around 88.1% (95% CI: 88.0-88.2%), p<0.001. We conclude that non-stationary fuzzy models provide a valuable new approach that may be applied to clinical decision support systems in any application domain.

  13. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott


    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics.

  14. Modelling tidal influence on sea breezes with models of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fischereit


    Full Text Available Tides influence both the formation and development of sea breezes. The aim of this study is to investigate the tidal influence to decide which model complexity is needed to reproduce the main influence of tides in a numerical model of coastal meteorology. Two processes are considered: (a the influence of tides on sea breezes through the effect of tidal currents on the surface wind and (b the thermal influence through the flooding and drying of mudflats in the intertidal area. The processes are considered separately by representing the ocean in the non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model METRAS with different complexity, ranging from a homogeneous stationary surface to a shallow-water model coupled to METRAS with a two-way exchange of momentum. The model system is applied in a case study to the German Bight, where large mudflats exist at low tide.The results show that the main influence of tides originates from a change in the mudflat heat budget through flooding and drying. The influence of tidal currents on the surface wind is small. Therefore, we conclude that no coupled atmosphere-ocean model is needed to reproduce the main influence of tides on sea breezes in a numerical model. Instead, we suggest to use an atmosphere model which simulates the change of surface cover in the intertidal area and includes a realistic spatial sea surface temperature distribution. For this it is essential to simulate the change in surface cover with the correct timing because the results show that the atmosphere reacts very sensitively to that change.

  15. Impact of sea breeze of the sea off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    . OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS The wind observations were made using an anemometer located on the terrace of the main building ofthe National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. The height ofthe anemometer was about 50 m above sea level. The recorded data were ten...Goa is oriented along approximately 340°. Hence the sea breeze at the height of about 50 metres above sea level recorded by the anemometer is almost along the coastline. Though this angle might have come under the influence of the shape of the building on which...

  16. Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuickSCAT scatterometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    wind vectors spaced equally along the normal to the coast, but the differing coordinates of wind vectors in the swath during each pass of the satellite does not meet this requirement. Hence, we define a set of regularly spaced 0.1C176 C2 1C176 cells (C...023107$05.00 L13601 1of4 averaged. The wind vectors thus chosen were considered equally spaced. To enhance the local signal (herein, that associated with the sea-breeze system), the mean of the wind vectors over all the cells was subtracted from each...

  17. Using Breeze for Communication and Assessment of Internships: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Wilkinson


    Full Text Available An important component of internships is the connection between students, universities and employers. “High-quality internships . . . encourage contact between faculty and students as well as develop cooperation among students,” (Implementing and Assessing Internships, 2002, 67. This “good practice” must exist to ensure good performance assessment (Implementing and assessing internships 2002. Students in an internship program were given web cameras and access to the software Breeze to use for a video journal. Focus groups were conducted to determine the students’ opinions of using this type of assessment. Students overwhelmingly preferred this type of assessment and saw the benefits of using the technology beyond the internship.

  18. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind (United States)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin


    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  19. Numerical simulation of sea breeze characteristics observed at tropical coastal site, Kalpakkam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jamima; J Lakshminarasimhan


    Sea breeze characteristics around Kalpakkam tropical coastal site are studied using an Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) mesoscale model, which is non-hydrostatic, compressible atmospheric prediction model following the terrain coordinate system. Various options such as surface physics, atmospheric radiation physics, Coriolis force, microphysics, cumulus parameterization and 1.5 level TKE closure scheme for diffusion are included in the model. A joint meteorological field experiment was carried out by IITM-Pune and IGCAR at Kalpakkam by deploying state-of-the-art sensors and tether balloon systems for observing the height profiles of meteorological parameters. The data obtained from the field experiment are used here to compare the results from numerical simulations. From the simulated results, it is seen that duration of the sea breeze is 6 hours which agrees well with the observations. The height of the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) is also simulated from the vertical profiles of potential temperature. Simulated wind speed and wind directions are compared with the 50m tower data and potential temperature profiles are compared with the kytoon data. Results are in good agreement with the observed values except during night time wherein a small difference is seen in the wind speed.

  20. Impact of land-sea breezes at different scales on the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, Shih-Yu


    The formation mechanism of diurnal rainfall in Taiwan is commonly recognized as a result of local forcings involving solar thermal heating and island-scale land-sea breeze (LSB) interacting with orography. This study found that the diurnal variation of the large-scale circulation over the East Asia-Western North Pacific (EAWNP) modulates considerably the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan. It is shown that the interaction between the two LSB systems—the island-scale LSB and the large-scale LSB over EAWNP—facilitates the formation of the early morning rainfall in western Taiwan, afternoon rainfall in central Taiwan, and nighttime rainfall in eastern Taiwan. Moreover, the post-1998 strengthening of a shallow, low-level southerly wind belt along the coast of Southeast China appears to intensify the diurnal rainfall activity in Taiwan. These findings reveal the role of the large-scale LSB and its long-term variation in the modulation of local diurnal rainfall.

  1. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan


    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  2. An Israeli haboob: Sea breeze activating local anthropogenic dust sources in the Negev loess (United States)

    Crouvi, Onn; Dayan, Uri; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda


    Meso-scale weather systems, such as convective haboobs, are considered to be an important dust generation mechanism. In Israel, however, rather than of meso-scale weather systems, most dust storms are generated by synoptic-scale systems, originating from Sahara and Arabia. Consequently, only distal sources of suspended and deposited dust in Israel are currently reported. Here we report the first detailed study on the merging of synoptic- and meso-scale weather systems leading to a prominent dust outbreak over the Negev, Israel. During the afternoon of May 2nd, 2007, a massive dust storm covered the northern Negev, forming a one kilometer high wall of dust. The haboob was associated with PM10 concentrations of 1000-1500 μg m-3 that advanced at a speed of 10-15 m s-1 and caused temporary closure of local airports. In contrast to most reported haboobs, this one was generated by a sea breeze front acting as a weak cold front enhanced by a cold core cyclone positioned over Libya and Egypt. The sea breeze that brought cold and moist marine air acted as a gravity current with strong surface winds. The sources for the haboob were the loessial soils of the northwestern Negev, especially agricultural fields that were highly disturbed in late spring to early summer. Such surface disturbance is caused by agricultural and/or intensive grazing practices. Our study emphasizes the importance of local dust sources in the Negev and stresses loess recycling as an important process in contemporary dust storms over Israel.

  3. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.


    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  4. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.


    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  5. Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment (United States)

    Salvador, Nadir; Reis, Neyval Costa; Santos, Jane Meri; Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Loriato, Ayres Geraldo; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Moreira, Davidson Martins


    Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.

  6. Identifying a Sea Breeze Circulation Pattern Over the Los Angeles Basin Using Airborne In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements (United States)

    Brannan, A. L.; Schill, S.; Trousdell, J.; Heath, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Yang, M. M.; Bertram, T. H.


    The Los Angeles Basin in Southern California is an optimal location for a circulation study, due to its location between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountain ranges to the east, as well as its booming metropolitan population. Sea breeze circulation carries air at low altitudes from coastal to inland regions, where the air rises and expands before returning back towards the coast at higher altitudes. As a result, relatively clean air is expected at low altitudes over coastal regions, but following the path of sea breeze circulation should increase the amount of anthropogenic influence. During the 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, a highly modified DC-8 aircraft completed flights from June 23 to 25 in and around the LA Basin, including missed approaches at four local airports—Los Alamitos and Long Beach (coastal), Ontario and Riverside (inland). Because carbon dioxide (CO2) is chemically inert and well-suited as a conserved atmospheric tracer, the NASA Langley Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth's Troposphere (AVOCET) instrument was used to make airborne in situ carbon dioxide measurements. Combining measured wind speed and direction data from the aircraft with CO2 data shows that carbon dioxide can be used to trace the sea breeze circulation pattern of the Los Angeles basin.

  7. Interstellar neutral helium in the heliosphere from IBEX observations. IV. Flow vector, Mach number, and abundance of the Warm Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Bzowski, M; Sokol, J M; Fuselier, S A; Galli, A; Heirtzler, D; Kucharek, H; Leonard, T W; Moebius, D J McComas E; Park, J; Schwadron, N A; Wurz, P


    With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al.2015b, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. We used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of $\\sim 9\\,500$ K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s$^{-1}$, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates $251.6^\\circ$, $12.0^\\circ$. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.7\\% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly found inflow direction of the Warm Bree...

  8. Atmospheric electrical field measurements near a fresh water reservoir and the formation of the lake breeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopes


    Full Text Available In order to access the effect of the lakes in the atmospheric electrical field, measurements have been carried out near a large man-made lake in southern Portugal, the Alqueva reservoir, during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment 2014. The purpose of these conjoint experiments was to study the impact of the Alqueva reservoir on the atmosphere, in particular on the local atmospheric electric environment by comparing measurements taken in the proximity of the lake. Two stations 10 km apart were used, as they were located up- and down-wind of the lake (Amieira and Parque Solar, respectively, in reference to the dominant northwestern wind direction. The up-wind station shows lower atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG values than the ones observed in the down-wind station between 12 and 20 UTC. The difference in the atmospheric electric PG between the up-wind and the down-wind station is ~30 V/m during the day. This differential occurs mainly during the development of a lake breeze, between 10 and 18 UTC, as a consequence of the surface temperature gradient between the surrounding land and the lake water. In the analysis presented, a correlation is found between the atmospheric electric PG differences and both wind speed and temperature gradients over the lake, thus supporting the influence of the lake breeze over the observed PG variation in the two stations. Two hypotheses are provided to explain this observation: (1 The air that flows from the lake into the land station is likely to increase the local electric conductivity through the removal of ground dust and the transport of cleaner air from higher altitudes with significant light ion concentrations. With such an increase in conductivity, it is expected to see a reduction of the atmospheric electric PG; (2 the resulting air flow over the land station carries negative ions formed by wave splashing in the lake's water surface, as a result of the so-called balloelectric effect

  9. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event (United States)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay


    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  10. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  11. Fire Whirl Evolution Observed during a Valley Wind-Sea Breeze Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Seto


    Full Text Available This observational study documented the atmospheric environment of a prescribed fire conducted in a narrow valley when a small fire whirl developed during a mesoscale wind reversal. Based on analysis of in situ meteorological measurements, it is hypothesized that the fire whirl formed due to the presence of strong vertical wind shear caused by the interaction of a sea breeze front with a weaker up-valley wind. Vorticity generated by the interaction of the wind shear and the fire front was estimated to be ~0.2 s−1. Peak turbulence kinetic energy was caused by the wind shear rather than the buoyancy generated by the fire front. It was also found that the convective Froude number itself may not be sufficient for fire whirl prediction since it is less relevant to the near-surface boundary-layer turbulence generated by environmental wind shear. Observations from this case study indicate that even low-intensity prescribed fires can result in the formation of fire whirls due to mesoscale changes in the ambient atmospheric environment.

  12. Uma teoria termodinâmica para brisas: teste utilizando simulações numéricas A thermodynamic theory for breezes: test using numeric simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clênia Rodrigues Alcântara


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma teoria termodinâmica em brisas marítimas-terrestres acopladas com brisas de vale-montanha através de simulações numéricas tridimensionais em uma região da costa leste do Nordeste Brasileiro, considerando a presença e a ausência da topografia. Embora o contraste de temperatura entre as superfícies seja importante na formação da brisa, a eficiência termodinâmica é fundamental na determinação da sua intensidade. Tem-se que a inclinação faz com que a diferença de pressão entre dois pontos fique maior durante o dia e menor durante a noite contribuindo para a formação de brisas marítimas mais intensas e de brisas terrestres menos intensas, respectivamente. A máxima queda de pressão ocorre por volta de três horas antes da máxima intensidade da brisa. Isso porque grande parte da energia disponibilizada para as circulações é gasta para vencer dissipação, principalmente, no período diurno, quando esses processos são realmente efetivos. Do ponto de vista puramente termodinâmico a inclinação da montanha atua para intensificar a brisa durante o dia e para enfraquecê-la durante a noite.In this work we test a thermodynamic theory for sea-land breeze coupled with valley-mountain breeze through tri-dimensional numeric simulations. We verify the presence of such a breeze in Northeast Brazil's east coast and perform experiments with and without the topography of the region. Although the temperature contrast between two surfaces is important in forming the breezes, the thermodynamic efficiency is a key parameter for the breeze intensity. The presence of the slope causes the pressure difference between two points to increase during the day and to decrease during the night. This contributes for more intense daytime breeze and less intense nighttime ones. The maximum pressure drop occurs about three hours prior the maximum intensity of the sea breeze. This is because most of the available

  13. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe


    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  14. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa (United States)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.


    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  15. Review of: Maddie Breeze: Seriousness and Women’s Roller Derby. Gender, Organization and Ambivalence. London u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Dierkes


    Full Text Available In her autoethnographic study in the field of sports sociology Maddie Breeze presents a captivating analysis of the roller derby scene. Starting from empirical material she develops a new sociological concept of 'seriousness' and '(wanting-to-be-taken-seriously' which contrasts with established, linear and normative models – both are re-conceived as a contradictory and ambivalent practice. Thus, Breeze is able to show how new forms of identity and of organization can be successfully established in processes of transformation, without having to negate or dismiss previous ones. A highly recommendable book, not only for sports sociologists.

  16. Ultrasound - Breast (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Breast Ultrasound imaging of the breast uses sound waves ... the Breast? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Breast? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  17. Breast pain (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  18. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake


    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  19. RGANN: An Efficient Algorithm to Extract Rules from ANNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M


    This paper describes an efficient rule generation algorithm, called rule generation from artificial neural networks (RGANN) to generate symbolic rules from ANNs. Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods supports explicitness of the generated rules. Generated rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, including breast cancer, wine, season, golf-playing, and ...

  20. Fibroadenoma - breast (United States)

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. There may be a connection to a problem with genes. Fibroadenoma is the most common benign ...

  1. Breast Implants (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  2. What Is Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  3. A numerical study of sea breeze circulation observed at a tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, under different synoptic flow situations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Srinivas; R Venkatesan; K M Somayaji; A Bagavath Singh


    A simulation study of the sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) characteristics has been carried out at the tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, for operational atmospheric dispersion prediction. The community based PSU/NCAR MM5 Mesoscale meteorological model is used for the study. Three cases on typical days in summer (24 May 2003), southwest (SW) monsoon (1 July 2001) winter season (2 February 2003) with different largescale flow pattern are studied. The MM5 model is used with 3 nested domains with horizontal grid resolutions 18 km, 6 km and 2 km and 26 vertical levels. The model is integrated for 24 hours in the above cases with initial and boundary conditions taken from NCEP-FNL analyses data. Observations of 10 meteorological stations and coastal boundary layer experiments conducted at Kalpakkam are used for comparison and validation of the simulation. The characteristics of simulated sea breeze and TIBL at Kalpakkam are seen to vary in the above cases according to the prevailing large-scale winds and surface fluxes. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the SW monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of TIBL are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. Although model parameters agree in general with observations, all the fine features are not clearly captured and some slowness in model sea breeze development is also seen. The results indicate the need to improve i) the initial conditions by assimilation of available surface/upper air observations to reduce model bias and ii) surface net radiation parameterisation. The model could predict the essential features of the local circulation and further improvement is expected with better initial condition data and incorporation of more realistic surface data.

