WorldWideScience

Sample records for breast rules breeze

  1. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  2. Radar observations of land breeze fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

  3. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  4. The sea breeze circulation during the Land Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) in central California.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The sea breeze circulation was investigated using a combination of acoustic Doppler sodar, Doppler lidar and conventional observations in central California on the coast of Monterey Bay in September 1987. The study was called LASBEX (Land Sea Breeze EXperiment) and used the combined effort and resources of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), NOAA Wave Propagation Lab (WPL) and Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility (NEPRF). A monostatic three-axis phased-array Doppler sodar was...

  5. Developing a discrimination rule between breast cancer patients and controls using proteomics mass spectrometric data: A three-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Nagelkerke, N.

    2008-01-01

    To discriminate between breast cancer patients and controls, we used a three-step approach to obtain our decision rule. First, we ranked the mass/charge values using random forests, because it generates importance indices that take possible interactions into account. We observed that the top ranked

  6. An observational study of the summer Mediterranean Sea breeze front penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, R.; Potchter, O.; Shafir, H.; Alpert, P.

    2015-09-01

    The Mediterranean summer sea breeze front (SBF) climatic features of penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) were investigated. It was shown that the SBF penetration into the JRV occurs in a well-defined chronological order from north to south. One exception to this general rule is the breeze penetration of Sdom, which occurs after it has penetrated the Arava which is located further south, probably due to the micro-climatic effect of the Dead Sea. It was also noted that the breeze increases the local specific humidity as it reaches the JRV in spite of significant temperature increases. The temperature reaches its daily peak 2 to 3 h later in the southern valley compared to the northern valley and is suggested to be due to the later SBF penetration and the valley structure. The pre-SBF line features in the JRV are described.

  7. Inland penetration of sea breeze around Wolsung NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional sea-land breeze model has been employed for the study on the inland penetration of sea breeze around Wolsung NPP site. In this study, the sea breeze simulation was carried out under the weak northwesterly geostrophic wind (3.2 m/s, 339 .deg.) at 850 hPa in Spring. The results showed that sea breezes developed near Wolsung site penetrated into about 20 km inland under the weak northwesterly geostrophic wind in Spring. This result agreed with observation data around Wolsung site on May 1996

  8. Helicopter Observations of the Sea Breeze over a Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Osamu; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Naito, Gen'ichi; Sassa, Koji

    1999-04-01

    Thermodynamical observations by a helicopter have been conducted to study the internal structure of the sea breeze blowing inland from Tosa Bay during three periods (September 1993, November 1994 and 1995). Inland-intrusion distances of the midday sea breeze observed at each flight leg were in the 10-25-km range, depending on the intensity of the ambient flow associated with the gradient wind, atmospheric stratification, and the geographical features of the observed area.The sea breeze observed over the sea had well-defined features, in particular a turbulent wake behind the head of the sea-breeze front and a closed sea-breeze circulation cell containing the subsidence of the return flow. In addition, a moist layer distributed around 15-20 km offshore forms because the land breeze moves in this region. Moreover, a calm condition exists from the coast to about 10 km offshore. Both phenomena are found before the onset of the sea breeze in the early morning. Such remarkable characteristics of the sea breeze are found over the sea, with a background of land-sea configuration that consists of a flat plain with small mountains and a bay opened out to sea.

  9. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  10. Sulfate accumulation in a sea breeze/land breeze circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmosphere tracer study using SF6 was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. Day-old sulfur oxides emissions advected out to sea by the land breeze at night were estimated to be the largest single contributor to 24-hour average sulfate air quality over land the next day. In contrast, 24-hour average SO2 concentrations were dominated by fresh emissions from nearby sources. The overall rate of SO2 transformation to form particular sulfur oxides along some trajectories that spent a considerable time over the ocean at night probably exceeds the rate that can be explained by known photochemical processes acting during the daylight portion of these trajectories. This suggests that appreciable aerosol formation may occur in a polluted marine environment at night

  11. Cosmic Rays in a Galactic Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the non-thermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through Galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a Galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to gamma-ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of $\\approx 200$ GV.

  12. Sea breeze wind field prediction in atmospheric dispersion modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of the dispersion of an airborne radioactive release presupposes the knowledge of the windfield and the level of diffusion in the region under consideration. The presence of the sea breeze requires particular attention due to the development of circulation patterns and reduced mixing depths within the boundary layer. The present work constitutes a part of the effort to include the sea breeze capability in the ADREA-I code, a transient three dimensional transport code, and refers specifically to the sea breeze analysis along the Alaskan sea coast. It is shown that the generalized three dimensional k-1 model introduced in ADREA-I, can be also faithfully applied to sea breeze calculations. (author)

  13. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  14. Time-to-event analysis with artificial neural networks: an integrated analytical and rule-based study for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Paulo J G; Etchells, Terence A; Jarman, Ian H; Hane Aung, M S; Chabaud, Sylvie; Bachelot, Thomas; Perol, David; Gargi, Thérèse; Bourdès, Valérie; Bonnevay, Stéphane; Négrier, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of censored survival data for breast cancer specific mortality and disease-free survival. There are three stages to the process, namely time-to-event modelling, risk stratification by predicted outcome and model interpretation using rule extraction. Model selection was carried out using the benchmark linear model, Cox regression but risk staging was derived with Cox regression and with Partial Logistic Regression Artificial Neural Networks regularised with Automatic Relevance Determination (PLANN-ARD). This analysis compares the two approaches showing the benefit of using the neural network framework especially for patients at high risk. The neural network model also has results in a smooth model of the hazard without the need for limiting assumptions of proportionality. The model predictions were verified using out-of-sample testing with the mortality model also compared with two other prognostic models called TNG and the NPI rule model. Further verification was carried out by comparing marginal estimates of the predicted and actual cumulative hazards. It was also observed that doctors seem to treat mortality and disease-free models as equivalent, so a further analysis was performed to observe if this was the case. The analysis was extended with automatic rule generation using Orthogonal Search Rule Extraction (OSRE). This methodology translates analytical risk scores into the language of the clinical domain, enabling direct validation of the operation of the Cox or neural network model. This paper extends the existing OSRE methodology to data sets that include continuous-valued variables. PMID:18304780

  15. An observational study of sea breeze characteristics over Kalpakkam Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational study of the sea breeze characteristics has been carried out at Kalpakkam, India which lies on the East coast of Southern Indian peninsula about 700 m inland from the sea, the Bay of Bengal. There are clear and significant changes in the surface meteorological parameters at the onset and during sea-breeze phenomenon in the coastal areas. Hourly averaged measurements from a 30 m tall micrometeorological tower were used to study the sea-breeze characteristics at the above site. In this study, based on detailed analysis of the data on-set criteria of the sea breeze is characterized by increase in relative humidity at least by 5%, fall in temperature by equal or greater than 0.5 K and increase in wind speed with respect to previous hour record. The present study is also compared with the earlier studies in relation to sea breeze carried out at Chennai located approximately 80 km North from Kalpakkam and the differences between these studies are discussed. The comparison of sea breeze characteristics of the present study with those from earlier studies that were carried out more than half a century back also reflects the changes due to urbanization and other development activities as well as resulting climatic impacts. (author)

  16. Radiatively Inefficient Accretion: Breezes, Winds and Hyperaccretion

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2011-01-01

    We reformulate the adiabatic inflow-outflow (ADIOS) model for radiatively inefficient accretion flows, treating the inflow and outflow zones on an equal footing. For purely adiabatic flows (i.e., with no radiative losses), we show that the mass flux in each zone must satisfy Mdot ~ R^n with n=1, in contrast to previous work in which 0breezes are possible. When small radiative losses (with fixed efficiency) are included, any centrally injected energy flux is radiated away and the system reverts to a power-law behavior with n < 1, where n falls in a small range determined by the fractional...

  17. Simulating sea breezes and plume concentrations with a puff-windfield model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study simulating sea breezes and plume concentrations was to improve the modeling of accidental airborne radiation releases during sea breeze conditions. The model was developed for Northeast Utilities' Millstone Point nuclear generating station, which is located on Connecticut's Atlantic coast and experiences sea breeze conditions frequently. The model provides a three-dimensional simulation of the complex sea breeze circulation, including the return flow aloft, and yields concentration patterns consistent with the simulated wind flows

  18. Kent Breeze Corporation noise assessment report Kent Breeze Wind Farm and MacLeod Windmill Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This noise impact assessment study was conducted to determine the compliance of the Kent Breeze Wind Farm and the MacLeod Wind Mill projects with the Ontario Ministry of Environment's (MOE) noise guidelines for wind farms. The wind farms will be constructed next to each other in the regional municipality of Chatham-Kent. Noise sources included the wind turbine generators; the transformer substation; and potential adjustments to the wind turbine generator. Wind turbine noise emissions were adjusted for the site's summer night-time shear. The noise impact assessment evaluated distance requirements, and determined the potential impacts of the planned wind farms. Results of the study indicated that all receptors are compliant with MOE guidelines. The maximum noise emission level for a non-participating receptor at an existing dwelling was 40.0 dB. Acoustic specifications, wind measurement data and calculations of sound pressure levels were included. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 5 appendices.

  19. On Alfven waves in the solar breeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application to the solar wind motivates the consideration of Alfven waves in a radial background magnetic field and radial mean flow, in two cases, viz., with velocity and magnetic field perturbations along parallels, or also with perturbations along meridians, combined in the radial components of vorticity and electric current. In both cases the same second-order Alfven wave equation is obtained; it has, in general, two singularities. If the mean flow velocity is taken to be a power of radial distance, with exponent other than zero or unity, there is a transition layer. In general there is a second singularity, viz., a critical layer, where the Alfven speed equals the mean flow velocity. There is one exceptional case in which the critical layer does not exist, namely a homogeneous medium, for which the mean flow velocity decays on the inverse square of the radial distance, and then Alfven speed also decays in the same way, so that their ratio is a constant, leading to two possibilities: (i) the ratio is not unity, and the wave equation remains of the second-order; (ii) the wave equation becomes of first-order in the case the mean flow velocity and Alfven speed are equal everywhere, because then the waves can propagate only in one direction. Case (i) corresponds to Alfven waves in the solar breeze. Exact solutions of the wave equations are obtained for all values of the radius, as a single expression for the first-order wave equation, whereas for the second-order wave equation it is possible to obtain solutions for small and large radius; the transition level limits the radius of convergence of one of these solutions, but the two solutions together cover the full range of radial distances. The choices of boundary conditions are discussed and the wavefields plotted vs dimensionless distance for several values of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem, viz., the Alfven number and dimensionless frequency, which appear in one combination only. The

  20. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  1. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze ∼ 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment

  2. Airborne Doppler measurements of the central California extended sea breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    One data acquisition flight was executed in the late summer of 1984. The flight paths were designed to obtain measurements of the extended sea breeze penetration into the central valley of California over several hours. Data from this flight are being processed at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to release for analysis.

  3. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moisseeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  4. Inclusion of the ocean breeze in Oyster Creek emergency off-site dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located 6 mi west of the Atlantic Ocean. From spring through late summer, atmospheric transport in the vicinity of OCNGS is periodically affected by the ocean breeze. The ocean breeze produces large differences in wind direction within the OCNGS emergency planning zone during the morning to evening hours. In addition, trajectory reversals can occur near the ocean breeze front. These two characteristics of the ocean breeze must be taken into account when interpreting results from conventional atmospheric dispersion models. The purpose of the study was to determine the flow characteristics of the ocean breeze and to apply these characteristics to an emergency preparedness implementing procedure (EPIP). The EPIP would be used to determine the radiological plume impact region if an accidental release occurred during an ocean breeze

  5. Simple lake breeze front position technique for off-site dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a lake/sea breeze an airflow trajectory reversal generally occurs at the leading edge (lake/sea breeze front) of the landward advancing marine air and can significantly affect the use of an off-site dose assessment procedure. Knowledge of the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time is vital in interpreting the results from a conventional straightline Gaussian off-site dose calculation methodology, which ignores this complex flow pattern. A simple, low-cost technique was developed to estimate the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time from easily obtainable meteorological parameters recorded at National Weather Service stations. Although this technique was developed for lake breezes occurring near the Wisconsin Public Service Kewaunee nuclear plant, the concept is applicable after site-specific modifications for other lakeshore sites in approximating the location of the lake breeze front

  6. On the occurrence of the Apennine day breezes at Parma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From data published by the Meteorological Service of the Italian Air Force, valley breeze cases at Parma airport during summer months of 1972, 1973 and 1974 were examined, in order to determine any effect of the atmospheric thermodynamic stability on the presence of the breezes and to obtain some information about the cross-valley circulation in such conditions. Specific humidity was used for this purpose as an almost conservative tracer. The results show that a valley breeze is present more often when stable layers on the Po valley are absent or, at least, higher than the Apennine divide, when, over there, wind is from the Po valley; if the wind is from Tyrrhenian side, stable layers are less important, but in any case they are unfavourable for valley wind regime. When stable layers are present, the specific humidity at M. Cimone is the same as at some level below or above the stability layer whether the wind there comes from the Po or Tyrrhenian side. (author)

  7. Implementation and Validation of Dynamical Downscaling in a Microscale Simulation of a Lake Michigan Land Breeze

    OpenAIRE

    Gijs de Boer; Gregory J. Tripoli; Edwin W. Eloranta

    2012-01-01

    A nested numerical simulation of a land breeze observed over the western Lake Michigan shoreline was completed using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System. This simulation was compared against observations obtained using a variety of instrumentation, most notably a scanning lidar system. The simulated land breeze is shown to closely represent the observations. Most notably, the influence of synoptic scale evolution on the strength and extent of the land breeze is illustra...

  8. Aerosol lofting from sea breeze during the Indian Ocean Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Boucher, O.; Venkataraman, C.; Reddy, M. S.; Müller, D.; Chazette, P.; Crouzille, B.

    2006-04-01

    This work was carried out to understand the mechanisms leading to lofting and large-scale advection of aerosols over the Indian Ocean region due to interaction of the sea breeze with the northeast monsoon winds along the west coast of India. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind fields for the months of February and March 1999 were analyzed at various times of day. Intense sea breeze activity was observed at 1200 UT (1730 local time) along the west coast of India with average intensity larger in March than in February. The sea breeze was seen to extend inland deeper in March than in February. Lofting of air observed as high as 800 hPa (approximately 2 km above sea level) could lead to entrainment of aerosols into the free troposphere and long-range transport. Upward motion of air was observed everywhere along the west coast of India (from 8° to 20°N), on average higher in March than in February, because of convergence between the sea breeze and the synoptic-scale flow. A region of intense lofting of air and well-defined convergence was observed along the coast of the Karnataka region (12°-16°N). A simulation with a general circulation model nudged with ECMWF data indicated that the intrusion of marine air masses with low concentrations of organic matter is seen as deep as 64 km inland in the evening (1500 UT). Intrusion of the sea-salt plume is seen to a maximum distance of around 200 km from 1500 until 2300 UT. A well-developed lofted layer of aerosols as high as 3 km was also simulated during sea breeze activity along the west coast of India. The general circulation model simulation shows a clear diurnal evolution of the vertical profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient at Goa but fails to reproduce several features of the lidar observations, for example, the marked diurnal variability of the upper layers between 1 and 3 km. However, the model simulates a diurnal cycle at the surface (0-0.7 km) that is not apparent in lidar

  9. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  10. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  11. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  12. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  13. Morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-05-01

    An experimental field campaign took place in September 2013 near the coastline in the southeastern Campos basin in the island of Mallorca to characterize experimentally the transition between the sea and the land breezes and to further study the successful cases with the corresponding high-resolution numerical simulations. Favorable weather conditions were only found for one episode that comprised a well-formed nocturnal land breeze, followed by the morning transition to sea breeze until noon the next day, when incoming clouds switched off the breeze regime. To analyse this transition between land and sea breezes, the official network of stations is used, supplemented by a portable station close to the shore and soundings of temperature (taken by a captive balloon and remotely controlled multicopter). These data are used to check the goodness of the corresponding simulation at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Model and observations see similarly both regimes and the transition, showing some differences in the timing and the details in the surface layer. This transient event is analyzed in terms of phases, going consecutively through land breeze, phase previous to the sea breeze, when land heating starts, but it is still colder than the sea, the preparatory phase when the land becomes warmer than the sea, and the development phase when the breeze front progresses inland.

  14. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January–April) in the year 2015...

  15. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  16. Hot Jupiter Breezes: Time-dependent Outflows from Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from Hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inward from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time scale of the...

  17. Hot Jupiter breezes: time-dependent outflows from extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James E.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time-scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inwards from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time-scale of the flow variability. This work finds the relationship between the outer boundary scale and the time-scale of flow variations. In practice, the location of the outer boundary is set by the extent of the sphere of influence of the planet. The measured time variability can be used, in principle, to constrain the parameters of the system (e.g. the strengths of the surface magnetic fields).

  18. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  19. Sea breeze-induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between thunderstorm activity during the summer months along coastal regions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the dry sea breeze circulation was investigated. Satellite composites of thunderstorm activity for synoptically undisturbed conditions have been obtained for south Florida for a series of days in the summer of 1983. These data were catalogued into different low level synoptic flow regimes. Five synoptic flow regimes were found from the data. A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model was used for each sysnoptic flow regime to quantitatively predict the location of enhanced thunderstorm activity. This model includes a parameterization of vegetation and soil moisture feedbacks as well as a sophisticated planetary boundary layer representation. Using the results of the satellite image composites, spatial and temporal characteristics of deep convective cloud patterns and their variation with synoptic flow are described. The results from the numerical model have provided explanations for the observed patterns.

  20. Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-10-01

    In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)

  1. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, C. J.; S. R. Dorling; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the...

  2. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, C. J.; S. R. Dorling; Glasow, R.; Bacon, J

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales...

  3. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F.M.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm) are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organ...

  4. Sea Breezes over the Red Sea: Affect of topography and interaction with Desert Convective Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Basit A.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Abualnaja, Yasser

    2014-05-01

    Thermodynamic structure of sea-breeze, its interaction with coastal mountains, desert plateau and desert convective boundary layer have been investigated in the middle region of the Red Sea around 25°N, at the Western coast of Saudi Arabia. Sea and land breeze is a common meteorological phenomenon in most of the coastal regions around the world. Sea-Breeze effects the local meteorology and cause changes in wind speed, direction, cloud cover and sometimes precipitation. The occurrence of sea-breeze, its intensity and landward propagation are important for wind energy resource assessment, load forecasting for existing wind farms, air pollution, marine and aviation applications. The thermally induced mesoscale circulation of sea breeze modifies the desert Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) by forming Convective Internal Boundary Layer (CIBL), and propagates inland as a density current. The leading edge of the denser marine air rapidly moves inland undercutting the hot and dry desert air mass. The warm air lifts up along the frontal boundary and if contains enough moisture a band of clouds is formed along the sea breeze front (SBF). This study focuses on the thermodynamic structure of sea-breeze as it propagates over coastal rocky mountain range of Al-Sarawat, east of the Red Sea coast, and the desert plateau across the mountain range. Additional effects of topographical gaps such as Tokar gap on the dynamics of sea-land breezes have also been discussed. Interaction of SBF with the desert convective boundary layer provide extra lifting that could further enhance the convective instability along the frontal boundary. This study provides a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of interaction of the SBF and convective internal boundary layer over the desert. Observational data from a buoy and meteorological stations have been utilized while The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) modeling system has been employed in real and 2D idealized configuration.

  5. Identifying and tracking plumes affected by an ocean breeze in support of emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better support emergency preparedness, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear has investigated the frequency of occurrence of the mesoscale ocean breeze at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). Through the analysis of the horizontal wind direction and temperature patterns, simple identification of the ocean breeze along with a plume tracking procedure has been developed and incorporated into the site's emergency plant to better safeguard the public with sophisticated protective action measures in case of a nonroutine release. The ocean breeze will frequently produce wind trajectory fields within the plant's emergency planning zone that are different from the normal gradient wind flow. This could greatly alter proper protective action measures since most utilities employ straight-line trajectory air dispersion models. Knowledge of the existence of the ocean breeze and the location of the ocean breeze front become important in the results generated from the straight-line Gaussian dose calculation methodology and in the further development of a more complex dose assessment model. This paper describes the verification and existence of the sea breeze phenomenon and the incorporation of its effects into the OCNGS emergency plan

  6. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the Southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 10 km to 40 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes, respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the eastern coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature during the sea breeze season do not significantly affect the circulation, suggesting that a thermal contrast is only needed as a precondition to the development of the sea breeze. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of

  7. Modelling sea breeze climatologies and interactions on coasts in the southern North Sea: Implications for offshore wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Christopher; Dorling, Stephen; von Glasow, Roland; Bacon, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of the behaviour of sea breezes in the offshore environment is limited but rapidly requires improvement due, not least, to the expansion of the offshore wind energy industry. Here we report on contrasting characteristics of three sea-breeze types on five coastlines around the southern North Sea from an 11 year model-simulated climatology. We present and test an identification method which distinguishes sea-breeze types which can, in principle, be adapted for other coastl...

