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Sample records for breast international group

  1. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles...... with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab treatment....

  2. Forty years of landmark trials undertaken by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) nationwide or in international collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Overgaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    treatments. These trials have been instrumental to establish standards for the treatment of early breast cancer. Methods: The DBCG 82 trials had a global impact by documenting that the significant gain in loco-regional recurrence from postmastectomy radiation added to systemic therapy was associated......Background: Over the past 40 years the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has made significant contributions to improve outcome and to make treatment of patients with early breast cancer more tolerable through nationwide and international trials evaluating loco-regional and systemic...... by the DBCG 40 years ago on tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide based chemotherapy became instrumental for the development of adjuvant systemic therapy not only due to their positive results but by sharing these important data with other members of the Early Breast Cancer Trialist’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG...

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, P.; Crown, J.; Di, Leo A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is more effective than doxorubicin for patients with advanced breast cancer. The Breast International Group 02-98 randomized trial tested the effect of incorporating docetaxel into anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy and compared sequential vs concurrent administration...... of doxorubicin at 50 mg/m2 plus docetaxel at 75 mg/m2, followed by three cycles of CMF). The primary comparison evaluated the efficacy of including docetaxel regardless of schedule and was planned after 1215 disease-free survival (DFS) events (ie, relapse, second primary cancer, or death from any cause...

  4. Obesity and risk of recurrence or death after adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole or tamoxifen in the breast international group 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Gray, Kathryn P; Regan, Meredith M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) with the risk of recurrence or death in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial at 8.7 years of median follow-up.......To examine the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) with the risk of recurrence or death in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial at 8.7 years of median follow-up....

  5. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  6. Timing of Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer: Long-Term Results From International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VI and VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Per, E-mail: per.karlsson@oncology.gu.se [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Cole, Bernard F. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Price, Karen N. [International Breast Cancer Study Group Statistical Center, Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gelber, Richard D. [International Breast Cancer Study Group Statistical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Harvard T. F. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Coates, Alan S. [International Breast Cancer Study Group and University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Goldhirsch, Aron [Senior Consultant Breast Cancer, European Institute of Oncology and International Breast Cancer Study Group, Milan (Italy); Castiglione, Monica [International Breast Cancer Study Group, Bern (Switzerland); Colleoni, Marco [Division of Medical Senology, European Institute of Oncology and International Breast Cancer Study Group, Milan (Italy); Gruber, Günther [Institute of Radiotherapy, Klinik Hirslanden, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To update the previous report from 2 randomized clinical trials, now with a median follow-up of 16 years, to analyze the effect of radiation therapy timing on local failure and disease-free survival. Patients and Methods: From July 1986 to April 1993, International Breast Cancer Study Group trial VI randomly assigned 1475 pre-/perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer to receive 3 or 6 cycles of initial chemotherapy (CT). International Breast Cancer Study Group trial VII randomly assigned 1212 postmenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer to receive tamoxifen for 5 years, or tamoxifen for 5 years with 3 early cycles of initial CT. For patients who received breast-conserving surgery (BCS), radiation therapy (RT) was delayed until initial CT was completed; 4 or 7 months after BCS for trial VI and 2 or 4 months for trial VII. We compared RT timing groups among 433 patients on trial VI and 285 patients on trial VII who received BCS plus RT. Endpoints were local failure, regional/distant failure, and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Among pre-/perimenopausal patients there were no significant differences in disease-related outcomes. The 15-year DFS was 48.2% in the group allocated 3 months initial CT and 44.9% in the group allocated 6 months initial CT (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.45). Among postmenopausal patients, the 15-year DFS was 46.1% in the no-initial-CT group and 43.3% in the group allocated 3 months initial CT (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.82-1.51). Corresponding HRs for local failures were 0.94 (95% CI 0.61-1.46) in trial VI and 1.51 (95% CI 0.77-2.97) in trial VII. For regional/distant failures, the respective HRs were 1.15 (95% CI 0.80-1.63) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.69-1.68). Conclusions: This study confirms that, after more than 15 years of follow-up, it is reasonable to delay radiation therapy until after the completion of standard CT.

  7. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  8. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  9. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  10. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  11. Long-term results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII: adjuvant chemotherapy plus goserelin compared with either therapy alone for premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, P.; Sun, Z.; Braun, D.; Price, K. N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Rabaglio, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Crivellari, D.; Collins, J.; Murray, E.; Zaman, K.; Colleoni, M.; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Coates, A. S.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII compared long-term efficacy of endocrine therapy (goserelin), chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)], and chemoendocrine therapy (CMF followed by goserelin) for pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: From 1990 to 1999, 1063 patients were randomized to receive (i) goserelin for 24 months (n = 346), (ii) six courses of ‘classical’ CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy (n = 360), or (iii) six courses of CMF plus 18 months goserelin (CMF→ goserelin; n = 357). Tumors were classified as estrogen receptor (ER) negative (19%), ER positive (80%), or ER unknown (1%); 19% of patients were younger than 40. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Results: For the ER-positive cohort, sequential therapy provided a statistically significant benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) (12-year DFS = 77%) compared with CMF alone (69%) and goserelin alone (68%) (P = 0.04 for each comparison), due largely to the effect in younger patients. Patients with ER-negative tumors whose treatment included CMF had similar DFS (12-year DFS CMF = 67%; 12-year DFS CMF→ goserelin = 69%) compared with goserelin alone (12-year DFS = 61%, P= NS). Conclusions: For pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative ER-positive breast cancer, CMF followed by goserelin improved DFS in comparison with either modality alone. The improvement was the most pronounced in those aged below 40, suggesting an endocrine effect of prolonged CMF-induced amenorrhea. PMID:21325445

  12. HER2 Gene Amplification Testing by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Comparison of the ASCO-College of American Pathologists Guidelines With FISH Scores Used for Enrollment in Breast Cancer International Research Group Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Fourmanoir, Hélène; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Tsao-Wei, Denice D.; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Valero, Vicente; Mackey, John R.; Bee, Valerie; Ma, Yanling; Villalobos, Ivonne; Campeau, Anaamika; Mirlacher, Martina; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) recently recommended further changes to the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We retrospectively assessed the impact of these new guidelines by using annotated Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG) -005, BCIRG-006, and BCIRG-007 clinical trials data for which we have detailed outcomes. Patients and Methods The HER2 FISH status of BCIRG-005/006/007 patients with breast cancers was re-evaluated according to current ASCO-CAP guidelines, which designates five different groups according to HER2 FISH ratio and average HER2 gene copy number per tumor cell: group 1 (in situ hybridization [ISH]–positive): HER2-to-chromosome 17 centromere ratio ≥ 2.0, average HER2 copies ≥ 4.0; group 2 (ISH-positive): ratio ≥ 2.0, copies HER2 protein, clinical outcomes by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and benefit from trastuzumab therapy (hazard ratio [HR]). Results Among 10,468 patients with breast cancers who were successfully screened for trial entry, 40.8% were in ASCO-CAP ISH group 1, 0.7% in group 2; 0.5% in group 3, 4.1% in group 4, and 53.9% in group 5. Distributions were similar in screened compared with accrued subpopulations. Among accrued patients, FISH group 1 breast cancers were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 3+ status (P HER2 by FISH status in BCIRG/Translational Research in Oncology trials. PMID:27573653

  13. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoonsun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung-Ja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Chan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Hyun Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae, E-mail: ybkim3@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  14. Recommendations for Breast Cancer Surveillance for Female Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors Treated with Chest Radiation: A Report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Dwyer, Mary; Skinner, Roderick; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Female childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancer survivors treated with radiation to fields that include breast tissue (chest radiation) have an increased risk of breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines are essential to ensure that these survivors receive optimum care, and thereby reduce the detrimental consequences of cancer treatment. However, surveillance recommendations vary among the existing long-term follow-up guidelines. This guideline provides international harmonized breast cancer surveillance recommendations for female CAYA cancer survivors treated with chest radiation prior to age 30 years. We applied evidence-based methods to develop the international harmonized recommendations. The recommendations were formulated by an international multidisciplinary guideline panel and categorized according to a 4-level colour grading schema adapted from existing level of evidence criteria. The harmonized breast cancer surveillance recommendations are based on a transparent process and are intended to be scientifically rigorous, positively influence health outcomes, and facilitate care for CAYA cancer survivors. PMID:24275135

  15. Treatment Adherence and Its Impact on Disease-Free Survival in the Breast International Group 1-98 Trial of Tamoxifen and Letrozole, Alone and in Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirgwin, Jacquie H; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Coates, Alan S

    2016-01-01

    -positive early breast cancer in the four-arm option to 5 years of tamoxifen (Tam), letrozole (Let), or the agents in sequence (Let-Tam, Tam-Let). This analysis included 6,144 women who received at least one dose of study treatment. Conditional landmark analyses and marginal structural Cox proportional hazards...

  16. Treatment Efficacy, Adherence, and Quality of Life Among Women Younger Than 35 Years in the International Breast Cancer Study Group TEXT and SOFT Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Poornima; Regan, Meredith M; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A; Walley, Barbara A; Ribi, Karin; Bernhard, Jürg; Luo, Weixiu; Gómez, Henry L; Burstein, Harold J; Parmar, Vani; Torres, Roberto; Stewart, Josephine; Bellet, Meritxell; Perelló, Antonia; Dane, Faysal; Moreira, Antonio; Vorobiof, Daniel; Nottage, Michelle; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D; Colleoni, Marco; Fleming, Gini F

    2017-09-20

    Purpose To describe benefits and toxicities of adjuvant endocrine therapies in women younger than 35 years with breast cancer (n = 582) enrolled in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Methods In SOFT, women still premenopausal after surgery with or without chemotherapy were randomly assigned to tamoxifen alone, tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), or exemestane plus OFS. In TEXT, all received OFS with or without concomitant chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to exemestane plus OFS or tamoxifen plus OFS. We summarize treatment efficacy, quality of life, and adherence of the cohort of women younger than 35 years in SOFT and TEXT, alongside data from the cohort of older premenopausal women. Results For 240 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years enrolled in SOFT after receiving chemotherapy, the 5-year breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was 67.1% (95% CI, 54.6% to 76.9%) with tamoxifen alone, 75.9% with tamoxifen plus OFS (95% CI, 64.0% to 84.4%), and 83.2% with exemestane plus OFS (95% CI, 72.7% to 90.0%). For 145 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years in TEXT, 5-year BCFI was 79.2% (95% CI, 66.2% to 87.7%) with tamoxifen plus OFS and 81.6% (95% CI, 69.8% to 89.2%) with exemestane plus OFS. The most prominent quality of life symptom for patients younger than 35 years receiving OFS was vasomotor symptoms, with the greatest worsening from baseline at 6 months (on the order of 30 to 40 points), but loss of sexual interest and difficulties in becoming aroused were also clinically meaningful (≥ 8-point change). The level of symptom burden was similar in older premenopausal women. A total of 19.8% of women younger than 35 years stopped all protocol-assigned endocrine therapy early. Conclusion In women younger than 35 years with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, adjuvant OFS combined with tamoxifen or

  17. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Blood group “A” and “Rhesus +ve” have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type “AB” and “Rhesus –ve” are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group “A” and “Rh +ve” as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  18. Bourses de l'International Crisis Group | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'International Crisis Group (Crisis Group) envisageait depuis longtemps de créer des bourses afin de permettre à un noyau d'analystes de se familiariser avec la ... The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a new project to be funded by Canada's International Development Research ...

  19. Online support groups for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Parahoo, Kader; Hueter, Irene; Northouse, Laurel; Bradbury, Ian

    2017-03-10

    Survival rates for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer continue to improve. However, some women may experience physical, psychological and emotional effects post diagnosis, throughout treatment and beyond. Support groups can provide opportunities for people to share their experiences and learn from others. As the number of online support groups increases, more and more women with breast cancer will likely access them. To assess effects of online support groups on the emotional distress, uncertainty, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO on 2 May 2016, and we handsearched journals and reference lists. We also searched the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and clinicaltrials.gov on 2 May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing effects of online support groups on women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and women who have completed breast cancer treatment. We included studies comparing online support groups with a usual care group, and studies comparing two or more types of online support groups (without a usual care group). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We presented outcome data using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and we used the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included six studies (492 women) that assessed online support groups for women with breast cancer. Online support groups in these six trials lasted from six to 30 weeks. Women participated in these groups between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per week, and investigators conducted all studies in the USA

  20. Neonatal group B streptococcal disease associated with infected breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Olver, W.; Bond, D; Boswell, T.; Watkin, S

    2000-01-01

    Premature triplets each developed late onset group B streptococcal disease over a period of nine weeks. The source of the organism appeared to be expressed maternal breast milk, in the absence of clinical mastitis. Asymptomatic excretion of group B streptococcus in breast milk may be an under-recognised cause of neonatal infection.



  1. Association of ABO blood group and breast cancer in Jodhpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shikha; Chawla, Vinod Kumar; Gupta, Kamal Kant; Gaur, Kusum Lata

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. However, in relation to breast cancer, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory. Present study was conducted for analysis to access ABO blood groups potential role of in breast carcinoma. The study was conducted on 206 clinically diagnosed breast cancer patients from Radiotherapy Department of Mathura Das Mathur Hospital in Jodhpur, from September 2006 to December 2007. The standard agglutination test was used to determine the blood groups. Association of ABO blood groups and risk of breast cancers was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). In reference of proportion of breast cancer in blood group AB [OR 1 with 95% CI 0.476 to 2.103), the breast carcinoma in blood group A [OR 7.444 with 95% CI 4.098 to 13.5222) was found at 7.4 times at higher risk than in blood group 'AB'. Breast cancer was found minimum in blood group 'AB' and maximum in blood group 'A'.

  2. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W

    2015-01-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the ...

  3. An overview of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG) activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinji; Kuroi, Katsumasa; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the current status and future perspectives of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG). The JBCRG was organized in 2002, with the following purpose: to plan and promote clinical trials and basic research in breast cancer domestically and multilaterally; to conduct research and surveys on domestic and foreign information on medical care for breast cancer and to diffuse and highlight such information; to improve and promote clinical technologies for breast cancer; to act as an intermediary to liaise and strengthen alliances with affiliated organizations; and, to contribute to the public welfare by improving outcomes in breast cancer. The clinical trials are led by doctors/investigators in the JBCRG. And the purpose is to establish standard treatment for patients and provide substantial evidence. The JBCRG implements international collaboration in some researches/studies. As of January 2012, fourteen trials have been closed and nine are open to recruitment.