  4. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.


    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  5. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.


    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  6. Breast Diseases (United States)

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar symptoms. Although many women fear cancer, most breast problems are not cancer. Some common ...

  7. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber


    Thomas Arne’s The Masque of Alfred (1740) with a libretto by James Thomson and David Mallet was written and performed in the historical context of George II’s reign where a kind of constitutional monarchy based on the Bill of Rights from 1689 was granting civil rights to the early bourgeoisie...... of the Proms, and this article considers it as a global real-time media event. “Rule, Britannia!” is placed in the contexts of political history, cultural history and experience economy....

  8. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado


    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  9. Nonzero Solubility Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 周蕊; 刘芸


    A solubility-related rule, nonzero solubility rule, is introduced in this paper. It is complementary to the existing rules such as the "like dissolves like" rule and can be understood on the basis of classical chemical thermodynamics.

  10. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  11. Breast lift (United States)

    ... Planning to have more children Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering cosmetic breast surgery. Discuss ... before surgery: You may need a mammogram . Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. You may ...

  12. Breast; Sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Garbay, J.R.; Pichenot, C.; Uzan, C.; Delaloge, S.; Andre, F.; Spielmann, M.; Arriagada, R.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Marsigli, H.; Bondiau, P.Y.; Courdi, A.; Lallemand, M.; Peyrotte, I.; Chapellier, C.; Ferrero, J.M.; Chiovati, P.; Baldissera, A.; Frezza, G.; Vicenzi, L.; Palombarini, M.; Martelli, O.; Degli Esposti, C.; Donini, E.; Romagna CDR, E.; Romagna CDF, E.; Benmensour, M.; Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A.; Gilliot, O.; Achard, J.L.; Auvray, H.; Toledano, I.; Bourry, N.; Kwiatkowski, F.; Verrelle, P.; Lapeyre, M.; Tebra Mrad, S.; Braham, I.; Chaouache, K.; Bouaouin, N.; Ghorbel, L.; Siala, W.; Sallemi, T.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.; Daou, J.; El Omrani, A.; Chekrine, T.; Mangoni, M.; Castaing, M.; Folino, E.; Livi, L.; Dunant, A.; Mathieu, M.C.; Bitib, G.P.; Arriagada, R.; Marsigli, H


    Nine articles treat the question of breast cancer. Three-dimensional conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation: dosimetric feasibility study; test of dose escalation neo-adjuvant radiotherapy focused by Cyberknife in breast cancer; Three dimensional conformal partial irradiation with the technique by the Irma protocol ( dummy run multi centers of the Emilie Romagne area Italy); Contribution of the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally evolved cancers of the uterine cervix; Post operative radiotherapy of breast cancers (N0, pN) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of one or two mammary glands and ganglions areas,The breast cancer at man; breast conservative treatment; breast cancers without histological ganglions invasion; the breast cancer at 70 years old and more women; borderline mammary phyllod tumors and malignant. (N.C.)

  13. A modeling study of convection initiation prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front and a gust front (United States)

    Abulikemu, Abuduwaili; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhang, Shushi; Shen, Wenqiang


    Convection initiation (CI) prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front (SBF) with a gust front (GF) in North China is investigated using a real-data Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation with a high resolution of 444.4 m. The overall evolution of the GF and SBF is well reproduced by the simulation. The GF was produced by the decaying convective storm over northern Beijing, while the SBF came from the Bohai Sea. Several convective cells were generated between the two fronts even though they were still about 25-30 km far away from each other. During the development of these cells, the low-level convergence and conditional instability averaged within the intermediate area between the two fronts were enhanced significantly, both of which favored the initiation of convection. Vertical momentum budgets were conducted in the intermediate area as well as along the backward trajectories of parcels within a selected convective cell. The vertical acceleration was decomposed into dynamic and buoyant components, respectively. The diagnostic results showed that the dynamic acceleration dominated in the low level, while buoyant acceleration became evident only when the parcel reached a high altitude above 2 km. Therefore the dynamic forcing appeared to be more relevant to CI. The dynamic acceleration was further decomposed into four terms based on anelastic approximation. The positive dynamic acceleration was mainly caused by fluid extension associated with the low-level convergence, while fluid twisting in the vertical contributed negatively to the dynamic acceleration. The other two terms related to horizontal curvature and height variation of density were negligibly small.

  14. Breast Cancer (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  15. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea. (United States)

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee


    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  16. Extracting Symbolic Rules for Medical Diagnosis Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M


    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems involving classification and function approximation. Although backpropagation NNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained NNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. An algorithm is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules for medical diagnosis problem. Empirical study on three benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, diabetes, and lenses demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates high quality rules from NNs comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy.

  17. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions (United States)

    Hoydysh, W. G.


    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  18. Pattern of palpable breast lesions on fine needle aspiration: A retrospective analysis of 902 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S Chandanwale


    Conclusion : With experienced hands, FNA is safe, cost effective and a reliable technique for preoperative evaluation of palpable breast lumps. FNA features are more informative when combined with physical and radiology findings (Triple test. Fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and mastitis form the major bulk of benign breast lesions. Epithelioid cells when seen in inflammatory breast FNA smears, tuberculosis must be ruled out. In India, breast carcinoma arises in younger patients as compared to western countries. Grading of breast carcinomas must be done on FNA smears for selecting neoadjuvent therapy. Clinical breast examination and mammography screening in females should be encouraged in developing countries from the third decade onwards for early detection of breast carcinoma.

  19. Surgery for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  20. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  1. Breast augmentation surgery (United States)

    ... on the underside of your breast, in the natural skin fold. The surgeon places the implant through this ... lift Breast pain Breast reconstruction - implants Breast reconstruction - natural tissue Breast ... wound care - open Review Date 2/10/2015 Updated by: ...

  2. Breast cancer screening (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. Breast Cancer Overview (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)


    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s{sup −1}, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  5. Modelling the chemistry and transport of bromoform within a sea breeze driven convective system during the SHIVA Campaign (United States)

    Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Hossaini, R.; Pirre, M.; Warwick, N.; Chipperfield, M.; Samah, A. A.; Harris, N.; Robinson, A.; Quack, B.; Engel, A.; Krüger, K.; Atlas, E.; Subramaniam, K.; Oram, D.; Leedham, E.; Mills, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Sala, S.; Keber, T.; Bönisch, H.; Peng, L. K.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Lim, P. T.; Mujahid, A.; Anton, A.; Schlager, H.; Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Fühlbrügge, S.; Dorf, M.; Sturges, W. T.


    We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs) in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA) campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km). First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2) are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about the physical and

  6. Modelling the chemistry and transport of bromoform within a sea breeze driven convective system during the SHIVA Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Hamer


    Full Text Available We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km. First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr, and hypobromous acid (HOBr, are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2 are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about

  7. Atmospheric boundary layer in a mountain valley during katabatic wind and valley breeze. Atmosphaerische Grenzschicht in einem Gebirgstal bei Berg- und Talwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, C.


    This work is an attempt to investigate physical relationships during katabatic wind and valley breeze in a large Alpine valley. Being experimental in character, the work is oriented to measuring results. From measurements along the axis of the valley and in the adjacent medium-range mountains, as they were carried out during the MERKUR experiment, the budgets of mass, energy, and impulse for individual areas of the valley atmosphere could be calculated. These budgets serve as basic data for investigating the circulation, energetics, and dynamics of the mountain wind system. The introductory paragraphs give a brief overview on the state of research and open questions. The description of the experiment and of the courses of katabatic wind and valley breeze during the case study make up the second part of the work. The main part comprises the setting down of budget equations and the demonstration of the time curve and spatial structure of the individual terms. The questions raised are then discussed in the light of the author's measurements and other authors' results. Conclusions from the budget analyses are completed by simple model calculations. (orig.).

  8. Wind: backing the breeze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Elisa


    Wind development in the US rises when the 1.9 cents/kWh production tax credit (PTC) is in force and drops when it languishes. In 2005 Congress renewed the subsidy before it expired, giving the industry more than two years of assurance that the credit will be in force. The American Wind Energy Association predicts that the United States will have seen 2500 MW of new wind capacity installed during 2005, a record-breaker with almost 50% more development than the previous record year, 2001. Beyond that, the trade group expects strong and steady growth of 2000 MW during 2006 and 2007, the year the credit once again ends. Emerging Energy Research, an independent firm that analyses wind markets, technologies and strategies, forecasts that wind development could reach 3000 MW in 2006, and rise even higher in 2007. 2004 saw a meagre 389 MW of new wind projects caused by the expiry of PTC. The author reviews the demand for wind energy in the US, offshore wind potential - estimated at 900,000 MW, and emerging companies. (UK)

  9. Premenstrual breast changes (United States)

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  10. Breast MRI scan (United States)

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... radiologist) see some areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  11. Fibrocystic breast disease (United States)

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...

  12. Breast Cancer Research Update (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  13. Types of Breast Pumps (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  14. Learning about Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  15. Bonnet Ruled Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz KANBAY


    We consider the Bonnet ruled surfaces which admit only one non-trivial isometry that preserves the principal curvatures. We determine the Bonnet ruled surfaces whose generators and orthogonal trajectories form a special net called an A-net.

  16. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B


    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  17. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail:, E-mail: [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  18. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent


    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  19. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  20. Parton model sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Kwiatkowski, Axel


    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of various Parton Model sum rules. The basis of the sum rules in perturbative QCD is discussed. Their use in extracting the value of the strong coupling constant is evaluated and the failure of the naive version of some of these rules is assessed.

  1. Analyses on characteristics of sea-land breeze over Donghai island of Zhanjiang in February of 2011%湛江东海岛二月海陆风环流特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 王晶; 张羽; 张书文; 黄克鑫


    The average wind characteristics and sea-land breeze characteristics are analyzed by using the data of wind profiler during February 2011 on Donghai island of Zhanjiang. The results show that: the prevailing wind direction is northeasterly on Donghai island during February 2011 at an altitude of 150 m and the total frequency of occurrences of three directions E, ENE, NE is 66. 6% , in contrast, the total frequency of occurrences of westerly is only 1 % . There is an obvious difference of occurrence frequency between westerly winds and easterly winds. The hourly changes of average monthly wind speed is restricted to small range about 1 m/s from 1:00 to 15:00; and fluctuation becomes larger during 15:00 to 20:00, the maximal speed of 2. 1 m/s appears at 16:00. In February, only two days meet the conditions of sea-land hreeze. In sea-!and breeze day, the common duration of sea breeze is from 13:00 to 20:00, lasting 7 h, and land breeze's common duration is from 2:00 to 7:00, lasting 5 h. The mean speed of land breeze is 0. 8 m/s, which are smaller than 2. 1 m/s of sea breeze. The vertical height of land breezeis about 1200 m during the sea-land breeze day, which differs slightly from sea breeze. The wind speeds of both sea breeze ami land breeze have the similar (rends of increasing first and then decreasing with increasing altitude. The maximal wind speed of sea breeze appears at 750 m, and that of land breeze appears at 500 m. The sea breeze circulation is much stronger than land breeze in the region of 500 to 750 m height. The wind direction basically remains unchanged above 2 km and that is the large-scale uniform systematic west wind circulation.%利用2011年2月湛江东海岛风廓线雷达资料,系统分析了湛江东海岛2月平均风场特征及海陆风特征,结果表明:2月湛江东海岛150 m高度处以东偏北出现频率最大,在E、ENE和NE三个方位的风向出现频率之和为66.6%,偏西七个方位的风向出现频率之和仅为1

  2. Dense Breasts (United States)

    ... also appear white on mammography, they can be hidden by or within dense breast tissue. Other imaging ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  3. Breast lump (United States)

    ... a woman are often caused by fibrocystic changes, fibroadenomas, and cysts. Fibrocystic changes are painful, lumpy breasts. ... period, and then improve after your period starts. Fibroadenomas are noncancerous lumps that feel rubbery. They move ...

  4. Breast Reconstruction (United States)

    ... senos Preguntas Para el Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen El cuidado de sus senos:Consejos útiles ... that can help . Federal law requires most insurance plans cover the cost of breast reconstruction. Learn more ...

  5. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel


    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  6. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission


    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules:; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN:; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment:; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: The Safety Commission

  7. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka


    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  8. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits


    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  9. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R


    We introduce strong interaction selection rules for the two-body decay and production of hybrid and conventional mesons coupling to two S-wave hybrid or conventional mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in the limit of non-relativistically moving quarks. The conditions under which hybrid coupling to S-wave states is suppressed are determined by the rules, and the nature of their breaking is indicated.

  10. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie


    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  11. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping


    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  12. Breast awareness and screening. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  13. Scoped Dynamic Rewrite Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Eelco


    The applicability of term rewriting to program transformation is limited by the lack of control over rule application and by the context-free nature of rewrite rules. The first problem is addressed by languages supporting user-definable rewriting strategies. This paper addresses the second problem b

  14. Branes and wrapping rules

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A


    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IIA/IIB string theory contains a whole class of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles.

  15. Branes and Wrapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Riccioni, F.


    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IA/IIB stri

  16. Breast reduction (United States)

    ... may need a mammogram before the surgery. Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. You may ... the first year, but will then fade. The surgeon will make every ... the scars should not be noticeable, even in low-cut clothing.

  17. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia


    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  18. [Breast ductoscopy]. (United States)

    Sharon, Eran; Avin, Ilan D; Leong, Wey


    The majority of benign and malignant breast diseases originate in the ductal system. Breast ductoscopy (BD) allows direct access to this ductal system and thus holds great promise in the diagnosis and surgical management of a number of breast diseases. BD was first developed over 20 years ago to investigate nipple discharge. Indeed, till now, this remains the most common indication. However, BD technology has been further developed for a variety of new clinical applications. For example, BD-guided ductal ravage combined with molecular and genetic analysis can be a powerful screening tool for women at high-risk of breast cancer. BD can also be used during lumpectomy to identify additional radiographically occult disease. This refined intraoperative margin assessment can help surgeons to achieve clear margins at the first excision while optimizing the extent of resection. In the future, this same precise intraoperative margin assessment may facilitate a variety of local ablative techniques including laser Over time, BD is likely to evolve beyond its current technological limitations to realize its full diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The article describes the technique of BD, reviews its evolution and discusses current and future applications.