  8. A theoretical study of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A large number of cities around the world are located in or near complex terrain. In these regions, urban breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds are observed. Understanding interactions between urban breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds is important in a view of mesoscale atmospheric dynamics and urban air pollution. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds in the context of the response of the atmosphere to specified thermal forcing. Starting from linearized governing equations in two dimensions, analytical solutions for perturbation vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, buoyancy, and kinematic pressure are obtained. Then, the analytical solutions are used to examine the interactions. Urban breeze circulation and mountain slope winds evolve with time due to time-varying thermal forcing that has steady and diurnal components, and they interact with each other. Asymmetric flows are developed over the urban and mountain areas. In the daytime, low-level converging flows induced by urban heating (urban breeze) and those induced by mountain heating (upslope winds) interfere with each other, resulting in weakened flows in the mountain-side urban area and on the urban-side mountain slope. The transition from the upslope wind to downslope wind on the urban-side mountain slope occurs earlier and thus the downslope wind persists longer compared with the case that has mountain thermal forcing only. In the nighttime, flows become strong in the region between the urban center and the mountain center due to the additive interaction of the downslope wind with the urban breeze, but the flow intensity weakens with time because of weak nighttime urban heating. In the nighttime, converging flows on the plain-side urban area and the downslope wind on the rural-side mountain slope are weakened. The degree of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds is shown to depend on

  9. Numerical study of the evolution of a sea-breeze front under two environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhaoming; Wang, Donghai

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of a sea-breeze front (SBF) in parallel and offshore environmental flows was investigated by using high-resolution simulations of two SBF cases from the Bohai Bay region, China. The results show that the combination of a distinct vertical wind shear caused by the sea-breeze circulation with a neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification associated with the thermal inner boundary layer promoted the occurrence and maintenance of a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow (KHB). In a parallel environmental flow, the SBF evolved into a few connected segments because of the inhomogeneity of the sea-breeze direction and intensity as it penetrated inland. A significant upward vertical motion occurred at the two ends of the SBF segment owing to the sea-breeze convergence and was accelerated by the KHB. The KHB made a notable contribution to the intensity at the ends of the segment, whereas the intensity at the middle segment was primarily attributed to the convergence between the sea breeze and the parallel flow. In the offshore environmental flow, the clockwise rotation of the offshore flow varying with time increased the downstream convergence of the interface between the sea breeze and the offshore flow and pushed the downstream convergence zone to an orientation consistent with the offshore flow. The air parcels ascending from the downstream part of the SBF were continuously lifted by the downstream convergence zone during their advection, leading to a significant downstream development of the SBF. The significant upward vertical motion caused by the sea-breeze convergence behind the upstream end of the SBF was shifted to the upstream end of the SBF by the KHB, which enhanced the intensity of the upstream end of the SBF.

  10. Lattice-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ suggests rules for breast cancer progression to an invasive state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Boghaert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive lesions of the breast that result from abnormal proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Pathologists characterize DCIS by four tissue morphologies (micropapillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo, but the underlying mechanisms that distinguish the development and progression of these morphologies are not well understood. Here we explored the conditions leading to the emergence of the different morphologies of DCIS using a two-dimensional multi-cell lattice-based model that incorporates cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, adhesion, and contractility. We found that the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis governed which of the four morphologies emerged. High proliferation and low apoptosis favored the emergence of solid and comedo morphologies. In contrast, low proliferation and high apoptosis led to the micropapillary morphology, whereas high proliferation and high apoptosis led to the cribriform morphology. The natural progression between morphologies cannot be investigated in vivo since lesions are usually surgically removed upon detection; however, our model suggests probable transitions between these morphologies during breast cancer progression. Importantly, cribriform and comedo appear to be the ultimate morphologies of DCIS. Motivated by previous experimental studies demonstrating that tumor cells behave differently depending on where they are located within the mammary duct in vivo or in engineered tissues, we examined the effects of tissue geometry on the progression of DCIS. In agreement with our previous experimental work, we found that cells are more likely to invade from the end of ducts and that this preferential invasion is regulated by cell adhesion and contractility. This model provides additional insight into tumor cell behavior and allows the exploration of phenotypic transitions not easily monitored in vivo.

  11. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be

  12. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V. [Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Möbius, E.; Leonard, T. [Space Research Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wurz, P. [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ∼7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ∼19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the

  13. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ∼7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ∼19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He+ ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the nature

  14. Urban effects of Chennai on sea breeze induced convection and precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matthew Simpson; Sethu Raman; R Suresh; U C Mohanty

    2008-12-01

    Doppler radar derived wind speed and direction profiles showed a well developed sea breeze circulation over the Chennai, India region on 28 June, 2003. Rainfall totals in excess of 100 mm resulted from convection along the sea breeze front. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front was observed in radar reflectivity imagery. High-resolution MM5 simulations were used to investigate the influence of Chennai urban land use on sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation. A comparison of observed and simulated 10 m wind speed and direction over Chennai showed that the model was able to simulate the timing and strength of the sea breeze. Urban effects are shown to increase the near surface air temperature over Chennai by 3.0 K during the early morning hours. The larger surface temperature gradient along the coast due to urban effects increased onshore flow by 4.0m s−1. Model sensitivity study revealed that precipitation totals were enhanced by 25 mm over a large region 150 km west of Chennai due to urban effects. Deficiency in model physics related to night-time forecasts are addressed.

  15. Large-eddy simulation of sea breeze at an idealized peninsular site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Anabor, Vagner; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Maldaner, Silvana

    2015-08-01

    A high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) has been performed to simulate a sea-breeze circulation over an idealized peninsular domain. The simulation is forced with the surface latent/sensible heat fluxes and the large-scale horizontal pressure gradient that are obtained from a mesoscale simulation. This methodology allows the investigation of the physical phenomena that are peculiar for a sea-breeze circulation and that generally require spatial resolution approximately equal to 100 m or less. Here, small-scale dynamical effects associated to these phenomena, i.e. the interaction between the sea-breeze front with the convective turbulence generated over-land, the formation of the zero-velocity layer, and the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, are investigated. Results from the present numerical study have revealed the formation of a zero-velocity layer that is initially near the ground then it rises to define a well-marked sea-breeze depth. Scaling analysis applied to the LES output fields reveals that during the phase of inland penetration the scaling laws for sea-breeze strength and depth have both a proportionality coefficient equal to 0.15.

  16. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  17. Warm Breeze from the starboard bow: a new population of neutral helium in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Sokół, J M; Swaczyna, P; Grzedzielski, S; Alexashov, D B; Izmodenov, V V; Moebius, E; Leonard, T; Fuselier, S A; Wurz, P; McComas, D J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral He atoms observed from Earth orbit in 2010 by IBEX. The full He signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral He that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately two-fold slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ~7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ~19deg from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems a long-term feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere, which brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. Possible sources for the Warm Breeze include (1) the secondary population of inters...

  18. A theoretical study of urban breeze-mountain wind interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango Seo, Jaemyeong; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are theoretically examined in a linear system that includes mountain mechanical forcing and non-zero basic-state wind. Flows induced by urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing are linearly superposed. Thermally induced asymmetric circulations in the presence of non-zero basic-state wind result in distinct flow patterns depending on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area. In the cases of the urban area being located on the downstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind induced by urban heating interacts with diverging (converging) flow from the mountain area in the nighttime (daytime). In the cases with the urban area being located on the upstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind is restricted in the urban area. Mountain mechanical forcing enhances downslope winds on the both sides of the mountain and updraft (downdraft) upstream (downstream) of the mountain. Sensitivities of the interactions to mountain height and basic-state wind speed are also examined. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum is analyzed by dividing the total momentum flux into five components. While terms that are related to flow induced by urban heating are dominant in the daytime, interaction terms that are related to flows induced by two thermal sources and by thermal and mechanical sources play important roles over the rest of times. Moreover, the total momentum flux is dependent on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area and basic-state wind speed.

  19. Incorporation of expert variability into breast cancer treatment recommendation in designing clinical protocol guided fuzzy rule system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ying; John, Robert I; Ellis, Ian O

    2012-06-01

    It has been often demonstrated that clinicians exhibit both inter-expert and intra-expert variability when making difficult decisions. In contrast, the vast majority of computerized models that aim to provide automated support for such decisions do not explicitly recognize or replicate this variability. Furthermore, the perfect consistency of computerized models is often presented as a de facto benefit. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to incorporate variability within a fuzzy inference system using non-stationary fuzzy sets in order to replicate human variability. We apply our approach to a decision problem concerning the recommendation of post-operative breast cancer treatment; specifically, whether or not to administer chemotherapy based on assessment of five clinical variables: NPI (the Nottingham Prognostic Index), estrogen receptor status, vascular invasion, age and lymph node status. In doing so, we explore whether such explicit modeling of variability provides any performance advantage over a more conventional fuzzy approach, when tested on a set of 1310 unselected cases collected over a fourteen year period at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK. The experimental results show that the standard fuzzy inference system (that does not model variability) achieves overall agreement to clinical practice around 84.6% (95% CI: 84.1-84.9%), while the non-stationary fuzzy model can significantly increase performance to around 88.1% (95% CI: 88.0-88.2%), pdecision support systems in any application domain. PMID:22265814

  20. A Numerical Simulation Model of Land and Sea Breezes on the Sir te Gulf, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model is developed in order to simulate land and sea breeze phenomenon in the Gulf of Sirte, which is located on the Libyan coastline. A Mixed-layer Model is used to simulate land and sea breezes and their effect on the coastal strip. The model consists of three layers: the surface layer, the mixed layer and the stable layer. The primitive equations are averaged in the mixed layer to yield predictions equations for the horizontal components of the wind, two componenets of the horizontal pressure gradient, potential temperature of the mixed layer, the height of the base of the overlying stable layer and the surface temperature. The results show that the model is successful in simulating land and sea breezes and making clear the difference between the influence of onshore and offshore winds on the coastal strip. (author)

  1. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for...

  2. 78 FR 39062 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27... of the vessel SEA BREEZE 27 is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter fishing 6 people or...

  3. Study of the sea and land breeze circulation over Trombay using measured and modeled data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the focus is to estimate aspects of sea/land breeze circulation (SLBC) using the coupled WRF-CALMET model for Trombay site within which Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is located. The results are also compared with the SODAR data measured at the site. The domain used in the study is centered on Mumbai, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, is located on the eastern side of Mumbai. Arabian Sea provides a continuous coastline on the western side. Trombay site is surrounded by Thane creek on the east and a 2 km long hill on the west, rendering complexity to the site configuration. SODAR is located at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre close to the 125 m hill on its northern side. The 15 minutes averaged wind data from SODAR was plotted to estimate the time of onset of SLBC. To simulate SLBC, the output from WRF model was coupled to the diagnostic model CALMET for the domain with a grid resolution of 90 m. Simulations were carried out for three days, 16-18, of January 2012. The variation could be attributed to the presence of hill in the proximity of the instrument which reflects the wind in the lower heights and renders complex pattern. But after 13:30 IST, the wind is predominantly from northwest at all heights indicating the onset of sea breeze and remains the same till 22:30 IST when the wind slowly turns to northerly or northeasterly again. This indicates land breeze. From the discussion above, it can be concluded that the onset, duration and cessation of sea breeze for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre site is at 13:30 IST, 9 hrs and 22:00 IST respectively during the study period. Furthermore, the results from WRF-CALMET coupled simulation was also verified by the observed data at site confirming the conclusions derived. The land/sea breeze shifts to sea/land breeze through north direction during the period of study

  4. Estimating the seaward extent of sea breeze from QuickSCAT scatterometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    ., 15, 603–608. Finkele, K. (1998), Inland and offshore propagation speeds of a sea breeze from simulations and measurements, Boundary Layer Meteorol., 87, 307–329. Finkele, K., J. M. Hacker, H. Kraus, and R. A. D. Byron-Scott (1995), A complete sea.... Lett., 32, L13601, doi:10.1029/2005GL023107. 1. Introduction [2] The sea breeze circulation system, a common meso- scale meteorological phenomenon, has a profound effect on the meteorology and oceanography of coastal areas [Simpson, 1994]. The effect...

  5. A numerical study of the effects of a large sandbar upon sea breeze development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R. C.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcqueen, J.; Eppel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of sea breeze development over a large sandbar on the North Sea coast of Germany are reported. The numerical model used in these experiments contains a detailed treatment of soil moisture, which allows evaluation of the effects of differential surface characteristics on the airflow pattern. Results of the simulations indicate that the contrast between the moist sandbar and adjacent dry land, the tidal inundation of the sandbar, and the westward penetration of the Baltic sea breeze play important roles in the development of mesoscale airflow patterns in the sandbar region.

  6. On the effects of islands' geometry and size on inducing sea breeze circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Y.; Segal, M.

    1985-01-01

    Model scaling of the characteristics of the sea breeze circulation involved with circular and slab elongated-symmetric midlatitude islands was performed. Larger horizontal and vertical velocities were indicated over the small circular islands as compared to those over corresponding elongated islands. The circulation characteristics of both types of islands become similar when the half-width of the island is about the same as the distance of inland penetration of the sea breeze in a nonisland case. Evaluation of the results through a scale analysis is presented.

  7. Impact of sea breeze of the sea off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    coast oj I"dia. Twenty minute averaged spectra, collected ollce eVelY three hOllrs, during thefirst two ,'.·eeks ofApril 1997 (whell sea breeze was well developed Oil most days) show tlra/the spectra ofthe sea breeze related sea peaked at 0.22 ± 0.05 Hz... of the anemometer due to veering from frictional effects in the atmospheric boundary layer. Fig. J: Location ofthe wave and wind observations reported in the paper. 446 Proceedings ofthe International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Technology Fig.2: Upper panel...

  8. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan

    2006-04-01

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  9. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  10. An interview with Dr. Ruth Breeze and Dr. Florentina Taylor on foreign language teaching and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Ricardo-María

    2015-01-01

    The author conducted an online interview with Dr. Ruth Breeze (University of Navarra, Spain) and Dr. Florentina Taylor (University of Greenwich, UK) about the present and future of foreign language teaching, following up on conversations initiated in York, Pamplona and Lancaster.

  11. Impact of sea breeze on the wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    -1 Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India S Neetu1,asteriskmath, Satish Shetye1 and P Chandramohan2 1Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. 2Indomer Coastal Hydraulics (P...

  12. Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

  13. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal Mediterranean site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria;

    2010-01-01

    about 600 m from the coastline in a flat open area at the foot of a mountain chain located in a region of complex orography. We study the seasonal behaviour of the sea-land breeze circulation by analysing two years of hourly data of wind speed and direction, temperature, radiation and relative humidity...

  14. Contribution to the study of the dispersive power of coastal breezes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monostatic acoustic sounding system and a short review of its capabilities providing information about the structure of the lower atmosphere are described. Thermal profiles characteristics of the coastal breezes and their effects on atmospheric dispersion are given and four examples of actual situations are discussed

  15. The contracted positive column as breeze type of a steady state plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account stepwise ionization and volume recombination yields that the positive column can exist in a diffusive state and a breeze state. In the latter case the charged particles are concentrated near the axis, but the wings of the density profile cover the volume. The sheath vanishes or is slightly negative. The radial drift velocities of electrons and ions are small

  16. Bay Breeze Influence on Surface Ozone at Edgewood, MD During July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Clark, Richard D.; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4deg, lon: -76.3deg) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be a

  17. The effect of coastal upwelling on the sea-breeze circulation at Cabo Frio, Brazil: a numerical experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Franchito

    Full Text Available The effect of coastal upwelling on sea-breeze circulation in Cabo Frio (Brazil and the feedback of sea-breeze on the upwelling signal in this region are investigated. In order to study the effect of coastal upwelling on sea-breeze a non-linear, three-dimensional, primitive equation atmospheric model is employed. The model considers only dry air and employs boundary layer formulation. The surface temperature is determined by a forcing function applied to the Earth's surface. In order to investigate the seasonal variations of the circulation, numerical experiments considering three-month means are conducted: January-February-March (JFM, April-May-June (AMJ, July-August-September (JAS and October-November-December (OND. The model results show that the sea-breeze is most intense near the coast at all the seasons. The sea-breeze is stronger in OND and JFM, when the upwelling occurs, and weaker in AMJ and JAS, when there is no upwelling. Numerical simulations also show that when the upwelling occurs the sea-breeze develops and attains maximum intensity earlier than when it does not occur. Observations show a similar behavior. In order to verify the effect of the sea-breeze surface wind on the upwelling, a two-layer finite element ocean model is also implemented. The results of simulations using this model, forced by the wind generated in the sea-breeze model, show that the sea-breeze effectively enhances the upwelling signal.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; ocean-atmosphere interactions · Oceanography (numerical modeling

  18. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  19. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  20. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, Shane [Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department, NV (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  1. A first numerical simulation of the development and structure of the sea breeze on the Island of Mallorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramis

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the development and structure of the sea breeze in Mallorca is presented using a meso- numerical model. The model includes a detailed representation of the soil and vegetation processes. The study covers a diurnal cycle. The results show that the model reproduces the main known features of the circulation and new ones appear, which seem to have an appreciable effect on the circulation during the decay of the sea breeze. The orography and soil dryness have been identified as the main factors determining the structure of the breeze. Three more experiments have been performed in order to isolate the effect of each factor.

  2. Reducibility study of Rossetta ilmenite ore briquettes and powder with coke breeze at 800-1100°C

    OpenAIRE

    Abd el Gawad Hala H.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Wassef Marguerite A.; Khalifa M.G.; Soliman Aly A.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material were briquetted with different amounts of organic materials such as molasses or pitch were studied in this investigation. The produced briquettes at reasonable condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800 - 1100oC to determine the factors controlling the reduction and to determine the controlling mechanism. Also ilmenite ore fine with coke breeze were reduced at the same temperature range in nitrogen atmosph...

  3. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENT ON THE EFFECT OF URBANIZATION UPON SUMMER LAND-SEA BREEZES IN THE COASTLAND OF GUANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Wei-jun; SHEN Tong-li; DING Zhi-ying; SONG Jie-hui

    2010-01-01

    The 2003-2006 observations were utilized to analyze the surface characteristics of summer land-sea breezes along the coastland of Guangxi and the Weather Research and Forecast model was applied to simulate the breeze structure on August 1-2,2006.Results show that 1)the intensity and distributions of the breezes reproduced from improved urban underlying surface were close to observations.In the daytime the coastwise urban band was a convergent belt of sea breeze,corresponding to the centers of torrential rains; in the nighttime hours the surface of the Gulf of Tonkin(the Vietnamese name)or the Northern Bay(the Chinese name)acted as a convergent zone of land breezes,likely to produce convectivecloud cluster; 2)the experiment on urbanization showed the heat island effect enhancing(weakening)the sea(land)breeze development.Furthermore,the heat island effect mitigated the atmospheric cooling viaradiation over the cities in the night,weakening sinking motion correspondingly,thereby suppressing the dominant factor responsible for the steady development of temperature inversion.As a result,the inversion vigor was reduced greatly,but nevertheless no strong effect of the decreased subsidence was found upon the inversion height.

  4. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  5. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail: cazorin@ceam.es; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  6. A simplified method to compute radionuclide concentrations under sea breeze situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present an alternate method to compute ground-level radionuclide concentrations for the use under emergency conditions at a coastal nuclear power plant for sea breeze cases. The method involves the use of a work sheet and graphs. The results are compared with the EPA method given in ''Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents.'' A method has been developed to predict ground-level concentrations of radionuclides under sea-breeze conditions. Using the procedure outlined in this report in conjunction with Figures 2-9, an estimate of concentration/dose for Xe-133 and I-131 versus downwind distance can be obtained quickly. A comparison of the data from this study and the currently recommended EPA procedures shows a large discrepancy between the two methods and indicates a need for their revision

  7. Behavior of the land and sea breeze at the KUR site and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land and sea breeze(LSB) is one of the controlling factors for the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents released from the Kyoto University Reactor(KUR) facilities. Behavior of the LSB at the KUR site and its environs is analyzed by using the wind data from the AMeDAS stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency located in the area surrounding Osaka Bay. The so-called large-scale sea breeze from the Kii Channel, existence of which has been conjectured from a rather small amount of data, is clearly seen from the diurnal variation of wind direction observed simultaneously at the two stations, one is in the Osaka plain and the other at Awaji Island. The diurnal course of the LSB occurring in the water body including Osaka Bay and the Kii Channel and its surrounding land body is deduced from the analysis. (author)

  8. Association of non-marine sulfate aerosol with sea breeze circulation in Tampa bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak concentrations of aerosol sulfur in Tampa, Florida may be the result of either regional-scale transformation and transport processes or local-scale transport from nearby air pollution sources. The existence of the latter has been demonstrated in Tampa through correspondence of sulfur with sea breeze circulation patterns and the resulting chloride concentration maxima (which serve as indicators of the marine aerosol), vanadium concentration maxima (which indicate times of high concentrations of certain plume constituents), and the locations of sources favorable for high concentrations of air pollution-derived sulfate during occurrences of the sea breeze. The analysis indicates that locally derived sulfate in the Tampa atmosphere, which may be less abundant than sulfate due to regional-scale processes, can be identified by the use of combined meteorological and chemical tracer interpretation

  9. Using Breeze for Communication and Assessment of Internships: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Wilkinson

    2008-01-01

    An important component of internships is the connection between students, universities and employers. “High-quality internships . . . encourage contact between faculty and students as well as develop cooperation among students,” (Implementing and Assessing Internships, 2002, 67). This “good practice” must exist to ensure good performance assessment (Implementing and assessing internships 2002). Students in an internship program were given web cameras and access to the software Breeze to use f...