  4. Business groups and internal capital markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonenc, Halit; Kan, Ozgur B.; Karadagli, Ece C.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the performance of firms affiliated with diversified business groups with the performance of unaffiliated firms in Turkey, all emerging market. We address the question of whether group-affiliated firms create internal capital markets or control large cash flows. Our findings indicate that

  5. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-05-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses' Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association with ABO genotype in a nested case-control study of 1,138 invasive breast cancer cases and 1,090 matched controls. Finally, we evaluated the association between serologic blood type and survival among 2,036 participants with breast cancer. No clear association was seen between serologic blood type or ABO genotype and risk of total breast cancer, invasive breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes. Compared to women with blood type O, the age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for serologic blood type and total breast cancer were 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.15) for type A, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.93-1.22) for AB and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.96-1.20) for B. In genetic analyses, odds ratios for invasive breast cancer were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.87-1.27) for A/O, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.86-1.69) for A/A, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.56-1.26) for A/B, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-1.13) for B/O and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.35-3.86) for B/B, compared to O/O. No significant association was noted between blood type and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. Our results suggest no association between ABO blood group and breast cancer risk or survival. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  6. Clinical applications of internal heat source analysis for breast cancer identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, F; Liang, C W; Shi, G L; Wang, L; Li, K Y

    2015-02-13

    Nondestructive preoperative breast imaging techniques are widely used for breast cancer testing and diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of quantitative diagnosis via the thermal analysis of abnormal metabolism. Nine hundred forty-eight women who underwent breast biopsy from 2009 to 2013 were investigated. Thermal analysis was used to calculate the internal heat source (i.e., tumor) thermal power for each participant. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach were estimated using the chi-square test, kappa statistics (k), and odds ratios (OR). Breast density and tumor size were considered during this estimation. A thermal power q = 0.2 w was determined as the optimal separation threshold between breast cancer and benign disease. Moreover, good agreement (k = 0.837) with the gold-standard assessment (breast biopsy) was confirmed in 93.2% of the patients (N = 884/948), and the sensitivity and specificity were 94.2 and 92.9%, respectively. The results also found no significant differences in methodological accuracy between the fatty and dense breasts (OR = 1.194, P = 0.524). Furthermore, after dividing the cohort into three groups according to tumor size (T1: 5 cm), the tumor size had no effect on the proposed method (ORs = 1, P = 0.724). Internal heat source analysis can feasibly and efficiently distinguish between breast cancer and benign disease.

  7. Breast health information needs of women from minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tessa; Merrell, Joy; Murphy, Fiona; Williams, Angela

    2004-09-01

    For women from minority ethnic groups to make informed decisions about their health, and particularly about whether to participate in breast cancer screening programmes, access to a range of appropriately designed high quality, culturally-specific and sensitive health information is needed. Through a critical review of the literature, this paper aims to determine the breast health and breast cancer screening information needs of women from minority ethnic groups and to discuss the implications of cultural difference for nurses in relation to the development and dissemination of health information. A critical review of the research literature published in English between 1996 and 2002 was conducted. Electronic and the relevant Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched using a range of search terms to retrieve literature specifically relevant to the aims of the review. The use of personal contacts and posting a request for information on the mailing list at minority-ethnic-health@jiscmail.ac.uk facilitated the retrieval of grey literature. All references retrieved were entered on a bibliographic database. The title and abstract of each was examined to assess it for inclusion in the review. There was little published information about specific breast cancer screening information needs from the perspective of women from minority ethnic groups. In comparison with the indigenous population, the information needs of people from minority ethnic groups differ in relation to their cultural beliefs and values and the effects of these on health care practices. Inadequate knowledge about breast health and breast cancer screening may be a consequence of the provision of insufficient or culturally inappropriate information. There is a dearth of research highlighting breast health and breast cancer screening information needs of women from minority ethnic groups. In providing information, their needs appear to have been an 'add on'. Health care professionals' lack of

  8. Silsesquioxane nanoparticles with reactive internal functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Eric M . [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States); Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (United States); Zharov, Ilya, E-mail: i.zharov@utah.edu [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A series of silsesquioxane nanoparticles containing reactive internal organic functionalities throughout the entire particle body have been synthesized using a surfactant-free method with organosilanes as the sole precursors and a base catalyst. The organic functional groups incorporated are vinyl, allyl, mercapto, cyanoethyl, and cyanopropyl groups. The sizes and morphologies of the particles were characterized using SEM and nitrogen adsorption, while the compositions were confirmed using TGA, FT-IR, solid state NMR, and elemental analysis. The accessibility and reactivity of the functional groups inside the particles were demonstrated by performing bromination and reduction reactions in the interior of the particles.

  9. Predicting invasive breast cancer versus DCIS in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaci, Mehmet U S; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Sickles, Edward A; Nassif, Houssam; Kerlikowske, Karla; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2014-08-11

    Increasing focus on potentially unnecessary diagnosis and treatment of certain breast cancers prompted our investigation of whether clinical and mammographic features predictive of invasive breast cancer versus ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) differ by age. We analyzed 1,475 malignant breast biopsies, 1,063 invasive and 412 DCIS, from 35,871 prospectively collected consecutive diagnostic mammograms interpreted at University of California, San Francisco between 1/6/1997 and 6/29/2007. We constructed three logistic regression models to predict the probability of invasive cancer versus DCIS for the following groups: women ≥ 65 (older group), women 50-64 (middle age group), and women group). We identified significant predictors and measured the performance in all models using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The models for older and the middle age groups performed significantly better than the model for younger group (AUC = 0.848 vs, 0.778; p = 0.049 and AUC = 0.851 vs, 0.778; p = 0.022, respectively). Palpability and principal mammographic finding were significant predictors in distinguishing invasive from DCIS in all age groups. Family history of breast cancer, mass shape and mass margins were significant positive predictors of invasive cancer in the older group whereas calcification distribution was a negative predictor of invasive cancer (i.e. predicted DCIS). In the middle age group--mass margins, and in the younger group--mass size were positive predictors of invasive cancer. Clinical and mammographic finding features predict invasive breast cancer versus DCIS better in older women than younger women. Specific predictive variables differ based on age.

  10. Lymphoscintigraphic visualization of internal mammary nodes with subtumoral injection of radiocolloid in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Kenzo; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Inaji, Hideo; Koyama, Hiroki; Kasugai, Tsutomu; Wada, Akira; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether subtumoral injection of radiocolloid is useful for lymphoscintigraphic visualization of the internal mammary node and in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy of the axilla in breast cancer patients. The presence of retromammary lymphatics connecting to the axillary and internal mammary basins has been demonstrated by early anatomic studies. Thus, it is hypothesized that some lymph, especially that from the parenchyma under the tumor, may drain into both the axillary and internal mammary basins. Patients (n = 196) with T1-2, N0 breast cancer underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with radiocolloid (technetium 99m tin colloid) injection into various sites of the breast, followed by SLN biopsy using the combined method with blue dye. Patients were divided into four groups: group A (n = 41), peritumoral injection of both radiocolloid and blue dye; group B (n = 70), periareolar radiocolloid and peritumoral blue dye; group C (n = 45), intradermal radiocolloid and periareolar blue dye; and group D (n = 40), subtumoral radiocolloid and intradermal blue dye. A retrospective analysis of 1,297 breast cancer patients who underwent extended radical mastectomy with internal mammary node dissection was also conducted to determine the relationship between vertical tumor location (superficial or deep) and frequency of axillary and internal mammary node metastases. One patient (2%) in group A, 3 (4%) in group B, 0 (0%) in group C, and 15 (38%) in group D exhibited hot spots in the internal mammary region on lymphoscintigraphy (P basin was significantly lower in group D than in the other groups. In contrast, the mismatch rate (some SLNs were identified by radiocolloid and other SLNs were identified by blue dye, but no SLN was identified by both in the same patient) was significantly higher in group D than in the other groups. In patients treated with extended radical mastectomy, positivity of axillary and internal mammary metastases was significantly higher in

  11. Clusters and Groups of Galaxies : International Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Mezzetti, M

    1984-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe and systems Clusters, and Groups of galaxies are topics like Superclusters, They fully justify the meeting on "Clusters of great interest. and Groups of Galaxies". The topics covered included the spatial distribution and the clustering of galaxies; the properties of Superclusters, Clusters and Groups of galaxies; radio and X-ray observations; the problem of unseen matter; theories concerning hierarchical clustering, pancakes, cluster and galaxy formation and evolution. The meeting was held at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (Italy) from September 13 to September 16, 1983. It was attended by about 150 participants from 22 nations who presented 67 invited lectures (il) and contributed papers (cp), and 45 poster papers (pp). The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of F. Bertola, P. Biermann, A. Cavaliere, N. Dallaporta, D. Gerba1, M. Hack, J . V . Peach, D. Sciama (Chairman), G. Setti, M. Tarenghi. We are particularly indebted to D. Scia...

  12. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ayoub Meo; Faryal Suraya; Badar Jamil; Fwziah Al Rouq; Anusha Sultan Meo; Kamran Sattar; Mohammad Javed Ansari; Alasiri, Saleh A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association of “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including “PubMed”, “ISI-Web of Knowledge”, “Embase” and “Google Scholar”. The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including “ABO blood type”, “Rhesus” blood type and “breast cancer”. The research documents in which “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood ty...

  13. Breast cancer in pregnancy: recommendations of an international consensus meeting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amant, F.; Deckers, S.; Calsteren, K. van; Loibl, S.; Halaska, M.; Brepoels, L.; Beijnen, J.; Cardoso, F.; Gentilini, O.; Lagae, L.; Mir, O.; Neven, P.; Ottevanger, N.; Pans, S.; Peccatori, F.; Rouzier, R.; Senn, H.J.; Struikmans, H.; Christiaens, M.R.; Cameron, D.; Bois, A. du

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide guidance for clinicians about the diagnosis, staging and treatment of breast cancer occurring during an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy. METHODS: An international expert Panel convened to address a series of questions identified by a literature review and personal experience.

  14. Recommendations for breast cancer surveillance for female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer given chest radiation: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Dwyer, Mary; Skinner, Roderick; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer who were given radiation to fields that include breast tissue (ie, chest radiation) have an increased risk of breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines are essential to ensure that these individuals receive optimum care and

  15. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  16. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Tirunelveli Medical College. Ethical committee approval was obtained.100 breast cancer cases were taken and 100 healthy women with no reports of breast cancer were taken as controls. Blood grouping was done by Standard Agglutination method. Association of ABO blood groups and breast cancer was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. ABO blood group distribution among patients with breast cancer was as follows: Group A- 39%, Group O-31%, Group B- 26% and Group AB- 4% Among 100 healthy controls, ABO blood groups percentage was: Group O- 32%, Group A- 15 %, Group B- 46%, and Group AB- 7%. There is significant association between blood group A and breast Cancer since the p value was <0.05This study showed that there is strong association between ABO blood group system and female breast cancer and the highest risk for breast cancer was in blood group A and minimum in blood group AB.

  17. International Variation in Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Bray, Freddie; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Anderson, Benjamin O; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Herein, we examine global trends in female breast cancer rates using the most up-to-date data available. Breast cancer incidence and mortality estimates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012 (globocan.iarc.fr). We analyzed trends from 1993 onward using incidence data from 39 countries from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from 57 countries from the World Health Organization. Of 32 countries with incidence and mortality data, rates in the recent period diverged-with incidence increasing and mortality decreasing-in nine countries mainly in Northern/Western Europe. Both incidence and mortality decreased in France, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Spain. In contrast, incidence and death rates both increased in Colombia, Ecuador, and Japan. Death rates also increased in Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, Kuwait, Mauritius, Mexico, and Moldova. Breast cancer mortality rates are decreasing in most high-income countries, despite increasing or stable incidence rates. In contrast and of concern are the increasing incidence and mortality rates in a number of countries, particularly those undergoing rapid changes in human development. Wide variations in breast cancer rates and trends reflect differences in patterns of risk factors and access to and availability of early detection and timely treatment. Increased awareness about breast cancer and the benefits of early detection and improved access to treatment must be prioritized to successfully implement breast cancer control programs, particularly in transitioning countries. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Breast internal dose measurements in a physical thoracic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.D.; Oliveira, M.A.; Castro, A.L.S.; Dias, H.G.; Nogueira, L.B.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: sadonatosilva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Hospital das Clinicas de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Oncologia; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Anatomia e Departamento de Imagem

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a cancer treatment intended to deposit the entire prescribed dose homogeneously into a target volume in order to eliminate the tumor and to spare the surrounding healthy tissues. This paper aimed to provide a dosimetric comparison between the treatment planning system (TPS) ECLIPSE from Varian Medical Systems and the internal dosimetric measurements in a breast phantom. The methodology consisted in performing a 3D conformal radiotherapy planning with two tangential opposite parallel fields applied to the synthetic breast in a thoracic phantom. The irradiation was reproduced in the Varian Linear accelerator, model SL - 20 Precise, 6 MV energy. EBT2 Radiochromic films, placed into the glandular equivalent tissue of the breast, were used to measure the spatial dose distribution. The absorbed dose was compared to those values predicted by the treatment planning system; besides, the dosimetric uncertainties were analyzed. The modal absorbed dose was in agreement with the prescribed value of 180 cGy, although few high dose points between 180 and 220 cGy were detected. The findings suggested a non-uniform dose distribution in the glandular tissue of the synthetic breast, similar to those found in the TPS, associated with the irregular anatomic breast shape and presence of inhomogeneities next to the thoracic wall generated by the low lung density. (author)

  19. Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Indonesia context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayana, Irma; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Parady, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    To measure compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in Indonesia. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Interagency Group on Breastfeeding Monitoring protocol. Public and private health facilities in six provinces on Java island in Indonesia. A total of 874 women (382 pregnant women and 492 breast-feeding mothers of infants below 6 months) and seventy-seven health workers were recruited from eighteen participating health facilities. The study also analysed a total of forty-four labels of breast-milk substitute products, twenty-seven television commercials for growing-up milk (for children >12 months) of nine brands and thirty-four print advertisements of fourteen brands. The study found that 20 % of the women had received advice and information on the use of breast-milk substitutes and 72 % had seen promotional materials for breast-milk substitutes. About 15 % reported receiving free samples and 16 % received gifts. Nearly a quarter of the health workers confirmed receiving visits from representatives of breast-milk substitute companies. Two health workers reported having received gifts from the companies. The most common labelling violations found were statements or visuals that discouraged breast-feeding and the absence of mention about the consideration of local climate in the expiration date. Violations of the Code by health workers, breast-milk substitute companies and their representatives were found in all provinces studied. A regular monitoring system should be in place to ensure improved compliance with and enforcement of the Code.

  20. Mammographic breast density patterns among a group of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mammographic breast density is a measure of parenchymal breast patterns on film and in part a marker of cumulative exposure to oestrogen. The risk of breast cancer for women with increased density is up to six fold more than in women with less dense tissues. The pattern of mammographic breast density ...