  19. Breast Lift (Mastopexy) (United States)

    ... fuller and heavier. This stretching might contribute to sagging breasts after pregnancy — whether or not you breast- ... stretch and sag. A breast lift can reduce sagging and raise the position of the nipples and ...

  20. Breast Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  1. Breast reconstruction - implants (United States)

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... to the breast or the new nipple. Having cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of ...

  2. Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  3. Breast Cancer Disparities (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  4. Breast cancer in pregnancy. (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael


    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  5. Rules on Paper, Rules in Practice


    Al-Dahdah, Edouard; Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Raballand, Gael; Sergenti, Ernest; Ababsa, Myriam


    The primary focus of this book is on a specific outcome of the rule of law: the practical enforcement of laws and policies, and the determinants of this enforcement, or lack thereof. Are there significant and persistent differences in implementation across countries? Why are some laws and policies more systematically enforced than others? Are “good” laws likely to be enacted, and if not, what stands in the way? We answer these questions using a theoretical framework and detailed empirical...

  6. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo


    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  7. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C


    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  8. Drug Plan Coverage Rules (United States)

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  9. General Quantization Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Maiz, F


    A general quantization rule for bound states of the Schrodinger equation is presented. Like fundamental theory of integral, our idea is mainly based on dividing the potential into many pieces, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation, and deriving the general quantization rule. For both exactly and non-exactly solvable systems, the energy levels of all the bound states can be easily calculated from the general quantization rule. Using this new general quantization rule, we re-calculate the energy levels for the one-dimensional system, with an infinite square well, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the Morse Potential, with the symmetric and asymmetric Rosen-Morse potentials, with the first P\\"oschl-Teller potential, with the Coulomb Potential, with the V-shape Potential, and the ax^4 potential, and for the three dimensions systems, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the ordinary Coulomb potential, and for the hydrogen atom.

  10. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平


    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  11. TANF Rules Data Base (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Single source providing information on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program rules among States and across years (currently 1996-2010), including...

  12. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  13. Data breaches. Final rule. (United States)


    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. PAGE


    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  15. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R


    We introduce a category of strong and electromagnetic interaction selection rules for the two-body connected decay and production of exotic J^{PC} = 0^{+-}, 1^{-+}, 2^{+-}, 3^{-+}, ... hybrid and four-quark mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in addition to Bose symmetry and CP invariance. Examples include various decays to \\eta'\\eta, \\eta\\pi, \\eta'\\pi and four-quark interpretations of a 1^{-+} signal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik


    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  17. The Role of Tumor Metastases Suppressor Gene, Drg-1, in Breast Cancer (United States)


    19q13.1 126, 127 EGF Cell proliferation, mitogenicity Breast, Prostate 4q25 128, 129 PDGF Embryological development Breast, Prostate 22q13.1 130, 131...results of their study also ruled out the possibility of BRMS1 upregulating expression of other metastasis suppressors, such as NM23, KAI1, KiSS1 or E

  18. Biomarkers of Dietary Exposure Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Lampe, J.W.; Ray, R.M.; Brown, R.; Wu, C.Y.; Li, W.J.; Chen, C.; King, I.B.; Gao, D.L.; Hu, Y.W.; Shannon, J.; Wahala, K.; Thomas, D.B.


    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast condition among women and account for up to 50% of all breast biopsies being performed. Although considered a benign condition, fibroadenomas utilize substantial resources for management and treatment to rule out potential malignancies. Dietary factors

  19. Research on the Interaction of Tianjin Urban Heat Island Circulation and Sea Breeze Circulation%天津地区城市热岛环流与海风环流相互作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东高红; 尉英华; 解以扬; 刘一玮; 李英华


    Using the mesoscale TJ-WRF model data and encryption automatic weather station (AWS)data, etc.,we analyze the distribution characteristics of Tianjin urban heat island circulation and sea breeze cir-culation as well as the interaction of them.Through several typical weather cases (Local strong thunder-storms seen in urban areas and the weather without any processes affected by the sea breeze),the trigger mechanism of the interaction between urban heat island circulation and sea breeze circulation for local thun-derstorms is analyzed.The results show that the extended height of urban heat island circulation is near 800 hPa,spatial extention is about 20 km,and the upward motion is obvious.The extended height of sea breeze circulation is near 800-750 hPa and spatial extention is about 40-60 km.The stretch height of the sea breeze front is about 950-900 hPa in the forefront of the sea breeze circulation,and the upward speed is 0.2 m·s-1 on average,slightly stronger than the heat island circulation.The sea breeze can weaken the urban heat island effect while the urban heat island can block the sea breeze circulation.With the sea breeze circulation pushed near to the urban,the sea breeze circulation and the urban heat island circulation encounter,then the two circulations get superimposed and the upward motion is significantly strength-ened,causing the maximum upward speed to go up to 0.6 m·s-1 .Under the favorable weather conditions the local severe thunderstorms can be triggered.%利用中尺度数值模式(TJ-WRF)模拟资料及天津加密自动气象站资料等,选取几个典型天气过程(城区附近局地强雷暴天气过程、受海风影响明显的无天气过程)个例,分析研究天津城市热岛环流与海风环流的空间结构特征及相互作用;重点对城市热岛环流与海风环流相互作用触发局地强雷暴的机制进行分析。结果表明:城市热岛环流的伸展高度基本在800 hPa

  20. Breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.; Meyer, J.E.; Sadowsky, N.


    The majority of information available today indiates that the most efficient and accurate method of screening women to detect early-stage breast cancer is an aggressive program of patient self-examination, physical examination by well-trained, motivated personnel, and high-quality x-ray mammography. There are two important factors in the implementation of mammographic screening. The first is the availability of facilities to perform high-quality, low-dose mammography, which is directly related to the second factor: the expense to society for support of this large-scale effort. Cost-benefit analysis is beyond the scope of this review. In 1979 Moskowitz and Fox attempted to address this issue, using data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project in Cincinnati, but additional analysis is required. The cost for each ''curable'' cancer that is detected must be compared with the psychological, social, and personal losses that accrue, as well as the numerous medical expenses incurred, in a frequently protracted death from breast cancer. All other imaging techniques that have been reviewed should be regarded as adjuncts to rather than replacements for mammographic screening. Ultrasound and computerized tomography are helpful when the physical examination and mammogram are equivocal. Other techniques, such as transillumination, thermography, and magnetic-resonance imaging, should be considered experimental. In patients with clinically evident lesions, x-ray mammography is helpful to evaluate the suspicious area, as well as to ''screen'' the remaining tissue in both breasts and to search for multicentric or bilateral lesions. Mammography is the only imaging technique that has been proved effective for screening.

  1. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning. (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim


    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  2. Breast ultrasound. (United States)

    Ueno, E


    In ultrasound, ultrasonic images are formed by means of echoes among tissues with different acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed and bulk modulus. The bulk modulus expresses the elasticity of an object, and in the human body, the value is increased by conditions such as fibrosis and calcification. The sound speed is usually high in elastic tissues and low in water. In the body, it is lowest in the fatty tissue. Ultrasound echoes are strong on the surface of bones which are hard and have a high sound speed. In organs filled with air such as the lungs, the bulk modulus is low and the sound speed is extremely low at 340 m/s, which produce strong echoes (the sound speed in solid tissues is 1,530 m/s). Human tissue is constructed of units smaller than the ultrasonic beam, and it is necessary to understand back-scattering in order to understand the ultrasonic images of these tissues. When ultrasound passes through tissue, it is absorbed as thermal energy and attenuated. Fiber is a tissue with a high absorption and attenuation rate. When the rate increases, the posterior echoes are attenuated. However, in masses with a high water content such as cysts, the posterior echoes are accentuated. This phenomenon is an important, basic finding for determining the properties of tumors. Breast cancer can be classified into two types: stellate carcinoma and circumscribed carcinoma. Since stellate carcinoma is rich in fiber, the posterior echoes are attenuated or lacking. However, circumscribed carcinoma has a high cellularity and the posterior echoes are accentuated. The same tendency is also seen in benign tumors. In immature fibroadenomas, posterior echoes are accentuated, while in fibroadenomas with hyalinosis, the posterior echoes are attenuated. Therefore, if the fundamentals of this tissue characterization and the histological features are understood, reading of ultrasound becomes easy. Color Doppler has also been developed and has contributed

  3. Male Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  4. Breast Cancer -- Male (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  5. Breast cancer in men (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  6. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi


    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  7. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)


    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  8. Nature and Function of Rules. (United States)

    Fields, Barry A.


    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  9. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.


    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  10. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion. (United States)

    Maloney, David P.


    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  11. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati


    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  12. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule (United States)


    ... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk... ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule''...

  13. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco


    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  14. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino


    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  15. Should I Have Breast Reconstruction? (United States)

    ... Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Should I Get Breast Reconstruction Surgery? Women who have surgery ... It usually responds well to treatment. What if I choose not to have breast reconstruction? Many women ...

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the ...

  17. Willpower and Personal Rules. (United States)

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean


    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  18. Adler sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L


    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  19. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree


    addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  20. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S


    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  1. 13 Rules That Expire (United States)

    Karp, Karen S.; Bush, Sarah B.; Dougherty, Barbara J.


    Overgeneralizing commonly accepted strategies, using imprecise vocabulary, and relying on tips and tricks that do not promote conceptual mathematical understanding can lead to misunderstanding later in students' math careers. In this article, the authors present thirteen pervasive mathematics rules that "expire." With the…


    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin


    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  3. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  4. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei


    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  5. Accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Whole breast radiotherapy afier tumor lumpectomy is based on the premise that that the breast cancer recurrence rate is reduced through the elimination of residual cancer foci in the remaining tissue immediately adjacent to the lumpectomy site and occult multicentric areas of in situ or infiltrating cancer in remote areas of the breast. The relevance of remote foci to ipsilateral breast failure rates after breast conserving treatment is debatable, because 65%~100% of recurrences develop in the same quadrant as the initial tumor. This has led several investigators to question whether radiotherapy must be administered to the entire breast.

  6. Breast Imaging Artifacts. (United States)

    Odle, Teresa G


    Artifacts appear on breast images for a number of reasons. Radiologic technologists play an important role in identifying artifacts that can help or hinder breast cancer diagnosis and in minimizing artifacts that degrade image quality. This article describes various artifacts that occur in breast imaging, along with their causes. The article focuses on artifacts in mammography, with a heavy emphasis on digital mammography, and on magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Artifacts in ultrasonography of the breast, digital breast tomosynthesis, and positron emission mammography also are discussed.

  7. Improving breast cancer outcome prediction by combining multiple data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliet, M.H.


    Cancer has recently become the number one cause of death in The Netherlands. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among females, with a lifetime risk of 12.8% (i.e. the 1 in 8 rule). As a result, more and more research is devoted to getting a better insight into cancer, and to further

  8. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da


    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  9. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  10. 海风锋在渤海西岸局地暴雨过程中的作用%The Role of Sea Breeze Front in Local Storm of Bohai Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东高红; 何群英; 刘一玮; 解以扬; 戴云伟


    利用常规观测资料、地面加密自动站资料、多普勒雷达观测资料及中尺度TJ-WRF模式输出资料,对2009年7月6日天津宁河地区出现的暴雨天气过程进行了分析,重点分析了渤海湾海风锋对沿岸局地暴雨的触发机理。结果表明:此次局地暴雨过程是在有利天气背景条件下发生的,暴雨发生地存在局地层结不稳定和较好的水汽条件。海风锋本身有一辐合抬升区,区域内有弱对流存在;当海风锋移到局地存在层结不稳定且水汽充足的区域,其抬升区的辐合上升运动迅速加强,从而触发该地区雷暴的新生发展;海风锋与迎面移来的雷暴相遇,会对雷暴的加速发展起到加强作用。利用中尺度WRF模式输出资料进行分析看到,两条辐合线相交处易激发出强雷暴,雷暴出现在近地层大气暖干区的北端、湿空气的交汇处;海风锋对雷暴的新生发展有明显的触发抬升作用。%Using the data obtained by conventional observations,ground densified automatic weather stations, Doppler radar observations and mesoscale TJ-WRF model,we analyze the heavy rain occurring on 6 July 2009 at Ninghe District of Tianjin and highlight the trigger mechanism of coastal local storm caused by sea breeze front of the Bohai Gulf.The results show that the heavy rain occurred in the favorable weather conditions,and there were local instability and adequate vapor conditions.Sea breeze front itself has a convergent uplift area where weak convection exists;when sea breeze front moves to the unstable and adequate vapor areas,it will strengthen the convergence positive movement of convergent uplift area and lead to the new storm development.The meeting of the sea breeze front and thunderstorm will play a strengthened role in its development.By analyzing the data obtained by mesoscale WRF model,we can see that at the warm and dry ground in front area near the north end of the wet air interchange

  11. Testing the reduction rule

    CERN Document Server

    Hegerfeldt, G C


    The reduction rule, also known as the projection postulate, specifies the state after an ideal measurement. There are two forms, the original rule of von Neumann and a nowadays mostly used modification thereof due to L\\"uders, but sometimes also attributed to von Neumann. However, which form applies depends on the details of the measuring apparatus. Here we therefore consider the following problem: Given an ensemble of systems in an unknown pure or mixed state, an observable $\\hat A$ and an apparatus which performs a measurement of $\\hat A$ on the ensemble, but whose detailed working is unknown ('black box'), how can one test whether the apparatus performs a L\\"uders or von Neumann measurement?

  12. Chaos Rules Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Murphy


    Full Text Available About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of my PhD research, I mused over proposed titles for my thesis. I was pretty pleased with myself when I came up with Chaos Rules (the implied double meaning was deliberate, or more completely, Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education. I used the then-emerging theories of chaos and complexity to underpin my analysis. So it was with more than a little excitement that I read the call for contributions to this special issue of IRRODL. What follows is a walk-through of my thesis with an emphasis on the contribution of chaos and complexity theory.

  13. Real Rules of Inference (United States)


    Robert Nozick’s acceptance rule [Noz81], Acc(h) iff Prob(K I h) > = I- e and Prob(K I -h) <= e and Prob(h) > Prob(K I -h), for small e: and I.J. Good and...Solving," IJCAI 1983. [Noz8ll Nozick , R. Philosophical Explanations, Harvard, 1981. (Nut84] Nute, D. "Logical Relations," Philosophical Studies 46, 1984

  14. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha


    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  15. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian


    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  16. REx: An Efficient Rule Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M


    This paper describes an efficient algorithm REx for generating symbolic rules from artificial neural network (ANN). Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. REx exploits the first order information in the data and finds shortest sufficient conditions for a rule of a class that can differentiate it from patterns of other classes. It can generate concise and perfect rules in the sense that the error rate of the rules is not worse than the inconsistency rate found in the original data. An important feature of rule extraction algorithm, REx, is its recursive nature. They are concise, comprehensible, order insensitive and do not involve any weight values. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmark classification problems, s...