  10. An observational study of land and sea breezes in the southern part of the Osaka district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed observations of the wind and temperature profiles in land and sea breeze situations were made in the southern part of the Osaka district by using pilot-balloon with double-theodolite method and lower-troposphere-radiosonde in the summer from 1981 to 1983. Diurnal course of the wind system observed is as follows. In the morning and early afternoon, an onshore flow from Osaka Bay is observed within several hundred meters height above the ground surface. The depth of the flow tends to thicken with elapse of time. In the late afternoon and evening, a flow parallel to the coastline and blowing from the Kii channel prevails in the first thousand meters layer of the atmosphere, which shows, in the middle of the period, the characteristics of the nocturnal low-level jet. After midnight until dawn, a flow having the reverse direction to the former appears in a few hundred meters layer of the atmosphere. A flow pertinent to the land/mountain breeze in the area under study appears only in the lowest several tens of meters layer of the atmosphere. A decrease in wind speed by a few meters a second and a veering in wind direction by about 10 degrees are seen in the first few hundred meters layer of the atmosphere between coast and several kilometers inland in the sea breeze situation, suggesting modification of the sea breeze during travel over land. Diurnal change of the temperature field below 3000 meters height above the ground surface observed by serial ascents of lower-troposphere-radiosondes is also discussed. (author)

  11. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  12. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  13. Application of Land Surface Data Assimilation to Simulations of Sea Breeze Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaro, Scott; Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSUNCAR MM5 V3-5 and applied at spatial resolutions of 12- and 4-km. It is recognized that even 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  14. The role of coastal urbanisation in enhancing turbulence and land-sea breeze

    OpenAIRE

    Barazutti, M.; Marabini, Francesco; Nardino, M; Georgiadis, Teo

    2010-01-01

    Recent increasing urbanisation phenomena it is expected will alter the morphology and texture of wide territories leading to a strong changes in the materials, from natural to man-made, at the surface. This land-use change can strongly affects the energy partition of the solar radiation substantially increasing the intensity of the sensible heat flux (along with the anthropogenic heat contribution). The sites which present local anemological circulation, such as the breeze regimes, can result...

  15. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Moeller, Lauren; Stefanova, Lydia; Chan, Steven; O'Brien, James J.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Plant, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979–2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze.

  16. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR

  17. Mechanical strength of extrusion briquettes (BREX) for blast-furnace and ferroalloy production: II. Effect of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength of extrusion briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhanov, A. M.; Kurunov, I. F.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength and the behavior of extrusion briquette (BREX) during static loading is studied. It is found that the size, the shape, and the surface relief of coke breeze particles affect the character of BREX fracture. The application of a shearing extruder for preliminary refinement of coke breeze can result in viscoelastic fracture of BREX due to an increase in its impact toughness.

  18. A retrospective study to rule out possible association of genetic and non-genetic risk factors with specific brca mutation positive breast cancers is some Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among Asian women including Pakistan where recurrent mutations among certain sub-ethnic groups predisposing to breast cancer have recently been established. Study Design: The current retrospective study involves identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors in 27 specific mutation positive females out of a. total of 100 females diagnosed with breast cancer, representing a sample from the Punjabi ethnic population of the city of Lahore. The study has been carried out by telephonic communication with the mutation positive patients or their relatives. Results: Out of the total 27% patients positive for specific BRCA mutations, 23% were positive for BRCAI mutations and 4% for BRCA2. Among a total of 100 breast cancer patients the BRCAI-IVS14, lG>A mutation was identified in 5 Punjabi ethnic females with Rajput sub ethnicity, BRCAI-3889delAG in 10 (8 with Mughal and 2 with Khan sub ethnicity), BRCAI-2080insA in 8 (Rajput sub ethnics) and BRCA2-3337C>T in 4 (Minhas sub ethnic) subjects. Two BRCAI mutations, namely 3889delAG and 2080insA were found to coexist in only one study case (with Mughal sub ethnicity). All the mutation positive breast cancers had unilateral ductal carcinoma. Of the 23 cases positive for screened BRCAI mutations, 17 were diagnosed for breast cancer at a relatively early age (age<40) and 6 were diagnosed at late age (age<41) whereas all cases positive for single BRCA2 mutation under consideration were diagnosed at late age. Furthermore, 24 of 27 patients with specific BRCA mutations had a positive family history of breast cancer. The high prevalence of the screened BRCA mutations in certain Punjabi sub-ethnicities indicates the importance of counseling. It is suggested that consanguinity may be a risk factor for recurrent population specific mutations. Hormonal factors including use of oral contraceptives, polycystic ovaries, central obesity, nulliparity, late age at first pregnancy, lack of

  19. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Hayden

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and best estimates for air parcel circulation times in the lake-breeze circulation (1.2 to 3.0 h enabled formation rates of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA/ΔCO and SO42− to be determined. The formation rate for OOA, relative to excess CO, was found to be 2.5–6.2 μg m−3 ppmv−1 h−1 and the SO42− formation rate was 1.8–4.6% h−1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42− and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution

  20. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Hayden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects conducted at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and the air parcel circulation time in the lake-breeze circulation (3.0 to 5.0 h enabled formation rates of organic aerosol (OA/ΔCO and SO42− to be determined. The formation rate for OA (relative to excess CO in ppmv was found to be 11.6–19.4 μg m−3 ppmv−1 h−1 and the SO42− formation rate was 5.0–8.8% h−1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42− and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution leading to

  1. A study of the Merritt Island, Florida sea breeze flow regimes and their effect on surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubes, M. T.; Cooper, H. J.; Smith, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected during the Convective and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment were analyzed as part of an investigation of the sea breeze in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida. Analysis of near-surface divergence fields shows that the classical 24-hour oscillation in divergence over the island due to the direct sea breeze circulation is frequently disrupted and exhibits two distinct modes: the classical sea breeze pattern and deviations from that pattern. A comparison of clear day surface energy fluxes with fluxes on other days indicates that changes in magnitudes were dominated by the presence or absence of clouds. Non-classical sea breeze days tended to lose more available energy in the morning than classical sea breeze days due to earlier development of small cumulus over the island. A composite storm of surface winds, surface energy fluxes, rainfall, and satellite visible data was constructed. A spectral transmittance over the visible wavelengths for the cloud cover resulting from the composite storm was calculated. It is shown that pre-storm transmittances of 0.8 fall to values near 0.1 as the downdraft moves directly over the site. It is also found that under post-composite storm conditions of continuous clear sky days, 3.5 days are required to evaporate back into the atmosphere the latent heat energy lost to the surface by rainfall.

  2. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Singh, J.

    2016-02-01

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January-April) in the year 2015 based on the data measured using the waverider buoys moored in the eastern Arabian sea off Vengurla, central west coast of India. Temporal variability of diurnal wave response is examined. Numerical model Delft3D is used to study the nearshore wave transformation. The wave height increased due to the sea breeze and reached its peak at ˜ 13:00 UTC at 15 m water depth, whereas the peak significant wave height is at 12:00 UTC at 5 m water depth. Due to the influence of the land/sea breeze system, the range of the peak wave period in 1 day varied up to 8 s. Reduction in the wave height of wind-sea is around 20 % and that of the swell is around 10 % from 15 to 5 m water depth.

  3. Interaction of a cold front with a sea-breeze front Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, A.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of a front which passed the coast between the North Sea and northern Germany and thereby experienced some modifications of its mesoscale characteristics. The event was observed during the field experiment FRONTEX'89. The two-dimensional non-hydrostatic simulations presented in this paper resemble some of the observed characteristics and yield a detailed description of the evolution of the surface front. Over the sea several narrow frontal rain bands develop in the boundary layer which becomes unstable due to the increasing sea surface temperature near the coast. The rain bands move forward relative to the front due to the cross frontal circulation which is enhanced by the release of latent heat in the ascending warm air and by the cooling of the cold air below by evaporating precipitation. Over the heated land surface a sea-breeze front develops ahead of the synoptic-scale cold front. The strong frontal gradients of the sea-breeze front mask the broader frontal zone of the cold front at the ground. The sea-breeze front triggers deep convection ahead of the cold front in the afternoon and takes over all characteristics of the synoptic-scale front in the evening. The simulations show the mechanisms that caused the observed evolution and modification of the synoptic-scale cold front. They emphasize the strong influence of the surface heat fluxes on the characteristics of fronts on the mesoscale. The most important feature of the numerical model, necessary for the proper representation of the frontal characteristics on the mesoscale, is its high resolution. The simulations are restricted by the difficulties of finding an initial state and appropriate boundary conditions so that the results fit the observations for a long time period and that spin-up problems are avoided.

  4. A numerical study of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbat, Gantuya; Baik, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The two-dimensional interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Seoul National University Urban Canopy Model (SNUUCM). A city is located near an isolated mountain, and there is no basic-state wind. Circulation over the urban area is asymmetric and characterized by the weakened mountain-side urban wind due to the opposing upslope wind and the strengthened plain-side urban wind in the daytime. The transition from upslope wind to downslope wind on the urban-side mountain slope occurs earlier than that on the mountain slope in a simulation that includes only an isolated mountain. A hydraulic jump occurs in the late afternoon, when the strong downslope wind merges with weaker mountain-side urban wind and stagnates until late evening. The sensitivities of the interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds and urban heat island intensity to mountain height and urban fraction are also examined. As mountain height decreases and urban fraction increases, the transition from urban-side upslope wind to downslope wind occurs earlier and the urban-side downslope wind persists longer. This change in transition time from urban-side upslope wind to downslope wind affects the interactions between urban breeze circulation and mountain slope winds. Urban heat island intensity is more sensitive to urban fraction than to mountain height. Each urban fraction increase of 0.1 results in an average increase of 0.17 °C (1.27 °C) in the daytime (nighttime) urban heat island intensity. A simulation in which a city is located in a basin shows that the urban-side downslope wind develops earlier, persists longer, and is stronger than in the simulation that includes a city and an isolated mountain.

  5. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  6. Sea-Breeze and Topographic Influences on the Planetary Boundary Layer in the Coastal Upwelling Area of Cabo Frio (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    We use a fully coupled oceanic-atmospheric model to investigate the sources and sinks of turbulent kinetic energy in the Cabo Frio coastal area and to determine the role of topography and the sea breeze in planetary boundary-layer (PBL) development. The study area presents similar boundary-layer characteristics than other coastal upwelling areas with complex topography, such as increased stability and low-level jets. The results show that the major effect of upwelling, over the investigated area, is to maintain low temperatures in the lower atmosphere over the coastal zone, sustaining a strong temperature inversion that precludes the vertical PBL development. Therefore, the cooling effect reduces the horizontal thermal contrast between land and water, generating a negative feedback between the intensity of the sea breeze and the intensity of the upwelling. The topography at Cabo Frio prevents this cooling effect from propagating inland, since it limits the penetration of the sea-breeze circulation.

  7. Validation of mesocale number sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts over Florida using LPATS - The Lightning Position and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schuh, J. A.; Pielke, R. A.; Highlands, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The research reported in the present paper has the objective to develop improved operational techniques for sea breeze (SB) initiated convective storms. It is pointed out that the sea breeze is a relatively simple mesoscale circulation. The considered studies are mainly concerned with detailed thunderstorm potential forecasts during the next several hours, taking into account real-time predictions using new supercomputer technology. Thunderstorm and coastal mesoscale circulations are discussed along with the P3DM model sea. The considered code represents the result of a further development of the NOAA Florida sea breeze model which was introduced by Pielke (1974). After its modificataion, the model was renamed the Prognostic Three Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) Model, with its 2-D connterpart the P2DM. Attention is also given to real time climatology, and a case study concerned with developments occurring on 5 May 1984 over the Florida Peninsula.

  8. Bay breeze influence on surface ozone at Edgewood, MD during July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Clark, Richard D.; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4°, lon: −76.3°) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA’s “Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality” (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA’s Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographi...

  9. Using Breeze for Communication and Assessment of Internships: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Wilkinson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An important component of internships is the connection between students, universities and employers. “High-quality internships . . . encourage contact between faculty and students as well as develop cooperation among students,” (Implementing and Assessing Internships, 2002, 67. This “good practice” must exist to ensure good performance assessment (Implementing and assessing internships 2002. Students in an internship program were given web cameras and access to the software Breeze to use for a video journal. Focus groups were conducted to determine the students’ opinions of using this type of assessment. Students overwhelmingly preferred this type of assessment and saw the benefits of using the technology beyond the internship.

  10. The Amazon river breeze and the local boundary layer. I - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Amauri P.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the diurnal evolution of the planetary boundary layer over the Amazon rain forest, made at sites close to the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers (approximately at 3 deg S, 60 deg W) near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, show the existence of a diurnal rotation of the wind near the surface and the frequent presence of low-level nocturnal wind maxima. These circulations are shown to be plausibly explained as elements of a river and land breeze circulation induced by the thermal contrast between the rivers and the adjacent forest.

  11. Atmospheric diffusion at coastal site in presence of sea-breeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal sites present special features so much by the dominant wind system then by the lower layers of the atmosphere. Two types of experiments were handled on a coastal site in presence of sea breeze. First, vertical atmospheric sounding by radiosounding and by throwing experimental balloons; then the discharge of tracer: the SF6. The first experiment lead us to put in a prominent position the Internal Boundary Layer and the determination of its height. Whereas the second experiment allowed us to estimate the diffusion parameters of the site as well as to obtain interesting conclusions on diffusivity of the environment studied and the influence of certain factors

  12. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  13. Reducibility study of Rossetta ilmenite ore briquettes and powder with coke breeze at 800-1100°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd el Gawad Hala H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material were briquetted with different amounts of organic materials such as molasses or pitch were studied in this investigation. The produced briquettes at reasonable condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800 - 1100oC to determine the factors controlling the reduction and to determine the controlling mechanism. Also ilmenite ore fine with coke breeze were reduced at the same temperature range in nitrogen atmosphere without briquetting process, for the sake of comparison.

  14. Numerical simulation of sea breeze characteristics observed at tropical coastal site, Kalpakkam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jamima; J Lakshminarasimhan

    2004-06-01

    Sea breeze characteristics around Kalpakkam tropical coastal site are studied using an Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) mesoscale model, which is non-hydrostatic, compressible atmospheric prediction model following the terrain coordinate system. Various options such as surface physics, atmospheric radiation physics, Coriolis force, microphysics, cumulus parameterization and 1.5 level TKE closure scheme for diffusion are included in the model. A joint meteorological field experiment was carried out by IITM-Pune and IGCAR at Kalpakkam by deploying state-of-the-art sensors and tether balloon systems for observing the height profiles of meteorological parameters. The data obtained from the field experiment are used here to compare the results from numerical simulations. From the simulated results, it is seen that duration of the sea breeze is 6 hours which agrees well with the observations. The height of the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) is also simulated from the vertical profiles of potential temperature. Simulated wind speed and wind directions are compared with the 50m tower data and potential temperature profiles are compared with the kytoon data. Results are in good agreement with the observed values except during night time wherein a small difference is seen in the wind speed.

  15. Thermal degradation of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D.; Mullens, J.; Mullens, S. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Department of Pure & Applied Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    Phenolic resoles were synthesised using a coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. Anthracite/coke breeze briquettes were prepared using the tar acid resoles. Thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry of products and combustion of briquettes are described. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  16. 33 CFR 334.775 - Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf Breeze, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.775 Section 334.775 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.775 Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola Bay, Pensacola and Gulf...

  17. Tax Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker; Imhof, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We examine the provision of public projects under tax and subsidy rules. We find that tax rules separated from project cum subsidy decisions exhibit several advantages when incentive problems of the agenda-setter are taken into account. In particular, tax rules may prevent the proposal of inefficient projects that benefit only a small lobby group. We propose “redistribution efficiency” as a socially desirable property of proposals and find that tax rules always guarantee this kind of efficien...

  18. Effect of the sea breeze circulation on surface ozone levels at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface measurements of windspeed, direction, and ozone concentration collected at Walloops Island, Virginia, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 are analyzed to study the effects of the dominant mesoscale sea breeze circulation on th local photochemical oxidant levels. A bimodality in the atmospheric dynamics is linked to systematic variations in ozone concentration. It is concluded that during certain phases of the two circulation modes, increased wind speed reduces the resistance of the earth's surface to the deposition of ozone, and decreased ozone concentration levels result. For other phases, light wind occur, signifying high resistance to deposition and high ozone levels. This modulation by the local dynamics is a major impediment for pollutant studies in coastal environments, especially those centering on transport, because it tends to mask other processes that may be occurring

  19. The effect of the sea breeze circulation on surface ozone levels at Wallops Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Williams, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Surface measurements of windspeed, direction, and ozone concentration collected at Wallops Island, Virginia, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 are analyzed to study the effects of the dominant mesoscale sea breeze circulation on the local photochemical oxidant levels. A bimodality in the atmospheric dynamics is linked to systematic variations in ozone concentration. It is concluded that during certain phases of the two circulation modes, increased wind speed reduces the resistance of the earth's surface to the deposition of ozone, and decreased ozone concentration levels result. For other phases, light winds occur, signifying high resistance to deposition and high ozone levels. This modulation by the local dynamics is a major impediment for pollutant studies in coastal environments, especially those centering on transport, because it tends to mask other processes that may be occurring.

  20. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lensky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea breeze (SB is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected.

    In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West, which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2=0.75, as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough yielding lower value (R2=0.5. The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements.

    Visualizing a product of time series analysis of the satellite data enabled clear distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough.

    This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  1. A sea breeze tracer study with the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional MATHEW/ADPIC (M/A) model was developed for the assessment of the consequences of a release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The M/A model has been applied to several continuous tracer releases under sea breeze conditions at Montalto on the Tyrrhenian coast approximately 100 km northwest of Rome, at the construction site of a nuclear power plant. The MATHEW model generates a mass conservative three-dimensional gridded wind field including terrain from available interpolated meteorological data. ADPIC is a three-dimensional numerical particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model capable of simulating the time- and space-varying dispersal of atmospheric pollutants under complex conditions. It is a particle-in-cell model in which Lagrangian 'mass' particles are transported inside a fixed Eulerian grid. The M/A evaluation of the sea breeze data is shown in terms of the fraction of computed samples agreeing with measured values within a factor N, versus an angle deltatheta which is a precision parameter inversely proportional to the model's accuracy. Indications are that a small average angular shift of deltatheta=10 deg. in the direction of the computed tracer plume will provide very good agreement with observed concentrations. It is found that for these experiments the vertical and horizontal model diffusion parameters need to be decoupled because of different turbulence characteristics in the vertical and horizontal planes. The sensitivity of the M/A model results to meteorological parameters and diffusion coefficients is examined, with the most important variable being wind direction. (author)

  2. Influence of tides on the sea breeze in the German Bight: How much model complexity is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischereit, Jana; Heinke Schlünzen, K.; Gierisch, Andrea M. U.; Grawe, David; Petrik, Ronny; Hübner, Udo; Backhaus, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The state of the atmosphere near the coast is affected by the interaction of atmosphere and ocean. Thus, in order to predict the state of the atmosphere in coastal areas correctly, different oceanic characteristics and processes need to be considered. The goal of the present study is to identify whether tidal effects are relevant for the prediction of sea breezes at the German North Sea coast. For that an atmosphere model was extended to simulate the ocean in different complexities, leading to a coupled ocean-atmosphere-model. In contrast to many other studies the present study considers a two-way-coupling for momentum. That is, the simulation not only consideres a transfer of momentum from the atmosphere to the ocean but also a transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere. The model system is tested for a sea breeze situation, which is a common phenomenon in the German Bight in May and June. Six different scenarios with a grid size of 1.5 km are calculated: Inundated/dry mudflats for the entire simulation, high/low tide at Heligoland at midday and high/low tide at Heligoland at midday with a two-way-coupling for momentum. Tides influence sea breezes in two ways. Firstly, they influence the heat budget in coastal areas, as mudflats are inundated and fall dry. The study reveals that the air temperature in 10 m height follows the tidal cycle and thus reflects an inundated scenario during high tide and a dry scenario during low tide, respectively. Because of the alternation of the air temperature above the mudflats, the temperature gradient between land and sea areas is influenced, which modifies the sea breeze development. A time difference of one hour is found for the formation of the sea breeze front and its related cloud formation between those scenarios where low tide and high tide occur at midday respectively. Also the inland penetration of sea breezes is influenced by tides: with incoming tide their fronts are moved further inland. Secondly, tidal currents

  3. The interaction of the sea breezes with the boundary layer along the Red Sea coast and its effect on the dust transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Basit Ali; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Abualnaja, Yasser

    2013-04-01

    Sea and land breezes are common meteorological phenomena in most coastal regions of the world. The thermally induced mesoscale circulation of sea breezes modifies the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by forming a convective internal boundary layer (CIBL), which can trap dust and other pollutants in the thin convective layer while the return flow can transport dust and pollutants from the land towards the sea. We used the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) modeling system to study the structure and dynamics of sea breezes in the middle region of the Red Sea (around 25°N) on the western coast of Saudi Arabia. Results showed the existence of two thermal circulations on both the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The modeling results are consistent with observations from buoys and meteorological towers along the Saudi Arabian coast and suggest that the onset of the sea breeze in this area typically occurs at about 0800 Local Standard Time (LST). The sea breeze decays after 1700 LST, although the timing of the onset and decay could be affected by the sea-land thermal gradient, topography, the sea-land orientation and the direction and strength of the wind. The depth of the predicted inflow layer reaches one kilometer while the height of sea breeze head may reach three kilometers. The rocky mountain range of Al-Sarawat, along the Saudi coast line, restricts the inland propagation of the sea breeze and significantly affects the structure of the flow. We conducted a detailed process analysis of our simulation results to understand the sea breeze and PBL interaction and its effect on local meteorology and dust transport.