  1. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and the IBCCS Collaborating Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brohet, Richard M.; Goldgar, David E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Andrieu, Nadine; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Peock, Susan; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Cook, Margaret; Chu, Carol; Noguès, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Berthet, Pascaline; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Olsson, Håkan; Caldes, Trinidad; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Earlier studies have shown that endogenous gonadal hormones play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. So far, little is known about the safety of exogenous hormonal use in mutation carriers. In this study, we examined the association between

  2. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  3. Ashinaga Group Asia: International Student Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Eed

    2017-01-01

    Giving orphaned students abroad the chance to study in Japan While Ashinaga originally only supported Japanese students who had lost parents, as time passed it became increasingly clear that we had the experience and means to assist orphaned students outside Japan as well. This first took the shape of fundraising for international humanitarian crises, but eventually grew into various financial aid and scholarship opportunities to benefit orphaned students from around the world. Wh...

  4. Intervention to Enhance Empowerment in Breast Cancer Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-01-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately four months. Each group of...

  5. Course of breast cancer disease and ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzarová, M; Kovarík, J; Hlávková, J; Kolcová, V

    1985-01-01

    The clinical records of 551 breast cancer patients were retrospectively analysed. Several parameters have been examined: age at presentation, distribution of stages at the time of diagnosis, incidence of any progression and "progression-free" interval after primary treatment, incidence of distant dissemination and distant metastasis-free interval, cancer mortality, time of survival from presentation and time of survival from detection of distant metastases (stage at presentation being taken into account in all evaluations). The results within various ABO blood groups were compared. There were no substantial differences in these parameters within different blood groups. The possible modifications of ABH (O) isoantigens on tumour cells and the immune response to these alien antigens is discussed.

  6. 76 FR 54800 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San Jose, California... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Quality Assurance Group, San Jose, California; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration On...

  7. [Breast ultrasonographic features and internal mammary artery hemodynamic indexes during normal pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate breast ultrasonographic features and hemodynamic indexes of the internal mammary arteries in normal pregnant women, and their correlation with the gestational periods. Observational and cross-sectional, epidemiological, study, conducted between August 2013 and February 2015, with 93 women divided into three groups: first trimester, second trimester and third trimester. The dependent variables were thickness of the skin, of subcutaneous tissue, fibroglandular tissue, and retrommamary adipose tissue, the diameter of the ducts, as well as the pulsatility and resistance indexes of the internal mammary arteries. Independent variables were the three periods of gestation. Repeated measures ANOVA with the multiple comparison Tukey test and a test of contrasts were used for statistical analysis. The Levene test was used to test the homogeneity of variances between periods of gestation. Student's t-test was used to evaluate the difference between nulliparous and non -nulliparous women, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between the two breasts. The level of significance was set at 5%. Mean age was 26.6±4.6 years, with no significant difference among groups. Breast location (right/left) and gestational period had no significant effect on the thickness of the skin, of subcutaneous tissue and adipose retromammary tissue. However, the thickness of fibroglandular tissue and the diameter of the ducts showed a significant difference according to gestational period (p<0.001), i.e., from the first to the second and to the third trimesters. Doppler flowmetry of the internal mammary arteries showed a difference between breasts and between gestational periods, i.e., the measurements of the right breast were greater than those of the left, and these values decreased throughout pregnancy (p<0.001). The average thickness of fibroglandular tissue and the diameter of the ducts showed significant differences from the first to the second and to

  8. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...... after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history...... was added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all...

  9. Crisis Group Fellowship Program | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and West Africa, there is a dearth of research, training and employment opportunities in the social sciences, particularly in the area of research and policy analysis on local conflicts. The Crisis Group has long considered establishing a fellowship program in order to train a ...

  10. International Conference on Groups and Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Groups of Exceptional Type, Coxeter Groups and Related Geometries

    2014-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental structural aspects of algebraic and simple groups, Coxeter groups and the related geometries and buildings. All contributing authors are very active researchers in the topics related to the theme of the book. Some of the articles provide the latest developments in the subject; some provide an overview of the current status of some important problems in this area; some survey an area highlighting the current developments; and some provide an exposition of an area to collect problems and conjectures. It is hoped that these articles would be helpful to a beginner to start independent research on any of these topics, as well as to an expert to know some of the latest developments or to consider some problems for investigation.

  11. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  12. Breast Cancer and Internal Mammary Sentinel Nodes: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Bekdache

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of internal mammary (IM nodes in breast cancer lacks a well-defined consensus. Lymphoscintigraphy identifies up to one-third of breast cancer patients with extra-axillary drainage, which is mainly located in the IM chain. Our aim in this meta-analysis is to identify the lymphoscintigraphy technique variables that effect IM node identification.Methods: An internet database was utilized to review articles concerning sentinel nodes and breast cancer from 1993 through the end of 2011; 74 articles met our inclusion criteria. The total number of patients included was 22959. We grouped the citations by injection location and injection material. We then analyzed the rate of identification of IM nodes according to these groupings and their subsets.Results: The overall IM identification rate using the random effect model was 9%. The injection location had the most significant impact on IM identification rate; the deeper injections were associated with the highest rate of identification. Variation in IM identification was associated with the particle size of injection material; the smaller particle size group had a higher rate of identification. Increased dose of the tracer was also associated with increased identification rate.Conclusions: The use of smaller particle size tracers and a deeper injection location achieve the highest IM identification rate. The dose of the tracer also increased the identification rate. These observations can help in the selection of patients for IM sentinel node biopsy, which can affect their prognosis and treatment management.

  13. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conduct...

  14. International Group Heterogeneity and Students' Business Project Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bosker, Roel J.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Rugers, Lucie; van Heugten, Petra PAM

    2015-01-01

    In business higher education, group project work plays an essential role. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the group heterogeneity of students' business project groups and their academic achievements at both group and individual levels. The sample consists of 536 freshmen from an International Business School…

  15. Clinical Significance of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Biopsy during Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction: Review of 264 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Eric J; Momeni, Arash; Kraneburg, Ursula M; Otake, Leo R; Echo, Anthony; Lee, Tim; Buchanan, Edward P; Lee, Gordon K

    2016-06-01

    Despite the knowledge of alternate lymphatic draining patterns of the breast, routine evaluation of the internal mammary lymph node basin is still not considered standard of care. The advent of microsurgical breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels as recipients, however, has allowed sampling of internal mammary lymph nodes with technical ease, thus revisiting their role in breast cancer management. In the present study, the authors reviewed their experience with this practice. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent internal mammary lymph node biopsy at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels between 2004 and 2012 was performed. Parameters of interest included patient age, timing of reconstruction (immediate versus delayed), disease stage, and pathologic findings of internal mammary lymph nodes. A total of 264 autologous breast reconstructions using the internal mammary vessels were performed in 204 patients with a median age of 44.5 years. The majority of reconstructions were immediate [n = 211 (79.9 percent)]. Seventy-two percent of patients had either stage I [72 patients (35.3 percent)] or stage II disease [75 patients (36.8 percent)]. Six patients were found to have internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Stage migration and alteration in adjuvant therapy occurred in all patients. Internal mammary lymph node sampling at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary system should become routine practice, as the morbidity associated with internal mammary lymph node harvest is low and the impact in cases of nodal involvement is quite substantial. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. How breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence : A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Jacobs, P.M.; Roukema, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence. Methods Three focus groups were held with breast cancer survivors. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques.

  17. A Women's Support Group for Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

    2003-01-01

    International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…

  18. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    ...‐reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases...

  19. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  20. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichert-Toft, Mogens; Christiansen, Peer; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers, and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article

  1. The Race Gap in Support Group Participation by Breast Cancer Survivors: Real or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, Barret; Van Willigen, Marieke; Wilson, Kenneth; Schreier, Ann; Williams, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Addressing methodological weaknesses of previous research, this study assesses whether African American women are, in fact, less likely to participate in breast cancer support groups than are White women. Of the breast cancer survivors, 958 (26% African Americans, 73% Caucasian) completed interviews concerning demographic characteristics, other…

  2. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the EUSOMA working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Boetes, Carla; Borisch, Bettina; Decker, Thomas; Federico, Massimo; Gilbert, Fiona J; Helbich, Thomas; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Kaiser, Werner A; Kerin, Michael J; Mansel, Robert E; Marotti, Lorenza; Martincich, Laura; Mauriac, Louis; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Orecchia, Roberto; Panizza, Pietro; Ponti, Antonio; Purushotham, Arnie D; Regitnig, Peter; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Thibault, Fabienne; Wilson, Robin

    2010-05-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rapidly increasing. EUSOMA organised a workshop in Milan on 20-21st October 2008 to evaluate the evidence currently available on clinical value and indications for breast MRI. Twenty-three experts from the disciplines involved in breast disease management - including epidemiologists, geneticists, oncologists, radiologists, radiation oncologists, and surgeons - discussed the evidence for the use of this technology in plenary and focused sessions. This paper presents the consensus reached by this working group. General recommendations, technical requirements, methodology, and interpretation were firstly considered. For the following ten indications, an overview of the evidence, a list of recommendations, and a number of research issues were defined: staging before treatment planning; screening of high-risk women; evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; patients with breast augmentation or reconstruction; occult primary breast cancer; breast cancer recurrence; nipple discharge; characterisation of equivocal findings at conventional imaging; inflammatory breast cancer; and male breast. The working group strongly suggests that all breast cancer specialists cooperate for an optimal clinical use of this emerging technology and for future research, focusing on patient outcome as primary end-point. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International breast cancer and nutrition: a model for research, training and policy in diet, epigenetics, and chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Teegarden, Dorothy; Welch, Ailsa; Hwalla, Nahla; Lelièvre, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from the International Breast Cancer and Nutrition workshop held during the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA, on 28 April 2014. An international collaboration was described among teams from low-, middle-, and high-income countries addressing environmental factors, especially diet, and epigenetic interactions that affect the risk of chronic disease. Speakers addressed opportunities and challenges involved in this type of international collaboration, assessing diet and nutritional status across a wide range of cultures, and research tools and discoveries from this group.

  5. International programs for the detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Smith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of early breast cancer detection is the foundation for programs around the globe to reduce morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer. These programs range from educational programs targeted to women and health professionals to organized or opportunistic screening programs that target specific age groups of women.Modern mammography programs tend to follow the protocols from the randomized clinical trials, but there is variation in key program elements such as the age groups invited to screening, the screening interval, performance indicators, and the uptake rate. Until recently, the emphasis on early breast cancer detection was limited to mammography, but the steady rise in incidence and mortality in low and medium resource countries, where mammography may be unaffordable, has led to a renewal in emphasizing the incremental value of downsizing palpable tumors through physical exams. There is consensus that programs should be designed based on disease burden and available resources, but that even in low resource countries there are opportunities to reduce breast deaths through earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. Screening programs are most effective when they are organized, and program planners should consider WHO criteria and local input data as a basis for tailoring screening programs to the needs of their population.El beneficio de la detección temprana del cáncer de mama es el fundamento para programas alrededor del mundo que buscan reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con este padecimiento. Estos programas abarcan desde los de tipo educativo, orientados a mujeres y profesionales de la salud, hasta programas de monitoreo organizados u oportunistas que tienen como objetivo grupos específicos de edad. Los programas modernos de mastografía tienden a seguir protocolos para estudios clínicos aleatorios,pero hay una variación en elementos clave como los grupos de edad invitados a participar, el intervalo

  6. Relationship of Blood Groups (ABO & Rhesus and Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of blood groups with breast cancer in our country is not fully established elaborately and large scale studies have not been carried out till now. Therefore this study was designed to find out the possible relationship of different blood groups with breast cancer. Objective: To determine the relationship of various types of breast cancer with ABO and Rh blood groups among the female patients of our people. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the cancer unit of Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka from January 2011 to February 2013. After proper and ethical consideration total 112 female patients with breast cancer were included in this study. Various factors like age, family history, metastasis, type of cancer were considered in this study. The blood groups of the patients were done by standard ABO and Rh typing methods (Forward & Reverse grouping by test tube method. Results: Among 112 breast cancer patients of our country, ductal breast cancer was found in 108 (96.42% subjects, distant metastasis was found in 93 (86.9% cases and positive family history in 70 (62.50% subjects. Conclusion: Ductal type of breast cancer with positive family history and distant metastasis is common in different blood groups in our country.

  7. Car Motivations in the Young Target Group: An International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bahles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are many profound changes going on within the automotive sector. There are new technological developments like e-mobility and autonomous cars, as well as new business models such as car sharing that may make purchasing a car obsolete for the younger, international target group. The intention of this paper is to identify the role and importance of cars in the young target group internationally and to explore current motives for buying an automobile. To this end, the authors conducted a psychological research study on a diverse group of upper division undergraduate and master’s degree level students originating from more than twenty different nations. Research methods used include structured one-on-one interviews and in-depth focus groups. The study’s results are useful for international marketing practitioners as they contribute to understanding the relevance and importance of automobiles for the international youth target market as well as identification of motives regarding car purchase across various countries. The results have implications for international managers within the automotive industry for the development of new mobility concepts as well as for international marketing communications within the automotive sector.

  8. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  9. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-08-18

    To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. The ductal type of breast cancer was differentially distributed in blood groups Rh (+) (P breast cancer was present in 49.6% of cases, in relation to the other blood groups and in AB blood group the same type occurred rarely (3.6%). Rh (+) women with positive family history were more often found in A blood group. The relative risk of metastasis in Rh (-) patients was 4.2 times higher than that in Rh (+) patients. Among Rh (+) patients, the relative risk of metastasis was 1.29 times higher in A blood group than in other blood groups. Blood group A is often associated with ductal breast cancer (49.6%), in contrast to the other blood groups and particularly to blood group AB (3.6%). Blood group A and, particularly, A (-) has the worst prognosis of all.

  10. Effectiveness of group psychotherapy compared to social support groups in patients with primary, non-metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of experiential-existential group psychotherapy with a social support group for women with a primary breast cancer on psychosocial adjustment. A total of 67 well-adjusted women, who had been operated not earlier than 4 months before start

  11. Incidental Detection of Metastatic Lobular Breast Carcinoma in the Female Internal Genital Organs 2 Years Following Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Fang Lee

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The present case provides evidence of breast cancer metastasis to the female internal genital organs. We suggest close gynecologic follow-up after surgical and medical management of breast cancer.