  17. Breast milk jaundice (United States)

    ... page: // Breast milk jaundice To use the sharing features on this ... otherwise healthy, the condition may be called "breast milk jaundice." Causes Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that ...

  18. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  19. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  20. Breast radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  1. Breast Cancer in Men (United States)

    ... Older age • B RCA2 gene mutation • F amily history of breast cancer • Gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast tissue) • Klinefelter’s syndrome (a genetic condition related to high levels ...

  2. Breast cancer staging (United States)

    ... this page: // Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  3. Breast Cancer and Infertility



    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  4. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  5. Breast cancer awareness



    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  6. Breast Cancer (For Kids) (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  7. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  8. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov


    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets


    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  10. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M


    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  11. Service dogs. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  12. 架空输电线路微风振动防治措施介绍及瞻望%Measures of Introduction and Look Forward to Prevent Breeze Vibration of Overhead Power Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阔; 成印健; 成志


    随着输电线路大量兴建,输电线路微风振动问题也越来越引起线路工作人员的重视。为了防止线路因微风振动引起的破坏,在线路设计时要加强措施来防止振动破坏。采用自阻尼导线和防振线夹来防振是一种通过改变线路自身组成部分特性来防振的措施,采用护线条、阻尼线、防振锤、阻尼弹簧间隔棒这些消振装置来防振是另外一种有效的防振措施,两种方法可根据具体情况来选择采用。同时,在超高压乃至特高压迅速发展的今天,利用阻尼线与防振锤混合消振装置以及阻尼弹簧间隔棒来防止微风振动已经越来越受到电力工作者的青睐,成为了一种趋势。%Along with the power transmission lines of construction ,the problem to prevent breeze vibration has caused line workers' atten-tion more and more. To prevent lines for vibration caused by the breeze destruction,in the line design people must strengthen the measures to pre-vent the vibration damage. Adopting the damping wires and vibration- proof line clip to prevent vibration is an effective way by which changing the line itself component characteristics. Adopting Armor Rod, Damping Line, Vibration- proof Hammer,damping spring spacer these vibrating de-vices to prevent vibration is another kind of effective vibration control measures . The two methods can be adopted according to the specific condi-tions. At the same time when the extra high voltage system and even ultra high voltage system is on the development, Using damping line and vi-bration- proof hammer mixed vibrating device class and damping spring spacer to prevent breeze vibration has got the favour of power workers more and more.

  13. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype - Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Ratti


    Full Text Available Background: Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes.

  14. Breast Cancer Basics and You (United States)

    ... in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe contains many smaller sections called lobules. These are groups of tiny glands that make breast milk. Breast milk flows through thin tubes called ducts ...

  15. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir


    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  16. Breast abscesses after breast conserving therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa [National Kyoto Hospital (Japan)


    Breast abscess after breast conserving therapy is a rare complication and the study of this cause has not been reported. A retrospective review of 190 patients undergoing breast conserving therapy in our institution revealed 4 patients with breast abscess (mean age, 50.6 years; range, 47-57 years and median follow up 4 months; 1-11 months). Risk factors which were common to all patients were: fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical treatment; wide excision, adjuvant therapy; oral administration of tamoxifen (TAM), radiation therapy (RT) to ipsilateral whole breast; total dose of 50 Gy and skin desquamation by RT; level I or II. Other important risk factors in 3 patients were repeated aspirations of seroma post operatively and 2 patients received chemotherapy; CAF. Cultures from one abscess grew staphylococcus aureus, one grew staphylococcus epidermidis, and two were sterile. Breast abscess may be caused by a variety of factors and it is often difficult to specify the cause. This suggests that careful observation will be necessary to determine the cause. (author)

  17. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  18. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  19. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.


    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  20. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail


    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis


    , the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within......Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently...

  2. Unanimity rule on networks (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf


    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  3. The biosphere rules. (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C


    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  4. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  5. Breast lump removal - series (image) (United States)

    ... a breast lump is very important to a patient's prognosis (probable outcome). Most breast lumps are not diagnosed at the ... is required. If the lump is malignant, the outcome depends on the ... lumpectomy does not require a breast replacement (prosthesis).

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  7. Breast Cancer Rates by State (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  8. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule


    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko


    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  9. First-order formative rules


    Fuhs, Carsten; Kop, C.


    This paper discusses the method of formative rules for first-order term rewriting, which was previously defined for a higher-order setting. Dual to the well-known usable rules, formative rules allow dropping some of the term constraints that need to be solved during a termination proof. Compared to the higher-order definition, the first-order setting allows for significant improvements of the technique.

  10. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV


    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  11. Fluctuations in classical sum rules. (United States)

    Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven


    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  12. Effective Rule Based Classifier using Multivariate Filter and Genetic Miner for Mammographic Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirase Fathima Abubacker


    Full Text Available Mammography is an important examination in the early detection of breast abnormalities. Automatic classifications of mammogram images into normal, benign or malignant would help the radiologists in diagnosis of breast cancer cases. This study investigates the effectiveness of using rule-based classifiers with multivariate filter and genetic miner to classify mammogram images. The method discovers association rules with the classes as the consequence and classifies the images based on the Highest Average Confidence of the association rules (HAvC matched for the classes. In the association rules mining stage, Correlation based Feature Selection (CFS plays an enormous significance to reduce the complexity of image mining process is used in this study as a feature selection method and a modified genetic association rule mining technique, the GARM, is used to discover the rules. The method is evaluated on mammogram image dataset with 240 images taken from DDSM. The performance of the method is compared against other classifiers such as SMO; Naïve Bayes and J48. The performance of the proposed method is promising with 88% accuracy and outperforms other classifiers in the context of mammogram image classification.

  13. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  14. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  15. Lobular Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Colon, the Appendix and the Gallbladder (United States)

    Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rios-Peregrina, Rosa M.; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P.; Hernández-García, Maria D.; Jimenez-Rios, José A.


    Summary Background Metastases of lobular breast cancer are commonly encountered at the level of lungs, bones, brain and liver, whereas lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are rarely seen. Case Report A case of a patient with metastases in the right colon and gallbladder originating from an invasive lobular carcinoma is described. Conclusion Adequate diagnostic procedures should be performed in patients with a history of breast cancer and who show gastrointestinal symptoms to rule out the potential presence of gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:25759626

  16. Bilateral primary breast lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Im Yi; Byung Joo Chae; Ja Seong Bae; Bong Joo Kang; Ahwon Lee; Byung Joo Song; Sang Seol Jung


    @@ Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is rare, accounting for 0.04%-0.50% of breast malignancies and 1.7% of extranodal lymphoma.1,2 The originally described diagnostic criteria for PBL2 remains the standard definition for this disease. These criteria are breast location as the clinical site of presentation, absence of history of previous lymphoma or evidence of widespread disease at diagnosis, close association of lymphoma with breast tissue in pathologic specimens, and involvement of ipsilateral lymph nodes if they develop simultaneously with PBL.

  17. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy]. (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E


    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  18. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  19. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  20. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong


    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  1. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong


    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  2. Breast cancer statistics, 2011. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  3. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.


    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  4. Girls' Attitudes toward Breast Care and Breast Self-Examination. (United States)

    Hadranyi, B. T.

    A study explored girls' emerging attitudes toward breast care and breast self-exam (BSE) and the extent to which girls had given thought to these issues. Analyses focused specifically on individual differences related to age, stage of breast development, perceived normalcy of breast development, and body image. The sample consisted of 43 white,…

  5. Contralateral breast dose from partial breast brachytherapy. (United States)

    Robinson, R Cole; Nelson, Christopher L; Bloom, Elizabeth S; Kisling, Kelly D; Mason, Bryan E; Fisher, Gary D; Kirsner, Steven M


    The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the contralateral breast during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and to compare it to external beam-published values. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) packets were used to measure the dose to the most medial aspect of the contralateral breast during APBI simulation, daily quality assurance (QA), and treatment. All patients in this study were treated with a single-entry, multicatheter device for 10 fractions to a total dose of 34 Gy. A mark was placed on the patient's skin on the medial aspect of the opposite breast. Three TLD packets were taped to this mark during the pretreatment simulation. Simulations consisted of an AP and Lateral scout and a limited axial scan encompassing the lumpectomy cavity (miniscan), if rotation was a concern. After the simulation the TLD packets were removed and the patients were moved to the high-dose-rate (HDR) vault where three new TLD packets were taped onto the patients at the skin mark. Treatment was administered with a Nucletron HDR afterloader using Iridium-192 as the treatment source. Post-treatment, TLDs were read (along with the simulation and QA TLD and a set of standards exposed to a known dose of 6 MV photons). Measurements indicate an average total dose to the contralateral breast of 70 cGy for outer quadrant implants and 181 cGy for inner quadrant implants. Compared to external beam breast tangents, these results point to less dose being delivered to the contralateral breast when using APBI.

  6. Hormonal Contraceptive Use as Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Young Javanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Fitria Kusuma


    Full Text Available Previous study from 351 Indonesian women shown that they had breast cancers at younger age compared with western. In this study we investigate role of hormonal contraceptive as risk factor for Indonesian Javanese young breast cancer cases. However, the presence different life style between ethnic alter their risk as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, must therefore be validated in Asian women. We undertook case-control study to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer among young Javanese people, one of the largest populations in Indonesia (Southeast Asia. A total of 500 women diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, divided in to two group young (less 40 years old and mature breast cancer. Data for hormonal contraceptive, clinico-pathological characteristics and other risk factors were collected. We found that young Javanese women who use hormonal contraceptive for more than 10 years had a 4,67 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01. We didn’t found any differences between this two groups in menarche and parity. Interestingly for Javanese women who breast feeding more than 18 months increase 1,74 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01.

  7. The rule of rescue. (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff


    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  8. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  9. Androgens and the breast. (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Bondy, Carolyn


    Androgens have important physiological effects in women while at the same time they may be implicated in breast cancer pathologies. However, data on the effects of androgens on mammary epithelial proliferation and/or breast cancer incidence are not in full agreement. We performed a literature review evaluating current clinical, genetic and epidemiological data regarding the role of androgens in mammary growth and neoplasia. Epidemiological studies appear to have significant methodological limitations and thus provide inconclusive results. The study of molecular defects involving androgenic pathways in breast cancer is still in its infancy. Clinical and nonhuman primate studies suggest that androgens inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth while conventional estrogen treatment suppresses endogenous androgens. Abundant clinical evidence suggests that androgens normally inhibit mammary epithelial proliferation and breast growth. Suppression of androgens using conventional estrogen treatment may thus enhance estrogenic breast stimulation and possibly breast cancer risk. Addition of testosterone to the usual hormone therapy regimen may diminish the estrogen/progestin increase in breast cancer risk but the impact of this combined use on mammary gland homeostasis still needs evaluation.



    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  11. Breast Cancer (For Kids) (United States)

    ... or sacs) or they can be due to normal breast changes associated with hormone changes or aging. Girls who are beginning puberty might notice a lump underneath the nipple when their breasts start developing. Usually, this is a normal. You can ask a parent or your doctor ...

  12. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;


    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  13. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.


    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  14. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  15. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,


    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  16. Gene patents, patenting life and the impact of court rulings on US stem cell patents and research. (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L


    In June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled that naturally occurring genes were unpatentable in the case Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. Up until this decision, Myriad Genetics was the only company in the USA that could legally conduct diagnostic testing for BRCA1 and 2, genes that are linked to familial breast and ovarian cancer. The court case and rulings garnered discussion in public about patenting biological materials. This paper will describe the progression of the Myriad Genetics case, similar US rulings and biological intellectual property policies. In addition, it will discuss the impact of the case on biological patents - specifically those for human embryonic stem cells.

  17. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik


    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  18. Simplification Rules for Birdtrack Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alckock-Zeilinger, Judith


    This paper derives a set of easy-to-use tools designed to simplify calculations with birdtrack op- erators comprised of symmetrizers and antisymmetrizers. In particular, we present cancellation rules allowing one to shorten the birdtrack expressions of operators, and propagation rules identifying the circumstances under which it is possible to propagate symmetrizers past antisymmetrizers and vice versa. We exhibit the power of these simplification rules by means of a short example in which we apply the tools derived in this paper on a typical operator that can be encountered in the representation theory of SU(N) over the product space $V^{\\otimes m}$ . These rules form the basis for the construction of compact Hermitian Young projection operators and their transition operators addressed in companion papers.

  19. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer (United States)


    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. A Novel Rule Induction Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianguo; LIU Fang; WANG Lei; JIAO Licheng


    Knowledge discovery in databases is concerned with extracting useful information from databases, and the immune algorithm is a biological theory-based and globally searching algorithm. A specific immune algorithm is designed for discovering a few interesting, high-level prediction rules from databases, rather than discovering classification knowledge as usual in the literatures. Simulations show that this novel algorithm is able to improve the stability of the population, increase the holistic performance and make the rules extracted have higher precision.

  1. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule


    Rodriques, Samuel G.


    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  2. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation (United States)

    Sprows, David


    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  3. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta


    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  4. Why Are My Breasts Sore? (For Teens) (United States)

    ... sure? Why Do I Have Breasts Anyway? All mammals have breasts and humans are no exception. Breasts, ... Ache? Most PMS symptoms, including breast soreness, should disappear as your period begins. Over-the-counter pain ...

  5. Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging


    Mann, R. M.; Kuhl, C. K.; Kinkel, K.; BOETES, C.


    The aim of breast MRI is to obtain a reliable evaluation of any lesion within the breast. It is currently always used as an adjunct to the standard diagnostic procedures of the breast, i.e., clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound. Whereas the sensitivity of breast MRI is usually very high, specificity—as in all breast imaging modalities—depends on many factors such as reader expertise, use of adequate techniques and composition of the patient cohorts. Since breast MRI will always yi...

  6. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny


    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  7. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads


    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  8. Breast carcinoma metastases. (United States)

    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P


    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  9. Inflammatory Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond ...

  10. Benign Breast Conditions (United States)

    ... enlarge and feel tender right before your period.Fibroadenomas. These are the most common breast lumps in ... like, thick tissue, or a fluid-filled cyst.Fibroadenomas: This will feel like a small, round, moving ...

  11. Recurrent Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... that can help you cope with distress include: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy (United States)

    ... It also does not involve cutting of the abdominal muscle and is a free flap. This type of ... NCI fact sheet Mammograms . What are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? Oncoplastic surgery. In ...