  4. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  5. Forecasting sea breeze thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center using the Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Model (P 3DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Segal, Moti M.

    1986-01-01

    A Prognostic Three-Dimensional Model (P3DM) to produce 1- to 12-hr predictions of sea breeze convective (SBC) storms at KSC is described. The P3DM was developed to account for a scale of about 10 km, interactions between surface heat and moisture fluxes, boundary layer convergence, the movement of moisture into cloud formation zones, and alterations in the convective potential in the lower levels of the atmosphere during the diurnal cycle. Initialized with wind, temperature, specific humidity and local water temperature data, the model allows for the distortion of the boundary layer moisture and thermal fields by sea breeze conditions. The results of three simulations of events leading to the onset of SBC storms are presented to demonstrate the model's capabilities, and techniques which may enhance the accuracy of the predictions are discussed.

  6. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  7. Simulating Sea Breeze Type Climatologies: Implications for Wind Energy, Weather Forecasting and Sailing in the Southern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The energy industry is currently undergoing a revolution. In the southern North Sea, renewable energy production targets, set by European governments to counter growing concerns over climate change, have sparked an initiative to rapidly construct a large number of offshore wind farms. To meet the targets, the industry must overcome many challenges, one of which is to capitalize on the coastal and offshore wind resource. One particular relative component of the sea breeze system, including the...

  8. Analysis of the Sea-breeze Eolic potential in the Llobregat Delta area using Aerodyn numerical simulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Olmeda Rabadan, David; Rojas Gregorio, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    From hourly data of wind speed from 1993 to 2011 recorded in the automatic Weather Station of the Meteorological Weather Service placed in Viladecans (Llobregat Delta) a stadistic study will be realized during the Sea-breeze months (march to September) to determine the range of wind speed at several height. From these data and using a average hourly wind speed data series built a numerical simulation at several height will be done to determine the eolic potential to create electric energy. ...

  9. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  10. Interstellar neutral helium in the heliosphere from IBEX observations. IV. Flow vector, Mach number, and abundance of the Warm Breeze

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, M A; Bzowski, M; Sokol, J M; Fuselier, S A; Galli, A; Heirtzler, D; Kucharek, H; Leonard, T W; Moebius, D J McComas E; Park, J; Schwadron, N A; Wurz, P

    2016-01-01

    With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al.2015b, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. We used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of $\\sim 9\\,500$ K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s$^{-1}$, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates $251.6^\\circ$, $12.0^\\circ$. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.7\\% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly found inflow direction of the Warm Bree...

  11. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO2, HNO3, PAN, O3, SO2, and SO4/sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  12. Atmospheric electrical field measurements near a fresh water reservoir and the formation of the lake breeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to access the effect of the lakes in the atmospheric electrical field, measurements have been carried out near a large man-made lake in southern Portugal, the Alqueva reservoir, during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment 2014. The purpose of these conjoint experiments was to study the impact of the Alqueva reservoir on the atmosphere, in particular on the local atmospheric electric environment by comparing measurements taken in the proximity of the lake. Two stations 10 km apart were used, as they were located up- and down-wind of the lake (Amieira and Parque Solar, respectively, in reference to the dominant northwestern wind direction. The up-wind station shows lower atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG values than the ones observed in the down-wind station between 12 and 20 UTC. The difference in the atmospheric electric PG between the up-wind and the down-wind station is ~30 V/m during the day. This differential occurs mainly during the development of a lake breeze, between 10 and 18 UTC, as a consequence of the surface temperature gradient between the surrounding land and the lake water. In the analysis presented, a correlation is found between the atmospheric electric PG differences and both wind speed and temperature gradients over the lake, thus supporting the influence of the lake breeze over the observed PG variation in the two stations. Two hypotheses are provided to explain this observation: (1 The air that flows from the lake into the land station is likely to increase the local electric conductivity through the removal of ground dust and the transport of cleaner air from higher altitudes with significant light ion concentrations. With such an increase in conductivity, it is expected to see a reduction of the atmospheric electric PG; (2 the resulting air flow over the land station carries negative ions formed by wave splashing in the lake's water surface, as a result of the so-called balloelectric effect

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  14. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  15. Atypical occlusion process caused by the merger of a sea-breeze front and gust front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulikemu, Abuduwaili; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Wang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    An atypical occlusion process that occurred in North China on 14 July 2011 is studied based on both observations and a real-data Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation. The results show that this atypical occlusion process was significantly different from the traditional, synoptic-scale occlusion process that occurs within extratropical cyclones. It was caused by the merger of two cold-type mesoscale fronts. One of the fronts developed from the gust front of convective storms, while the other was a sea-breeze front. As the two fronts moved towards each other, the warm air between them was squeezed and separated from the surface. An atypical occluded front was formed when the two fronts merged, with the warm air forced aloft. This kind of occlusion is termed a "merger" process, different from the well-known "catch-up" and "wrap-up" processes. Moreover, local convection was found to be enhanced during the merger process, with severe convective weather produced in the merger area.

  16. Fire Whirl Evolution Observed during a Valley Wind-Sea Breeze Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Seto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This observational study documented the atmospheric environment of a prescribed fire conducted in a narrow valley when a small fire whirl developed during a mesoscale wind reversal. Based on analysis of in situ meteorological measurements, it is hypothesized that the fire whirl formed due to the presence of strong vertical wind shear caused by the interaction of a sea breeze front with a weaker up-valley wind. Vorticity generated by the interaction of the wind shear and the fire front was estimated to be ~0.2 s−1. Peak turbulence kinetic energy was caused by the wind shear rather than the buoyancy generated by the fire front. It was also found that the convective Froude number itself may not be sufficient for fire whirl prediction since it is less relevant to the near-surface boundary-layer turbulence generated by environmental wind shear. Observations from this case study indicate that even low-intensity prescribed fires can result in the formation of fire whirls due to mesoscale changes in the ambient atmospheric environment.

  17. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  18. Local scale atmospheric diffusion at a coastal site in the presence of breeze effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the characterization, from the thermal and anemological point of view, of the lower layers of the atmosphere at a coastal site, affected by breeze circulation, in order to set up possible diffusion models for accidental releases of airborne materials, both of short and prolonged duration. Five inland meteorological campaigns, starting from April '82 (Apr., Jul., Oct. 1982, Jan. 1983), have been carried out. An appropriate extension of the research allowed the execution of two more campaigns in the open sea (Apr., Jul. 1983), utilizing the oceanographic ship ''Bannock'' supplied by CNR. The analysis of the data showed the development of a well defined IBL during on-shore flow only in Spring and Summer, while an inversion layer was detectable aloft independently of the season (provided that an anticyclonic situation was present). According to those relevant features a simple diffusion model has been developed for short duration releases at local scale. Finally, the analysis and elaboration of the data collected on site by a meteorological automatic station, allowed the extension of the model to prolonged releases. (author)

  19. Effect of the sea-breeze on the atmospheric stability at the sea-board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study on the effect of sea breeze on the atmospheric stability in sea-board, a meteorological observation tower of 10 m height was built on the hill which is 30 m high above the sea level, located westward 400 m away from the coast. The tower was provided with anemometers at the top and 6 thermometers at 1.5-70 m above the ground. A phrhelis-radiometer and an anemometer were put around the ground 700 m away from there. By using the data from those instruments, attempt was made to analyze the relationship between wind near the coastline and several stability categories. Pasquille's atomospheric stability category is not always same as the other category for the state of atmospheric stability. The fluctuation of wind direction and the stability categorization by Richardson numbers agreed with Pasquille's stability to some extent in neutral range, but the disagreement developed conspicuously in stable and unstable sides. The three kinds of the stability categolization agree often each other. The relationship between the fluctuation of wind direction and Richardson numbers shows similar tendency. As a means to estimate the stability, particularly to estimate the fluctuation in wind direction, the Pasquille's stability categorization seems to be appropriate for practical use, since the neutral and stable cases arise in high frequency. (Kobatake, H.)

  20. A theoretical investigation of large natural barrier effects on SEA breeze and contamination patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of contamination of a large population center lying in the proximity of a mountain, is expected to be strongly dependent on the mountain presence due to its significant distortion of the flow fields and diffusion processes. The phenomena become even more complex in the presence of sea breeze occurring in the area during daytime. In accident consequence assessment there is a need to develop suitable analytical tools to be able to predict efficiently and correctly such complex situations. The present work refers to a 1000 m two dimensional mountain range surrounded by sea. The orography under consideration represents an idealized west-east cross section of the Athens basin. The diurnal cycle of the mesoscale circulation developing across the mountainous coastline, as well as the effect on the contamination patterns are studied. The major phenomena occurring are discussed. The exercise is also part of the effort to develop the necessary capability in the ADREA-I code under development in NRCPS ''Demokritos'' to treat domain of any complexity and any atmospheric stability in atmospheric dispersion analysis and accident consequence assessment in general

  1. Impacts of boundary layer turbulence and land surface process parameterizations on simulated sea breeze characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Miao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the sensitivity of sea breeze (SB simulations to combinations of boundary-layer turbulence and land-surface process parameterizations implemented in the MM5 mesoscale meteorological mode for an observed SB case over the Swedish west coast. Various combinations from four different planetary boundary layer (PBL schemes [Blackadar, Gayno-Seaman (GS, Eta, MRF], and two land surface model (LSM schemes (SLAB, Noah with different complexity are designed to simulate a typical SB case over the Swedish west coast. The simulations are conducted using two-way interactively nested grids. Simulated 10-m winds are compared against observed near-surface wind data from the GÖTE2001 campaign to examine the diurnal cycle of wind direction and speed for SB timing. The SB (vertical circulation is also compared in the different experiments. The results show that the different combinations of PBL and LSM parameterization schemes result in different SB timing and vertical circulation characteristics. All experiments predict a delayed SB. The vertical component of the SB circulation varies in the experiments, among which the GS PBL scheme produces the strongest SB circulation. Evident differences between the SLAB and Noah LSMs are also found, especially in maximum of updraft and downdraft velocities of the SB vertical circulation. The results have significant implications for convective initiation, air quality studies and other environmental problems in coastal areas.

  2. A Comparison of Cumulus Parameterizations in Idealized Sea-Breeze Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Charles; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Four cumulus parameterizations in the Penn State-NCAR model MM5 are compared in idealized sea-breeze simulations, with the aim of discovering why they work as they do. The most realistic results appear to be those using the Kain-Fritsch scheme. Rainfall is significantly delayed with the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, due to the method of computing the reference sounding. This method can be corrected, but downdrafts should be added in a physically realistic manner. Even without downdrafts, a corrected version of the BMJ scheme produces nearly the same timing and location of deep convection as the KF scheme, despite the very different physics. In order to simulate the correct timing of the rainfall, a minimum amount of mass is required in the layer that is the source of a parameterized updraft. The Grell parameterization, in the present simulation, always derives the updraft from the top of the mixed layer, where vertical advection predominates over horizontal advection in increasing the moist static energy. This makes the application of the quasi-equilibrium closure more correct than it would be if the updrafts were always derived from the most unstable layer, but it evades the question of whether or not horizontal advection generates instability. Using different physics, the parameterizations produce significantly different cloud-top heights.

  3. Regional wind-field study in complex terrain during summer sea-breeze conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A regional-scale data base, consisting of wind and temperature data for June and July of 1977, was developed for the greater San Francisco Bay Area and eastward to the Central Valley. Continuous meteorological measurements were made in the area of a windy pass (Patterson Pass) 3 km east of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This area was chosen because of its complex terrain and importance as a downwind topographic feature affecting the dispersal of possible accidental atmospheric releases from the Laboratory and as an area of high wind-energy potential. The results of this study provided the following: (1) a data base, including over 50 stations for use in numerical wind-field regional-scale-model validation; (2) characterization of summer sea breese oscillations of approx. 6 and 12 days (this analysis is useful in calculating wind-power persistence and in understanding summer sea-breeze mechanisms in the Bay Area); and (3) successful application of an optical space-averaging wind sensor over a 1-km path across a pass to provide long-path averaged data more suitable for regional, numerical wind-field models with kilometre-size grid elements

  4. Phenolic resin binder for the production of metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse; Coban, Abdullah [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Talu, Muzaffer [University of Gazi, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    Phenol based novalac, resol and the blend of both resins were used as binders in briquette production from coke breeze. The effects of the amount of catalyst on the tensile strength of the cured briquette were studied. The results obtained have indicated that the highest tensile strength could not be attained unless the blend of novalac and resol was used as binder. The most suitable blend was the binder prepared from the hydrochloric acid catalyzed novalac of F/P = 0.5 and the N/P = 0.3 catalyzed resol of F/P = 2.0. When this blend was used as a binder the tensile strength of the cured briquettes did not drop even if they were carbonized at 470 C and 570 C. Their strengths at these carbonization temperatures were 67 MPa and 72 MPa respectively, and the rise in the temperature resulted in some increase in their strength. These results show the fact that as the formed coke briquettes descends from the top of the blast furnace, the rise in temperature will not deteriorate their strength; it will probably improve their properties. Therefore, only curing at 200 C for 2 h will be sufficient for the briquettes to be used as substitute for metallurgical coke in the blast furnace. (author)

  5. Sodar and Lidar Observations and Modelling of the Pollutants Dynamics in a Strongly Industrialized Coastal Area during a Sea-Breeze Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C.; Leroy, C.; Augustin, P.; Willart, V.; Delbarre, H.; Khomenko, G.

    2007-05-01

    The understanding of the atmospheric dynamics under sea breeze is crucial for predicting pollution transport and dispersion in coastal areas. We present here a study of the boundary-layer dynamics and the redistribution of the industrial SO2 emissions in the Dunkerque region (51 N, 2.20 E), in the north of France, at the eastern limit of the English Channel. The French Flanders coastal area is strongly industrialized with many refineries and metallurgic factories. This region is a flat area with small hills (up to 200 meters high) located 30 km away from the coast where sea breezes develop frequently all along the year. Thus, the pollutants transport and pollution episodes are mainly governed by the sea-breeze phenomenon under sunny days. By using optical and acoustic remote-sensing instruments (lidar and sodar), the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer has been observed during a whole sea-breeze event in September 2003. The structure and dynamics of the atmosphere and the pollutants transport within has been simulated with a 3D non hydrostatic model Meso-NHC, developed by the C.R.N.M. and Laboratoire d Aerologie, and was compared with the remote-sensing observations. We present the results of our numerical simulations as well as the data of the remote sensing instruments and stations of the air quality network. The thermal internal boundary layer, the gravity current, the atmospheric boundary layer, the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer, were observed by the remote sensing instruments and computed by the model. High values of SO2 concentration were observed at the sea-breeze front passage, and the pollutants emitted were uplifted by updrafts in the front. The acceleration of the sea-breeze flow seems to be responsible of the vertical redistribution of the pollutants emitted inside the sea-breeze system by means of vertical ascents in the sea-breeze front. High values of SO2 concentrations computed in the model were accumulating at the

  6. Uma teoria termodinâmica para brisas: teste utilizando simulações numéricas A thermodynamic theory for breezes: test using numeric simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clênia Rodrigues Alcântara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma teoria termodinâmica em brisas marítimas-terrestres acopladas com brisas de vale-montanha através de simulações numéricas tridimensionais em uma região da costa leste do Nordeste Brasileiro, considerando a presença e a ausência da topografia. Embora o contraste de temperatura entre as superfícies seja importante na formação da brisa, a eficiência termodinâmica é fundamental na determinação da sua intensidade. Tem-se que a inclinação faz com que a diferença de pressão entre dois pontos fique maior durante o dia e menor durante a noite contribuindo para a formação de brisas marítimas mais intensas e de brisas terrestres menos intensas, respectivamente. A máxima queda de pressão ocorre por volta de três horas antes da máxima intensidade da brisa. Isso porque grande parte da energia disponibilizada para as circulações é gasta para vencer dissipação, principalmente, no período diurno, quando esses processos são realmente efetivos. Do ponto de vista puramente termodinâmico a inclinação da montanha atua para intensificar a brisa durante o dia e para enfraquecê-la durante a noite.In this work we test a thermodynamic theory for sea-land breeze coupled with valley-mountain breeze through tri-dimensional numeric simulations. We verify the presence of such a breeze in Northeast Brazil's east coast and perform experiments with and without the topography of the region. Although the temperature contrast between two surfaces is important in forming the breezes, the thermodynamic efficiency is a key parameter for the breeze intensity. The presence of the slope causes the pressure difference between two points to increase during the day and to decrease during the night. This contributes for more intense daytime breeze and less intense nighttime ones. The maximum pressure drop occurs about three hours prior the maximum intensity of the sea breeze. This is because most of the available

  7. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  8. RGANN: An Efficient Algorithm to Extract Rules from ANNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient rule generation algorithm, called rule generation from artificial neural networks (RGANN) to generate symbolic rules from ANNs. Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods supports explicitness of the generated rules. Generated rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, including breast cancer, wine, season, golf-playing, and ...

  9. Acquired Lymphangiectasia of the Breast After Breast Conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Dener, Cenap

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangiectasia is characterized by vesicular dilation of lymphatic vessels and is generally a complication of radiotherapy or surgery of various malignant tumors such as breast and cervical cancers. Although it is not a precancerous disease, correct diagnosis is important to rule out Stewart-Treves syndrome which is defined as lymphangiosarcoma that develops in long-standing chronic postmastectomy lymphedema. Observation alone or many therapeutic options including cryosurgery, electrocauterization, sclerotherapy, and excision have been widely used in the management. Herein, a case of breast lymphangiectasia was presented as a late and rare complication of breast cancer-related therapies. PMID:27011587

  10. Simulation of oasis breeze circulation in the arid region of the Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shihua; AN Xingqin; CHEN Yüchun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the process of oasis-desert circulation (ODC) is simulated by MM5V3.5 model through designing an ideal oasis-desert scheme and assuming that initial atmosphere is at rest (V = 0). The findings showed that the key of forming special oasis boundary structure is the difference of energy and water between oasis and desert. The evaporation of oasis surface consumes heat energy, and the low temperature of oasis causes an oasis breeze circulation (OBC), which drives an ODC with a downdraft over the oasis and an updraft over the desert. Later, the cold, dry and stable boundary over oasis is gradually formed, on the contrary,the atmospheric boundary over desert on the edge of oasis is hot, humid and unstable and its height is about 600 hPa. The updraft over the desert forms a wet ring that acts as a vertical wall weakening the low-level moisture exchange between the oasis and desert. The downdraft of OBC increases the atmospheric stability that reduces the oasis evaporation. The low-level outflow from the oasis (into the desert) prevents the dry, hot air flowing from the desert into the oasis.Thus an oasis self-preservation mechanism may be formed due to OBC. The horizontal area influenced by oasis is twice as oasis area and the vertical range is four times as oasis. The ODC is strong in the daytime and reaches the strongest at 17:00, and the influenced area is the largest at 20:00.

  11. Effect of Sea Breeze on Air Pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part II: Analysis of Different Emission Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paola; Thunis, Philippe; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain

    2000-04-01

    The Mediterranean Campaign of Photochemical Tracers-Transport and Chemical Evolution that took place in the greater Athens area from 20 August to 20 September 1994 has confirmed the role of sea-breeze circulation in photochemical smog episodes that had been suggested already by a number of experiments and numerical studies.The meteorological and photochemical modeling of this campaign were discussed in Part I. Part II focuses on the study of the 14 September photochemical smog event associated with a sea-breeze circulation. The objective of the study is to identify and to understand better the nonlinear processes that produce high ozone concentrations. In particular, the effect of land and sea breezes is investigated by isolating the effect of nighttime and daytime emissions on ozone concentrations. The same principle then is used to isolate the effect on ozone concentrations of the two main sources of emissions in the greater Athens area: the industrial area around Elefsis and the Athens urban area. Last, the buildup of ozone from one day to another is investigated.From this study, it comes out that ozone production in the Athens area is mainly a 1-day phenomenon. The increased values of photochemical pollutant (up to 130 ppb at ground level) reached during summertime late afternoons on mountain slopes to the north and northeast of the city are related mainly to the current-day emissions. Nevertheless, the recirculation of old pollutants can have an important effect on ozone concentrations in downtown Athens, the southern part of the peninsula, and over the sea, especially near Aigina Island.

  12. Short range forecasting of sea breeze generated thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center: A real-time experiment using a primitive equation mesoscale numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Moon, Dennis; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William; Arritt, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    The operational efficiency of using guidance from a mesoscale numerical model to improve sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts at and around the Shuttle landing strip was assessed. The Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) model, developed as a sea breeze model, reveals a strong correlation between regions of mesoscale convergence and the triggering of sea breeze convection thunderstorms. The P3DM was modified to generate stability parameters familiar to the operational forecaster. In addition to the mesoscale fields of wind, vertical motion, moisture, temperature, a stability indicator, a combination of model-predicted K and Lifted Indices and the maximum grid cell vertical motion, were proposed and tested. Results of blind tests indicate that a forecaster, provided with guidance derived from model output, could improve local thunderstorm forecasts.

  13. An assessment of the sea breeze energy potential using small wind turbines in peri-urban coastal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Rojas Gregorio, José Ignacio; Jou, Jordi; Valle, Aaron; Olmeda, David; Sanchez,Carlos

    2015-01-01

    From wind speed data recorded hourly at 2 m high during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula), wind speed distributions at 10 m high were computed for the whole year and for the sea breeze period (from March 1 to September 30, from 10 to 19 local time). Weibull probability density functions fitted to the distributions were used to assess the wind energy generated by two off-grid small wind turbines: the IT-PE-100 and th...