  12. High mobility group box-1 and its clinical value in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shanping Sun,1,2 Wei Zhang,2 Zhaoqing Cui,2 Qi Chen,2 Panpan Xie,2 Changxin Zhou,2 Baoguo Liu,2 Xiangeng Peng,2 Yang Zhang21Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a factor regulating malignant tumorigenesis, proliferation, and metastasis, and is associated with poor clinical pathology in various human cancers. We investigated the differential concentrations of HMGB1 in tissues and sera, and their clinical value for diagnosis in patients with breast cancer, benign breast disease, and healthy individuals.Methods: HMGB1 levels in tumor tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and benign breast disease tissues was detected via immunohistochemistry. Serum HMGB1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 56 patients with breast cancer, 25 patients with benign breast disease, and 30 healthy control subjects. The clinicopathological features of the patients were compared. Tissues were evaluated histopathologically by pathologists.Results: HMGB1 levels in the tissues and sera of patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign breast disease or normal individuals. The 56 cancer patients were classified as having high tissue HMGB1 levels (n=41 or low tissue HMGB1 levels (n=15, but the corresponsive serum HMGB1 in these two groups was not significantly different. HMGB1 levels in breast cancer tissues significantly correlated with differentiation grade, lymphatic metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage, but not patient age, tumor size, or HER-2/neu expression; no association between serum HMGB1 levels and these clinicopathological parameters was found. The sensitivity and specificity of tissue HMGB1 levels for the diagnosis of breast cancer were 73.21% and 84

  13. ESO-ESMO 3rd international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann H; Abulkhair, Omalkhair; Cardoso, Maria-João; Dent, Rebecca Alexandra; Gelmon, Karen; Gentilini, Oreste; Harbeck, Nadia; Margulies, Anita; Meirow, Dror; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Senkus, Elzbieta; Spanic, Tanja; Sutliff, Medha; Travado, Luzia; Peccatori, Fedro; Cardoso, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    The 3rd International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY3) took place in November 2016, in Lugano, Switzerland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO) and the European Society of Medical Oncologists (ESMO). Consensus recommendations for the management of breast cancer in young women were updated from BCY2 with incorporation of new evidence to inform the guidelines, and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes the ESO-ESMO international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    .... It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1...

  15. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The influence of maternal ethnic group and diet on breast milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin Lin; S K, Thamarai Chelvi; Lim, Su Lin; Chen, Yuming; Tan, Elizabeth A T; Pai, Namratha Narayan; Gong, Yin Han; Foo, Janie; Rauff, Mary; Chong, Yap Seng

    2010-09-01

    Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition. This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Healthy pregnant women with the intention to breastfeed were recruited. Diet profile was studied using a standard validated 3-day food diary. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 1 to 2 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks postnatally. Agilent gas chromatograph (6870N) equipped with a mass spectrometer (5975) and an automatic liquid sampler (ALS) system with a split mode was used for analysis. Seventy-two breast milk samples were obtained from 52 subjects. Analysis showed that breast milk ETA (Eicosatetraenoic acid) and ETA:EA (Eicosatrienoic acid) ratio were significantly different among the races (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020), with ETA being the highest among Indians and the lowest among Malays. Docosahexaenoic acid was significantly higher among Chinese compared to Indians and Malays. No difference was demonstrated in n3 and n6 levels in the food diet analysis among the 3 ethnic groups. Differences exist in breast milk fatty acid composition in different ethnic groups in the same region, although no difference was demonstrated in the diet analysis. Factors other than maternal diet may play a role in breast milk fatty acid composition.

  17. Asian international students' barriers to joining group counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2014-10-01

    This cross-sectional study examined anticipated reactions to group participation among Asian international students (ISs). Structural equation modeling confirmed that Asian ISs' (n = 180) level of acculturation was associated with their attitude toward joining group counseling, which is partially mediated by their stigma toward help-seeking. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that ISs who reported higher place dependence, stigma toward help-seeking, and fear of negative evaluation reported more fear about disclosing emotional parts of themselves to other group members in the presence of a group member from the same country of origin. The results showed that ISs' perceived difficulties in providing feedback to a group member in the presence of an IS from the same country of origin were predicted by low place identity, high place dependence, and more stigma. International students' willingness to disclose and provide feedback in a group counseling setting was compared in three different hypothetical situations based on other group members' demographics, and the results showed that ISs are more afraid of self-disclosure in the presence of an international student from the same country.

  18. Bourses de l'International Crisis Group | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... particulièrement au chapitre de la recherche et de l'analyse des politiques sur les conflits locaux. L'International Crisis Group (Crisis Group) envisageait depuis longtemps de créer des bourses afin de permettre à un noyau d'analystes de se familiariser avec la méthodologie rigoureuse et éprouvée qui fait aujourd'hui la ...

  19. Introduction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Henry

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we presented the planned direction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group. This group consists of concerned system developers and users who have organized to synthesize recommendations for standard UNIX performance management subsystem interfaces and architectures. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a core set of performance management functions and these functions can be used to build tools by hardware system developers, vertical application software developers, and performance application software developers.

  20. International Crisis Group Quick-Response Research: Addressing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Crisis Group Quick-Response Research: Addressing Governance and Security. Over the past month, hundreds of thousands of citizens in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia have mobilized to demand greater government accountability and legitimacy. People have demonstrated in the streets, often risking their lives ...

  1. International Work Group Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, J.L.; Dubois, B; Molinuevo, J.L.; Scheltens, P.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer-type biomarker changes are identifiable in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic predementia phases of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD dementia. The International Work Group (IWG) guidelines for diagnosis identify a unified spectrum of 3 phases. The classic clinical feature that indicates AD

  2. Neurolymphomatosis: An International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grisariu (Sigal); B. Avni (Batia); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); F. Bokstein (Felix); D. Schiff (David); O. Kuittinen (Outi); M.C. Chamberlain (Marc C.); P. Roth (Patrick); A. Nemets (Anatoly); E. Shalom (Edna); D. Ben-Yehuda (Dina); T. Siegal (Tali)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractNeurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical entity. The International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group retrospectively analyzed 50 patients assembled from 12 centers in 5 countries over a 16-year period. NL was related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 90% and to acute leukemia in 10%.

  3. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  4. The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set for breast cancer from the perspective of women with the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Marese; Galvin, Rose; Connolly, Elizabeth; Stokes, Emma

    2013-05-01

    The ICF Core Set for breast cancer was generated by international experts for women who have had surgery and radiation but it has not yet been validated. The objective of the study was to validate the ICF Core Set from the perspective of women with breast cancer. A qualitative focus group methodology was used. The sessions were transcribed verbatim. Meaning units were identified by two independent researchers. The agreed list was subsequently linked to ICF categories by two independent researchers according to pre-defined linking rules. Data saturation determined the number of focus groups conducted. Quality of the data analyses was assured by multiple coding and peer review. Thirty-four women participated in seven focus groups. A total of 1621 meaning units were identified which were linked to 74 of the existing 80 Core Set categories. Additional ICF categories not currently included in the Core Set were identified by the women. The validity of the Core Set was largely supported. However, some categories currently not covered by the ICF Core Set for Breast Cancer will need to be considered for inclusion if the Core Set is to reflect all women who have had treatment for breast cancer

  5. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  6. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hunt, Katie N. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Lindsay C.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.

  7. Age at menarche and menopause and breast cancer risk in the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang-Claude, J.; Andrieu, N.; Rookus, M.A.; Brohet, R.M.; Antoniou, A.C.; Peock, S.; Davidson, R.; Izatt, L.; Cole, T.; Nogues, C.; Luporsi, E.; Huiart, L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Osorio, A.; Eyfjord, J.; Radice, P.; Goldgar, D.E.; Easton, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early menarche and late menopause are important risk factors for breast cancer, but their effects on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are unknown. METHODS: We assessed breast cancer risk in a large series of 1,187 BRCA1 and 414 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2

  8. GROUPS OF COMPANIES IN INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS - ROMANIAN AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela FIERBINŢEANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insolvency proceedings in case of groups of companies is no longer a surprise but a reality that concerned in the last period of time the romanian and also the european lawmakers.Although at an intuitive level the understanding of this construction must not raise many questions it is proven that not always what you see is what you get, especially when insolvency proceedings are opened in case of groups of companies.The aim of this article is to offer a global image on the effort made on national and international level to codify and harmonize the insolvency law provisions in the field.

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Methods Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor. Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. Results All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9% of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5% were negative and 15 (29.4% were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6% were positive for HPV 16, 3(20% for HPV 18, two cases (13.4% were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Conclusion Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  10. Quality indicators in breast cancer care: An update from the EUSOMA working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Marotti, Lorenza; Hart, Christopher D; Cataliotti, Luigi; Cutuli, Bruno; Kühn, Thorsten; Mansel, Robert E; Ponti, Antonio; Poortmans, Philip; Regitnig, Peter; van der Hage, Jos A; Wengström, Yvonne; Rosselli Del Turco, Marco

    2017-09-27

    In 2010, EUSOMA published a position paper, describing a set of benchmark quality indicators (QIs) that could be adopted by breast centres to allow standardised auditing and quality assurance and to establish an agreed minimum standard of care. Towards the end of 2014, EUSOMA decided to update the paper on QIs to consider and incorporate new scientific knowledge in the field. Several new QIs have been included to address the need for improved follow-up care of patients following primary treatments. With regard to the management of elderly patients, considering the complexity, the expert group decided that, for some specific quality indicators, if centres fail to meet the minimum standard, older patients will be excluded from analysis, provided that reasons for non-adherence to the QI are specified in the clinical chart and are identified at the review of the clinical records. In this way, high standards are promoted, but centres are able to identify and account for the effect of non-standard treatment in the elderly. In the paper, there is no QI for outcome measurements, such as relapse rate or overall survival. However, it is hoped that this will be developed in time as the databases mature and user experience increases. All breast centres are required to record outcome data as accurately and comprehensively as possible to allow this to occur. In the paper, different initiatives undertaken at international and national level to audit quality of care through a set of QIs have been mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal mammary artery flow in different racial groups of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Dar, Asim Hassan; Ahmed, Mansoor; Haseeb, Abdul; Bilal, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    To find out any differences in free flow of internal mammary artery among different ethnic groups. This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2013 to December 2015, and comprised patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The participants were divided into 5 groups, i.e. Sindhi, Muslim migrants from India, Punjabi, Pathan and Balochi patients. Free flow of internal mammary artery was measured immediately after harvesting within a syringe, and its flow was measured in 30 seconds. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis. Of the 158 patients, 44(27.8%) were Sindhi, 33(20.9%) Punjabi, 8(5%) Baloch, 21(13.3%) Pathan and 52(32.9%) were migrants. The overall mean age was 52±8 years and the mean flow was 11.6±9.6ml per 30 seconds. The flow was 9.3±6 ml, 10±8ml, 13±11ml, 17±14ml and 15±13 ml in 30 seconds among migrants, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pathan and Baloch patients, respectively, with significant higher flow in Pathan patients compared to Sindhi and migrant patients (pflow of less than 5ml/30 sec was mostly found in migrants or Sindhi subjects 30/40(75%), and flow more than 30ml/ 30 seconds was found mostly in Baloch or Pathan patients 4/8(50%). Low flow internal mammary artery, which was used on left anterior descending artery, showed significantly higher need of inotropic support as compared to high flow internal mammary artery (p=0.004), more low cardiac output syndrome (p=0.022) and more use of intra-aortic balloon pump (p=0.028). Internal mammary artery flow was higher in Pathan and Baloch patients and low in migrants and Sindhis.

  12. ABO blood groups in relation to breast carcinoma incidence and associated prognostic factors in Moroccan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Marnissi, F; Otmani, N; Bennani Othmani, M; El Wafi, M; Kojok, K; Zaid, Y; Tahiri Jouti, N; Habti, N

    2016-07-01

    The association between blood groups ABO and different types of diseases was established in several previous studies. Our aim was to seek the possible association between the ABO blood group and breast cancer-associated prognostic factors. The Chi-squared analytic test was used to compare phenotypic ABO distribution among Moroccan blood donors and 442 cases of women suffering from breast carcinoma with archived files in Maternity Ward of University Hospital C.H.U Ibn Rochd between 2008 and 2011. High incidence of breast carcinoma was observed in blood type B patients (p breast carcinomas overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (p cancer at age over 70 years (p cancer among women younger than 35 years old. Blood type A and AB were associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis (p breast carcinoma. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of ABH antigens in the progression of breast carcinoma.

  13. Classical pathological variables recorded in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Henrik W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Nielsen, Bernt B

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register containing data from about 75 000 patients undergoing surgery for primary invasive breast cancer from 1978-2006 has been examined for classical pathological variables. During that period the diagnostic approach of malignant breast tumours...... >50mm from 7 to 4%. The distribution of the histological subtypes of malignant breast tumours has been almost unchanged. We found however a significant increase in the number of high grade tumours. A large increase in the number of removed axillary lymph nodes from 1989-2001 is related to improved...... surgical procedure. The subsequent decline from 2002-2006 is the result of the introduction of the sentinel node technique. In the five-year period 2002-2006 following the introduction of sentinel node technique, the frequency of patients having at least one lymph node metastases (48.7%) was higher than...

  14. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  15. Intervention to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-03-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately 4 months. Each group of five to seven participants met weekly. Several empowerment strategies were initiated by two professional facilitators, aiming to promote empowerment processes and to manage stress. The participants experienced group participation as both empowering and as a valuable source of support, and although the group processes developed very differently, a strong sense of fellowship developed in all three groups. The discussion highlights the findings in relation to several theoretical perspectives including social capital, social cohesion, risky agreements, helper-therapy and power/empowerment. We conclude that empowerment strategies that are implemented in professionally led breast cancer self-help groups can contribute to participant empowerment and function as an important source of re-discovery and confirmation of the participants' strengths and abilities.

  16. Breast-feeding patterns of ethnic groups in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fang; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lengxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding pattern of four main ethnic groups (the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang) living in rural western China. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. Forty-five counties in ten provinces in western China in 2005. A sample of 11 783 children younger than 36 months old (8960 Han, 1281 Uygur, 792 Tibetan and 750 Zhuang) and their mothers were recruited using a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling method. The rates of exclusive breast-feeding of children at 6 months of age in the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups were 11.6 %, 0.8%, 4.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The rates of any breast-feeding for children at 24 months of age were 8.5%, 25.7%, 3.0% and 4.3% in the four ethnic groups, respectively. After adjusting for related factors, Zhuang children had a higher odds ratio of exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months compared with Han children, whereas Uygur and Tibetan children had lower odds ratio (Zhuang: OR=1.291; 95% CI 1.006, 1.657; Uugur: OR=0.062; 95% CI 0.032, 0.121; Tibetan: OR=0.323; 95% CI 0.220, 0.475). Uygur children had a lower hazard ratio of discontinued breast-feeding compared with Han children, whereas Tibetan children had a higher hazard ratio (Uygur: HR=0.368; 95% CI 0.333, 0.408; Tibetan: HR=1.366; 95% CI 1.244, 1.500). The breast-feeding pattern differed among the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups. The results suggest that health education regarding the benefits of breast-feeding is needed in rural western China.