  13. The breast cancer conundrum



    For decades, rates of breast cancer have been going up faster in rich countries than in poor ones. Scientists are beginning to understand more about its causes but unanswered questions remain. Patrick Adams reports.

  14. Risks of Breast Implants (United States)

    ... an infection or injury. Demonstrated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain and or/loss of function. Lymphedema or ... Overfilling or underfilling of saline-filled breast implants Physical stresses such as trauma or intense physical pressure ...

  15. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis



    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  16. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin


    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  17. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80, and 87 Commercial Radio Operators Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... within the commercial radio operators service, to determine which rules can be clarified, streamlined, or... proceeding to amend the Commercial Radio Operators rules, and related rules in parts 0, 1, 80, and...

  18. Inferring comprehensible business/ICT alignment rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumps, B.; Martens, D.; De Backer, M.; Haesen, R.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Baesens, B.; Snoeck, M.


    We inferred business rules for business/ICT alignment by applying a novel rule induction algorithm on a data set containing rich alignment information polled from 641 organisations in 7 European countries. The alignment rule set was created using AntMiner+, a rule induction technique with a reputati

  19. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule (United States)


    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... Disclosure Form, available at . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original Franchise Rule published at 43 FR 59614 (Dec. 21,...

  20. A Pieri rule for skew shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami; Lam, Thomas


    The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew shape.

  1. Breast Cancer In Women (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna


    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  3. Integration Rules for Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H


    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any M\\"obius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  4. Integration rules for scattering equations (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.


    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  5. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  6. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.


    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  7. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan


    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  8. Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients (United States)


    the project was the development of an educational intervention ( flip chart ) for physicians to use in the clinic setting when discussing breast...Procedure Scheduling on Breast Biopsy Patient Outcomes The first phase of this project is the development of an educational flip chart for...breast biopsy and breast cancer survivors to guide the content of the flip chart b) Develop outline and overall format c) Identify/develop

  9. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  10. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance Among African American Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Family history of breast cancer  specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer  Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  12. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery (United States)

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  14. Causes of breast lumps (image) (United States)

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  15. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, D.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Westenberg, A.H.; Wilt, J.H. de; Blanken-Peeters, C.F.


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimoda

  16. Aluminium in human breast tissue. (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Charles, Lisa M; Barr, Lester; Martin, Claire; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa D


    Aluminium is omnipresent in everyday life and increased exposure is resulting in a burgeoning body burden of this non-essential metal. Personal care products are potential contributors to the body burden of aluminium and recent evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to measure the aluminium content in breast biopsies obtained following mastectomies. The aluminium content of breast tissue and breast tissue fat were in the range 4-437 nmol/g dry wt. and 3-192 nmol/g oil, respectively. The aluminium content of breast tissue in the outer regions (axilla and lateral) was significantly higher (P=0.033) than the inner regions (middle and medial) of the breast. Whether differences in the regional distribution of aluminium in the breast are related to the known higher incidence of tumours in the outer upper quadrant of the breast remains to be ascertained.

  17. Breast Cancer in Young Women (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  18. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  19. Early detection of breast cancer. (United States)

    Nettles-Carlson, B


    Timely, comprehensive screening for breast cancer is a major, though often overlooked, component of primary health care for women. This article reviews the scientific rationale for screening and outlines the current recommendations of the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force regarding the use of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination (BSE). Nursing interventions to decrease barriers to effective screening are discussed, and an expanded role of nurses in breast cancer screening is proposed.

  20. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.


    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  1. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.


    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  2. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha


    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  4. Controlling False Positives in Association Rule Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guimei; Wong, Limsoon


    Association rule mining is an important problem in the data mining area. It enumerates and tests a large number of rules on a dataset and outputs rules that satisfy user-specified constraints. Due to the large number of rules being tested, rules that do not represent real systematic effect in the data can satisfy the given constraints purely by random chance. Hence association rule mining often suffers from a high risk of false positive errors. There is a lack of comprehensive study on controlling false positives in association rule mining. In this paper, we adopt three multiple testing correction approaches---the direct adjustment approach, the permutation-based approach and the holdout approach---to control false positives in association rule mining, and conduct extensive experiments to study their performance. Our results show that (1) Numerous spurious rules are generated if no correction is made. (2) The three approaches can control false positives effectively. Among the three approaches, the permutation...

  5. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness) (United States)


    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie


    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  7. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;


    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  8. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur


    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...

  9. Breast cancer epidemiology. (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S


    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  10. [Occult multicentric breast cancer]. (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Zab'ialova, M V; Glushchenko, S A; Perel'muter, V M; Slonimskaia, E M


    The study included 92 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer (T2-4N0-2M0-1). In 38 cases, tumor growth was unicentric while histologically identifiable ones as multicentric in 44. Multicentricity mostly occurred in cases of macroscopically-identifiable nodes located in the central segments of the breast. Clinically-identifiable nodes of multicentric tumor growth measured more than 3 cm. Multicentric tumors were mostly grade III, featured lower expression of sex hormone receptors and positive Her2 status.

  11. Hamartoma Breast, Chondromatous Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhat


    Full Text Available This case report describes an exceedingly rare case of hamartoma of breast with predominantly chondroid stroma. A 45 year old lady presented with a mobile lump in the upper outer quadrant of left breast, clinically diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Mammography and FNAC were not done. She underwent lumpectomy and we received the specimen measuring 7x5x3cm. Cut surface of which revealed grey white nodule with glistening surface. Histopathologically we found a circumscribed lesion with predominantly mature hyaline cartilage separated by fibrocollagenous bands.

  12. On the Fermi Golden Rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe


    We review and further develop the framework in [9] of the stationary theory of resonances, arising by perturbation of either threshold, or embedded in the continuum, eigenvalues. While in [9] only non/degenerate eigenvalues were considered, here we add some results for the degenerate case. [9] A........ Jensen and G. Nenciu, The Fermi Golden Rule and its form at thresholds in odd dimensions. Comm. Math. Phys 261 (2006), 693-727...

  13. Decision Rules for Enhanced Breakout. (United States)


    347AD-A18 2753 DECISION RULES FOR ENHANCED GRERICOUT(U) MODERN TECNOLOGIES CORP DAYTON 0ON T MI MCCANN 20 MAR 87 MTC-TR-8883-02 BRMC-85-564-i F33615... information to develop a priori estimates of the cost to break-out specific spare parts. In addition, some recommendations were to be developed...implementing directives. Applicable AF and AFLC Regulations and Pamphlets were also reviewed to obtain information on costs and their estimated

  14. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...

  15. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... the survival of women who have had breast cancer in the past. Lactation (breast milk production) and breast-feeding should be stopped if ... methotrexate , may occur in high levels in breast milk and may harm the nursing baby. Women ... Breast cancer does not appear to harm the unborn baby. ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION


    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  17. Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the Octet Rule. (United States)

    Jensen, William B.


    Discusses major events leading to the development of the octet rule. Three conclusions based on the work of Mendeleev, Abegg, Thompson, Kossel, Lewis, and Langmuir are considered as is the debate over the rule's validity. (JN)

  18. Statistical inference of static analysis rules (United States)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)


    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  19. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic


    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  20. Affluence and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E


    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0.624). The multivariate general linear model with income as covariate, 5-year survival by race as a dependent variable, showed a significant effect of income and White race on 5-year survival (p breast cancer

  1. Estimating personalized diagnostic rules depending on individualized characteristics. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Huang, Chaorui; Zeng, Donglin


    There is an increasing demand for personalization of disease screening based on assessment of patient risk and other characteristics. For example, in breast cancer screening, advanced imaging technologies have made it possible to move away from 'one-size-fits-all' screening guidelines to targeted risk-based screening for those who are in need. Because diagnostic performance of various imaging modalities may vary across subjects, applying the most accurate modality to the patients who would benefit the most requires personalized strategy. To address these needs, we propose novel machine learning methods to estimate personalized diagnostic rules for medical screening or diagnosis by maximizing a weighted combination of sensitivity and specificity across subgroups of subjects. We first develop methods that can be applied when competing modalities or screening strategies that are observed on the same subject (paired design). Next, we present methods for studies where not all subjects receive both modalities (unpaired design). We study theoretical properties including consistency and risk bound of the personalized diagnostic rules and conduct simulation studies to examine performance of the proposed methods. Lastly, we analyze data collected from a brain imaging study of Parkinson's disease using positron emission tomography and diffusion tensor imaging with paired and unpaired designs. Our results show that in some cases, a personalized modality assignment is estimated to improve empirical area under the receiver operating curve compared with a 'one-size-fits-all' assignment strategy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Refinements of some new efficient quadrature rules (United States)

    Qayyum, A.; Shoaib, M.; Faye, I.; Kashif, A. R.


    In the field of Engineering and Applied Mathematical Sciences, minimizing approximation error is very important task and therefore quadrature rules are investigated regularly. In this paper, using some standard results of theoretical inequalities, e.g. Ostrowski type inequality, some new efficient quadrature rules are introduced for n-times differentiable mappings. These quadrature rules are expected to give better results comparing to the conventional quadrature rules.

  3. Optimization of CHR propagation rules: extended report


    Van Weert, Peter


    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is an elegant, high-level programming language based on multi-headed, forward chaining rules. To ensure CHR propagation rules are applied at most once with the same combination of constraints, CHR implementations maintain a so-called propagation history. The performance impact of this history can be significant. We introduce several optimizations that, for the majority of CHR rules, eliminate this overhead. We formally prove their correctness, and evaluate thei...

  4. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  5. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz


    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  6. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo


    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  7. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing rulings. 103.85 Section 103.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3618 - Rule 17. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3618 Section 29.3618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3618 Rule 17. Any lot of tobacco which is not green but contains over...

  9. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer


    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  10. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Harmer, Russ


    We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  11. 78 FR 54566 - Energy Labeling Rule (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final rule on July 23, 2013 revising its...

  12. 16 CFR 410.1 - The Rule. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 410.1 Section 410.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING AS TO SIZES OF VIEWABLE PICTURES SHOWN BY TELEVISION RECEIVING SETS § 410.1 The Rule. In connection with the sale of...

  13. Binary translation using peephole translation rules (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex


    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  14. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes (United States)

    Glaister, P.


    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  15. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules (United States)


    ... ``Identity Theft Rules,'' 16 CFR part 681, and its rules governing ``Disposal of Consumer Report Information... agencies, creditors, and others to help remedy identity theft. The FTC issued final rules to define the terms ``identity theft'' and ``identity theft report.'' \\13\\ \\13\\ 69 FR 63922 (Nov. 3, 2004). 2. 16...

  16. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  17. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R


    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  18. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.


    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  19. Formal Semantics of Dynamic Rules in ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, Herman; Halpin, Terry; Meersman, R; Tari, Z; Herrero, P


    This paper provides formal semantics for an extension of the Object-Role Modeling approach that supports declaration of dynamic rules. Dynamic rules differ from static rules by pertaining to properties of state transitions, rather than to the states themselves. In this paper we restrict application

  20. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes


    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  1. [Breast carcinoma in men]. (United States)

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S


    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  2. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue (United States)

    ... another method called the free flap procedure, skin, fat, and muscle tissue are removed from your lower belly. This tissue ... breast that was removed. The surgeon loosens skin, fat, and muscle from this area. This tissue is then tunneled under your skin to the ...

  3. Breast Cancer Research Program (United States)


    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  4. Living Beyond Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  5. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  6. Letrozole Induced Hypercalcemia in a Patient with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Hilmi Ipekci


    Full Text Available Hypersecretion of PTHrP is a relatively common cause of malignancy-related hypercalcemia. However, there is only one case report of letrozole induced hypercalcemia. A 52-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic because of the recent discovery of hypercalcemia (11.0 mg/dL. The patient had a history of left breast carcinoma. She had started a course of letrozole (aromatase inhibitor; 2.5 mg dose/day ten months earlier. Patient’s parathyroid hormone-related protein levels were normal and a bone scintigram revealed no evidence of skeletal metastasis. Other potential causes of high calcium levels were ruled out. We recognized that, when letrozole was taken at one dose daily (2.5 mg, she had recurrent hypercalcemia. Our experience suggests that letrozole may precipitate hypercalcemia in a patient with breast cancer.

  7. Progestins and breast cancer. (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R


    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  8. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  9. Accurate molecular classification of cancer using simple rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotoh Osamu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One intractable problem with using microarray data analysis for cancer classification is how to reduce the extremely high-dimensionality gene feature data to remove the effects of noise. Feature selection is often used to address this problem by selecting informative genes from among thousands or tens of thousands of genes. However, most of the existing methods of microarray-based cancer classification utilize too many genes to achieve accurate classification, which often hampers the interpretability of the models. For a better understanding of the classification results, it is desirable to develop simpler rule-based models with as few marker genes as possible. Methods We screened a small number of informative single genes and gene pairs on the basis of their depended degrees proposed in rough sets. Applying the decision rules induced by the selected genes or gene pairs, we constructed cancer classifiers. We tested the efficacy of the classifiers by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV of training sets and classification of independent test sets. Results We applied our methods to five cancerous gene expression datasets: leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] vs. acute myeloid leukemia [AML], lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia (ALL vs. mixed-lineage leukemia [MLL] vs. AML. Accurate classification outcomes were obtained by utilizing just one or two genes. Some genes that correlated closely with the pathogenesis of relevant cancers were identified. In terms of both classification performance and algorithm simplicity, our approach outperformed or at least matched existing methods. Conclusion In cancerous gene expression datasets, a small number of genes, even one or two if selected correctly, is capable of achieving an ideal cancer classification effect. This finding also means that very simple rules may perform well for cancerous class prediction.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer) (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  11. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Brateman, Libby


    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  12. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  13. Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Braving Breast Cancer: Just Do It! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents Breast cancer survivor Jana Brightwell, pictured here on the NIH ...



    Anna, Mîra; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Payan, Yohan


    International audience; The aim of this work is to develop a biomechanical Finite Element (FE) breast model in order to analyze different breast compression strategies and their impact on image quality. Large breast deformations will be simulated using this FE model. A particular attention will be granted to the computation of the initial stress in the model due to gravity and to boundary conditions imposed by the thorax anatomy. Finally, the model will be validated by comparing the estimated...

  15. Cutkosky Rules from Outer Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk


    We overview recent results on the mathematical foundations of Cutkosky rules. We emphasize that the two operations of shrinking an internal edge or putting internal lines on the mass-shell are natural operation on the cubical chain complex studied in the context of geometric group theory. This together with Cutkosky's theorem regarded as a theorem which informs us about variations connected to the monodromy of Feynman amplitudes allows for a systematic approach to normal and anomalous thresholds, dispersion relations and the optical theorem. In this report we follow [1] closely.

  16. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  17. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules


    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Mircea, Marinela


    In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods ...