  14. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    climax of the masque was “Rule, Britannia!” This song advocated a strong navy as a guard against the absolutist European powers with their lack of civil liberties. Furthermore, a strong navy made a standing army superfluous, and so an army could not be deployed as a repressive force of the state. Later a...

  15. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  16. Machine Ruling

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies, such as big data, Internet of things, cloud computing, mobile Internet, and robotics, breed and expedite new applications and fields. In the mean while, the long-term prosperity and happiness of human race demands advanced technologies. In this paper, the aforementioned emerging technologies are applied to management and governance for the long-term prosperity and happiness of human race. The term "machine ruling" is coined, introduced, and justified. Moreover, the fram...

  17. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... One breast that is larger than the other (asymmetry of the breasts) Uneven position of the nipples ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  18. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  20. Ultrasound - Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Even so, mammograms do not detect all breast cancers. Some breast lesions and abnormalities are not visible or are difficult to interpret on mammograms. In breasts that are dense, meaning there is a lot ... and less fat, many cancers can be hard to see on mammography. Many ...

  1. Tinbergen Rules the Taylor Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas R. Michl

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates a simple model of growth with a Taylor-like monetary policy rule that includes inflation-targeting as a special case. When the inflation process originates in the product market, inflation-targeting locks in the unemployment rate prevailing at the time the policy matures. Although there is an apparent NAIRU and Phillips curve, this long-run position depends on initial conditions; in the presence of stochastic shocks, it would be path dependent. Even with an employment ta...

  2. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  3. Goldbach's Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Aktay, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Goldbach`s Conjecture, "every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes" is renamed Goldbach`s Rule for it can not be otherwise. The conjecture is proven by showing that the existence of prime pairs adding to any even number greater than 2 is a natural by-product of the existence of the prime sequence less than that even number. First it is shown that the remainder of cancellations process which identifies primes less than an even number also remainders prime pairs ...

  4. Study of the development of the sea breeze and its micro-scale structure at a coastal site using a Multi-Tone Sodar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the development of the coastal flow i.e. its micro-scale characteristics within the surface layer at the sea-land transition and to investigate the development of inland formation of cloudiness during merging of sea/land and valley- mountain breeze regimes. The area is the mountainous southern tip of Italy, about 50 km wide and 300 km long, in the Central Mediterranean Basin. Here, thermal meso-scale circulations and cloud formations on the mountains are pronounced because of their peculiar elongated shape. Upslope flow is very strong, due to the steepness of Apennines, and sea-breeze circulation is supported by the thermally forced meso-scale flows. Here, we present preliminary results from a case study during six consecutive days where sea/land breeze circulation was well developed and discuss the effect on the formation of inland clouds. Sea breeze days are selected by a sodar and surface meteorological station measurements. Cloud development is analyzed by subjective inspection of METEOSAT MSG images in the visible channel. The WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model is used to analyze the meteorological situation. The Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate CNR-ISAC in house modular Multi-Tone Sodar system (PC-MTSodar) and the surface meteorological station are installed and operated at a coastal site located at about 300 m from the coastline. Preliminary results show that the methodology is viable to study the development of thermally forced meso-scale circulations over Calabria at micro and large scale and that these circulations can be intense over the peninsula thanks to its peculiar shape. It is shown that the formation of afternoon cumulus clouds, which may result in rainfall, is modulated by synoptic scale conditions. Further development will be a climatic assessment of the role of breezes on local climate

  5. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Pattern of palpable breast lesions on fine needle aspiration: A retrospective analysis of 902 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S Chandanwale

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion : With experienced hands, FNA is safe, cost effective and a reliable technique for preoperative evaluation of palpable breast lumps. FNA features are more informative when combined with physical and radiology findings (Triple test. Fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and mastitis form the major bulk of benign breast lesions. Epithelioid cells when seen in inflammatory breast FNA smears, tuberculosis must be ruled out. In India, breast carcinoma arises in younger patients as compared to western countries. Grading of breast carcinomas must be done on FNA smears for selecting neoadjuvent therapy. Clinical breast examination and mammography screening in females should be encouraged in developing countries from the third decade onwards for early detection of breast carcinoma.

  9. Extracting Symbolic Rules for Medical Diagnosis Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems involving classification and function approximation. Although backpropagation NNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained NNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. An algorithm is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules for medical diagnosis problem. Empirical study on three benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, diabetes, and lenses demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates high quality rules from NNs comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy.

  10. Breast dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of the absorbed dose to the breast is an important part of the quality control of the mammographic examination. Knowledge of breast dose is essential for the design and performance assessment of mammographic imaging systems. This review gives a historical introduction to the measurement of breast dose. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is introduced as an appropriate measure of breast dose. MGD can be estimated from measurements of the incident air kerma at the surface of the breast and the application of an appropriate conversion factor. Methods of calculating and measuring this conversion factor are described and the results discussed. The incident air kerma itself may be measured for patients or for a test phantom simulating the breast. In each case the dose may be determined using TLD measurements, or known exposure parameters and measurements of tube output. The methodology appropriate to each case is considered and the results from sample surveys of breast dose are presented. Finally the various national protocols for breast dosimetry are compared

  11. A numerical study of sea breeze circulation observed at a tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, under different synoptic flow situations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Srinivas; R Venkatesan; K M Somayaji; A Bagavath Singh

    2006-10-01

    A simulation study of the sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) characteristics has been carried out at the tropical site Kalpakkam on the east coast of India, for operational atmospheric dispersion prediction. The community based PSU/NCAR MM5 Mesoscale meteorological model is used for the study. Three cases on typical days in summer (24 May 2003), southwest (SW) monsoon (1 July 2001) winter season (2 February 2003) with different largescale flow pattern are studied. The MM5 model is used with 3 nested domains with horizontal grid resolutions 18 km, 6 km and 2 km and 26 vertical levels. The model is integrated for 24 hours in the above cases with initial and boundary conditions taken from NCEP-FNL analyses data. Observations of 10 meteorological stations and coastal boundary layer experiments conducted at Kalpakkam are used for comparison and validation of the simulation. The characteristics of simulated sea breeze and TIBL at Kalpakkam are seen to vary in the above cases according to the prevailing large-scale winds and surface fluxes. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the SW monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of TIBL are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. Although model parameters agree in general with observations, all the fine features are not clearly captured and some slowness in model sea breeze development is also seen. The results indicate the need to improve i) the initial conditions by assimilation of available surface/upper air observations to reduce model bias and ii) surface net radiation parameterisation. The model could predict the essential features of the local circulation and further improvement is expected with better initial condition data and incorporation of more realistic surface data.

  12. Studying the pelletization of rosseta ilmenite concentrate with coke breeze using molasses and reduction kinetics of produced pellets at 800-1150ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material which were pelletized with different amounts of molasses were studied in this investigation. The produced pellets at optimum condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800-1150ºC to determine the controlling mechanism. The reduction indicated that the reduction rates increased as the temperature increased and the controlling mechanism of reaction rate is solid-solid reaction.

  13. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  14. A study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides at a coastal site using a modified Gaussian model and a mesoscale sea breeze model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, R.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Somayaji, K. M.

    Ground level concentration and sky-shine dose due to radioactive emissions from a nuclear power plant at a coastal site have been estimated using the standard Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) and the modified GPM suggested by Misra (Atmospheric Environment 14 (1980) 397), which incorporates fumigation effect under sea breeze condition. The difference in results between these two models is analysed in order to understand their significance and errors that would occur if proper choice were not made. Radioactive sky-shine dose from 41Ar, emitted from a 100 m stack of the nuclear plant is continuously recorded by environmental gamma dose monitors and the data is used to validate the modified GPM. It is observed that the dose values increase by a factor of about 2 times than those of the standard GPM estimates, up to a downwind distance of 6 km during sea breeze hours. In order to examine the dispersion of radioactive effluents in the mesoscale range, a sea breeze model coupled with a particle dispersion model is used. The deposited activity, thyroid dose and sky-shine radioactive dose are simulated for a range of 30 km. In this range, the plume is found to deviate from its straight-line trajectory, as otherwise assumed in GPM. A secondary maximum in the concentration and the sky-shine dose is also observed in the model results. These results are quite significant in realistically estimating the area affected under any unlikely event of an accidental release of radioactivity.

  15. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  16. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  17. A Tropical Lake Breeze System : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-04-01

    During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing ratios at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing ratios on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind system, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing ratios can be confined to

  18. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  19. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  20. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  1. Filariasis of The Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Bhardwaj, Deepti Mahajan,MRAttri*

    2007-01-01

    Filariasis of the breast presenting as a breast lump and clinically simulating a breast cancer is an unusualpresentation. The present case is of a 42 year old female whose breast lump was excised and histopathologyrevealed filariasis.

  2. Severe Weather Caused by Heat Island and Sea Breeze Effects in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vemado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP is one of the most populated regions of the planet with one of the largest impervious regions as well. This research work aims to characterize MASP heat island (HI effect and its interaction with the local sea breeze (SB inflow in rainfall amounts and deep convection. The combined SB-HI produces direct circulation over the MASP and produces severe weather and socioeconomic impacts. All SB-HI episodes between 2005 and 2008 are identified and analyzed with surface and upper air measurements, weather radar, and satellite data. The current work indicates that intense SB-HI episodes are related to air and dew point temperatures above 30°C and 20°C, respectively, right after the passage of the SB front over MASP. Results indicate that the precipitation related to SB-HI episodes is up to 600 mm or about four times higher than that in rural or less urbanized areas in its surroundings. Measurements indicate that 74% of SB-HI episodes are related to NW winds in earlier afternoon hours. Moving cold fronts in southern Brazil tend to intensify the SB-HI circulation in MASP. A conceptual model of these patterns is presented in this paper.

  3. Study of the thermal internal boundary layer during sea-breeze events in the complex coastal area of Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Isabelle; Mestayer, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    A revisit of two sea-breeze episodes is presented, based on higher spatial resolution large eddy simulations (LES) of the lower atmosphere over the coastal area of Marseille and measurements obtained during the June 2001 experimental campaign UBL-ESCOMPTE. The focus is on the development of thermal internal boundary layers (TIBL) over a complex topography: the dynamic and thermal mechanisms that contribute to the TIBL growth and its further degeneration into a convective mixed layer, the respective influences of the coast shape, the large-scale flow above and the local low-level slope flows. The high-resolution LES permits exploring the potential temperature and turbulent kinetic energy fields in relation with the evolution of TIBL depth and heat fluxes along representative streamlines. Several theoretical TIBL depth models are further compared to the LES-deduced inversion height and other parameters, leading to a discussion of the relationships between the values of these parameters, the respective influences of the governing physical phenomena, and the TIBL behaviour. A threshold value of 0.35 is proposed for the friction velocity to convective velocity scale ratio u */ w * between the two regimes where the TIBL is either dominated by dynamical kinetic energy production or controlled by buoyancy.

  4. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  5. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  6. Breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF, Friedland ML. Breast disease. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 30. Harvey ...

  7. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 36. Jacobs L, Hardin R. ... eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:565-567. Swartz MH. The breast. ...

  8. Breast Density and Your Breast Mammogram Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Density and Your Mammogram Report Regular mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early. But if ... But in some women, there’s little change. Breast density is very common, and is not abnormal. How ...

  9. Screening for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a clinical breast exam done? • What is breast self-awareness? • How is breast self-awareness different from the traditional breast self-exam? •Glossary ... problems includes mammography , clinical breast exams, and breast self-awareness. What is mammography? Mammography is an X-ray ...

  10. Breast hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamartoma of the breast is a rare circumscribed lesion composed of fat and other breast tissue which may be normal or which may show various benign changes. Pathognomonic mammographic features are non-homogenous mass containing mottled densities corresponding to fat, epithelium and connective tissue. In this report, radiological, pathological and histological findings are described. The lesions are usually diagnosed radiologically and accurate diagnosis is necessary for the patient's management and prognosis

  11. Quantum nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the nRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow all conscious observer...

  12. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  13. Aerosol extinction properties over coastal West Bengal Gangetic plain under inter-seasonal and sea breeze influenced transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Priyadharshini, B.; Pani, S. K.; Bharath Kumar, D.; Faruqi, A. R.; Bhanja, S. N.; Mandal, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the atmospheric aerosol extinction properties under an influence of inter-seasonal and sea breeze (SB) transport processes over coastal West Bengal (WB) Gangetic plain (WBGP). The predominant frequency of airmass back trajectory path was through the Arabian Sea (AS) during southwest monsoon (SWmon) and that through the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during transition to winter (Twin) season and the Bay of Bengal during transition to summer (Tsumm) season. Aerosol surface concentration (Sconc) and aerosol extinction exhibited heterogeneity in the seasonal variability over coastal WBGP with their highest seasonal mean being during winter and summer seasons respectively. Seasonal mean extinction was respectively 17% and 30% higher during winter and summer seasons than that during SWmon. While angstrom exponent (AE) was less than one during SWmon, Tsumm, and summer seasons, it was near to one during Twin and winter monsoon (Wmon), and was more than one during winter season. Relative contribution (%) of upper (at altitude above 1 km) aerosol layer (UAL) to aerosol extinction during summer was four times of that during winter. Seasonally distinct vertical distribution of aerosol extinction associated with meteorological and SB influenced transport and that due to influence of high rise open burning emissions was inferred. Possible aerosol subtypes extracted during days in Tsumm were inferred to be mostly constituted of dust and polluted dust during daytime, in addition to polluted continental and smoke in UAL during nighttime. In contrast to that at nearby urban location (Kolkata, KOL), intensity of updraft of airmass evaluated during evening/SB activity hour (1730 local time, (LT)) at study site (Kharagpur, KGP) was as high as 3.5 times the intensity during near to noon hour (1130 LT); this intensity was the highest along coast of westBengal-Orissa. Enhanced Sconc and relative contribution of UAL to aerosol extinction (58% compared to 36% only at nearby urban

  14. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. IV. Flow Vector, Mach Number, and Abundance of the Warm Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.

    2016-04-01

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s‑1, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  15. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  16. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes....

  17. Breast self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-examination of the breast; BSE; Breast cancer - BSE; Breast cancer screening - self exam ... The best time to do a monthly self-breast exam is about 3 to 5 days after your period starts. Do it at the same time every month. Your breasts are ...

  18. Computation of bankruptcy rules

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Verónica; Lopez, Marcelo; Necco, Claudia Mónica; Quintas, Luis Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    We implemented a system that computes bankruptcy rules. The implemented rules are: The Talmud, the Proportional, the Truncated Proportional, the Adjusted Proportional, the Constrained Equal Awards and the Random Arrival rule. The system computes, compares and graphics the different allocations to claimants. We present some applications and examples exported by the system.

  19. Ottawa ankle rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Stiell, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa ankle rule project demonstrated that more than 95% of patients with ankle injuries had radiographic examinations but that 85% of the films showed no fractures. A group of Ottawa emergency physicians developed two rules to identify clinically important fractures of the malleoli and the midfoot. Use of these rules reduced radiographic examinations by 28% for the ankle and 14% for the foot.

  20. Breast autoaugmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwan, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    A technique using a posteriorly based dermoglandular flap as an augmentation of the superior hemisphere of the breast combined with a periareolar mastopexy and vertical mastopexy is presented. The advantages of combining a periareolar mastopexy, in terms of reducing the length of the vertical scar and preventing areolar distortion, are explained.

  1. Breast Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Neely Hines; Yihong Wang; Priscilla Slanetz; Vandana Dialani

    2011-01-01

    Schwannomas arise from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath. The most common locations include the head, neck, and extensor surfaces of the extremities. Intramammary schwannomas are very rare and account for only 2.6% of schwannomas. A review of the English literature reveals 27 such cases of breast schwannoma. In this paper we describe another such rare case.

  2. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves ... Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  4. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type ... Breast Biopsy? What is Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  5. Early object rule acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  6. Breast hypoplasia following irradiation of the female breast in infancy and early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and the degree of breast hypoplasia were studied in 129 women irradiated with ionizing radiation in infancy or childhood for hemangioma located in the breast region. The patients were born between 1934 and 1943 and were treated at Radiumhemmet before 4 years of age. Dosimetry was based on treatment data. The mean absorbed dose to the breast anlage was 2.3 Gy. Breast asymmetry was estimated by a mailed questionnaire to all patients and by a clinical examination of 53 patients living in Stockholm Country. Breast hypoplasia on the treated side was reported by 57% of the patients and on the contralateral side by 8%. A breast hypoplasia exceeding 10% was found in 53% of the clinically examined patients on the treated side and in 9% on the contralateral side. The frequency and the severity of impaired breast development increased with the absorbed dose. The possibility of a threshold dose for the occurrence of breast hypoplasia could neither be established nor ruled out. (orig.)

  7. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  8. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  9. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  10. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  11. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  12. Breast PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast positron emission tomography; PET - breast; PET - tumor imaging - breast ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), usually ...

  13. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  14. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  15. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... to the breast or the new nipple. Having cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of ...

  16. Breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of information available today indiates that the most efficient and accurate method of screening women to detect early-stage breast cancer is an aggressive program of patient self-examination, physical examination by well-trained, motivated personnel, and high-quality x-ray mammography. There are two important factors in the implementation of mammographic screening. The first is the availability of facilities to perform high-quality, low-dose mammography, which is directly related to the second factor: the expense to society for support of this large-scale effort. Cost-benefit analysis is beyond the scope of this review. In 1979 Moskowitz and Fox attempted to address this issue, using data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project in Cincinnati, but additional analysis is required. The cost for each ''curable'' cancer that is detected must be compared with the psychological, social, and personal losses that accrue, as well as the numerous medical expenses incurred, in a frequently protracted death from breast cancer. All other imaging techniques that have been reviewed should be regarded as adjuncts to rather than replacements for mammographic screening. Ultrasound and computerized tomography are helpful when the physical examination and mammogram are equivocal. Other techniques, such as transillumination, thermography, and magnetic-resonance imaging, should be considered experimental. In patients with clinically evident lesions, x-ray mammography is helpful to evaluate the suspicious area, as well as to ''screen'' the remaining tissue in both breasts and to search for multicentric or bilateral lesions. Mammography is the only imaging technique that has been proved effective for screening

  17. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  18. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  19. Quantum nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the nRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow all conscious observers to exist inside the system without empirical ambiguity, reflecting our own unambiguous experience in the universe. This requirement is satisfied by the nRules. They allow both objective and observer measurements, so state reduction can occur with or without an observer being present. Keywords: brain states, consciousness, decoherence, epistemology, measurement, ontology, stochastic, state reduction, wave collapse.

  20. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Pretty breeze on France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan of Eole 2005 comes from 50 MW to 77.5 MW and the tariff of buying a wind kWh is coming from 38 centimes to 33.7 centimes (the aim is to bring this industry to economic maturity by successive steps, up to 28 centimes the KWh). With the opening of the great European electric market it is urgent to be competitive because the bar of 8 MW beyond it the private sector is not allowed to compete will be suppressed. The wind power plants will be more powerful but the obligation to buy ( for EDF) will not be topical that is why it is imperative to become competitive for this industry. (N.C.)

  3. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.)

  4. Results evaluation of max rule, min rule and product rule in score fusion multibiometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Karanwal,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available this paper discusses about unibiometric systems, multibiometric systems, product rule, max rule and min rule of score level fusion. Score level fusion is used to generate scores of a person. Min max normalization scheme is used for normalization which normalizes scoresbetween 0 and 1. The proposed method also evaluates the results between product rule, min rule and max rule.

  5. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  6. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  7. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  8. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  9. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  10. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  11. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  12. Breast self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A breast self-exam is a check-up a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. ... not agree about the benefits of breast self-exams in finding breast cancer or saving lives. Talk ...

  13. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE SLIDE RULE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, RONALD E.; AND OTHERS

    A BOOKLET DESIGNED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TO BE USED INDEPENDENTLY FROM AND IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR CLASSROOM CURRICULUM IN MATHEMATICS IS GIVEN. THE FIFTH- OR SIXTH-GRADE STUDENT IS PRESENTED WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF THE SLIDE RULE AND WITH A BACKGROUND REVIEW OF NECESSARY CONCEPTS. THE CONCEPTS OF THE SLIDE RULE ARE…

  15. An Integrated Knowledge Base System Architecture for Histopathological Diagnosis of Breast Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Aderonke A Kayode; Babajide S.Afolabi; Adelusola, Kayode A

    2012-01-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of breast diseases requires highly trained and experienced experts, and often strains pathologists’ cognitive capabilities. Accurate and timely diagnosis of breast diseases is essential for the appropriate management of the patients. The paper presents a knowledge base system that uses a combination of rule-based and case-based techniques to achieve the diagnosis. Rule-based systems handle problems with well-defined knowledge bases this limits the flexibility o...