  17. We only talk about breast feeding: a discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Fenwick; Elaine, Burns; Athena, Sheehan; Virginia, Schmied

    2013-05-01

    the aim of the study was to examine the dominant discourses that midwives draw on to present information on breast feeding in group-based antenatal education sessions. breast-feeding initiation rates are high among Australian women however, duration rates are low. Antenatal breast-feeding education is considered a key strategy in promoting breast feeding to childbearing women. The efficacy and effectiveness of such a strategy is equivocal and there is little qualitative work examining group-based antenatal breast-feeding education. discourse analysis was used to explore the language and practises of midwives facilitating group antenatal breast-feeding education sessions at two Australian maternity facilities. Nine sessions were observed and tape recorded over a 12 month period. Each session lasted between 60 and 140 mins. the analysis revealed four dominate discourses midwives used to promote breast feeding during group-based antenatal education session. The predominant discourses 'There is only one feeding option': breast feeding' and 'Selling the 'breast is best' reflected how midwives used their personal and professional commitment to breast feeding, within supportive and protective policy frameworks, to convince as many pregnant women as possible to commit to breast feeding. Sessions were organised to ensure women and their partners were 'armed' with as much information as possible about the value of breastmilk, successful positioning and attachment and practical strategies to deal with early breast-feeding problems. Antenatal commitment to breast feeding was deemed necessary if women were to overcome potential hurdles and maintain a commitment to the supply of breast milk. The latter two discourses, drawn upon to promote the breast-feeding message, presented infants as 'hard wired' to breast feed and male partners as 'protectors' of breast feeding. midwives clearly demonstrated a passion and enthusiasm for breast-feeding education. Examining the dominant

  18. Seeking support on facebook: a content analysis of breast cancer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jacqueline L; Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria-Carolina; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-02-04

    Social network sites have been growing in popularity across broad segments of Internet users, and are a convenient means to exchange information and support. Research on their use for health-related purposes is limited. This study aimed to characterize the purpose, use, and creators of Facebook groups related to breast cancer. We searched Facebook (www.Facebook.com) using the term breast cancer. We restricted our analysis to groups that were related to breast cancer, operated in English, and were publicly available. Two of us independently extracted information on the administrator and purpose of the group, as well as the number of user-generated contributions. We developed a coding scheme to guide content analysis. We found 620 breast cancer groups on Facebook containing a total of 1,090,397 members. The groups were created for fundraising (277/620, 44.7%), awareness (236, 38.1%), product or service promotion related to fundraising or awareness (61, 9%), or patient/caregiver support (46, 7%). The awareness groups as a whole contained by far the most members (n = 957,289). The majority of groups (532, 85.8%) had 25 wall posts or fewer. The support oriented groups, 47% (27/57) of which were established by high school or college students, were associated with the greatest number of user-generated contributions. Facebook groups have become a popular tool for awareness-raising, fundraising, and support-seeking related to breast cancer attracting over one million users. Given their popularity and reach, further research is warranted to explore the implications of social network sites as a health resource across various health conditions, cultures, ages, and socioeconomic groups.

  19. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  20. Is Sentinel Node Biopsy of the Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes Relevant in the Management of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuan; Caragata, Rebecca; Bennett, Ian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of a series of breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy inclusive of lymphoscintigraphy, and to assess the incidence of internal mammary node (IMN) metastatic positivity at exploration and whether these findings influenced treatment. Between April 2001 and December 2012, 581 breast cancer patients at Princess Alexandra Hospital underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the course of the performance of sentinel node biopsy. Analysis was performed of those patients who demonstrated radio-isotope uptake to the IMN chain, and who had sentinel node biopsy of the IMN's and were found to have metastatic involvement. Assessment was made to determine whether the finding of IMN metastases changed the adjuvant systemic management of these patients, and to review complication rates. 95 of 581 (16.4%) patients with preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy had lymphatic mapping to the IMN chain. 51 (54%) of these patients had IMN chain surgically explored and IMN nodes were found in 35 of these patients (success rate of 69%). Of these, three patients (3/35 = 8.6%) had metastatic involvement of the IMN sentinel node group. All three IMN positive patients received adjuvant breast radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy. In four patients (7.8%) IMN surgical exploration was complicated by pneumothorax. Only a small proportion of breast cancer patients were found to have metastasic involvement of the IMN chain and which did not significantly change their adjuvant therapy management. These findings suggest that the benefits of exploration of the IMN chain in breast cancer patients are limited and may be outweighed by the risk of complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Breast interest group faculty of radiation oncology: Australian and New Zealand patterns of practice survey on breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberley; Mackenzie, Penny; Allen, Angela; Dreosti, Marcus; Morgia, Marita; Zissiadis, Yvonne; Lamoury, Gilian; Windsor, Apsara

    2017-08-01

    This patterns of practice study was conducted on behalf of the RANZCR Breast Interest Group in order to document current radiotherapy practices for breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand. The survey identifies variations and highlights potential contentious aspects of radiotherapy management of breast cancer. A fifty-eight question survey was disseminated via the Survey Monkey digital platform to 388 Radiation Oncologists in Australia and New Zealand. In total, 156 responses were received and collated. Areas of notable consensus among respondents included hypofractionation (77.3% of respondents would 'always' or 'sometimes' consider hypofractionation in the management of ductal carcinoma in-situ and 99.3% in early invasive breast cancer); margin status in early breast cancer (73.8% believe a clear inked margin is sufficient and does not require further surgery) and use of bolus in post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) (91.1% of participants use bolus in PMRT). Areas with a wider degree of variability amongst respondents included regional nodal irradiation and components of radiotherapy planning and delivery (examples include the technique used for delivery of boost and frequency of bolus application for PMRT). The results of these patterns of practice survey informs radiation oncologists in Australia and New Zealand of the current clinical practices being implemented by their peers. The survey identifies areas of consensus and contention, the latter of which may lead to a development of research trials and/or educational activities to address these areas of uncertainty. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  2. Expressing positive emotions within online support groups by women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret R; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2008-11-01

    Based upon Fredrickson's Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions, this study examined the role of expressing positive emotions in online support groups for women with breast cancer. Underserved women with breast cancer in rural Wisconsin and Detroit, Michigan were recruited from 2001 to 2003, and they were given access to online support groups. Both pretest and four-month posttest surveys were conducted with a sample of 231 women. Messages from 96 active participants were analyzed using a computerized text analysis program. Psychological benefits that occurred following the expression of positive emotions were greater among those who expressed more negative emotions.

  3. International Workshop "Groups, Rings, Lie and Hopf Algebras"

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The volume is almost entirely composed of the research and expository papers by the participants of the International Workshop "Groups, Rings, Lie and Hopf Algebras", which was held at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF, Canada. All four areas from the title of the workshop are covered. In addition, some chapters touch upon the topics, which belong to two or more areas at the same time. Audience: The readership targeted includes researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and its applications.

  4. Validity of Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry data used in the predictors of breast cancer recurrence (ProBeCaRe) premenopausal breast cancer cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Ahern, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow-up. In a longit......BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow......-up. In a longitudinal study, we validated DBCG data using medical records as the gold standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a cohort of 5959 premenopausal women diagnosed during 2002-2010 with stage I-III breast cancer, we selected 151 patients - 77 estrogen-receptor-positive and 74 estrogen-receptor-negative - from......). The PPV for DBCG-recorded recurrence was 100%. However, of 19 patients who had a recurrence documented in their medical record, 13 had the recurrence registered in DBCG. CONCLUSIONS: DBCG data are valid for most epidemiological studies of breast cancer treatment. Data on menopausal transition may be less...

  5. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  6. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  7. 76 FR 14105 - International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group; Pineville, LA; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group... workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Pineville Mill, Industrial Packaging Group... International Paper Company (subject firm) nor any of its customers imported articles like or directly...

  8. Factors perceived to influence exercise adherence in women with breast cancer participating in an exercise programme during adjuvant chemotherapy: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Karlsen, Bjørg; Allan, Helen; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-02-01

    To explore factors influencing exercise adherence among women with breast cancer while following an exercise programme. Earlier research shows that women with breast cancer decrease physical activity following the cancer diagnosis and that adhering to exercise interventions can be a challenge. Research is needed to identify motivational factors and barriers for exercise adherence among women during treatment for breast cancer. This was a qualitative study to explore patient's perceptions of the challenges to exercise adherence during a randomised, controlled trial. Twenty-seven women with early-stage breast cancer were purposively sampled for focus group interviews during 2011-2012 from their participation in the exercise intervention group during 2010-2012. Five focus groups were performed, and data analysis was completed using the systematic text condensation method. During the focus group study, five main themes were identified, which described factors participants perceived to influence their adherence to exercise during chemotherapy: 'side effects of breast cancer treatment as a barrier to exercise', 'restoring and maintaining normality in daily life motivates exercise', 'other valued activities compete with exercise', 'constructive support enhances exercise' and 'positive beliefs about efficacy and outcomes motivate exercise'. Adherence to exercise in women with breast cancer is challenged by internal and external conditions and may be improved by attention to the impact of treatment side effects and by supporting patient self-efficacy towards changing health behaviour. Nurses should be aware that exercise adherence could be a challenge among women with breast cancer. They should help identify obstacles to exercise for women and ways to overcome them, as well as support them in their beliefs that they are capable of changing their health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Histopathological pattern of breast carcinoma in different age groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty three (70.5%) of these high grade tumours were seen in premenopausal age group. Eleven patients had invasive lobular carcinoma of which 4(36.4%) were premenopausal while 7(63.6%) were post menopausal. Conclusion: It is concluded that younger patients tended to frequently have aggressive and high grade ...

  10. Detecting Emotional Expression in Face-to-Face and Online Breast Cancer Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Anna; Simon, Wendy; Yutsis, Maya; Owen, Jason E.; Piemme, Karen Altree; Golant, Mitch; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting emotional expression in women with primary breast cancer participating in support groups may be important for therapists and researchers. In 2 small studies (N = 20 and N = 16), the authors examined whether video coding, human text coding, and automated text analysis provided consistent estimates of the level of emotional…

  11. Breast Cancer in Iranian Woman: Incidence by Age Group, Morphology and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid; Lotfi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the first cause of cancer death in women worldwide, with infiltrating duct carcinoma as the most common morphology. This study aimed to investigate trend of breast cancer incidence by age groups and histological changes in Iranian women between 2003 and 2008. This is analytic study, carried out based on re-analysis of the Cancer Registry Center report of health deputy for women's breast cancer in Iran during a 6-year period (2003-2008). Statistical analysis for incidence time trends and morphology change percentage carried out joinpoint regression analysis using the software Joinpoint Regression Program. A total of 36,340 cases were reported for Iranian women in the six years. Analytical trend showed an increasing incidence trend with significant annual percentage change (APC) of 15.2 (CI: 11.6 to 18.8). The lowest and highest significant increased trend were related to age groups of 40 to 44 years and above 85 years, respectively; with APCs of 13.0 and 25.1, respectively. Of total cases, 78.7% of cases were infiltrating duct carcinoma, decreasing from 82.0% in 2003 to 76.6% in 2008, which was significant with an APC equal to -1.76 (CI:-2.7 to -0.8). The incidence trend of breast cancer is rising in Iranian women. The highest incidence was observed in the age groups 45-65 and 80-85. In conclusion, to reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer, especially in young women, are recommended in Iran.

  12. Breast cancer survivorship in urban India: self and care in voluntary groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the lives of middle-class women who have had breast cancer and are charity volunteers for small associative patient groups in urban India. It is through their activities and experiences as ‘post-cancer volunteers’ that the thesis attends to the notion of breast cancer ‘survivorship’ in relation to emergent forms of solidarity, belonging and personhood. The thesis has three main areas of concern. The first explores the role of survivorship in generating a novel form of lay...

  13. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC...... improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. (C) 2011 Published...... were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. Results...

  14. Psychological Effects of Group Hypnotherapy on Breast Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Martínez-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Sánchez, Teresa; Segura, Guillermo; Jaime-Bernal, Leticia

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of group hypnotherapy on anxiety, depression, stress, self-esteem, optimism, and social support during chemotherapy, in patients with breast cancer, compared with a control group with standard medical care. Hypnotherapy consisted of 24 sessions that included suggestions to encourage relaxation, self-esteem, the resolution of past traumatic events, physical healing, and optimism. Results show that the hypnotherapy group significantly decreased anxiety, distress, increased self-esteem, and optimism in the first 12 sessions. However, at the end of the 24 sessions, only self-esteem and optimism remained significant compared with the control group. The convenience of using hypnotherapy to encourage optimism and self-esteem in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy treatment is discussed given its protective effect on health.

  15. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: isechop@emory.edu [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  16. Status and Update of the International Precipitation Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Lapeta, Bozena; Wang, Nai-Yu; Aonashi, Kazumasa

    2013-04-01

    A wide range of climate modeling, data assimilation, nowcasting, and hydrological applications requires satellite-based daily and sub-daily precipitation analyses along with their associated uncertainties. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) was initiated as a permanent Working Group of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) to provide a focus in the scientific community on operational and research satellite-based quantitative precipitation analysis issues and challenges. The primary challenge is to build on existing precipitation products that utilize blended active and passive microwave sensors and geostationary-based imagers to provide analyses of the precipitation field across a variety of spatial and temporal scales in near real time. Another challenge is to develop standards for validation and independent verification of precipitation measurements derived from satellite data. In support of these activities, the IPWG community convenes a workshop every two years. The most recent workshop (Sixth IPWG Workshop: IPWG6) was hosted by the Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) headquarters, in São José dos Campos, Brasil from 15-19 October 2012. IPWG6 was attended by about 52 scientists, with 14 countries represented. There was a mix of oral presentations, posters, and working group sessions that focused on international projects and satellite programmes, IPWG programmatic activities, climatology of precipitation, precipitation datasets, algorithms, applications, validation, new technologies and NWP data. A training program was conducted in conjunction with the IPWG6 Workshop. A total of 12 participants completed the training course. The training course was entitled, "New and Emerging Technologies, Sensors, and Datasets for Precipitation" and was held on first three days (15-17 October 2012) the IPWG6 Workshop. The training focused on five topic areas that

  17. Primary breast angiosarcoma associated with abnormalities in international normalized ratio platelet count and anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejva Soleymanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are rare malignancies with poor prognosis and could affect any organ in the body. Breast angiosarcomas mostly affect adolescent and young adult females. Here, we present the case of a 19-year-old female with low grade primary breast angiosarcoma associated with international normalized ratio (INR abnormalities, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Patient experienced severe bleeding on biopsy. INR and count of blood cells turned to normal levels after mastectomy. Patient refused chemotherapy. Three months later, computed tomography showed liver metastasis.