  18. Membership Rules - LHCRRB Scrutiny Group

    CERN Document Server


    The LHC Resources Scrutiny Group was created in 2001 to review and scrutinize the M&O cost estimates of the LHC Collaborations. The Scrutiny Group first met on 23 August 2001 and reported to the RRBs at its 13th Plenary meeting, in October 2001 (RRB-D-2001-8). The Scrutiny Group operates according to the procedures set out in Annex 12 of the MoUs for the M&O of the LHC experiments. This document lists the Rules of Procedure that apply to the M&O Scrutiny Group

  19. The Rule of Metaphor commented.



    This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology) around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective ...

  20. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre


    This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  1. Breast-feeding after breast cancer: if you wish, madam. (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Bellettini, Giulia; Gelber, Shari; Peccatori, Fedro A


    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor-affecting women during the child bearing period. With the rising trend in delaying pregnancy later in life, the issue of subsequent pregnancy and lactation following breast cancer diagnosis has been more frequently encountered. In this context, data is scarce particularly those addressing the issue of lactation. In this review, we discussed different endocrinal, clinical and biological aspects dealing with breast-feeding after breast cancer in an attempt to determine how safe and feasible this approach is.

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  4. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann


    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  5. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules


    R. Vijaya Prakash; Dr. A. Govardhan3; Prof. SSVN. Sarma


    Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  6. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid (United States)


    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  7. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P


    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  8. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen


    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  9. Use of Ontology Structure and Bayesian Models to Aid the Crowdsourcing of ICD-11 Sanctioning Rules. (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A


    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall

  10. Acupuncture relieves menopausal discomfort in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokmand, Susanne; Flyger, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the effect of acupuncture on hot flashes and disturbed night sleep in patients treated for breast cancer. The effect of acupuncture was tested against a sham-acupuncture group and a no-treatment control group. Plasma estradiol was measured to rule out this as cause...... of effect. Side effects of the treatment were registered. METHODS: We randomized 94 women into the study: 31 had acupuncture, 29 had sham acupuncture and 34 had no treatment. FINDINGS: In the acupuncture group, 16 patients (52%) experienced a significant effect on hot flashes compared with seven patients...

  11. Circadian clocks and breast cancer


    Blakeman, Victoria; Jack L. Williams; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H


    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, an...

  12. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome (United States)


    Sugumar A, Liu YC, Xia Q , Koh YS, Matsuo K. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein 3 and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a...stimulates autophagy and promotes the survival of breast cancer cells exposed to adverse microenvironments. Oncogene 32(19): 2412 2420. 29. Mehta HH, Gao Q ...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0474 TITLE: The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew R. Hoffman CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  13. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses


    Glenn Wendy K; Heads Joy; Lawson James S; Whitaker Noel J


    Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the propo...

  14. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. (United States)

    Darbre, P D


    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  15. Progress in breast cancer: overview. (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L


    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  16. Software Security Rules: SDLC Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey


    Full Text Available Software has become an integral part of everyday life. Everyday, millions of people perform transaction through internet, ATM, mobile phone, they send email & e-greetings, and use word processing and spreadsheet for various purpose. People use software bearing in mind that it is reliable and can be trust upon and the operation they perform is secured. Now, if these software have exploitable security hole then how can they be safe for use. Security brings value to software in terms of people’s trust. The value provided by secure software is of vital importance because many critical functions are entirely dependent on the software. That is why security is a serious topic which should be given proper attention during the entire SDLC, ‘right from the beginning’. For the proper implementation of security in the software, twenty one security rules are proposed in this paper along with validation results. It is found that by applying these rules as per given implementation mechanism, most of the vulnerabilities are eliminated in the software and a more secure software can be built.

  17. 针对微风发电的城市风场特性初步研究%A Preliminary Research of Urban Wind Farm Characteristics for the Breeze Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登君; 韦雅文; 季丰


    近年来,风电行业在全球都获得了快速发展。但传统风电机组在城市环境中却难以正常工作。为了实现在城市中进行微风发电,就需要探究其原因,对城市风场特性进行分析和研究。本研究以南京作为代表城市,使用便携式风速仪和固定式气象站对城市环境中的风场特性进行了观测和分析。根据结果,总结出影响风力发电效果的城市风场特性主要有三大方面:低风速、频变风向和湍流。最后对照传统风力发电选址的技术标准提出城市风力发电的发展方向。%In recent years, the wind power industry in the world has achieved rapid growth. But traditional wind turbine is difcult to work properly in an urban environment. A preliminary study of urban wind farm characteristics was made in order to fnd out the reason and make the generation breeze in urban area to become reality. In this study, portable anemometer and fxed weather station were used to observe and analysis for the characteristics of urban wind farm in Nanjing city, which was made as representative. According to the measurement results, the three mainly infuencing factors of urban wind farm characteristics that impact the efect of wind power generation are:low wind velocity, frequent changing wind direction and turbulence. At last, the direction of development for urban wind power generation was put forward according to the technical standards of address selection for traditional wind power generation.

  18. Breast health in developing countries. (United States)

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A


    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  19. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia


    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  20. Observation on the characteristics of sea-land breezes and its influence to air quality over Pearl River Delta region during dry season%珠三角干季海陆风特征及其对空气质量影响的观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蒙; 罗云; 吴兑; 范绍佳


    Based on the sounding data obtained from the boundary layer observation experiment over Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during October 2004 and the corresponding hourly PM2.5 data, the characteristics of sea-land breezes and its influenceson quality over PRD region were discussed by Recirculation Factor (RF) and other methods. Recirculation factor was a useful tool to represent the atmospheric horizontal transmission capacity.With the influence of the cold air and warm air confront with each other during pollution days, the sea-land breezes occurred frequently as a result of the weak system wind, and air quality index had significant relation with the RF, the RF of 100~400m was about 0.5~0.8. The horizontal transmission capacity of vertical wind field was weak under the influence of sea-land breezes, not conducive to the spread of pollutants. As PRD controlled by cold air overall, the RF of vertical windreach up to 0.9, and sea-land breezes circulation was hard to developing,so the horizontal transmissions capacity was powerful and the pollutants could be spread effectually. Among the observations, the frequency of sea-land breezes was about 47.8%at the coastal station, and the 72.7%of sea-land breezes day was pollution day, the wind directionhad visible change in clockwise over time. The sea breeze occurred in 16:00, and reached the maximum in 20:00 with the influence height was about 600~800m. In the night, sea breeze may transport the pollutants back to inland, and gave rise to a peak value of PM2.5 concentration appeared at 19:00 to 21:00 in inland station.%通过2004年10月在珠江三角洲(以下简称“珠三角”)开展大气边界层观测试验得到的垂直风温资料和逐时PM2.5浓度资料,利用局地环流指数(RF)等方法研究了珠三角海陆风特征及其对空气质量的影响.结果表明:局地环流指数是表征局地大气输送能力的有效指标;冷暖气团对峙导致珠三角污染日背景风场较弱,沿海海

  1. The information content of rules and rule sets and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dan; LI HongXing; YU XianChuan


    The information content of rules is categorized into inner mutual information content and outer impartation information content. Actually, the conventional objective interestingness measures based on information theory are all inner mutual informarion, which represent the confidence of rules and the mutual information between the antecedent and consequent. Moreover, almost all of these measures lose sight of the outer impartation information, which is conveyed to the user and help the user to make decisions. We put forward the viewpoint that the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets can be represented by the relations from input universe to output universe. By binary relations, the interaction of rules in a rule set can be easily represented by operators: union and intersection. Based on the entropy of relations, the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets are well measured. Then, the conditional information content of rules and rule sets, the independence of rules and rule sets and the inconsistent knowledge of rule sets are defined and measured. The properties of these new measures are discussed and some interesting results are proven, such as the information content of a rule set may be bigger than the sum of the information content of rules in the rule set, and the conditional information content of rules may be negative. At last, the applications of these new measures are discussed. The new method for the appraisement of .rule mining algorithm, and two rule pruning algorithms, λ-choice and RPCIC, are put forward. These new methods and algorithms havepredominance in satisfying the need of more efficient decision information.

  2. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging (United States)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.


    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  3. Rule-Based Network Service Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Deca


    Full Text Available Due to the unprecedented development of networks, manual network service provisioning is becoming increasingly risky, error-prone, expensive, and time-consuming. To solve this problem,rule-based methods can provide adequate leverage for automating various network management tasks. This paper presents a rule-based solution for automated network service provisioning. The proposed approach captures configuration data interdependencies using high-level, service-specific, user-configurable rules. We focus on the service validation task, which is illustrated by means of a case study.Based on numerical results, we analyse the influence of the network-level complexity factors and rule descriptive features on the rule efficiency. This analysis shows the operators how to increase rule efficiency while keeping the rules simple and the rule set compact. We present a technique that allows operators to increase the error coverage, and we show that high error coverage scales well when the complexity of networks and services increases.We reassess the correlation function between specific rule efficiency and rule complexity metrics found in previous work, and show that this correlation function holds for various sizes, types, and complexities of networks and services.

  4. Clustering Association Rules with Fuzzy Concepts (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Matthias; Kruse, Rudolf

    Association rules constitute a widely accepted technique to identify frequent patterns inside huge volumes of data. Practitioners prefer the straightforward interpretability of rules, however, depending on the nature of the underlying data the number of induced rules can be intractable large. Even reasonably sized result sets may contain a large amount of rules that are uninteresting to the user because they are too general, are already known or do not match other user-related intuitive criteria. We allow the user to model his conception of interestingness by means of linguistic expressions on rule evaluation measures and compound propositions of higher order (i.e., temporal changes of rule properties). Multiple such linguistic concepts can be considered a set of fuzzy patterns (Fuzzy Sets and Systems 28(3):313-331, 1988) and allow for the partition of the initial rule set into fuzzy fragments that contain rules of similar membership to a user’s concept (Höppner et al., Fuzzy Clustering, Wiley, Chichester, 1999; Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 51(1):192-214, 2006; Advances in Fuzzy Clustering and Its Applications, chap. 1, pp. 3-30, Wiley, New York, 2007). With appropriate visualization methods that extent previous rule set visualizations (Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4529, pp. 295-303, Springer, Berlin, 2007) we allow the user to instantly assess the matching of his concepts against the rule set.

  5. Metoclopramide and breast milk. (United States)

    de Gezelle, H; Ooghe, W; Thiery, M; Dhont, M


    Thirteen primiparous nursing mothers participated in this placebo-controlled double blind trial of metoclopramide. Therapy was started on the first postpartum day and continued for 8 days. Seven women received metoclopramide (10 mg, 3 X dd). Serum prolactin and milk yield were measured during the trial. The breast milk composition was analysed during the trial and weekly for 3 wk after the trial. A detailed analysis of the amino acid content was performed on the 6th and 21st postpartum days. During the early puerperium the total milk yield was ca. 50% greater in the metoclopramide-treated group compared to the control group. The evolution of the breast milk composition was similar for both groups, except for the amino acid content. The shift in amino acid composition occurred earlier in the treatment group indicating that metoclopramide enhances the rate of transition from colostrum to mature milk.

  6. Breast Biopsy System (United States)


    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  7. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  8. Hormones and Breast Cancer. (United States)


    pathway of El metabolism may be altered by dietary (in particular, cruciferous vegetables ) and other factors (54-58). In this project we compared the... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giske Ursin, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles...TYPE AND DATES COVERED I October 1997 Final (30 Sep 94 - 29 Sep 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hormones and Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J

  9. [Unusual breast scars]. (United States)

    Petit, F; Divaris, M; Guilbert, F


    The authors report the case of an unusual form of skin tattoo, discovered on the breasts of a young woman, corresponding to several scars forming a symbolic image, performed deliberately with a burning object. This form of mutilation is called "branding". Imported from England, it is developing in France as a result of fashion, but its followers could one day regret the permanent scars left by this deep burn.

  10. Correlation of centroid-based breast size, surface-based breast volume, and asymmetry-score-based breast symmetry in three-dimensional breast shape analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henseler, Helga


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations among the size, volume, and symmetry of the female breast after reconstruction based on previously published data. Methods: The centroid, namely the geometric center of a three-dimensional (3D breast-landmark-based configuration, was used to calculate the size of the breast. The surface data of the 3D breast images were used to measure the volume. Breast symmetry was assessed by the Procrustes analysis method, which is based on the 3D coordinates of the breast landmarks to produce an asymmetry score. The relationship among the three measurements was investigated. For this purpose, the data of 44 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction with an extended latissimus dorsi flap were analyzed. The breast was captured by a validated 3D imaging system using multiple cameras. Four landmarks on each breast and two landmarks marking the midline were used.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the centroid-based breast size of the unreconstructed breast and the measured asymmetry (p=0.024; correlation coefficient, 0.34. There was also a significant relationship between the surface-based breast volume of the unaffected side and the overall asymmetry score (p<0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.556. An increase in size and especially in volume of the unreconstructed breast correlated positively with an increase in breast asymmetry in a linear relationship.Conclusions: In breast shape analysis, the use of more detailed surface-based data should be preferred to centroid-based size data. As the breast size increases, the latissimus dorsi flap for unilateral breast reconstruction increasingly falls short in terms of matching the healthy breast in a linear relationship. Other reconstructive options should be considered for larger breasts. Generally plastic surgeons should view the two breasts as a single unit when assessing breast aesthetics and not view each

  11. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  12. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  13. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU


    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  15. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  16. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo


    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... assumed that the respondents could still recall the prior state of the law, making it possible for us to gather sufficient information to compare the situation before and after the Amending Act entered into force.The Amending Act involved a number of amendments to the Danish Sale of Goods Act. Certain...

  17. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Roganovic


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p < 0.001, while the difference between breast tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p = 0.20. 

  18. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.


    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  19. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil


    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  20. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.


    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......, contrary to the predictions in previous research, companies sometimes move back and forth between different generations of rules. Companies that have moved to a more flexible third generation of rules might revert to their second generation rules, or supplement their flexibility with an increased level...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  1. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  2. Image segmentation using association rule features. (United States)

    Rushing, John A; Ranganath, Heggere; Hinke, Thomas H; Graves, Sara J


    A new type of texture feature based on association rules is described. Association rules have been used in applications such as market basket analysis to capture relationships present among items in large data sets. It is shown that association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in images. The frequency of occurrence of these structures can be used to characterize texture. Methods for segmentation of textured images based on association rule features are described. Simulation results using images consisting of man made and natural textures show that association rule features perform well compared to other widely used texture features. Association rule features are used to detect cumulus cloud fields in GOES satellite images and are found to achieve higher accuracy than other statistical texture features for this problem.