  16. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  17. Evolving Fuzzy Classifiction Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs, being a robust and adaptive search methods, have found extensive applications in various tasks of Knowledge Discovery. Several usages of Genetic Algorithms (GAs for mining classification rules have shown potentially useful results. The disadvantage of the simple Rule Based Classification Systems is that they involve sharp cutoffs for distribution and hence are unable to deal with uncertainty and vagueness imperative to decision making situations. Fuzzy logic is a precise logic of imprecision and approximate reasoning. More specifically, fuzzy logic has capability to reason in an environment of imprecision, uncertainty and incompleteness of information. Therefore, Fuzzy Systems became very popular in the domain of control applications and expert systems. Regardless of the great success of fuzzy systems, currently, there has been an increasing interest to augment fuzzy systems with learning and adaptation capabilities. This necessitated the integration of EAs with Fuzzy Logic. This paper presents an extensive review on evolving Fuzzy Classification Rules (FCRs employing Genetic algorithms or Genetic Programming. Learning FCRs involves learning of Data Base (DB that contains the definitions of linguistic terms, fuzzy membership functions or fuzzy partitions etc. and Rule Base (RB which contains Fuzzy Classification Rules most often in the form of high level symbolic IF-Then rules consisting of antecedent and consequents with fuzzy constructs. As the problem of rule mining is multi-objective, the application of Multi Objective GAs (MOGAs is gaining ground to deal with conflicting criteria like accuracy and comprehensibility of the discovered rule set. Hence the recent implementations of MOGA in the area of rule mining/fuzzy rule mining have also been discussed. In the end, some unresolved problems are taken up and there is an attempt to lay down some directions for future research.

  18. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. (orig./MG)

  19. BREAST IMPLANT SURFACE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Lazenco, Anai Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast augmentation is one of the most common cosmetic surgical procedures carried out on women in the western world. Breast augmentation involves increasing the volume of a woman‘s breasts through surgery by placing a silicone implant in the subglandular or subpectoral cavity. Although a capsule forms inevitably around breast implants as a natural part of healing, it can cause significant morbidity if the capsule becomes firm and contracted, a condition known as breast capsular con...

  20. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  1. Biomarkers of Dietary Exposure Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.C.; Lampe, J.W.; Ray, R.M.; Brown, R.; Wu, C.Y.; Li, W.J.; Chen, C.; King, I.B.; Gao, D.L.; Hu, Y.W.; Shannon, J.; Wahala, K.; Thomas, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast condition among women and account for up to 50% of all breast biopsies being performed. Although considered a benign condition, fibroadenomas utilize substantial resources for management and treatment to rule out potential malignancies. Dietary factors

  2. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Primary breast osteosarcoma: A diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraskeletal osteosarcomas account for < 1% of the soft tissue sarcomas and are known to more often localize in soft tissues of the lower extremities. Primary osteosarcomas of the breast are extremely rare. A majority of the reported cases were in fact initially erroneously diagnosed and treated as primary breast carcinomas. We recently got to treat an interesting case of a primary breast osteosarcoma and discuss its evaluation and management with added emphasis on the incremental role of technetium 99-methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m) bone scintigraphy in its clinical diagnosis. Tc-99m uptake can occasionally be seen in the delayed bone scintigraphy images of extra skeletal malignancies, but the uptakes are considered to be typically less intense than the uptakes noted in primary skeletal malignancies. Extraskeletal osteosarcomas are however the exceptions to this rule, the intense uptake in bone scintigraphy further aided in an accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of our patient

  4. Selective association rule generation

    CERN Document Server

    Hahsler, Michael; Hornik, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Mining association rules is a popular and well researched method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases. A practical problem is that at medium to low support values often a large number of frequent itemsets and an even larger number of association rules are found in a database. A widely used approach is to gradually increase minimum support and minimum confidence or to filter the found rules using increasingly strict constraints on additional measures of interestingness until the set of rules found is reduced to a manageable size. In this paper we describe a different approach which is based on the idea to first define a set of ``interesting'' itemsets (e.g., by a mixture of mining and expert knowledge) and then, in a second step to selectively generate rules for only these itemsets. The main advantage of this approach over increasing thresholds or filtering rules is that the number of rules found is significantly reduced while at the same time it is not necessary to increa...

  5. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  6. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  7. TANF Rules Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Single source providing information on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program rules among States and across years (currently 1996-2010), including...

  8. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  9. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on ever...

  10. Institutions and Rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Jessop, Bob; Nielsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This short statement has three aims. First, it suggests that rules and institutionsare a convenient and productive entrypoint for analysing capitalism and mainstream proposals for its reform. But it also suggests that analyses cannot stop there if adequate critiques and alternative strategies are to be developed. Above all we need to move beyond rules and institutions to examine the microfoundations of institutions in particular subjectivities, cognitive frames, modes of calculation, norms of...

  11. Certified Rule Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagele, Julian; Zankl, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The rule labeling heuristic aims to establish confluence of (left-)linear term rewrite systems via decreasing diagrams. We present a formalization of a confluence criterion based on the interplay of relative termination and the rule labeling in the theorem prover Isabelle. Moreover, we report on the integration of this result into the certifier CeTA, facilitating the checking of confluence certificates based on decreasing diagrams for the first time. The power of the method is illustrated by ...

  12. Rule Induction by EDA with Instance-Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new rule induction method by using EDA with instance-subpopulations is proposed. The proposed method introduces a notion of instance-subpopulation, where a set of individuals matching a training instance. Then, EDA procedure is separately carried out for each instance-subpopulation. Individuals generated by each EDA procedure are merged to constitute the population at the next generation. We examined the proposed method on Breast-cancer in Wisconsin and Chess End-Game. The co...

  13. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  14. Accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Whole breast radiotherapy afier tumor lumpectomy is based on the premise that that the breast cancer recurrence rate is reduced through the elimination of residual cancer foci in the remaining tissue immediately adjacent to the lumpectomy site and occult multicentric areas of in situ or infiltrating cancer in remote areas of the breast. The relevance of remote foci to ipsilateral breast failure rates after breast conserving treatment is debatable, because 65%~100% of recurrences develop in the same quadrant as the initial tumor. This has led several investigators to question whether radiotherapy must be administered to the entire breast.

  15. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2011-01-01

    -stage procedures. From the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast, which has prospectively registered data for women undergoing breast implantations since 1999, we identified 559 women without a history of radiation therapy undergoing 592 delayed breast reconstructions following breast cancer during the......Studies of complications following reconstructive surgery with implants among women with breast cancer are needed. As the, to our knowledge, first prospective long-term study we evaluated the occurrence of complications following delayed breast reconstruction separately for one- and two...

  16. Pushing the rules: effects and aftereffects of deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Huestegge, Lynn; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    Most of our daily life is organized around rules and social norms. But what makes rules so special? And what if one were to break a rule intentionally? Can we simply free us from the present set of rules or do we automatically adhere to them? How do rule violations influence subsequent behavior? To investigate the effects and aftereffects of violating simple S-R rule, we conducted three experiments that investigated continuous finger-tracking responses on an iPad. Our experiments show that rule violations are distinct from rule-based actions in both response times and movement trajectories, they take longer to initiate and execute, and their movement trajectory is heavily contorted. Data not only show differences between the two types of response (rule-based vs. violation), but also yielded a characteristic pattern of aftereffects in case of rule violations: rule violations do not trigger adaptation effects that render further rule violations less difficult, but every rule violation poses repeated effort on the agent. The study represents a first step towards understanding the signature and underlying mechanisms of deliberate rule violations, they cannot be acted out by themselves, but require the activation of the original rule first. Consequently, they are best understood as reformulations of existing rules that are not accessible on their own, but need to be constantly derived from the original rule, with an add-on that might entail an active tendency to steer away from mental representations that reflect (socially) unwanted behavior. PMID:26245822

  17. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  18. Spatial Rules through Spatial Rule built-ins in SWRL

    OpenAIRE

    Karmacharya, Ashish; Cruz, Christophe; Boochs, Frank; Marzani, Franck

    2010-01-01

    International audience The paper presents a method to include spatial rule within rule languages like SWRL to infer spatial rules within semantic web framework. The concept presented here could benefit both geospatial community as they benefit using the adjusted knowledge base to infer spatial rule and semantic web community as the inclusion of spatial data in its framework

  19. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  20. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scar One breast is larger than the other (asymmetry of the breasts) Loss of the flap because ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  1. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... One breast may be larger than the other (asymmetry of the breasts). You may have a loss ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  2. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  3. Breast Reconstruction and Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have breast reconstruction If you choose to have reconstructive surgery, follow these steps: STEP 1 — Ask your doctor to refer you to a plastic surgeon who is an expert in breast reconstruction. ...

  4. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reconstruction with or without radiotherapy. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011;23(1):44–50. [PubMed Abstract] Barry M, Kell MR. Radiotherapy and breast reconstruction: a meta-analysis. Breast ...

  5. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... Risks of anesthesia and surgery are: Reactions to medicines Breathing problems Bleeding, blood clots , or infection Risks of breast reconstruction with ...

  6. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  7. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  8. Breast Tissue Composition and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon

    2010-01-01

    Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...

  9. Postreduction Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, David A.; Doft, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most breast reduction patients are highly satisfied after surgery. However, there is a subset of women who seek breast augmentation years later to restore lost volume chiefly associated with weight loss and postpartum changes. Breast shape and overall aesthetics are often revised at the same time. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 2 surgeons’ experiences with post-reduction breast augmentation. Twenty patients were identified between 2002 and 2014. An in-depth chart...

  10. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  11. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  13. Breast lift (mastopexy) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drooping breasts, which may occur after a woman has had children. Mammograms (breast X-rays) and a routine breast exam are required before surgery. Update Date 2/12/2013 Updated by: David A. Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. ...

  14. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  15. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Lucy; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I.

    2013-01-01

    Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery is a fundamental component of the repertoire for the management of breast cancer. It facilitates removal of large volumes of breast tissue, and can improve cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction whilst maintaining good oncological principles, reducing re-excision and mastectomy rates and assisting in adjuvant radiotherapy planning.

  16. Acupuncture relieves menopausal discomfort in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokmand, Susanne; Flyger, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the effect of acupuncture on hot flashes and disturbed night sleep in patients treated for breast cancer. The effect of acupuncture was tested against a sham-acupuncture group and a no-treatment control group. Plasma estradiol was measured to rule out this as caus...

  17. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  18. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  19. Sum Rules for Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavour in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalisation group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  20. SWRL: Rule Acquisition Using Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere, D; Borisovs, A

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays rule-based systems are very common. The use of ontology-based systems is becoming ever more popular, especially in addition to the rule-based one. The most widely used ontology development platform is Protégé. Protégé provides a knowledge acquisition tool, but still the main issue of the ontologybased rule system is rule acquisition. This paper presents an approach to using SWRL rules Tab, a plug-in to Protégé, for rule acquisition. SWRL rules Tab transforms conj...

  1. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  2. Quantum Brain oRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Quantum mechanics traditionally places the observer outside of the system being studied and employs the Born interpretation. In this and related papers the observer is placed inside the system. To accomplish this, special rules are required to engage and interpret the Schrodinger solutions in individual measurements. The rules in this paper (called the oRules) do not include the Born rule that connects probability with square modulus. It is required that the rules allow conscious observers to...

  3. Gossypiboma after Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kira Lundin; Allen, Julie E.; Lene Birk-Soerensen

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman was referred for removal of cosmetic breast implants and related siliconoma. After an exchange of breast implants at a private clinic a year previously, she had asymmetry of the right breast, persistent pain, and a generally unacceptable cosmetic result. An MRI had shown a well-defined area with spots of silicone-like material at the upper pole of the right breast. Surgical removal of presumed silicone-imbibed breast tissue was undertaken, and surprisingly a gossypiboma wa...

  4. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  5. The Enigma of Rules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 377-394. ISSN 0967-2559 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rules * normativity * evolution * language Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion www.informaworld.com

  6. Elimination of Social Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Teddy

    The thesis of this document is that arbitrary social rules must be eliminated. Chapters cover: (1) what it is like to be a student whose personal activities are controlled; (2) the necessity of environmental freedom as a prerequisite to successful educational reform; (3) the question of environmental control; (4) the legal history of environmental…

  7. Learning predictive clustering rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Struyf, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The two most commonly addressed data mining tasks are predictive modelling and clustering. Here we address the task of predictive clustering, which contains elements of both and generalizes them to some extent. We propose a novel approach to predictive clustering called predictive clustering rules, present an initial implementation and its preliminary experimental evaluation.

  8. Ruling by Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijten, Monique; Lorenzo, David

    2009-01-01

    combines qualitative ethnographic case studies with quantitative analysis of data on land distribution. In contrast to rights-based approaches, this perspective understands the legal discourses that people draw upon to explain property relations as `justifying rule talk' rather than the reflection of a...

  9. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  10. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S

    2016-01-01

    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  11. An Airship Slide Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  12. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  13. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Local scale atmospheric diffusion at a coastal site in the presence of breeze effect (Phase I and II: data collection at a coastal site and off shore)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contract is the characterization, from the thermal and anemological point of view of the lower layers of the atmosphere at a coastal site, affected by breeze circulation. Data are utilized to set up diffusion models for accidental releases of airborne materials, both of short and prolonged duration. Five inland meteorological campaigns, starting from Jan. 82 (Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. 1982, Jan. 1983), have been carried out; an appropriate extension of the contract allowed the execution of two more campaigns in the open sea (Apr., Jul. 1983), utilizing the oceanographic ship ''Bannock'' kindly supplied by CNR. The analysis of the data showed the development of a well defined IBL during on-shore flow only in Spring and Summer, while an inversion layer was detectable aloft independently of the season (provided that an anticyclonic situation was present). According to those relevant features a simple diffusion model has been developed for short duration releases at local scale. Finally, the analysis and elaboration of the data, collected on site by a meteorological automatic station, allowed the extension of the model to prolonged releases

  16. Local scale atmospheric diffusion at a coastal site in the presence of breeze effect (phase III: data elaboration and model development). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this contract is the characterization, from the thermal and anemological point of view, of the lower layers of the atmosphere at a coastal site, affected by breeze circulation. Data are utilized to set up diffusion models for accidental releases of airborne materials, both of short and prolonged duration. Five inland meteorological campaigns, starting from Jan. 82 (Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. 1982, Jan. 1983), have been carried out; an appropriate extension of the contract allowed the execution of two more campaigns in the open sea (Apr., Jul. 1983), utilizing the oceanographic ship ''Bannock'' kindly supplied by CNR. The analysis of the data showed the development of a well defined IBL during on-shore flow only in Spring and Summer, while an inversion layer was detectable aloft independently of the season (provided that an anticyclonic situation was present). According to those relevant features a simple diffusion model has been developed for short duration releases at local scale. Finally, the analysis and elaboration of the data, collected on site by a meteorological automatic station, allowed the extension of the model to prolonged releases

  17. Breast abscesses after breast conserving therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa [National Kyoto Hospital (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Breast abscess after breast conserving therapy is a rare complication and the study of this cause has not been reported. A retrospective review of 190 patients undergoing breast conserving therapy in our institution revealed 4 patients with breast abscess (mean age, 50.6 years; range, 47-57 years and median follow up 4 months; 1-11 months). Risk factors which were common to all patients were: fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical treatment; wide excision, adjuvant therapy; oral administration of tamoxifen (TAM), radiation therapy (RT) to ipsilateral whole breast; total dose of 50 Gy and skin desquamation by RT; level I or II. Other important risk factors in 3 patients were repeated aspirations of seroma post operatively and 2 patients received chemotherapy; CAF. Cultures from one abscess grew staphylococcus aureus, one grew staphylococcus epidermidis, and two were sterile. Breast abscess may be caused by a variety of factors and it is often difficult to specify the cause. This suggests that careful observation will be necessary to determine the cause. (author)

  18. Breast abscesses after breast conserving therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast abscess after breast conserving therapy is a rare complication and the study of this cause has not been reported. A retrospective review of 190 patients undergoing breast conserving therapy in our institution revealed 4 patients with breast abscess (mean age, 50.6 years; range, 47-57 years and median follow up 4 months; 1-11 months). Risk factors which were common to all patients were: fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical treatment; wide excision, adjuvant therapy; oral administration of tamoxifen (TAM), radiation therapy (RT) to ipsilateral whole breast; total dose of 50 Gy and skin desquamation by RT; level I or II. Other important risk factors in 3 patients were repeated aspirations of seroma post operatively and 2 patients received chemotherapy; CAF. Cultures from one abscess grew staphylococcus aureus, one grew staphylococcus epidermidis, and two were sterile. Breast abscess may be caused by a variety of factors and it is often difficult to specify the cause. This suggests that careful observation will be necessary to determine the cause. (author)

  19. Hiding Sensitive Association Rule Using Clusters of Sensitive Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay keer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The security of the large database that contains certain crucialinformation, it will become a serious issue when sharing data to thenetwork against unauthorized access. Association rules hidingalgorithms get strong and efficient performance for protectingconfidential and crucial data. The objective of the proposedAssociation rule hiding algorithm for privacy preserving datamining is to hide certain information so that they cannot bediscovered through association rule mining algorithm. The mainapproached of association rule hiding algorithms to hide somegenerated association rules, by increase or decrease the support orthe confidence of the rules. The association rule items whether inLeft Hand Side (LHS or Right Hand Side (RHS of the generatedrule, that cannot be deduced through association rule miningalgorithms. The concept of Increase Support of Left Hand Side(ISL algorithm is decrease the confidence of rule by increase thesupport value of LHS. It doesn’t work for both side of rule. Itworks only for modification of LHS. In this paper, we propose aheuristic algorithm named ISLRC (Increase Support of L.H.S. itemof Rule Clusters based on ISL approach to preserve privacy forsensitive association rules in database. Proposed algorithmmodifies fewer transactions and hides many rules at a time. Theefficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with ISLalgorithms.

  20. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  1. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  2. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  3. Linear quantum addition rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Melvyn B.

    2006-01-01

    The quantum integer $[n]_q$ is the polynomial $1 + q + q^2 + ... + q^{n-1}.$ Two sequences of polynomials $\\mathcal{U} = \\{u_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ and $\\mathcal{V} = \\{v_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ define a {\\em linear addition rule} $\\oplus$ on a sequence $\\mathcal{F} = \\{f_n(q)\\}_{n=1}^{\\infty}$ by $f_m(q)\\oplus f_n(q) = u_n(q)f_m(q) + v_m(q)f_n(q).$ This is called a {\\em quantum addition rule} if $[m]_q \\oplus [n]_q = [m+n]_q$ for all positive integers $m$ and $n$. In this paper all linear qua...

  4. The rule of law

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

    2015-01-01

    The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

  5. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  7. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  9. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  11. Breast reconstruction in conserving breast cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast conserving treatment (BCT) combined with radiotherapy have provedthe test of time as a sound oncological operation regarding survival andlocal recurrence. Successful BCT is a balance between adequate surgery andmaintaining the breast's appearance. Unsatisfactory outcome reaches 20-30% instandard techniques of BCD. Concepts described to widen the spectrum of BCT,have made an improvement of cosmetic outcome and facilitated a liberal safetymargin. Volume displacement techniques, such as glandular flap, mammoplasty,donut mastopexy and batwing mastopexy proved useful in large breasts andvolume replacement, such as latissimus dorsi flap and local flaps are ofgreat advantage to replace defects in small and medium sized breasts. Some ofthese techniques are simple, but comprehensive knowledge and training arerequired for sophisticated ones. The objectives of this article are to shedlight on different techniques adopted by surgeons to perform BCT inconjunction with various oncoplastic techniques and to discuss the factorsthat influence their applications to achieve best oncological and aestheticoutcome. (author)

  12. REx: An Efficient Rule Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm REx for generating symbolic rules from artificial neural network (ANN). Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. REx exploits the first order information in the data and finds shortest sufficient conditions for a rule of a class that can differentiate it from patterns of other classes. It can generate concise and perfect rules in the sense that the error rate of the rules is not worse than the inconsistency rate found in the original data. An important feature of rule extraction algorithm, REx, is its recursive nature. They are concise, comprehensible, order insensitive and do not involve any weight values. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmark classification problems, s...

  13. Breast motion asymmetry during running

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Chris; Risius, Debbie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast asymmetry is common in females, despite a similar driving force; dynamic activity may result in asymmetrical breast motion. This preliminary study investigated how breast categorisation (left/right or dominant/non-dominant) may affect breast support recommendations and its relationship with breast pain. Ten females ran on a treadmill at 10 kph in three breast supports (no bra, everyday bra, sports bra). Five reflective markers on the thorax and nipples were tracked using infrared camer...

  14. FISCAL RULES AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Perée, Eric; Välilä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between fiscal rules and public investment both normatively and empirically. We first review the arguments for and against including public investment spending in a fiscal deficit rule. We then seek to assess the determinants of public investment, with a special focus on the role of the fiscal rules embodied in EMU. We conclude that there are practical difficulties precluding the introduction of a 'golden rule' and that there is virtually no evidence that EMU woul...

  15. On a continuous majority rule

    OpenAIRE

    Won Kyu Kim; Kyoung Hee Lee

    2005-01-01

    A seminal paper by May characterizes the majority rule in terms of anonymity, neutrality, and positive responsiveness. Since then, there have been many characterizations of the majority rule using different axioms by several authors. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of a continuous majority rule which generalizes the previous social welfare functions beyond the discrete values, and using new axioms, we will give a characterization of the continuous majority rule.

  16. Oxalate induces breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still l...

  17. Familial breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M

    1988-01-01

    Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...