  18. Seven-Year Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Consensus Groupings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Maha S; Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J Ben; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina K; Wobb, Jessica; Gustafson, Gregory S; Brabbins, Donald S; Grills, Inga S; Chen, Peter Y

    2017-10-01

    Limited long-term data exist regarding outcomes for patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), particularly, when stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) risk groups. The purpose of this analysis is to present 5- and 7-year outcomes following APBI based on CS groupings. A total of 690 patients with early-stage breast cancer underwent APBI from 1993 to 2012, receiving interstitial brachytherapy (n=195), balloon-based brachytherapy (n=290), or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (n=205) at a single institution. Patients were stratified into suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable groups with 5-year outcomes analyzed. Seven-year outcomes were analyzed for a subset with follow-up of ≥2 years (n=625). Median follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 0.1 to 20.1 y). Patients assigned to cautionary and unsuitable categories were more likely to have high-grade tumors (21% to 25% vs. 9%, P=0.001), receive chemotherapy (15% to 38% vs. 6%, PASTRO CS groupings. Modest increases in distant recurrence were noted in the cautionary and unsuitable groups. These findings suggest that the ASTRO CS groupings stratify more for systemic recurrence and may not appropriately select patients for whole versus partial breast irradiation.

  19. 31st International Colloquium in Group Theoretical Methods in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Faci, Sofiane; Micklitz, Tobias; Scherer, Ricardo; Toppan, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings records the 31st International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (“Group 31”). Plenary-invited articles propose new approaches to the moduli spaces in gauge theories (V. Pestun, 2016 Weyl Prize Awardee), the phenomenology of neutrinos in non-commutative space-time, the use of Hardy spaces in quantum physics, contradictions in the use of statistical methods on complex systems, and alternative models of supersymmetry. This volume’s survey articles broaden the colloquia’s scope out into Majorana neutrino behavior, the dynamics of radiating charges, statistical pattern recognition of amino acids, and a variety of applications of gauge theory, among others. This year’s proceedings further honors Bertram Kostant (2016 Wigner Medalist), as well as S.T. Ali and L. Boyle, for their life-long contributions to the math and physics communities. The aim of the ICGTMP is to provide a forum for physicists, mathematicians, and scientists of related disciplines who develop or apply ...

  20. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  1. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered

  2. Breast cancer risk reduction options: awareness, discussion, and use among women from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Haas, Jennifer S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Somkin, Carol; Des Jarlais, Genevieve; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2006-01-01

    With recent advances in breast cancer risk reduction practices, it is increasingly important to assess both the breadth of and disparities in use across different racial/ethnic groups. We conducted telephone interviews with 1,700 women ages 40 to 74, from four racial/ethnic groups, without prior history of breast cancer, who received mammograms at one of five mammography facilities in San Francisco. Main outcomes measured included recognition of tamoxifen, raloxifene, genetic testing, and prophylactic surgery. Global indicators (recognition of any therapy, discussion of breast cancer risk) were developed from original outcome measures and analyzed using logistic regression. Multivariate analyses indicate that race/ethnicity and interview language affected recognition of therapies and discussion of risk. White women were more likely than all other women to recognize any therapy and more likely than Asian-Americans to discuss risk. Women at high risk, who had a prior abnormal mammogram, who perceived themselves to be at high risk, or who were exposed to breast health information were more likely to discuss risk. Women are aware of preventive therapies, although discussion and use is limited. Interventions to increase use of therapies should focus on those at high risk. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(1):162-6).

  3. Effectiveness of Group Training Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients? lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were s...

  4. The internally truncated LRP5 receptor presents a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Björklund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common malignant disease, which may be caused by a number of genes deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events. Deregulated WNT/beta-catenin signaling with accumulation of beta-catenin is common in breast tumors, but mutations in WNT signaling pathway components have been rare. An aberrantly spliced internally truncated LRP5 receptor (LRP5Delta666-809, LRP5Delta was shown recently to be resistant to DKK1 inhibition, and was required for beta-catenin accumulation in hyperparathyroid tumors and parathyroid tumor growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show, by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, that LRP5Delta is frequently expressed in breast tumors of different cancer stage (58-100%, including carcinoma in situ and metastatic carcinoma. LRP5Delta was required in MCF7 breast cancer cells for the non-phosphorylated active beta-catenin level, transcription activity of beta-catenin, cell growth in vitro, and breast tumor growth in a xenograft SCID mouse model. WNT3 ligand, but not WNT1 and WNT3A augmented the endogenous beta-catenin activity of MCF7 cells in a DKK1-insensitive manner. Furthermore, an anti-LRP5 antibody attenuated beta-catenin activity, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in LRP5Delta-positive MCF7 and T-47D breast cancer cells, but not in control cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the LRP5Delta receptor is strongly implicated in mammary gland tumorigenesis and that its aberrant expression present an early event during disease progression. LRP5 antibody therapy may have a significant role in the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Increased breast cancer mortality only in the lower education group: age-period-cohort effect in breast cancer mortality by educational level in South Korea, 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-03-31

    A steadily increasing pattern of breast cancer mortality has been reported in South Korea since the late 1980s. This paper explored the trends of educational inequalities of female breast cancer mortality between 1983 and 2012 in Korea, and conducted age-period-cohort (APC) analysis by educational level. Age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Relative index of inequality (RII) for breast cancer mortality was used as an inequality measure. APC analyses were conducted using the Web tool for APC analysis provided by the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. An increasing trend in breast cancer mortality among Korean women between 1983 and 2012 was due to the increased mortality of the lower education groups (i.e., no formal education or primary education and secondary education groups), not the highest education group. The breast cancer mortality was higher in women with a tertiary education than in women with no education or a primary education during 1983-1992, and the reverse was true in 1993-2012. Consequently, RII was changed from positive to negative associations in the early 2000s. The lower education groups had the increased breast cancer mortality and significant cohort and period effects between 1983 and 2012, whereas the highest group did not. APC analysis by socioeconomic position used in this study could provide an important clue for the causes on breast cancer mortality. The long-term monitoring of socioeconomic patterning in breast cancer risk factors is urgently needed.

  6. Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Flap for Immediate Volume Replacement Following Wide Local Excision of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine A. van Huizum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving therapy is defined as a breast-conserving wide local excision (WLE of a mammary tumour combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Immediate restoration of the mammary shape by use of breast reduction techniques (volume displacement or tissue replacement techniques (volume replacement is gaining popularity to prevent breast malformation. Methods To date, using the internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP flap has been suggested for immediate volume replacement after WLE, but has never been evaluated in a published study. Results We applied this flap in 12 women (mean age, 56.1 years after WLE (mean specimen weight, 46.5 g of the medial aspect of the breast. Over a median follow-up of 35.3 months (standard deviation, 1.2 months, 4 women needed repeated surgery for dog-ear correction of the donor site. Conclusions In our experience, the use of an IMAP flap was a reliable technique with good cosmetic outcomes after oncoplastic reconstruction. In this series, donor site revision often proved necessary initially, but we showed that this may easily be prevented.

  7. Breast cancer: a manual for a proposed group treatment integrating evidence based resilience factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Sørlie, Tore; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2005-08-01

    The paper presents the structure and content of a manual for a proposed treatment of breast cancer patients in groups. The proposed treatment is structured, time limited, and integrates elements from 1995 work of Spiegel and the Yalom 1995 theory of group therapy as well as empirically derived resilience factors. Addressing the psychological specificity of breast cancer, the overall treatment goals are to help patients to acquire new coping skills for relieving stress, to increase their personal and social competence and their use of available social support, to increase family coherence, to enhance optimism and quality of life, and to help patients develop new values and priorities that comply with their current and future life situation.

  8. Breast feeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. United Kingdom National Case-Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether breast feeding is related to subsequent risk of breast cancer. DESIGN--Population based case-control study designed primarily to investigate the relation between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer; data obtained from questionnaires administered by interviewers, general practitioner notes, and family planning clinic records. SETTING--11 health regions in Britain. SUBJECTS--Women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 36 living in the defined study areas. One control per case, matched for age, was selected from the list of the case's general practitioner. 755 case-control pairs were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of breast feeding each liveborn infant; timing of return of menses; hormone use; other risk factors for breast cancer. RESULTS--Risk of breast cancer fell with increasing duration of breast feeding (relative risk = 0.94 per three months' breast feeding; test for trend p = 0.026) and with number of babies breast fed (relative risk = 0.86; test for trend, p = 0.017). Breast feeding each baby for longer than three months conferred no additional benefit. Breast feeding was more strongly negatively associated with risk of breast cancer than duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (chi 2 test for trend, p = 0.69). Hormonal suppression of lactation was unrelated to risk of breast cancer (relative risk = 0.96 per episode of suppressed lactation; test for trend, p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that breast feeding protects against the development of breast cancer in young women. PMID:8343660

  9. Poorly differentiated breast carcinoma is associated with increased expression of the human polycomb group EZH2 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, F.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Fieret, E; Blokzijl, T; Mommers, E; Buerger, H; Packeisen, J; Sewalt, RA; Otte, AP; Diest, van P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) genes contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, cell cycle regulation, and oncogenesis. We describe the expression of five PcG genes (BMI-1, RING1, HPC1, HPC2, and EZH2) innormal breast tissues, invasive breast carcinomas, and their precursors. Members of the HPC-HPH/PRC1

  10. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Stojanoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  11. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  12. Comparison of groups with different patterns of symptom cluster intensity across the breast cancer treatment trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Ju; McDermott, Paul A; Barsevick, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    Comparing subgroups with different patterns of change in symptom intensity would assist in sorting out individuals at risk for more severe symptoms and worse functional outcomes. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare subgroups of breast cancer patients with different patterns of change in a psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity across the treatment trajectory. This secondary analysis used the data from 160 breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity was a composite score of 5 symptoms (depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and pain) in a psychoneurological cluster at each of 3 time points (ie, at baseline and at 2 follow-ups after chemotherapy or radiation treatment). Five distinct subgroups representing different patterns of psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity during breast cancer treatment were identified: the gradually increasing pattern subgroup (group 1), the constantly low pattern subgroup (group 2), the start low with dramatic increase and decrease pattern subgroup (group 3), the constantly high pattern subgroup (group 4), and the start high with dramatic decrease and leveling pattern subgroup (group 5). Patients without previous cancer treatment experience, with higher level of education, treated with chemotherapy, and/or with more limitations at the baseline were more likely to follow the pattern group 4. Patients in group 4 had the most serious functional limitations measured at the second follow-up time point. The results suggest the need to evaluate interventions for specific subgroups and to examine the causal mechanisms underlying a psychoneurological symptom cluster. Clinicians should consider these diverse symptom experiences for assessment/management.

  13. Learning as an empowerment process in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-07-01

    This intervention study aimed to promote and examine empowerment processes in women recovering from breast cancer and participating in self-help groups. Feelings of powerlessness may follow from being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. In theory, self-help groups may stimulate empowerment, which stands in contrast to powerlessness, by increasing the participants' sense of control. Professional assistance may contribute positively, by assuring that the issue of empowerment is addressed. The study had an intervention design based on the ideas of empowerment and self-help. Three professionally led self-help groups were established. The groups ran sequentially and met weekly for approximately four months. Eighteen women in groups of 5-7 participated in self-help group discussions and also in focus group interviews, which provided the main study data. Each group was interviewed three times. Observation data provided a basis for comprehension of the groups' culture, relationships and processes. Learning appeared as one of three salient components in empowerment processes in the self-help groups. This learning component consists of four elements: consciousness-raising, acquisition of objective knowledge, learning from others' experiences and discovery of new perspectives in life and in oneself. The study shows that self-help groups focusing on empowerment issues made a valuable contribution to recovery and are strongly recommended by the participants. This study suggests that best practice, for those who manage self-help programmes of all types, may be to arrange for empowerment to be an explicit aspect of the intervention, guided by professionals with training in group facilitation and knowledgeable about the facilitation of empowerment in particular.

  14. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Liu, Shaoyi; Huang, Jiaoti

    2015-01-01

    Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gp(HAE3), was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  15. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  16. International Group Heterogeneity and Students’ Business Project Achievement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Xiaoyan Xu; Drs. Lucie Rugers; Dr. Ning Ding; Drs. Petra van Heugten; Dr. Roel Bosker

    2015-01-01

    In business higher education, group project work plays an essential role. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the group heterogeneity of students’ business project groups and their academic achievements at both group and individual levels. The sample consists of

  17. Familial and sporadic breast cancer cases in Iceland: a comparison related to ABO blood groups and risk of bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Robertson, J M

    1988-10-15

    This study was aimed at determining whether the familial clustering often observed in breast cancer is associated with genetic factors. We compared familial and sporadic breast cancer cases with respect to ABO blood group distribution and the risk of bilateral disease, using the data from the Icelandic Cancer Registry which contains genealogical information for about 30% of the breast cancer cases diagnosed in Iceland since 1911. Cases were classified as familial if at least one first-degree relative had breast cancer. Using this criterion, we identified 184 familial cases and 572 sporadic cases. The familial cases had a 2-fold higher prevalence of blood group B than did the sporadic cases, and the frequency of this blood group in non-affected relatives of cases was significantly reduced. Familial cases were about 2.7 times more likely to suffer from bilateral breast cancer than were the sporadic patients. These results support the presence of a genetic factor in the etiology of familial breast cancer.

  18. Participant perceptions of a mindful movement program for older women with breast cancer: focus group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Okada, Rebecca; Kiger, Holly; Anderson, Nancy L R; Carroll-Johnson, Rose Mary; Sugerman, Fred; Shapiro, Shauna L; Wyman-McGinty, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been directed to the longer-term survivorship phase for older breast cancer survivors (BCSs) who often continue to struggle with late and long-term adverse effects of treatment including lower physical functioning, fear of recurrence, stress and anxiety, neuropathies, and pain. Creative and accessible strategies are needed that offer support to this population of cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine participant perceptions of the effects of a Mindful Movement Program intervention on quality of life and mindfulness through focus groups. This was part of a pilot feasibility study testing the intervention with older women at more than 1 year after treatment for breast cancer. Eight to 9 weeks after completion of 12 weekly, 2-hour mindful movement sessions, focus groups were held with 3 experimental group cohorts of participants who had attended on average 10.4 classes. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques for recurrent themes. Four themes emerged from the direct quotes of the participants: freedom, rediscovering, body sense in moving, and in the moment. Participants also contributed opinions about program delivery. Participants described how the Mindful Movement Program experience affected their lives. Their feedback indicated that the intervention yielded positive results and was feasible for a variety of older BCSs. Research with a wider group of participants is needed. Preliminary indications are that mindful movement may offer an acceptable strategy for increasing activity and decreasing stress among older BCSs.