  3. Ruled Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four

    CERN Document Server

    Ionel, Marianty


    We classify 4-dimensional austere submanifolds in Euclidean space ruled by 2-planes. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of an austere 4-fold M were classified by Bryant, falling into three types which we label A, B, and C. We show that if M is 2-ruled of Type A, then the ruling map from M into the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^n is holomorphic, and we give a construction for M starting with a holomorphic curve in an appropriate twistor space. If M is 2-ruled of Type B, then M is either a generalized helicoid in R^6 or the product of two classical helicoids in R^3. If M is 2-ruled of Type C, then M is either a one of the above, or a generalized helicoid in R^7. We also construct examples of 2-ruled austere hypersurfaces in R^5 with degenerate Gauss map.

  4. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast]. (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós


    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alavi Naini


    Full Text Available Second to the cardiovascular disease, cancer is the main cause of death in Iran. In this study some of the risk factors of breast cancer; especially the ones related to breastfeeding have been assessed. The study was a retrospective study of 100 women with breast cancer. The most important risk factors in breast cancer were number of children, age of mother on the first pregnancy. The result showed that the increase of breast cancer was related to women who stopped breastfeeding before age 24 months. Breastfeeding for more than 12 months will reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 25%. In general there was a reverse relationship between duration of breastfeeding and risk of cancer in premonopausal, but not in postmenopausal women.

  6. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz


    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Association Rules Applied to Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We discuss the basic intrusion detection techniques, and focus on how to apply association rules to intrusion detection. Begin with analyzing some close relations between user's behaviors, we discuss the mining algorithm of association rules and apply to detect anomaly in IDS. Moreover, according to the characteristic of intrusion detection, we optimize the mining algorithm of association rules, and use fuzzy logic to improve the system performance.

  8. A Quick Algorithm for Mining Exceptional Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Exceptional rules are often ignored because of their small support. However, they have high confidence, so they are useful sometimes. A new algorithm for mining exceptional rules is presented, which creates a large itemset from a relatively small database and scans the whole database only one time to generate all exceptional rules. This algorithm is proved to be quick and effective through its application in a mushroom database.

  9. CABARET: Rule Interpretation in a Hybrid Architecture (United States)


    home office deduction is unresolved"l. Suppose further that this creates a " near miss " situation: the unresolved statutory predicate ("regular- use...reasoning to determine if the same conclusion is derived. RBR Near - Miss : [fall but one antecedent to a rule can be estabhished, then use CBR to broaden...the application of the rule with respect i, the missed antecedent. Broaden Missing Antecedent: To broaden a near - miss rule, use CBR on the missing

  10. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules (United States)

    Savela, Christopher


    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  11. Miscellaneous syndromes and their management: occult breast cancer, breast cancer in pregnancy, male breast cancer, surgery in stage IV disease. (United States)

    Colfry, Alfred John


    Surgical therapy for occult breast cancer has traditionally centered on mastectomy; however, breast conservation with whole breast radiotherapy followed by axillary lymph node dissection has shown equivalent results. Patients with breast cancer in pregnancy can be safely and effectively treated; given a patient's pregnancy trimester and stage of breast cancer, a clinician must be able to guide therapy accordingly. Male breast cancer risk factors show strong association with BRCA2 mutations, as well as Klinefelter syndrome. Several retrospective trials of surgical therapy in stage IV breast cancer have associated a survival advantage with primary site tumor extirpation.

  12. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules (United States)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai


    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  13. Do Rules and Patterns Affect Design Maintainability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Garzás; Félix García; Mario Piattini


    At the present time, best rules and patterns have reached a zenith in popularity and diffusion, thanks to the software community's efforts to discover, classify and spread knowledge concerning all types of rules and patterns. Rules and patterns are useful elements, but many features remain to be studied if we wish to apply them in a rational manner.The improvement in quality that rules and patterns can inject into design is a key issue to be analyzed, so a complete body of empirical knowledge dealing with this is therefore necessary. This paper tackles the question of whether design rules and patterns can help to improve the extent to which designs are easy to understand and modify. An empirical study, composed of one experiment and a replica, was conducted with the aim of validating our conjecture. The results suggest that the use of rules and patterns affect the understandability and modifiability of the design, as the diagrams with rules and patterns are more difficult to understand than non-rule/pattern versions and more effort is required to carry out modifications to designs with rules and patterns.

  14. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories



    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  15. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Marwaha


    Full Text Available For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified waterfall model for decision rules generation.

  16. Application of classification rules to Italian ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Lupi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the existing rules commonly used for port traffic comparison are described. These rules provide weighting factors for each freight category in order to make them comparable and exploitable for port ranking. These rules are based on the value added concept related to port activities. Two new rules are proposed. The first is again based on the value added concept. The second rule is based on the assumption that ports not only create labour directly, through activities related to port operations, but they also play the role of “gates” for the existing economic activities of a region or a country, as a consistent quota of the overall international trade takes place by sea. This rule is based on the relationship among the trend of traffic volume of each freight category and the trend of the national GDP. The rules existing in the literature and the proposed new rules have been applied in ranking Italian ports; the results are discussed. The sensitivity of the ranking of Italian ports, to the different weighting rules, has been analysed.

  17. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N


    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  18. Skew quantum Murnaghan-Nakayama rule

    CERN Document Server

    Konvalinka, Matjaz


    In this paper, we extend recent results of Assaf and McNamara on skew Pieri rule and skew Murnaghan-Nakayama rule to a more general identity, which gives an elegant expansion of the product of a skew Schur function with a quantum power sum function in terms of skew Schur functions. We give two proofs, one completely bijective in the spirit of Assaf-McNamara's original proof, and one via Lam-Lauve-Sotille's skew Littlewood-Richardson rule. We end with some conjectures for skew rules for Hall-Littlewood polynomials.

  19. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  20. Breast Cancer in Art Painting



    Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.

  1. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten;


    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  2. [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report]. (United States)

    Senatore, G; Zanotti, S; Cambrini, P; Montroni, I; Pellegrini, A; Montanari, E; Santini, D; Taffurelli, M


    Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples. Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region. Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue. We report the case of a 21 years-old female evaluated by the medical staff after founding a solid nodular mass by suspect axillary lymphadenopathy. Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases. The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast. Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual. In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties. Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  3. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J


    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  4. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.


    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  5. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  6. What Is Breast Cancer in Men? (United States)

    ... of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas. ... invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC) This type of breast cancer starts in ... that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the ...

  7. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means (United States)

    ... what treatments are most effective. Parts of the breast where cancer begins include: Milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of cancer forms in the lining of a milk duct within your breast. The ducts carry breast ...

  8. [Therapeutic advances in breast cancer]. (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C


    The treatment of breast cancer has made significant improvements during the past ten years. For early breast cancer with a clinically negative axilla sentinel node biopsy has become the preferred approach. For endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients the selective aromatase inhibitors have become standard in metastatic as well as in early breast cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) plays an important role in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer in the metastatic and since 2005 also in the adjuvant setting. When chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic breast cancer drug combinations are superior to monotherapy only in terms of response rates. By contrast, in the adjuvant setting combination drug therapy is the standard. New methods of tissue analysis including expression patterns of mRNA and proteins are promising research strategies to further advance the field.

  9. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens


    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  10. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg


    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  11. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per


    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  12. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P


    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  13. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer (United States)


    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  14. Recurrent breast sparganosis: Clinical and radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yoon; Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a case of recurrent sparganosis of the breast within 6 months following surgical removal of worms from the breast. The patient was referred to our hospital with a palpable mass in the right breast. On admission, breast ultrasonography revealed a tortuous tubular hypoechoic lesion with indistinct margins within a surrounding hyperechoic area, which strongly suggested sparganosis. We performed surgical excision and confirmed sparganosis. After 6 months, the patient detected a new mass in her right breast and visited our hospital. Breast ultrasonography revealed similar features in a different area of the same breast. We confirmed recurrent sparganosis surgically.

  15. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico (United States)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  16. Sea breeze generated waves and coastal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Savov, B.


    For the determination of the stability of coastlines, coastal erosion and the design of erosion protection studies, the “local” wave climate is the most important input parameter. For morphology, “local” means just outside the breaker line. On relatively calm days the local wave climate is strongly

  17. Choosing goals, not rules: deciding among rule-based action plans. (United States)

    Klaes, Christian; Westendorff, Stephanie; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Gail, Alexander


    In natural situations, movements are often directed toward locations different from that of the evoking sensory stimulus. Movement goals must then be inferred from the sensory cue based on rules. When there is uncertainty about the rule that applies for a given cue, planning a movement involves both choosing the relevant rule and computing the movement goal based on that rule. Under these conditions, it is not clear whether primates compute multiple movement goals based on all possible rules before choosing an action, or whether they first choose a rule and then only represent the movement goal associated with that rule. Supporting the former hypothesis, we show that neurons in the frontoparietal reach areas of monkeys simultaneously represent two different rule-based movement goals, which are biased by the monkeys' choice preferences. Apparently, primates choose between multiple behavioral options by weighing against each other the movement goals associated with each option.

  18. [Current views on breast feeding]. (United States)

    Grüttner, R


    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  19. Aluminium and human breast diseases. (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F


    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.

  20. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research. (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N


    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  1. Fundamentals of Semantic Web Technologies in Medical Environments: a case in breast cancer risk estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Huerga, Iker; Gerrikagoitia, Jon Kepa


    Risk estimation of developing breast cancer poses as the first prevention method for early diagnosis. Furthermore, data integration from different departments involved in the process plays a key role. In order to guarantee patient safety, the whole process should be orchestrated and monitored automatically. Support for the solution will be a linked data cloud, composed by all the departments that take part in the process, combined with rule engines.

  2. An Implementation of Remote Monitoring Standing Tree Diameter at Breast Height


    Liyuan Jiang; Wenbin Li; Jiangming Kan; Zhibin Hao; Qing Xu


    Studies show that there is electric potential difference between the internal part of tree and the soil, but the mechanism is not clear, possibly associated with tree species, environmental factors and DBH (diameter at breast height) of tree. In order to research the mechanism and change rules, it is necessary to measure bioelectricity, environmental factors and DBH of tree, among which the DBH and its growth is an important indicator. A kind of DBH of tree and its growth automatic measuring ...

  3. Reconstruction for breast cancer in a nutshell. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is a disease many will experience. Depending on the size of the cancer, the size of the host breast, and whether it is multi-focal, a mastectomy may be recommended as part of the treatment. If this is the case, an immediate breast reconstruction may be offered. This article will describe the three main types of breast reconstruction and discuss pertinent issues regarding this, including complications, surgery to the other (contraleteral) breast and potential psychological implications of this surgery.

  4. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting as retroperitoneal fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad Sahar


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast represents approximately 6.3% of mammary malignancies. Distant metastasis of invasive lobular carcinoma to the peritoneum or retroperitoneum has been reported fairly frequently. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian-Canadian woman with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting with retroperitoneal fibrosis and bilateral ureteral obstruction. Intra-operative pathology consultation did not reveal malignancy. The diagnosis, however, was confirmed on permanent sections by histological appearance in addition to immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Conclusion In a case of unexplained ureteric obstruction and retroperitoneal fibrosis, more comprehensive physical examination and additional ancillary studies may be warranted to rule out malignancy as an underlying etiology. This case also emphasizes that intra-operative frozen section consultation cannot always be fully relied upon to exclude a malignancy as the etiology of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Moreover, in permanent histopathology sections, immunohistochemistry testing can be of value to rule out metastatic disease where the morphology is not salient. There is a need for a thorough physical examination of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis, including the breast and gynecological organs.

  5. 77 FR 52313 - Notice of Scope Rulings (United States)


    ... rulings, the Department indicated it had completed the scope review of magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico...-910/C-570-911: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China Requestor... ruling, finding Fedmet's magnesia alumina carbon bricks within the scope of the antidumping...

  6. The New Role of the Constitutive Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank


    Searle used to analyze institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. In his more elaborate account in The Construction of Social Reality he introduces the notion of a status function. The “counts as” locution is central to both the constitutive rule and the status function. The main questio

  7. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  8. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  9. Pair Triplet Association Rule Generation in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thool


    Full Text Available Many applications involve the generation and analysis of a new kind of data, called stream data, where data flows in and out of an observation platform or window dynamically. Such data streams have the unique features such as huge or possibly infinite volume, dynamically changing, flowing in or out in a fixed order, allowing only one or a small number of scans. An important problem in data stream mining is that of finding frequent items in the stream. This problem finds application across several domains such as financial systems, web traffic monitoring, internet advertising, retail and e-business. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining technique for stream data. The Space-Saving algorithm reports both frequent and top-k elements with tight guarantees on errors. We also develop the notion of association rules in streams of elements. The Streaming-Rules algorithm is integrated with Space-Saving algorithm to report 1-1 association rules with tight guarantees on errors, using minimal space, and limited processing per element and we are using Apriori algorithm for static datasets and generation of association rules and implement Streaming-Rules algorithm for pair, triplet association rules. We compare the top- rules of static datasets with output of stream datasets and find percentage of error.

  10. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  11. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, Martijn; Smit, Koen; Haan, Eline de


    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes, orga

  12. Time Series Rule Discovery: Tough, not Meaningless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struzik, Z.R.


    `Model free' rule discovery from data has recently been subject to considerable criticism, which has cast a shadow over the emerging discipline of time series data mining. However, other than in data mining, rule discovery has long been the subject of research in statistical physics of complex pheno

  13. Human Dignity and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen


    The rule of law denotes an expectation of non-arbitrary governance.  It also invokes law’s distinctive characteristics: formality, institutional independence, and authority.  Taken together with a basic conception of the person, the rule of law can be treated as ‘good governance consistent with huma

  14. 12 CFR 23.12 - Transition rule. (United States)


    ..., that renewal of the lease is necessary to avoid financial loss and to recover its investment in, and... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.12 Transition rule. (a) General rule. A CEBA Lease entered into prior to July 22, 1991, may continue to...

  15. Rules: Both Stepping Stones and Stumbling Blocks. (United States)

    Eberhart-Wright, Alice


    Provides guidelines for Head Start teachers and administrators to determine the utility of classroom rules. Notes that, although some rules are necessary to maintain classroom discipline and a healthy learning environment, others may serve no useful purpose and actually hinder learning opportunities. Lists 10 points to consider when evaluating a…

  16. 76 FR 4066 - Rules of Practice (United States)


    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: Section 916 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act... satisfaction of this requirement, the Commission is adopting new Rules of Practice to formalize the process it... have ``consult with other regulatory agencies.'' Id. In satisfaction of this requirement,...

  17. Supersymmetry Projection Rules on Exotic Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji


    We study the supersymmetry projection rules on exotic branes in type II string theories and M-theory. They justify the validity of the exotic duality between standard branes and exotic branes of codimension two. By virtue of the supersymmetry projection rules on various branes, we can apply the exotic duality to a system which involves multiple non-parallel branes.