  18. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  19. Morphological Rules in Russian Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda Kopp

    Recent analyses of Russian (Halle 1963, Lightner 1972) have been forced by the criteria of rule "naturalness" and rule "generality" to posit highly abstract underlying forms. These underlying forms and rules are claimed to represent the speaker's competence. Such analyses are now being criticized (Derwing 1973, Hooper 1974) on the following…

  20. Glueballs in QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to gluonium based on QCD sum rules is given. The basic idea underlying the sum rules is that asymptotic freedom is violated first by interaction of quarks and gluons with vacuum fields. Formation of resonances is a phenomenological manifestation of this interaction. The emphasis is given to a new mass scale implied by the sum rules

  1. 75 FR 19544 - Inland Navigation Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ....05 Look-out (Rule 5). 83.06 Safe speed (Rule 6). 83.07 Risk of collision (Rule 7). 83.08 Action to avoid collision (Rule 8). 83.09 Narrow channels (Rule 9). 83.10 Traffic separation schemes (Rule 10... the Great Lakes. These Rules apply to all vessels upon the inland waters of the United States, and...

  2. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  3. Neuroendocrine breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast l...

  4. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  5. Rules Extractor from PLSQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dubey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of real production systems implies more difficulties to make an efficient monitoring and especially fault diagnosis. We propose a new method supporting the operator to find the cause and the origin of a fault. To obtain a diagnosis aid system that is both reactive and easy to configure, we define a set of artificial intelligence tools using neuron network techniques. The interest of these techniques is to combine the neural networks learning capabilities and PLSQL business logics and extracting the rules into natural language.

  6. Rule the World

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta Beldarrain, Egoitz

    2014-01-01

    Rule the World es una aplicación para móviles Android. Consiste en introducir al jugador en una realidad aumentada, mediante el uso de su localización, debe de recoger diferentes objetos para darles diferentes usos, como llevarlos equipados, usarlos para construir otros objetos o enviárselos a amigos. En el siguiente documento se muestra el completo desarrollo de este proyecto, como se ha realizado la gestión, en que partes se ha dividido, la planificación que se ha llevado para realizar e...

  7. Rules for Optical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  8. Vertical and horizontal NO2 transport in urban area associated with land-sea breeze as observed by ground-based MAX-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, H.; Kanaya, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Since July 2012, continuous NO2 profile observations have been performed by using ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) at Fukuoka (33.55N, 130.36E), an urban site in Japan. MAX-DOAS is a passive remote sensing technique using scatted visible and ultraviolet solar radiation at several elevation angles, and it can allow us to retrieve vertical information on several trace gasses. In this study, the vertical resolution of the profiles is roughly 1 km below 2 km height. We investigate inhomogeneity of NO2 over Fukuoka by observing at two azimuth angles, Tenjin (downtown area) direction and Itoshima (out of downtown area) direction. Understanding of the spatial inhomogeneity of NO2 in urban area is important for measuring a priori profiles for satellite and for validating chemical transport model. Diurnal variation with maximum in the morning is clearly observed in both directions throughout the year for 0-1 km. Diurnal variation with maximum around noon is sometimes observed in Itoshima direction, which is delayed by 1-2 hours from maxima in Tenjin direction. The NO2 maximum for upper level (1-2 km) is also delayed from the maximum in Tenjin direction. From the analysis of surface wind field, these variations seems to be strongly related to vertical/horizontal transport of high concentration of NO2 from the downtown area (and development of the boundary layer) and horizontal transport of low concentration from ocean associated with land-sea breeze. We also present a comparison of NO2 data measured with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor.

  9. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  10. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  11. Girls' Attitudes toward Breast Care and Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadranyi, B. T.

    A study explored girls' emerging attitudes toward breast care and breast self-exam (BSE) and the extent to which girls had given thought to these issues. Analyses focused specifically on individual differences related to age, stage of breast development, perceived normalcy of breast development, and body image. The sample consisted of 43 white,…

  12. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  13. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  14. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  15. Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani; Petrek

    1999-05-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557

  16. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-shield. Some experts discourage the use of bicycle horn pumps because they may be difficult to clean and dry. Battery-Powered and Electric Pumps A powered breast pump uses batteries or a cord plugged into an electrical outlet to power a small motorized pump that ...

  17. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...

  18. Lobular Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Colon, the Appendix and the Gallbladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rios-Peregrina, Rosa M.; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P.; Hernández-García, Maria D.; Jimenez-Rios, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Metastases of lobular breast cancer are commonly encountered at the level of lungs, bones, brain and liver, whereas lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are rarely seen. Case Report A case of a patient with metastases in the right colon and gallbladder originating from an invasive lobular carcinoma is described. Conclusion Adequate diagnostic procedures should be performed in patients with a history of breast cancer and who show gastrointestinal symptoms to rule out the potential presence of gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:25759626

  19. Flexible Rule Mining for Difference Rules and Exception Rules from Incomplete Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Two flexible rule mining methods from incomplete database are proposed using Genetic Network Programing (GNP). GNP is one of the evolutionary optimization techniques, which uses the directed graph structure. One of the methods extracts the rules showing the different characteristics between different classes in a database. The method can obtain the rules like 'if P then Q' is interesting only in the focusing class. The other one mines interesting rules like even if itemset X and Y have weak or no statistical relation to class item C, the join of X and Y has strong relation to class item C. An incomplete database includes missing data in some tuples. Generally, it is not easy for Apriori-like methods to extract difference rules and exception rules from incomplete database. We have estimated the performances of the rule extraction using incomplete data in the environmental and medical field.

  20. Gossypiboma after Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lundin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman was referred for removal of cosmetic breast implants and related siliconoma. After an exchange of breast implants at a private clinic a year previously, she had asymmetry of the right breast, persistent pain, and a generally unacceptable cosmetic result. An MRI had shown a well-defined area with spots of silicone-like material at the upper pole of the right breast. Surgical removal of presumed silicone-imbibed breast tissue was undertaken, and surprisingly a gossypiboma was found in its place, which had not been identified on the MRI. Gossypiboma is the condition of an accidentally retained surgical sponge. This complication is also known as a textiloma, gauzoma, or muslinoma and is well described in other surgical specialties. However, it is extremely rare after plastic surgery, and this case illustrates the need for continued attention to the surgical count of sponges and instruments.

  1. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  2. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  3. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Association Rule Mining in Distributed Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. V. C. Kulloli (Guide); O.A. Omble

    2014-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important term in data mining. Association rule mining generates important rules from the data. These rules are called frequent rules and the whole concept is known as frequent rule mining. Earlier this technique was used to be implemented at local machines to generate rule. But when the data size increases as transaction on data increases then local machines took large time to compute the frequent rules. To reduce the time, local machines started...

  5. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639

  6. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors. PMID:20703554

  7. Ultrasound characterization of breast masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lump in the breast is a cause of great concern. High frequency, high-resolution USG helps in its evaluation. This is exemplified in women with dense breast tissue where USG is useful in detecting small breast cancers that are not seen on mammography. Several studies in the past have addressed the issue of differentiating benign from malignant lesions in the breast. The American College of Radiology has also brought out a BIRADS-US classification system for categorizing focal breast lesions

  8. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik;

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  9. Restructuring and simplifying rule bases

    OpenAIRE

    Vanthienen, Jan; Dries, E; WETS, G

    1995-01-01

    Rule bases are commonly acquired, by expert and/or knowledge engineer, in a form which is well suited for acquisition purposes. When the knowledge base is executed, however, a different structure may be required. Moreover, since human experts normally do not provide the knowledge in compact chunks, rule bases often suffer from redundancy. This may considerably harm efficiency. In this paper a procedure is examined to transform rules that are specified in the knowledge acquisition process ...

  10. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  11. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  12. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  13. BANKRUPTCY RULES AND PROGRESSIVE TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    Juan de Dios Moreno Ternero; Antonio Villar Notario

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the relative progressivity of the main bankruptcy rules in taxation problems. A rule F is more progressive than a rule G when the after-tax income vector generated by F Lorenz dominates that generated by G. We focus our analysis on four classical rules (proportional, equal-awards, equal-losses and Talmud) and on the TAL-family, introduced in Moreno-Ternero & Villar (2002). This family depends on a parameter Theta belongs to [0,1] and encompasses the constrained equal award...

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  16. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  17. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  18. PRIMARY NONKERATINIZING SQUAMOUS CARCINOMA OF BREAST WITH IPSILATERAL AXILLARY LYMPH NODE METASTASIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoolya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous carcinoma is a rare type of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, incidence being less than 0.1% of all breast carcinomas. The non-keratinizing variant can mimic several rare types of breast carcinomas, prognosis and therapeutic modalities of which are dissimilar. Histopathological examination is gold standard in diagnosing these tumors. Accurate diagnosis employing special stains and immunohistochemistry is mandatory as they are triple negative unlike infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS, and have aggressive course, poor prognosis and distinctive treatment modalities. Other unique features include less frequent axillary nodal metastasis and necessity to rule out metastatic squamous carcinomas to the breast from other primary sites in these patients. We present a 60 years old lady with a hard lump in the left breast, with no significant past history. Physical examination was suggestive of carcinoma of breast with axillary lymphadenopathy. Histopathological examination revealed squamous carcinoma of breast positive for p63 and cytokeratin (CK 5/6. Her chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, oral cavity, laryngobronchoscopy, cystoscopy and cervical Pap smears were unremarkable ruling out the possibility of primary squamous tumor in other common organs

  19. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  1. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit......'s true type. On the other hand, when the risk of unintentional misrepresentation is small, when verification is costly, and when the Buyer is sufficiently risk averse, the Buyer conceivably may be more effectively deterred from intentional misrepresentation under the causality rule. It is argued that the...

  2. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  3. Knowledge-Guided Semantic Indexing of Breast Cancer Histopathology Images

    OpenAIRE

    Tutac, Adina,; Racoceanu, Daniel; Putti, Thomas; Xiong, Wei; Leow, Wee-Kheng; Cretu, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Narrowing the semantic gap represents one of the most outstanding challenges in medical image analysis and indexing. This paper introduces a medical knowledge – guided paradigm for semantic indexing of histopathology images, applied to breast cancer grading (BCG). Our method improves pathologists' current manual procedures consistency by employing a semantic indexing technique, according to a rule-based decision system related to Nottingham BCG system. The challenge is to move from the medica...

  4. Sum rules in photonuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a survey of experimental data the nuclear compton scattering and the derivation of the dipole- and GGT-sum rules are discussed. The calculation that have been performed on dipole sum enhancement and dispersion relation sum rules are considered. (BJ)

  5. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.; Blackmore, A.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  6. Solar-Cell Slide Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Slide rule relates efficiency, impurity types, impurity concentrations, and process types. Solar cell slide rule calculations are determination of allowable impurity concentration for nonredistributive process, determination of impurity buildup factor for redistributive process and determination of allowable impurity concentration for redistributive process.

  7. Rule (4) and Continuous Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of rule (4) on a series or parallel sequence of quantum mechanical steps is to insure that a conscious observer does not skip a step. This rule effectively places the observer in continuous contact with the system. Key Words: brain states, continuous observation, conscious observer, measurement, probability current, state reduction, wave collapse.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and...

  9. Rule Learning with Probabilistic Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gianni; Guarascio, Massimo; Manco, Giuseppe; Ortale, Riccardo; Ritacco, Ettore

    A hierarchical classification framework is proposed for discriminating rare classes in imprecise domains, characterized by rarity (of both classes and cases), noise and low class separability. The devised framework couples the rules of a rule-based classifier with as many local probabilistic generative models. These are trained over the coverage of the corresponding rules to better catch those globally rare cases/classes that become less rare in the coverage. Two novel schemes for tightly integrating rule-based and probabilistic classification are introduced, that classify unlabeled cases by considering multiple classifier rules as well as their local probabilistic counterparts. An intensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework is competitive and often superior in accuracy w.r.t. established competitors, while overcoming them in dealing with rare classes.

  10. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MatthewJNaylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  11. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  12. Breast Problems in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compresses to the breast and gently expressing some milk may help. If you have an infection, talk to your doctor. He or she may give you an antibiotic. No 3. Did the tenderness start recently, and ...

  13. Using a Breast Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can relax and not be disturbed while pumping. If you have an electric pump, find an ... otherwise irritating your nipple or breast tissue. Begin Pumping If your pump is electric or battery-powered, ...

  14. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided ... SIGN UP FOR OUR MAILING LIST SIGN UP Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Living Beyond Breast Cancer Conference ...

  15. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  16. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  17. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  18. Breast Reconstruction Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  19. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Higdon KK. Reduction mammoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 8. ... Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 2.

  20. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  1. Breast MRI: guidelines from the European Society of Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of breast MRI is to obtain a reliable evaluation of any lesion within the breast. It is currently always used as an adjunct to the standard diagnostic procedures of the breast, i.e., clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound. Whereas the sensitivity of breast MRI is usually very high, specificity - as in all breast imaging modalities - depends on many factors such as reader expertise, use of adequate techniques and composition of the patient cohorts. Since breast MRI will always yield MR-only visible questionable lesions that require an MR-guided intervention for clarification, MRI should only be offered by institutions that can also offer a MRI-guided breast biopsy or that are in close contact with a site that can perform this type of biopsy for them. Radiologists involved in breast imaging should ensure that they have a thorough knowledge of the MRI techniques that are necessary for breast imaging, that they know how to evaluate a breast MRI using the ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon, and most important, when to perform breast MRI. This manuscript provides guidelines on the current best practice for the use of breast MRI, and the methods to be used, from the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI). (orig.)

  2. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility...

  3. Breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  4. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Hyung-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants d...

  5. Diet and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-01-01

    Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability ...

  6. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  7. Women and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Jin; Ping Mu

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  9. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... must assume a margin period of risk under the IMM of 20 business days for netting sets where: (1) The... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market...

  10. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination. PMID:12742604

  11. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  12. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  13. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  14. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules

  15. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  16. Environmental protection through technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding force of limiting values regarding nuisances and emissions and of descriptions of technical processes is dependent on the legal nature of the technical rules. Licensing authorities do not have to deal in their own responsibility with the legal obligations of owners under section 5, sub-section 1, number 1,2 BImSchG and section 7, subsection 2, number 3 AtG if authoritative legal regulations and general administrative rules exist, while the courts of administration are dispensed from full control of executive decision only if technical rules exist which have been issued as ordinances. Judges of courts of administration will only escape the dilemma of issuing necessary judgements on highly complex, technic-scientific matters without possessing adequate expert knowledge if the technical rules defining the legal obligations of owners are laid down, not only in part but comprehensively, as ordinances having the force of law. On account of their judging and weighing elements, technical rules cannot be considered in court-proceedings as reflecting experience generally, although they represent natural-scientific, technical expertise. At the level of the individual person's rights to guard himself from nuisances, technical rules do not have the force to render norms more concrete, irrespective of their legal nature. Lack of binding force of technical rules also characterizes their worth as regards compensation claims made and damages demanded under section 906, sub-section 2, number 2 BGB, section 14, number 2 BImSchG, and section 823, subsection 1 BGB. Only under section 823, subsection 2 BGB and as long as they have been issued as ordinances and relate to the plant owner's protection obligations, do technical rules immediately substantiate a claim to damages. It is the emitting plant owner's obligation to comprehensively prove that the preconditions for damages or compensation claims are not given if the technical rules are not fulfilled. (orig./HP)

  17. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  18. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  19. Consciousness The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    We examine the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules are given that govern stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It is found that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are given below. This is the first of several papers that lead to an experimental test of the rules, and of the "parallel principle" that is described elsewhere. Key words: Brain states, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  20. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  1. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  2. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  3. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... planning to do a left breast reconstruction, so lift up the flaps here and go underneath the ... breast reconstruction. In this case, we would usually lift the skin flap and the pectoralis major muscle ...

  4. Breast Reduction Using Liposuction Alone

    OpenAIRE

    Moskovitz, Martin J.; Baxt, Sherwood A.

    2004-01-01

    Liposuction alone as a treatment of breast hypertrophy has been mentioned in the literature for the past decade but has been limited in its application. Our experience in over 350 cases has shown that liposuction breast reduction is an excellent method of breast reduction when applied to the proper patient. The techniques involved in liposuction breast reduction mirror those used in standard liposuction cases, so most plastic surgeons will find the learning curve for this procedure to be very...

  5. Metastatic Thymoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Mok; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kang, Seok Seon; Nam, Seok-Jin; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2008-01-01

    Breast metastasis from nonmammary malignant neoplasms is uncommon, and it accounts for approximately 2% of all breast tumors. Distant metastasis of thymoma is very rare, and especially to extrathorcic areas. We report a female who had a metastatic thymoma in her breast 20 years after undergoing resection for a non-invasive thymoma. She presented with a palpable mass in her left breast. Mammography and ultrasonogram showed a lobular mass at the anterior glandular portion. Histological examinat...

  6. Oncoplastic breast surgery: current strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Merisa; Peled, Anne Warren; Sbitany, Hani

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has dramatically evolved over the past 20 years, with oncoplastic surgery gaining increased popularity. This field of breast surgery allows for complete resection of tumor, preservation of normal parenchyma tissue, and the use of local or regional tissue for immediate breast reconstruction at the time of partial mastectomy. These techniques extend the options for breast conservation surgery, improve aesthetic outcomes, have high patient satisfaction an...

  7. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  8. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods and putting a strong emphasis on business rules. This article outlines the importance of managing business rules in an organized manner using dedicated software products and furthermore presents a general prototype for a business rules repository.

  9. A Class of DSm Conditional Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Alford, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two new DSm fusion conditioning rules with example, and as a generalization of them a class of DSm fusion conditioning rules, and then extend them to a class of DSm conditioning rules.

  10. Anonymity-Proof Voting Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Conitzer, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    A (randomized, anonymous) voting rule maps any multiset of total orders of (aka. votes over) a fixed set of alternatives to a probability distribution over these alternatives. A voting rule f is neutral if it treats all alternatives symmetrically. It satisfies participation if no voter ever benefits from not casting her vote. It is falsename-proof if no voter ever benefits from casting additional (potentially different) votes. It is anonymity-proof if it satisfies participation and it i...

  11. Rule 40 guidelines: July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Rule 40 of the Olympic Charter limits athletes competing in the Olympic Games from appearing in advertising during and shortly before the Olympic Games. This helps prevent ambush marketing which might otherwise utilise athletes to create an association with the Games. These guidelines explain the rationale and application of Rule 40 in the United Kingdom.‘Express consents’ to use athletes in advertising are available for official sponsors of London 2012, but other businesses are generally res...

  12. Consciousness: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    We examine the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules are given that govern stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It is found that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are given below. This is the first of several papers that lead to...

  13. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  14. Learning and Rewriting in Fuzzy Rule Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Ingrid; Koch, Manuel; MICHAEL R BERTHOLD

    2003-01-01

    Different learning algorithms based on learning from examples are described based on a set of graph rewrite rules. Starting from either a very general or a very special rule set which is modeled as graph, two to three basic rewrite rules are applied until a rule graph explaining all examples is reached. The rewrite rules can also be used to model the corresponding hypothesis space as they describe partial relations between different rule set graphs. The possible paths, algorithms can take thr...

  15. RECURRENCE PATTERN FOLLOWING BREAST - CONSERVING SURGERY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the Local Recurrence and metastasis pattern after Breast - Conserving Surgery for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2014 in department of surgery in VIMS Bellary, 70 patients with stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with breast - conserving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of clinical and pathological factors in early breast cancer patients treated with BCS. All of the surgeries were performed by a single surgical team. Recurrence and its risk factors were evaluated.

  16. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  17. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. 77 FR 19861 - Certain Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Polybrominated Diphenylethers; Significant New Use Rule and Test Rule; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... and Test Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... proposing a test rule under TSCA that would require any person who manufactures or processes...

  19. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Ayyappan K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue microarray (TMA data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. Methods We apply weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA to TMA data consisting of 26 putative tumor biomarkers measured on 82 breast cancer patients. Based on this analysis we identify three groups of patients with low (5.4%, moderate (22% and high (50% mortality rates, respectively. We then develop a simple threshold rule using a subset of three markers (p53, Na-KATPase-β1, and TGF β receptor II that can approximately define these mortality groups. We compare the results of this correlation network analysis with results from a standard Cox regression analysis. Results We find that the rule-based grouping variable (referred to as WGCNA* is an independent predictor of survival time. While WGCNA* is based on protein measurements (TMA data, it validated in two independent Affymetrix microarray gene expression data (which measure mRNA abundance. We find that the WGCNA patient groups differed by 35% from mortality groups defined by a more conventional stepwise Cox regression analysis approach. Conclusions We show that correlation network methods, which are primarily used to analyze the relationships between gene products, are also useful for analyzing the relationships between patients and for defining distinct patient groups based on TMA data. We identify a rule based on three tumor markers for predicting breast cancer survival outcomes.

  20. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue microarray (TMA) data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. We apply weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to TMA data consisting of 26 putative tumor biomarkers measured on 82 breast cancer patients. Based on this analysis we identify three groups of patients with low (5.4%), moderate (22%) and high (50%) mortality rates, respectively. We then develop a simple threshold rule using a subset of three markers (p53, Na-KATPase-β1, and TGF β receptor II) that can approximately define these mortality groups. We compare the results of this correlation network analysis with results from a standard Cox regression analysis. We find that the rule-based grouping variable (referred to as WGCNA*) is an independent predictor of survival time. While WGCNA* is based on protein measurements (TMA data), it validated in two independent Affymetrix microarray gene expression data (which measure mRNA abundance). We find that the WGCNA patient groups differed by 35% from mortality groups defined by a more conventional stepwise Cox regression analysis approach. We show that correlation network methods, which are primarily used to analyze the relationships between gene products, are also useful for analyzing the relationships between patients and for defining distinct patient groups based on TMA data. We identify a rule based on three tumor markers for predicting breast cancer survival outcomes

  1. Ectopic Male Breast Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, Dipti Rani; Bose, Chaitali; Upadhyay, Ashish; Sheet, Saikat; Senapati, Surendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of male breast constitutes 1% of total breast malignancy. Carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue in male is an extremely rare entity and can be misdiagnosed. Ectopic breast tissue may be supernumerary or aberrant one. Despite morphologic difference, ectopic breast tissue presents characteristics analogous to orthoptic breast in terms of functional and pathologic degeneration. Most of the ectopic breast tissue occurs in thoracic or abdominal portion of milk line. If found in a ...