  19. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....

  20. Highlights from the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2013. Access to innovation for patients with breast cancer: how to speed it up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curigliano, Giuseppe; Criscitiello, Carmen; Andrè, Fabrice; Colleoni, Marco; Di Leo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that early breast cancer is a spectrum of diseases each requiring a specific systemic therapy guided the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference [1]. The meeting assembled 3600 participants from nearly 90 countries worldwide. Educational content has been centred on the primary and multidisciplinary treatment approach of early breast cancer. The meeting culminated on the final day, with the St Gallen Breast Cancer Treatment Consensus, established by 40-50 of the world's most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The major issue that arose during the consensus conference was the increasing gap between what is theoretically feasible in patient risk stratification, in treatment, and in daily practice management. We need to find new paths to access innovations to clinical research and daily practice. To ensure that continued innovation meets the needs of patients, the therapeutic alliance between patients and academic-led research should to be extended to include relevant pharmaceutical companies and drug regulators with a unique effort to bring innovation into clinical practice. We need to bring together major players from the world of breast cancer research to map out a coordinated strategy on an international scale, to address the disease fragmentation, to share financial resources, and to integrate scientific data. The final goal will be to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care for all patients in each country.

  1. The Kadota Fund International Forum 2004 - Clinical group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Zee (Jill); Z. Vujaskovic (Zeljko); M. Kondo (Motoharu); T. Sugahara (Tsutomu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe results from experimental studies indicate that hyperthermia is both an effective complementary treatment to, and a strong sensitiser of, radiotherapy and many cytotoxic drugs. Since the first international hyperthermia conference in 1975, Washington DC, techniques to increase tumour

  2. Breast Cancer Surgery: Comparing Surgical Groups and Determining Individual Differences in Postoperative Sexuality and Body Change Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, Debora; Farrar, William; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    Women diagnosed and surgically treated for regional breast cancer (N = 190) were studied to determine the sexual and body change sequelae for women receiving modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with breast reconstruction in comparison with the sequelae for women receiving breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or MRM without breast reconstruction. The sexuality pattern for women receiving reconstructive surgery was one that was significantly different—with lower rates of activity and fewer signs of sexual responsiveness—than that for women in either of the other groups. Significantly higher levels of traumatic stress and situational distress regarding the breast changes were reported by the women receiving an MRM in contrast to the women treated with BCT. Using a model to predict sexual morbidity, regression analyses revealed that individual differences in sexual self-schema were related to both sexual and body change stress outcomes. PMID:10965644

  3. Factors determining the suspension of breast-feeding in an urban population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, H; Arroyo, P; García, D; Huerta, F; Díaz, R; Casanueva, E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study of breastfeeding patterns in a socioeconomically homogeneous sample of 2520 mothers visiting Mexican outpatient clinics was conducted. During May and June 1975, mothers attending the outpatient departments of 4 clinics of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) were interviewed. The mothers ranged in age from 15 to 48 years. In 56.1% of the cases, the child's father was a laborer; in 19.5% he performed domestic services activities; and in 15.9% he held a commercial or administrative position. 22.5% of the mothers did renumerative work. To analyze factors relating to the suspension of breastfeeding, the mothers who had practiced breastfeeding (i.e., had practiced it for a month or more) were divided into 2 groups: those who had fed their infants from the breast for 1-3 months, and those who had continued to do so for 4 months or more. In 1061 cases (42.7% of the total), the mothers cited a lack or insufficiency of milk; 1/2 the mothers citing this cause breastfed their infants but did so for only 1-3 months. Other common reasons given for early suspension of breastfeeding were that the child failed to accept the breast or hurt it, breast infection or maternal illness, sickness of the child, and job problems. Mothers who did not practice breastfeeding often cited absent or insufficient milk, growth of the child, rejection of the breast, or another pregnancy as their reasons. Powdered milk was used in 1868 cases and was particularly favored when breastfeeding was not practiced or was practiced for 3 months or less. In 662 cases some kind of substitute milk was introduced before breastfeeding ended.

  4. Statement From The International Scientific Summer School Collaboration Group

    OpenAIRE

    Group, International Scientific Summer School

    2014-01-01

    the Research Practicum of the Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. It combines plenary and small group discussions, proj- ect development and class presentation, and discussion on publishing scientific papers with representatives of medical scientific journals. Up to 20-25 participants work in groups to ensure an intensive interaction between participants and faculty. There is approximately equal number of local and for- eign participants

  5. Social and psychological determinants of levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M; Gustafson, David H

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in them. To better understand cancer patients' online information- and support-seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients' characteristics, suggesting that (a) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (b) deficits in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings.

  6. Absence of synergy for monosynaptic Group I inputs between abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, P A

    2014-01-01

    Internal intercostal and abdominal motoneurons are strongly coactivated during expiration. We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons of the internal intercostal nerve of T8 in anesthetized cats...

  7. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohet, Richard M; Goldgar, David E; Easton, Douglas F

    2007-01-01

    oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort study (IBCCS), a retrospective cohort of 1,593 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was analyzed with a weighted Cox regression analysis. Results We found an increased risk...... of breast cancer for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who ever used oral contraceptives (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.87). HRs did not vary according to time since stopping use, age at start, or calendar year at start. However, a longer duration of use, especially before first full...... was found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers that current use of oral contraceptives is associated with risk of breast cancer more strongly than is past use, as is found in the general population. However, duration of use, especially before first full-term pregnancy, may be associated with an increasing risk...

  8. Role of the multidisciplinary team in breast cancer management: results from a large international survey involving 39 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, K S; Taylor, C; Ramirez, A-J; Palmieri, C; Gunnarsson, U; Schmoll, H J; Dolci, S M; Ghenne, C; Metzger-Filho, O; Skrzypski, M; Paesmans, M; Ameye, L; Piccart-Gebhart, M J; de Azambuja, E

    2012-04-01

    The optimal management of patients with breast cancer (BC) requires the expertise of specialists from different disciplines. This has led to the evolution of multidisciplinary teams (MDTs), allowing all key professionals to jointly discuss individual patients and to contribute independently to clinical decisions. Data regarding BC MDTs in different regions and countries are scarce. The investigators of a large global phase III adjuvant BC trial being conducted by the Breast International Group were invited to respond to a questionnaire about the extent, structure, and function of BC MDTs. One hundred and fifty-two responses from 39 countries were received, and remarkable differences were noted in different geographic regions. Sixty-five percent of the respondents from eastern Europe, 63% from western Europe, 35% from Asia, and 25% from South America declared that MDT was a mandatory part of BC care in their country. Ninety percent of the respondents from Europe stated their MDTs met weekly, compared with only half of the respondents from Asia. This survey is perhaps the first large-scale effort to collect information regarding BC MDTs from different parts of the world and provides objective information of frequency, composition, function, and working mechanism of BC MDTs.

  9. Learning Effects of an International Group Competition Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Murat; del Campo, Cristina; Eryarsoy, Enes

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of collaboration and competition on students' learning performance in a course of business statistics. The collaboration involved a simultaneously organised group competition project with analysis of real-life business problems among students. Students from the following schools participated: JAMK University of…

  10. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  11. Sentiment Analysis of an Online Breast Cancer Support Group: Communicating about Tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabling, Mark L; Turner, Jeanine W; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Zhang, Yihong; Jiang, Xinyang; Drago, Fabrizio; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2017-07-05

    A better understanding of the breast cancer online narrative is important for a clearer conceptualizing of the role of online platforms in mediating health-related support. Sentiment analysis was conducted on a breast cancer online support group regarding Tamoxifen to understand users' emotions and opinions. This analysis was then contextualized within online social support literature. Out of the 498 users, the most active users were 80% more positive than least active users, while least active users were 48% more negative than most active ones; both differences were statistically significant. The higher the stage of cancer a user had, the less likelihood that she would have posted, and if she were to post, the post would have focused on her side effects and the anxiety/sadness that tailgates those side effects. The lower the stage of cancer a user had, the more likelihood that she would have posted, additionally remained active on the forum, and encouraged more (online) social support. This finding suggests that the online support platform may provide a context that exacerbates support for like-minded users where stronger ties are created around a specific sentiment within the community with less connection from those with dissimilar sentiments to the dominant group.

  12. Internal stakeholder group participation in hospital strategic decision-making: making structure fit the moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, R R; Ashmos, D P

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the participation of six internal stakeholder groups in hospital strategic decision-making. Results show that internal stakeholder group participation is affected by strategic decision content and by the nature of the hospital's strategy. Results show that the participation of internal stakeholdergroups is associated with lower cost per full-time employee (fte). In particular, when the low participation stakeholder groups do participate, hospitals experience lower cost per fte.

  13. International strategy : economic diplomacy on the example of Rheinmetall Group

    OpenAIRE

    Laudenbach, Robin Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics of the German and European defence industrial base and explores the various strategic options available to defence companies, both in terms of internationalization and with regard to economic diplomacy. In doing so, the paper identifies four stages of internationalization, three main groups of economic diplomacy, and five types of lobbyism activities. Where applicable, the paper distinguishes between small and large enterprises because of the...

  14. Breaking Cycles of Violence. A Work Group of the International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement (IWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death Studies, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Violence begets violence and it is important to understand how cycles of violence are perpetuated if we are to find solutions to the global problems they present. A multi-disciplinary group of The International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement has developed a model of the cyclical events that perpetuate violence at all levels including…

  15. Influence of ABO blood group and Rhesus factor on breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 9665 breast cancer patients and 244,768 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Su-Yu; Zhou, Wenbin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Shui; Liu, Xiao-An

    2014-06-01

    Blood group is an important risk factor for some malignancies, including pancreatic and stomach cancer. However, it is unclear whether the risk of breast cancer is higher in any specific ABO blood type. We searched the electronic database of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the VIP Chinese Journal of Science and Technology for case-control studies about blood type and breast cancer incidence, and a meta-analysis was conducted. Fourteen studies were eligible for assessment on the association of breast cancer with different blood types, including 9665 breast cancer patients and 244,768 controls. Relative to blood type O, women with blood type A (odds ratio (OR) = 1.115, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.992-1.254), B (OR = 0.983, 95% CI 0.915-1.056) and AB (OR = 1.042, 95% CI 0.881-1.231) had the same breast cancer risk. The risk for women with Rhesus-positive (Rh+) was the same as those with Rh-negative (Rh-) (OR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.667-1.348). Among Caucasians, the OR of blood type A was 1.066 (95% CI, 1.001-1.134, P = 0.522 for heterogeneity). This meta-analysis suggests Caucasians with blood type A may have a higher risk of breast cancer than other Caucasians. No association was found in any other blood type or any other population. Similarly, the Rh factor had no association with the risk of breast cancer. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Coping, life attitudes, and immune responses to imagery and group support after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M A; Post-White, J; Grimm, E A; Moye, L A; Singletary, S E; Justice, B

    1997-09-01

    The pilot study used clinical trial methodology to differentiate the effects of imagery and support on coping, life attitudes, immune function, quality of life, and emotional well-being after breast cancer. Women (N = 47) who completed treatment for primary breast cancer, excluding stage IV, were randomly assigned to standard care (n = 15) or six weekly support (n = 16) or imagery (n = 16) sessions. Self-report measures included Ways of Coping-Cancer, Life Attitude Profile, Quality of Life (FACT-B), Profile of Mood States, and Functional Support. Immune measures included natural killer cell activity, plasma neopterin, interferon-gamma, interleukins 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2, and beta-endorphin levels. Differences between groups over time were tested using general linear models, adjusted for pretest score and covariates (age, stage, and months posttreatment). For all women, interferon-gamma increased, neopterin decreased, quality of life improved, and natural killer activity remained unchanged. Compared with standard care, both interventions improved coping skills (seeking support) and perceived social support, and tended to enhance meaning in life. Support boosted overall coping and death acceptance. When comparing imagery with support, imagery participants tended to have less stress, increased vigor, and improved functional and social quality of life. Although imagery reduced stress and improved quality of life, both imagery and support improved coping, attitudes, and perception of support. The clinical implications of these changes warrant further testing.

  17. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, S.; Jensen, M.B.; Ejlertsen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Since 30 years, DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) has maintained a clinical database allowing the conduct of quality control studies, of randomised trials, examination of the epidemiology of breast cancer and of prognostic and predictive factors. Material and methods....... The original database included patients with invasive breast cancer, but has later been expanded to patients with in situ breast cancer and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Results. The multidisciplinary cooperative group has provided successive treatment guidelines and 70% of the 77284...

  18. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  19. Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing in Five Special Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W; Suarez, Lucina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to "follow doctor recommendations" (p=0.017), "concern for effects on family" (p=0.044), "distrust of modern medicine" (p=0.036), "cost" (p=0.025), and "concerns about communication of results to others" (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged.

  20. Male breast cancer precursor lesions : Analysis of the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doebar, Shusma C.; Slaets, Leen; Cardoso, Fatima; Giordano, Sharon H.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; Dijkstra, Nizet H.; Schroder, Caroline P.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Linderholm, Barbro; Benstead, Kim; Dinjens, Winan N. M.; van Marion, Ronald; van Diest, Paul J.; Martens, John W. M.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.

    In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328

  1. Male breast cancer precursor lesions : Analysis of the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doebar, Shusma C.; Slaets, Leen; Cardoso, Fatima; Giordano, Sharon H.; Bartlett, John M.S.; Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; Dijkstra, Nizet H.; Schröder, Caroline P.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Linderholm, Barbro; Benstead, Kim; Dinjens, Winan N.M.; van Marion, Ronald; Van Diest, Paul J.; Martens, John W. M.; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-01-01

    In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328

  2. Radiotherapy in breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomised phase III trial 10853. EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, J P; Bijker, N; Fentiman, I S; Peterse, J L; Delledonne, V; Rouanet, P; Avril, A; Sylvester, R; Mignolet, F; Bartelink, H; Van Dongen, J A

    2000-02-12

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a disorder that has become more common since it may manifest as microcalcifications that can be detected by screening mammography. Since selected women with invasive cancer can be treated safely with breast conservation therapy it is paradoxical that total mastectomy has remained the standard treatment for DCIS. We did a randomised phase III clinical trial to investigate the role of radiotherapy after complete local excision of DCIS. Between 1986 and 1996, women with clinically or mammographically detected DCIS measuring less than or equal to 5 cm were treated by complete local excision of the lesion and then randomly assigned to either no further treatment (n=503) or to radiotherapy (n=507; 50 Gy in 5 weeks to the whole breast). The median duration of follow-up was 4.25 years (maximum 12.0 years). All analyses were by intention to treat. 500 patients were followed up in the no further treatment group and 502 in the radiotherapy group. In the no further treatment group 83 women had local recurrence (44 recurrences of DCIS, and 40 invasive breast cancer). In the radiotherapy group 53 women had local recurrences (29 recurrences of DCIS, and 24 invasive breast cancer). The 4-year local relapse-free was 84% in the group treated with local excision alone compared with 91% in the women treated by local excision plus radiotherapy (log rank p=0.005; hazard ratio 0.62). Similar reductions in the risk of invasive (40%, p=0.04) and non-invasive (35%, p=0.06) local recurrence were seen. Radiotherapy after local excision for DCIS, as compared with local excision alone, reduced the overall number of both invasive and non-invasive recurrences in the ipsilateral breast at a median follow-up of 4.25 years.