  18. 7 CFR 29.3620 - Rule 19. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3620 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2634 - Rule 18. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2634 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1125 - Rule 19. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1125 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green tobacco, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3121 - Rule 18. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3121 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2409 - Rule 18. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2409 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  3. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco


    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate, firstcl

  4. Best Practice Rules about Conflict of Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1.Study and describe the Best Practice Rules of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code concerning conflict of Interest Best Practice Rules coIne from the UK corporate governance,which could prevent the worst cases of abuse of rights in company law.

  5. 12 CFR 23.20 - General rule. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rule. 23.20 Section 23.20 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING Section 24(Seventh) Leases § 23.20 General rule. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) a national bank may invest in tangible or...

  6. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.


    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  7. The Author Replies: Regarding Campbell's Rule (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.


    A reply in relation to Campbell's rule is presented where the issues of discrepancies in the average value between the two values is discussed and the graphical analysis which had uncovered an aspect of selecting a numerical value for Campbell's rule that was earlier overlooked is appreciated. The cause of the discrepancies in the average value…

  8. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ginocchio, J N


    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to ^{167}Er and ^{161}Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter.

  9. 42 CFR 410.80 - Applicable rules. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable rules. 410.80 Section 410.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Home Health Services Under SMI § 410.80 Applicable rules....

  10. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.


    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  11. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.


    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-interventio

  12. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Honingh; T. Weyde; D. Conklin


    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  13. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  14. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.


    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  15. Textbook Forum: The Misuse of Markovnikov's Rule. (United States)

    Newton, Thomas A.


    Questions the continued misuse of Markovnikov's Rule in organic chemistry texts. Claims that the results of several studies that show the reaction to be more complex than it appears at first. Criticizes authors of new texts who have perpetrated the rule based on reading older texts. (TW)

  16. Brainstorming, Brainstorming Rules and Decision Making (United States)

    Putman, Vicky L.; Paulus, Paul B.


    This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All…

  17. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  18. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel


    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  19. What Is a Rule of Grammar? (United States)

    Lardiere, Donna


    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  20. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  1. Borneo constituencies: Japanese rule and its legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raben, R.


    Thinking of wartime occupations, we tend to picture suppression, looting, and violent and arbitrary rule. For the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, the prevailing image is one of a brutal regime ruling Indonesian society at gunpoint and spoiling the lives of thousands, while incompetent administrato

  2. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas


    Full Text Available Breast density (BD is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate ( and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170, fibroglandular 29% (87, heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17, and dense pattern 8.6% (26. Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117 and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183. Patterns of high breast density (BD (dense + heterogeneously dense were observed in 25.6% (30/117 of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183 of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300. Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300 of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300 of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%, and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%. Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  3. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Kronqvist


    Full Text Available The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE 0.95 and standard deviation (SD of nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.84, GE 0.89 showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area. This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas.

  4. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.


    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  5. Breast Cancer Presents with a Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Coelho Barata


    Full Text Available Background: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS pose quite an uncommon neurological complication, affecting less than 1% of patients with breast cancer. Nearly one third of these patients lack detectable onconeural antibodies (ONAs, and improvement in neurologic deficits with concomitant cancer treatments is achieved in less than 30% of cases. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old, premenopausal woman presented with facial paralysis on the central left side accompanied by a left tongue deviation, an upward vertical nystagmus, moderate spastic paraparesis, dystonic posturing of the left foot, lower limb hyperreflexia and bilateral extensor plantar reflex. After ruling out all other potential neurologic causes, PNS was suspected but no ONAs were found. A PET-CT scan detected increased metabolism in the right breast, as well as an ipsilateral thoracic interpectoral adenopathy. Core biopsy confirmed the presence of an infiltrating duct carcinoma. After breast surgery, the neurologic symptoms disappeared. One week later, the patient was readmitted to the hospital with a bilateral fatigable eyelid ptosis, and two weeks later, there was a noticeable improvement in eyelid ptosis, accompanied by a rapid and progressive development of lower spastic paraparesis. She started adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy with marked clinical and neurological improvement, and by the end of radiotherapy, there were no signs of neurologic impairment. Conclusion: This case study highlights the importance of a high level of vigilance for the detection of PNS, even when ONAs are not detected, as the rapid identification and treatment of the underlying tumor offers the best chance for a full recovery.

  6. Simple rules guide dragonfly migration (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Moskowitz, David; Adelman, James S; Cochran, Jim; Wilcove, David S; May, Michael L


    Every year billions of butterflies, dragonflies, moths and other insects migrate across continents, and considerable progress has been made in understanding population-level migratory phenomena. However, little is known about destinations and strategies of individual insects. We attached miniaturized radio transmitters (ca 300 mg) to the thoraxes of 14 individual dragonflies (common green darners, Anax junius) and followed them during their autumn migration for up to 12 days, using receiver-equipped Cessna airplanes and ground teams. Green darners exhibited distinct stopover and migration days. On average, they migrated every 2.9±0.3 days, and their average net advance was 58±11 km in 6.1±0.9 days (11.9±2.8 km d−1) in a generally southward direction (186±52°). They migrated exclusively during the daytime, when wind speeds were less than 25 km h−1, regardless of wind direction, but only after two nights of successively lower temperatures (decrease of 2.1±0.6 °C in minimum temperature). The migratory patterns and apparent decision rules of green darners are strikingly similar to those proposed for songbirds, and may represent a general migration strategy for long-distance migration of organisms with high self-propelled flight speeds. PMID:17148394

  7. Predicting the continuous values of breast cancer relapse time by type-2 fuzzy logic system. (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Hamid


    Microarray analysis and gene expression profile have been widely used in tumor classification, survival analysis and ER statues of breast cancer. Sample discrimination as well as identification of significant genes have been the focus of most previous studies. The aim of this research is to propose a fuzzy model to predict the relapse time of breast cancer by using breast cancer dataset published by van't Veer. Fuzzy rule mining based on support vector machine has been used in a hybrid method with rule pruning and shown its ability to divide the samples in many subgroups. To handle the existence of uncertainties in linguistic variables and fuzzy sets, the TSK model of Interval type-2 fuzzy logic system has been used and a new simple method is also developed to consider the uncertainties of the rules which have been optimized by genetic algorithm. B632 validation method is applied to estimate the error of the model. The results with 95 % confidence interval show a reasonable accuracy in prediction.

  8. Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy: Does Breast Size Matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannan, Raquibul, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thompson, Reid F.; Chen Yu; Bernstein, Karen; Kabarriti, Rafi; Skinner, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Chin C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Landau, Evan; Miller, Ekeni; Spierer, Marnee; Hong, Linda; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of breast size on dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical toxicity in whole-breast hypofractionated radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy between 2005 and 2009 were screened, and qualifying consecutive patients were included in 1 of 2 cohorts: large-breasted patients (chest wall separation >25 cm or planning target volume [PTV] >1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=97) and small-breasted patients (chest wall separation <25 cm and PTV <1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=32). All patients were treated prone or supine with hypofractionated IMRT to the whole breast (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) followed by a boost dose (9.6 Gy in 4 fractions). Dosimetric and clinical toxicity data were collected and analyzed using the R statistical package (version 2.12). Results: The mean PTV V95 (percentage of volume receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose) was 90.18% and the mean V105 percentage of volume receiving >= 105% of prescribed dose was 3.55% with no dose greater than 107%. PTV dose was independent of breast size, whereas heart dose and maximum point dose to skin correlated with increasing breast size. Lung dose was markedly decreased in prone compared with supine treatments. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 0, 1, and 2 skin toxicities were noted acutely in 6%, 69%, and 25% of patients, respectively, and at later follow-up (>3 months) in 43%, 57%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Large breast size contributed to increased acute grade 2 toxicity (28% vs 12%, P=.008). Conclusions: Adequate PTV coverage with acceptable hot spots and excellent sparing of organs at risk was achieved by use of IMRT regardless of treatment position and breast size. Although increasing breast size leads to increased heart dose and maximum skin dose, heart dose remained within our institutional constraints and the incidence of overall skin toxicity was comparable

  9. Performance guarantees for individualized treatment rules

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Min; 10.1214/10-AOS864


    Because many illnesses show heterogeneous response to treatment, there is increasing interest in individualizing treatment to patients [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 66 (2009) 128--133]. An individualized treatment rule is a decision rule that recommends treatment according to patient characteristics. We consider the use of clinical trial data in the construction of an individualized treatment rule leading to highest mean response. This is a difficult computational problem because the objective function is the expectation of a weighted indicator function that is nonconcave in the parameters. Furthermore, there are frequently many pretreatment variables that may or may not be useful in constructing an optimal individualized treatment rule, yet cost and interpretability considerations imply that only a few variables should be used by the individualized treatment rule. To address these challenges, we consider estimation based on $l_1$-penalized least squares. This approach is justified via a finite sample upper bound on...

  10. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha


    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  11. Association Rule Discovery and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Data mining, i.e. , mining knowledge from large amounts of data, is a demanding field since huge amounts of data have been collected in various applications. The collected data far exceed peoples ability to analyze it. Thus, some new and efficient methods are needed to discover knowledge from large database. Association rule discovery is an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining.The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent item sets and then forming conditional implication rule among them. In this paper, we describe and summarize recent work on association rule discovery, offer a new method to association rule mining and point out that association rule discovery can be applied in spatial data mining. It is useful to discover knowledge from remote sensing and geographical information system.``

  12. Learning rules and persistence of dendritic spines. (United States)

    Kasai, Haruo; Hayama, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Motoko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yagishita, Sho; Noguchi, Jun


    Structural plasticity of dendritic spines underlies learning, memory and cognition in the cerebral cortex. We here summarize fifteen rules of spine structural plasticity, or 'spine learning rules.' Together, they suggest how the spontaneous generation, selection and strengthening (SGSS) of spines represents the physical basis for learning and memory. This SGSS mechanism is consistent with Hebb's learning rule but suggests new relations between synaptic plasticity and memory. We describe the cellular and molecular bases of the spine learning rules, such as the persistence of spine structures and the fundamental role of actin, which polymerizes to form a 'memory gel' required for the selection and strengthening of spine synapses. We also discuss the possible link between transcriptional and translational regulation of structural plasticity. The SGSS mechanism and spine learning rules elucidate the integral nature of synaptic plasticity in neuronal network operations within the actual brain tissue.

  13. Generation and Interpretation of Temporal Decision Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Kamran


    We present a solution to the problem of understanding a system that produces a sequence of temporally ordered observations. Our solution is based on generating and interpreting a set of temporal decision rules. A temporal decision rule is a decision rule that can be used to predict or retrodict the value of a decision attribute, using condition attributes that are observed at times other than the decision attribute's time of observation. A rule set, consisting of a set of temporal decision rules with the same decision attribute, can be interpreted by our Temporal Investigation Method for Enregistered Record Sequences (TIMERS) to signify an instantaneous, an acausal or a possibly causal relationship between the condition attributes and the decision attribute. We show the effectiveness of our method, by describing a number of experiments with both synthetic and real temporal data.

  14. Harvest control rules in modern fisheries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturla F. Kvamsdal


    Full Text Available Abstract Harvest control rules have become an important tool in modern fisheries management, and are increasingly adopted to provide continuity in management practices, to deal with uncertainty and ecosystem considerations, and to relieve management decisions from short-term political pressure. We provide the conceptual and institutional background for harvest control rules, a discussion of the structure of fisheries management, and brief introductions to harvest control rules in a selection of present day cases. The cases demonstrate that harvest control rules take different forms in different settings, yet cover only a subset of the full policy space. We conclude with views on harvest control rules in future fisheries management, both in terms of ideal and realistic developments. One major challenge for future fisheries management is closing the gap between ideas and practice.

  15. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge


    Organizational design rules are contingent if-then statements about what a good design should be for a given situation. Today’s challenge is to look forward to devise organization design rules for a different future with greater uncertainty and greater interdependency – all with dynamic performance...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what might be. We...... need to revise existing rules and perhaps devise totally new design rules for managing uncertainty and interdependency to design efficient, effective and sustainable organizations. In this paper, we explore the development and evaluation of organizational design rules for the future....

  16. a Heterosynaptic Learning Rule for Neural Networks (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    In this article we introduce a novel stochastic Hebb-like learning rule for neural networks that is neurobiologically motivated. This learning rule combines features of unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (reinforcement) learning and is stochastic with respect to the selection of the time points when a synapse is modified. Moreover, the learning rule does not only affect the synapse between pre- and postsynaptic neuron, which is called homosynaptic plasticity, but effects also further remote synapses of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. This more complex form of synaptic plasticity has recently come under investigations in neurobiology and is called heterosynaptic plasticity. We demonstrate that this learning rule is useful in training neural networks by learning parity functions including the exclusive-or (XOR) mapping in a multilayer feed-forward network. We find, that our stochastic learning rule works well, even in the presence of noise. Importantly, the mean learning time increases with the number of patterns to be learned polynomially, indicating efficient learning.

  17. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... production is possible if there is strong industry pressure and when the initiatives to promote the sector are also seen to help build or maintain the ruling coalition....

  18. Measuring patient outcomes in breast augmentation: introducing the BREAST-Q Augmentation module. (United States)

    Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J


    The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Considering that in exclusively breast - fed infants , breast milk is the sole source of the nutrition for the first few months of life , it is important to have accurate data on its composition. Various studies have been done on factors affecting the concentration of microelements in breast milk. Through this article we tried to address the iron , zinc , copper content of breast milk wh ich is most essential micronutrients for growth of infant. A wide range of values for iron in the breast milk (0.1 – 1.6 mg/l , Zn and Cu were 625 (475 - 889 microgram/l and 239 (200 - 296 microgram/l respectively have been reported in the literature in all s tages of lactation. Concentration of micronutrients is high in colostrum and decreases during the lactation period. Maternal serum levels of microelements have no correlation with those in breast milk. Various studies have shown mineral , multivitamin , supp lementation or maternal diet does not affect breast milk micronutrient concentration. Mother’s age , parity , anthropometry , smoking habits , socioeconomic status , residing area(rural/urban , environment , use of oral contraceptive do not have an influence on the micronutrient content of the mother’s milk .

  20. RuleMaDrone: A Web-Interface to Visualise Space Usage Rules for Drones


    Trippaers, Aäron


    RuleMaDrone, an application developed within this thesis, is presented as a solution to communicate the rules and regulations to drone operators. To provide the solution a framework for drone safety was designed which consists of the rules and regulations, the drone properties and the environmental factors. RuleMaDrone is developed with this framework and thus will provide drone operators with an application which they can use to find a safe and legal fly zone. RuleMaDrone u...