  2. Proposed acid-rain rules: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet discusses the interdependence of the core acid rain rules

  3. Breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sestak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials with tamoxifen have clearly shown that the risk of developing oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer can be reduced by at least 50% with prophylactic agents. The current challenge is to find new agents which achieve this or better efficacy, but with fewer side effects. Recent results indicate that the SERM raloxifene has similar efficacy to tamoxifen, but leads to fewer endometrial cancers, gynecological symptoms, and thromboembolic events. Results for contralateral tumors in adjuvant trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be able to prevent up to 70%–80% of ER-positive breast cancers, and this is currently being investigated in two large prevention trials, one using anastrozole (IBIS-II and the other exemestane (MAP.3. New agents are needed for receptor negative breast cancer and several possibilities are currently under investigation.

  4. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  5. High-quality breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  6. Breast cancer statistics and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...

  7. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  8. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been...

  9. Sarcoidosis of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Keiko; Isomoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Uetani, Masataka [Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Itoyanagi, Akinori [First Department of Surgery, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We report a case of sarcoidosis of the breast in a 31-year-old woman who presented with a palpable breast mass. The mammography showed a spiculated mass without any microcalcifications. Ultrasonogram showed a hypoechoic mass. Computed tomography showed a spiculated nodule. T2-weighted MR images with fat-suppression technique showed a mass with irregular border that appeared to be an accumulation of small nodules. Gadolinium-enhanced dynamic study showed gradually increasing signal intensity. She underwent excisional biopsy and the pathological findings were consistent with that of sarcoidosis. The MRI findings were well correlated with histopathological appearance. (orig.)

  10. Sarcoidosis of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of sarcoidosis of the breast in a 31-year-old woman who presented with a palpable breast mass. The mammography showed a spiculated mass without any microcalcifications. Ultrasonogram showed a hypoechoic mass. Computed tomography showed a spiculated nodule. T2-weighted MR images with fat-suppression technique showed a mass with irregular border that appeared to be an accumulation of small nodules. Gadolinium-enhanced dynamic study showed gradually increasing signal intensity. She underwent excisional biopsy and the pathological findings were consistent with that of sarcoidosis. The MRI findings were well correlated with histopathological appearance. (orig.)

  11. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Mills Chris; Ayres Bessie; Scurr Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key resul...

  12. False Negative Mammogram of Breast Cancer : Analysis of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent mammographic equipment have been of good quality and yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer. However, negative mammogram does not necessarily rule out breast cancer. Therefore were viewed cause of false negative mammography in confirmed breast cancer to improve diagnostic accuracy and for adequate clinical approach. We reviewed 19 cases of confirmed breast cancer, which showed false negative mammography with positive sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis was done by correlating the patient's age, sonographic finding and mass size, mammographic breast pattern and cause of false negative mammogram, and clinical symptoms. Among the 5 patients below 35 years in age, mass was not visible due to dense breast in 4 and due to small size in 1 case. In 14 patients over 35 years in age, 11 had normal mammographic findings, 4 had dense breast, and 7 had small sized mass. Remaining 3 cases showed asymmetric density in 2 and architecture distortion in 1 case. All showed mass lesion in sonography : ill defined malignant appearance in 14,well defined malignant appearance in 2, and well defined benign in 3 cases. Negative mammogram should be correlated with sonography in case of dense breast, below 35 years in age with palpable mass and under risk for breast cancer

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption.

  15. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  16. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  18. Born Rule and Noncontextual Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic rule that links the formalism of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the real world was stated by Born in 1926. Since then, there were many attempts to derive the Born postulate as a theorem, Gleason's one being the most prominent. The Gleason derivation, however, is generally considered as rather intricate and its physical meaning, in particular in relation with the noncontextuality of probability (NP), is not quite evident. More recently, we are witnessing a revival of interest on possible demonstrations of the Born rule, like Zurek's and Deutsch's based on the decoherence and on the theory of decisions, respectively. Despite an ongoing debate about the presence of hidden assumptions and circular reasonings, these have the merit of prompting more physically oriented approaches to the problem. Here we suggest a new proof of the Born rule based on the noncontextuality of probability. Within the theorem we also demonstrate the continuity of probability with respect to the amplitudes, which has been sug...

  19. Observational Calculi and Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Observational calculi were introduced in the 1960’s as a tool of logic of discovery. Formulas of observational calculi correspond to assertions on analysed data. Truthfulness of suitable assertions can lead to acceptance of new scientific hypotheses. The general goal was to automate the process of discovery of scientific knowledge using mathematical logic and statistics. The GUHA method for producing true formulas of observational calculi relevant to the given problem of scientific discovery was developed. Theoretically interesting and practically important results on observational calculi were achieved. Special attention was paid to formulas - couples of Boolean attributes derived from columns of the analysed data matrix. Association rules introduced in the 1990’s can be seen as a special case of such formulas. New results on logical calculi and association rules were achieved. They can be seen as a logic of association rules. This can contribute to solving contemporary challenging problems of data minin...

  20. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to clarify certain rules and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to...

  1. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original Franchise Rule published at 43 FR 59614 (Dec. 21, 1978... separate the disclosure requirements for business opportunities from those for franchises.\\3\\ \\2\\ 60...

  2. Reduction of Negative Rules in Association Rule Mining Using Distance Security and Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Kumar Ameta; Chhavi Saxena

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of data is a challenging task for mined useful association rule in data mining. The classical association rulemining generate rule with various problem such as pruning pass of transaction database, negative rule generation and superiority of rule set. Time to time various researchers modified classical association rule mining with different approach. But in current scenario association rule mining suffered from superiority rule generation. The problem of superiority is sol...

  3. Lymphatics and the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body’s tissues and returns it to the bloodstream. Lymph formation occurs at the microscopic level. During the exchange ... well as in filtering out harmful substances.The lymph vessels in the breast ... and may result in the formation of a secondary cancer mass in a different ...

  4. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  5. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  6. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  7. Breast Cancer and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.

  8. Which is the Ideal Breast Size?: Some Social Clues for Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposio, Edoardo; Belgrano, Valerio; Santi, PierLuigi; Chiorri, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    To provide plastic surgeons with more detailed information as to factors affecting the perception of female attractiveness, the present study was aimed to investigate whether the interaction effect of breast and body size on ratings of female attractiveness is moderated by sociodemographic variables and whether ratings of shapeliness diverge from those of attractiveness.A community sample of 958 Italian participants rated the attractiveness and the shapeliness of 15 stimuli (5 breast sizes × 3 body sizes) in which frontal, 3/4, and profile views of the head and torso of a faceless woman were jointly shown.Bigger breast sizes obtained the highest attractiveness ratings, but the breast-by-body size interaction was also significant. Evidence was found of a moderator role of sex, marital status, and age. When the effects of breast and body size and their interaction had been ruled out, sex differences were at best very slight and limited to very specific combinations of breast and body sizes. Ratings of attractiveness and shapeliness were highly correlated and did not significantly differ.Results suggest that to address women's psychological needs, concerns, and expectations about their appearance, plastic surgeons should not simply focus on breast size but should carefully consider the 'big picture': the body in its entirety. PMID:25664414

  9. Veterans Transportation Service. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document adopts as a final rule, with changes, a Department of Veterans affairs (VA) proposed rule concerning VA's direct transportation of persons for the purposes of examination, treatment, and care. Section 202 of the Dignified Burial and Other Veterans' Benefits Improvement Act of 2012, as amended, authorized VA to carry out a program to transport any person to or from a VA facility or VA-authorized facility, for the purpose of examination, treatment, or care. VA is authorized to carry out this program until December 31, 2016. These regulations provide guidelines for veterans and the public regarding this program, hereafter referred to as the Veterans Transportation Service (VTS). PMID:27008716

  10. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  11. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  12. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  13. HIDING SENSITIVE ASSOCIATION RULE USING HEURISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthuri S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of identifying patterns from large amount of data. Association rule mining aims to discover dependency relationships across attributes. It may also disclose sensitive information. With extensive application of data mining techniques to various domains, privacy preservation becomes mandatory. Association rule hiding is one of the techniques of privacy preserving data mining to protect the sensitive association rules generated by association rule mining. This paper adopts heuristic approach for hiding sensitive association rules. The proposed technique makes the representative rules and hides the sensitive rules.

  14. Association Rules in the Relational Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Oliver; Ester, Martin; Lu, Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    One of the most utilized data mining tasks is the search for association rules. Association rules represent significant relationships between items in transactions. We extend the concept of association rule to represent a much broader class of associations, which we refer to as \\emph{entity-relationship rules.} Semantically, entity-relationship rules express associations between properties of related objects. Syntactically, these rules are based on a broad subclass of safe domain relational calculus queries. We propose a new definition of support and confidence for entity-relationship rules and for the frequency of entity-relationship queries. We prove that the definition of frequency satisfies standard probability axioms and the Apriori property.

  15. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  16. Progestins and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  17. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of 99mTc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer

  18. Scintigraphic diagnosis of breast cancer in highly selected patients with dense breast and silicon breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Park, H. B.; Kim, S. Z.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The comparable diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammogram (SM) in patients with dense and fatty breasts was reported in the U. S and Canadian multicenter clinical trials (JNM 37 : p74-75, 1996). This is not the case with mammography which misses breast cancer in dense breasts often. The reported incidence of dense breast among Korean is about 50% as opposed to 25% in western population seen on mammograms. Therefore, dense breast would be more problematic in the evaluation of breast cancer among Korean. Thirty five highly selected patients with breast mass and 2 patients after silicon mammoplasty were evaluated by sonography (US), mammography (Mam) and SM. The patient's age ranged from 28 to 40 (average 34.6). Each patient received 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI intravenously and in 5-10 min simultaneous prone lateral views were obtained for 10 min followed by a supine anterior view with arms up for 10 min. Interpretive criteria of breast cancer by SM was any focal increased uptake (mild-marked) within the breast (single or multiple). In two patients with silicon mammoplasty, US and Mam were not useful while SM excluded breast cancer although small (> 1.0 cm) lesion could not be completely excluded. In 19 patients with biopsy confirmed carcinoma (larger than 1.5 cm), The results of three modalities were the following. The remaining 15 patients considered to have benign diseases (76% by Mam, 93% by US, 93% by SM) and are being followed at the surgical clinic. In conclusion, SM is very useful in the evaluation of breast mass in highly selected patients with dense breast which is more common among Korean and in patients after silicon augmentation. Therefore, SM should be used more often in patients (especially young) with dense breast and after mammoplasty than mammography in the detection of breast cancer.

  19. Imaging breasts with silicone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades, the use of breast implants both for breast augmentation and for breast reconstruction following mastectomy has increased substantially. It is estimated that around two million women have undergone breast augmentation, while hundreds of thousands have had breast reconstruction surgery. Different types of material have been used for breast implants, but silicone gel implants have been the dominating implant type. Many implants can lead to complications, such as hardening and rupture, and may therefore need in vivo evaluation by imaging, particularly if they lead to clinical symptoms. They can also pose problems in the assessment of surrounding breast tissue by conventional mammography. In this respect, imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater possibilities to assess a failing implant, as well as surrounding breast tissue. Several factors, mainly of a psychological nature, lead to requests for breast implants. In this review article, only the imaging aspects of breasts with silicone gel implants will be dealt with. Each modality is concisely presented with its possibilities and limitations. (orig.)

  20. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  1. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Deqin; Zhang, Liping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is ef...

  2. Social rule system theory: universal interaction grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Tom R. Burns; Machado, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Rule system theory has been used in conceptualizing interaction grammars as rule regimes. Such grammars are complexes of rules applying to social action and interaction of individuals, groups, and organizations. They consist of a finite and universal set of rule categories (10) that are identified in the paper and concern five key factors in social life: group agency conditions, social structure, interaction, material conditions, and time and space. A rule regime, while an abst...

  3. Preserving Biodiversity: Ambiguity and Safety Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Giannis Vardas; Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2006-01-01

    Safety rules are developed, for biodiversity preservation. These rules are designed to take into account the impact of uncertainty and worst case scenarios, which when combined with unregulated ecosystem management decisions, might produce extinction of species. The safety rules take the form of fixed land allocation and fixed harvesting rules under uncertainty. We explore how model uncertainty affects these safety rules relative to the classic risk aversion case and how a measure of precauti...

  4. Rule Management in Expert Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Segev; J. Leon Zhao

    1994-01-01

    Expert database systems combine database and expert systems technologies to support the effective management of both rules and data. This paper studies rule processing strategies in expert database systems involving rules that are conditional on joins of relational data. Auxiliary constructs for processing join rules are proposed, and a framework of join rule processing strategies is developed. Cost functions of several strategies are derived based on a stochastic model that characterizes the...

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  6. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  7. Breast Reconstruction: Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 00:24 WOMAN 1: The diagnosis of breast cancer is shocking for anybody and everybody. It's really ... other women made after learning they had breast cancer. You will also see the breast reconstruction surgery ...

  8. Breast Reconstruction: Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 00:00:24 WOMAN 1: The diagnosis of breast cancer is shocking for anybody and everybody. It's really ... and other women made after learning they had breast cancer. You will also see the breast reconstruction surgery ...

  9. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Lung Yang; Huei-Lung Liang; Chen-Pin Chou; Jer-Shyung Huang; Huay-Ben Pan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between...

  10. Concurrent breast stroma sarcoma and breast carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most important health problems in the world and affects a great number of women over the entire globe. This group of tumors rarely presents as bilateral disease and, when it does happen, normally occurs within the same histological type. We report a rare case of concurrent bilateral breast cancer with two different histology types, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma, in a 42-year-old woman referred to our hospital. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman admitted to our institute in August 1999, presented with a nodule in the left breast of 3.0 × 2.5 cm, and, in the right breast, one of 1.0 cm, suspected of malignancy and with a clinically negative armpit. Biopsies had revealed invasive mammary carcinoma (right breast and sarcoma (left breast. She was submitted to bilateral modified radical mastectomy. A histological study showed an invasive mammary carcinoma degree II lobular pleomorphic type with invasion of seven of the 19 excised axillary nodes in the right breast and, in the left breast, a sarcoma of the mammary stroma, for which the immunohistochemistry study was negative for epithelial biomarkers and positive for vimentin. Later, she was submitted for chemotherapy (six cycles of 75 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by radiotherapy of the thoracic wall and axillary nodes on the left. Hormone receptors were positive in the tumor of the right breast, and tamoxifen, 20 mg, was prescribed on a daily basis (five years followed by letrozole, 2.5 mg, also daily (five years. She presented no sign of negative evolution in the last consultation. Conclusion The risk of development of bilateral breast cancer is about 1% each year within a similar histological type, but it is higher in tumors with lobular histology. In this case, the patient presented, simultaneously, two histologically distinct tumors, thus evidencing a rare situation.

  11. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128. ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Rules and Strategies in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Reilles, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the essential feature we have considered when designing a new language based on rules and strategies. Relying on the implementation of Tom, we explain how these ingredients can be implemented and integrated in a Java environment.

  13. Selection rules for ^48Cr

    CERN Document Server

    Kingan, M I Quionez A

    2016-01-01

    In the single j shell(f_{7/2}){}^{48} Cr is the first even-even nucleus for which there are T=0 (Isoscalar) J=1^{+} states. These states are here studied. This nucleus ,in the same model space, is mid-shell for both neutrons and protons and this leads to many selection rules.

  14. Pakistan, military rule and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Casaca, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    As long as the Pakistani military structures do not cut radically their instrumental view of Islamic extremism, and do not understand the imperative need to leave the political scene, allowing the strengthening of the civil society, minority rights, education for tolerance and the rule of law, terrorism will remain a major threat endangering the Pakistani people and its neighbours.

  15. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  16. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418. ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.378, year: 2014

  17. Rule-based information integration

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, de, S.; Keulen, van, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and versioning. We further discuss the integration process from a data point of view.

  18. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  20. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the Commission for approval any proposed Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Rule change. A Regional Entity shall submit a Regional Entity Rule or Rule change to the Electric Reliability Organization... or upon complaint, may propose a change to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or...

  1. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  2. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  3. Primary Breast Adenocarcinoma in Ectopic Breast Tissue in the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason McMaster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue.

  4. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  5. Breast appearance and function after breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1978 and 1985, 247 breast cancer patients were treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. One hundred and twenty of these patients form the basis of this report, having replied to an 11-point structured questionnaire evaluating breast appearance and breast, shoulder and arm function. Good to perfect cosmetic, functional and overall scores are shown to be in the range 61-89%. The extent of primary surgery and axillary irradiation are the major factors affecting the cosmetic appearance. Other problems with cosmetic and functional assessment from subjective and objective view points are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Primary breast adenocarcinoma in ectopic breast tissue in the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Jason; Dua, Anahita; Dowdy, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Accessory breast tissue is a rare finding in the general population with an incidence of 1-2%. An even rarer occurrence is accessory breast tissue afflicted with breast carcinoma. We present a brief report discussing diagnosis and management of a patient who presented with primary breast adenocarcinoma in vulval supranumerary tissue. Brief Report. A 60-year-old Caucasian female presented with a lesion in her left vulva that she first identified during adolescence. The lesion began to grow and ulcerate prompting her to receive treatment. Biopsy was inconclusive, and metastatic workup was negative, so her lesion was treated as an isolated breast lump and removed via wide local excision. Conclusion. Primary breast adenocarcinoma of the vulva is exceedingly rare. A paucity of the literature on this topic unfortunately means that strong evidence does not exist detailing the best management of this patient cohort. However, given that histological data confirms these cancers are virtually the same as breast cancers, it logically follows that the best treatment practices for breast cancer may be applied to treat these patients presenting with primary vulva cancers of ectopic breast tissue. PMID:24066246

  7. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  8. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  9. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  10. Breast manifestations of systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilaveri CA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Dilaveri, Maire Brid Mac Bride, Nicole P Sandhu, Lonzetta Neal, Karthik Ghosh, Dietlind L Wahner-RoedlerDivision of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Although much emphasis has been placed on the primary presentations of breast cancer, little focus has been placed on how systemic illnesses may affect the breast. In this article, we discuss systemic illnesses that can manifest in the breast. We summarize the clinical features, imaging, histopathology, and treatment recommendations for endocrine, vascular, systemic inflammatory, infectious, and hematologic diseases, as well as for the extramammary malignancies that can present in the breast. Despite the rarity of these manifestations of systemic disease, knowledge of these conditions is critical to the appropriate evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with breast symptoms.Keywords: breast, endocrine, hematologic, infectious, vascular

  11. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  12. Simultaneous breast augmentation and mastopexy

    OpenAIRE

    Whidden, Peter G

    2003-01-01

    The results of combining breast augmentation and mastopexy are less predictable than those associated with mastopexy or augmentation mammoplasty alone. A method of breast skin envelope reduction is presented that allows the surgeon performing mastopexy to preview the final breast shape before committing to skin resection. This method, first described in 1978, has proven to be technically versatile and reproducible, and applicable not only to moderate (second degree) and severe (third degree) ...

  13. Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...

  14. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  15. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  16. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Wendy K; Heads Joy; Lawson James S; Whitaker Noel J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the propo...

  17. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  18. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  19. Hund's rules, symmetry holes, and the alternating rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review attempts to explain Hund's first rule, that a triplet state should lie below a singlet state of the same configuration, as a consequence of the open-quote Fermi hole close-quote in the triplet state electron-electron distribution function. After describing the failure of such attempts, and reviewing the types of exceptions to Hund's first rule, we examine the open-quote alternating rule close-quote, which accounts for most of the known exceptions. We show that the open-quote alternating rule close-quote is associated with whether the parity of the two-electron wavefunction is natural or unnatural. Whereas in the case of natural parity the triplet correlation function has a broad open-quote Fermi hole close-quote and the singlet correlation function does not, in the case of unnatural parity the singlet correlation function has a quartic open-quote symmetry hole close-quote which is even broader than the quadratic open-quote Fermi hole close-quote of the triplet correlation function. Thus this more general perspective provides a relationship between the ordering of singlet/triplet energy levels and the relative breadths of their open-quote symmetry holesclose quotes. Although the breadth of open-quotes symmetry holes close-quote cannot be said to cause the ordering of singlet/triplet energy levels, both phenomena are consequences of factors of (-1)S+L+ell1+ell2 in the construction of the properly antisymmetrized eigenfunctions of spin and angular variables; hence the two phenomena are closely associated, although neither is the cause of the other

  20. A case of synchronous multiple bilateral breast cancer after breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Chishima, Takashi; Harada, Fumi; Matsubara, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer after breast augmentation is not rare, but cases of bilateral breast cancer after augmentation are not often reported. A 43-year-old woman attended our hospital because of a mass in her left breast. She had undergone breast augmentation by implants 4 years before at a cosmetic surgery clinic. There were operative scars in her bilateral axilla. A detailed examination revealed bilateral breast cancer, and we performed nipple-sparing mastectomy in both breasts. Sentinel lymph node ...