  3. 76 FR 5832 - International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit... at International Business Machines (IBM), Software Group Business Unit, Optim Data Studio Tools QA... IBM employees working on the relevant product within the Data Studio Tools QA on a part-time basis and...

  4. Challenges in teaching international students: group separation, language barriers and culture differences

    OpenAIRE

    Medved, Dennis; Franco, Antonio; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Fangfang

    2013-01-01

    Every year, there are more than 2500 new international students coming to Lund University and starting their higher education path. A higher number of foreign students increased the international competitiveness of Lund University, but at the same time the international students had to face many problems for instance, culture shock and language barriers. In this report we focused on issues in teaching international students, specifically group separation, language barriers and cultural differ...

  5. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hafsa; Imran, Saira; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, Andleeb; Khurshid, Rukshshan

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. It was observed that early age at menarche (25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment of malignancy and complications especially in the pubescent age. It is also found that Physical examination remain the useful indicators of prognosis in diagnosing cancer. Further research is needed to fully understand the reasons for variations in breast disease outcomes i.e. malignant or benign.

  6. The effectiveness of support groups in Asian breast cancer patients: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Chou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries. The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  7. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  8. 100 M BREAST STROKE FINALISTS’ RESULT EFFICIENCY AT 2011 INTERNATIONAL MEETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Finalist swimmers in the 2nd International Swimming Meeting, which was held in Banja Luka from 16 to 17 April 2011, were related to 100m breast stroke. The result efficiency of the competitors in the mentioned section of A and B finals showed inconsiderable statistical differences. The research was conducted on the male competitors of the 2nd International Meeting in Banja Luka. The sample was consisted of 18 competitors who were ranked in the A and B finals. Chronological age of the A final’s participants was related to the year of birth from 1990 to 1995, whereas B final’s participants year span varied from 1992 to 1997. Sample of variables (measuring instruments was result efficiency at 100m expressed in stylized form of breast stroke movements. The results were subjected to the descriptive analysis of central tendency measures and to the T-test. The results of the central tendency measures had less numerical value with the A finalists compared to the B finalists. On the other hand, similar results have larger numerical values according to the score boards of the swimming competitions. Sample, consisting of 18 male respondents who were ranked in the A and B finals of the 2nd International Swimming Meeting held on 16 and 17 April 2011, shows inconsiderable statistical significance, but it is still worthy of attention and analysis for the success in swimming; not only in major swimming competitions (World Cups, Olympic Games, Championships, Meetings etc., but in regional competitions also.

  9. The determinants of breast cancer screening behavior: a focus group study of women in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Honein, Gladys; Carter, Anne O; Da'ar, Zahra; Miller, Campbell; Dunn, Earl V

    2002-10-01

    To explore perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer and its screening among Emirati national women in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. A qualitative study using focus group methods. Primary healthcare centers and a community-based women's association in the United Arab Emirates. 41 women, aged 25-45 years. Four 90-minute focus group discussions exploring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding breast cancer were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed. Social and cultural themes related to breast cancer and its screening. Focus group methodology worked well in this setting. The women's perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and screening, together with aspects of the healthcare system and social milieu, appeared to strongly influence the women's preventive practices. Some of these factors had an encouraging effect on the women's practices, and others had a deterring effect. The encouraging factors included feelings of susceptibility, high levels of knowledge in some women, attitudes and beliefs about personal responsibility for health, and a supportive social milieu. Deterring factors included anxiety and fear leading to denial; lack of knowledge about cancer and the screening program; fear, embarrassment, and mistrust of health care; and belief in predestination. Health planners and healthcare providers must capitalize on encouraging factors and minimize deterring factors to optimize breast cancer screening practices among these women. Identifying and accounting for the factors that encourage or deter women in their breast cancer screening practices will help to optimize screening programs.

  10. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue.

  11. Evaluation of small internal mammary lymph node metastases in breast cancer by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Takahiro; Sugimura, Kazuro; Shiotani, Seiji [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan); Odagiri, Kunio; Andoh, Kazuo; Doiuchi, Tsunehiro; Asaga, Taro

    1999-05-01

    In breast cancer, diagnosis of a small internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) metastasis of less than 10 mm in size has been difficult. Our purpose was to retrospectively evaluate MRI findings of small IMLN metastases in comparison with dissected IMLNs. We studied 43 dissected IMLNs (range 2-12 mm, mean 4.512{+-}2.763 mm) in 16 women with breast cancer (15 primary, and 1 recurrent). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5 Tesla scanner (200FX; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) to obtain noncontrast T1-weighted SE images (TR/TE; 500/15 or 400/15 ms), with a slice thickness of 5 mm on coronal images, 10 mm or 7 mm on sagittal images, FOV 15 x 15 cm, matrix 256 x 256, using a surface coil with patients in the supine position. MR images were evaluated regarding the major diameter and shape and margin of each node. Regarding the presence of IMLN metastases, there was a significant difference between nodes with a major diameter of 5 mm or more and those of less than 5 mm (p<0.05). Using the size-based criterion (defining {<=}5 mm as positive), MRI had 90.7% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity, and 89.3% specificity. There were no significant differences in the shape-or margin-based criterion. MRI was useful in diagnosing small IMLN metastases, using a size-based criterion. (author)

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy Can Select Breast Cancer Patients for Internal Mammary Chain Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindie, Elif, E-mail: elif.hindie@sls.aphp.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU de Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux-Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Groheux, David [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Hennequin, Christophe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Vercellino, Laetitia; Berenger, Nathalie; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Maylin, Claude [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hartmann Hospital, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Espie, Marc [Breast Diseases Unit, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Given the risk of undesired toxicity, prophylactic internal mammary (IM) chain irradiation should be offered only to patients at high risk of occult involvement. Lymphoscintigraphy for axillary sentinel node biopsy might help in selecting these patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed published studies with the following selection criteria: {>=}300 breast cancer patients referred for axilla sentinel node biopsy; scintigraphy performed after peritumoral or intratumoral tracer injection; IM biopsy in the case of IM drainage; and axilla staged routinely independent of IM status. Results: Six prospective studies, for a total of 3,876 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Parasternal drainage was present in 792 patients (20.4%). IM biopsy was performed in 644 patients and was positive in 111 (17.2%). Of the positive IM biopsies, 40% were associated with tumors in the lateral breast quadrants. A major difference in the IM positivity rate was found according to the axilla sentinel node status. In patients with negative axilla, the IM biopsy was positive in 7.8% of cases. In patients with positive axilla, however, the IM biopsy was positive in 41% (p < .00001). Because biopsy of multiple IM hot nodes is difficult, the true risk could be even greater, probably close to 50%. Conclusions: Patients with IM drainage on lymphoscintigraphy and a positive axilla sentinel node have a high risk of occult IM involvement. These women should be considered for IM radiotherapy.

  13. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration...... between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...

  14. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R; Yates, Esben S; Nyeng, Tine B; Thomsen, Mette S; Nielsen, Hanne M; Poortmans, Philip; Kirkove, Carine; Krause, Mechthild; Kamby, Claus; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Blix, Egil S; Jensen, Ingelise; Berg, Martin; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2016-12-01

    To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized multi-atlas libraries using MIM Maestro™ software. These libraries were used for auto-segmentation in two different patient groups (50 patients from the local institution and 40 patients from other institutions). Dice Similarity Coefficient, Average Hausdorff Distance, difference in volume and time were computed to compare ABAS before and after correction against a gold standard manual segmentation (MS). ABAS reduced the time of MS before and after correction by 93% and 32%, respectively. ABAS showed high agreement for lung, heart, breast and humeral head, moderate agreement for chest wall and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Group Offending in Mass Atrocities: Proposing a Group Violence Strategies Model for International Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elisabeth Rauxloh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research in mass atrocities, especially genocide, is conducted at the macro level exploring how mass violence is instigated, planned and orchestrated at the level of the state. This paper on the other hand suggests that more research of the individual perpetrator is needed to complement the understanding of mass atrocities. The author develops therefore a new model, the group violence strategies model. This model combines various traditional criminological models of group offending and proposes a three stage analysis, looking at the individual aggressor, the actions within the offender group and the actions between offender group and victim group to understand better the phenomenon that ordinary people commit unspeakable crimes. La mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre atrocidades en masa, especialmente genocidio, se desarrollan a nivel macro, analizando cómo se instiga, planea y orquestra la violencia de masas a nivel de estado. Este artículo, sin embargo, sugiere que es necesaria una mayor investigación del criminal individual, para complementar la comprensión de las atrocidades en masa. Así, se desarrolla un nuevo modelo, el modelo de estrategias de violencia en grupo. Este modelo combina diversos modelos criminológicos tradicionales de violencia en grupo y propone tres etapas de análisis, mirando al agresor individual, las acciones dentro del grupo criminal y las acciones entre el grupo criminal y el grupo de víctimas, para entender mejor este fenómeno por el que personas corrientes cometen crímenes atroces. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875712

  16. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  17. Effectiveness of group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety and depression of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients' lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to 2 experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended acceptance and commitment training classes for 8 weeks continuously (each class lasting 90 minutes). Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BHI-II) as a pretest and posttest. Analysis of Covariance was used as the statistical method. In acceptance and commitment group training, anxiety and depression significantly decreased (pacceptance and commitment therapy is an effective method in reducing anxiety and depression. Hence psychological interventions can be used to reduce psychological difficulties of women with breast cancer.

  18. Conditional internalization of PEGylated nanomedicines by PEG engagers for triple negative breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Chen, Bing-Mae; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R.

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks effective treatment options due to the absence of traditional therapeutic targets. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has emerged as a promising target for TNBC therapy because it is overexpressed in about 50% of TNBC patients. Here we describe a PEG engager that simultaneously binds polyethylene glycol and EGFR to deliver PEGylated nanomedicines to EGFR+ TNBC. The PEG engager displays conditional internalization by remaining on the surface of TNBC cells until contact with PEGylated nanocarriers triggers rapid engulfment of nanocargos. PEG engager enhances the anti-proliferative activity of PEG-liposomal doxorubicin to EGFR+ TNBC cells by up to 100-fold with potency dependent on EGFR expression levels. The PEG engager significantly increases retention of fluorescent PEG probes and enhances the antitumour activity of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in human TNBC xenografts. PEG engagers with specificity for EGFR are promising for improved treatment of EGFR+ TNBC patients.

  19. Relationships between the ABO blood group SNP rs505922 and breast cancer phenotypes: a genotype-phenotype correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rummel Seth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, evaluation of the association of the ABO blood group and breast cancer has yielded mixed results. SNP rs505922, located within the first intron of the ABO gene, has been associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype of pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the association between genetic variation in the ABO blood group and risk of breast cancer, rs505922 was genotyped in 629 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer, representing a variety of clinical and pathological tumor types. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from blood. TaqMan SNP assay C_2253769_10 was used to determine genotypes for each patient at rs505922. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square analysis using a P-value Results Genotypes were generated for 100% of the 629 patients in this study. Allele and genotype frequencies did not vary significantly for age at diagnosis, tumor stage, size or grade, hormone, HER2 or lymph node status, intrinsic subtype, tumor type or patient outcome. Conclusions Allele frequencies for rs505922 did not differ between women with breast cancer and published HapMap frequencies from women of European descent. Further stratification into different tumor phenotypes also failed to reveal an association between rs505922 and any clinical characteristics. Together, these data suggest that the minor allele of rs505922 and the resulting non-O blood types are not associated with increased risk or less favorable tumor characteristics or prognosis in breast cancer.

  20. Relationships between the ABO blood group SNP rs505922 and breast cancer phenotypes: a genotype-phenotype correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2012-05-29

    To date, evaluation of the association of the ABO blood group and breast cancer has yielded mixed results. SNP rs505922, located within the first intron of the ABO gene, has been associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype of pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the association between genetic variation in the ABO blood group and risk of breast cancer, rs505922 was genotyped in 629 Caucasian women with invasive breast cancer, representing a variety of clinical and pathological tumor types. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood. TaqMan SNP assay C_2253769_10 was used to determine genotypes for each patient at rs505922. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square analysis using a P-value breast cancer and published HapMap frequencies from women of European descent. Further stratification into different tumor phenotypes also failed to reveal an association between rs505922 and any clinical characteristics. Together, these data suggest that the minor allele of rs505922 and the resulting non-O blood types are not associated with increased risk or less favorable tumor characteristics or prognosis in breast cancer.

  1. A review of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on the reduction of body image concern in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Faraji, J; A. Mahdavi; Samkhaniyan, E; Asadi, SH; Dezhkam, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Taking the appropriate psychological actions to boost the mental health of patients with breast cancer is critical. This research was performed with the aim of examining the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on reducing body image concerns in patients with breast cancer. Methodology: TThe method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, 40 patients with breast cancer who had referred to the oncology and radiotherapy dep...

  2. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art; Radiotherapie de la chaine mammaire interne dans les cancers du sein: etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Zioueche, A. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Dupuytren, 2, avenue Martin-Luther-King, 87000 Limoges (France); Melis, A. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Kirova, Y.M. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  3. Group work: Facilitating the learning of international and domestic undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie; Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia

    2015-01-01

    Devising innovative strategies to address internationalization is a contemporary challenge for universities. A Participatory Action Research (PAR) project was undertaken to identify issues for international nursing students and their teachers. The findings identified group work as a teaching strategy potentially useful to facilitate international student learning. The educational intervention of structured group work was planned and implemented in one subject of a Nursing degree. Groups of four to five students were formed with one or two international students per group. Structural support was provided by the teacher until the student was learning independently, the traditional view of scaffolding. The group work also encouraged students to learn from one another, a contemporary understanding of scaffolding. Evaluation of the group work teaching strategy occurred via anonymous, self-completed student surveys. The student experience data were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, and free text comments were analysed using content analysis. Over 85% of respondents positively rated the group work experience. Overwhelmingly, students reported that class discussions and sharing nursing experiences positively influenced their learning and facilitated exchange of knowledge about nursing issues from an international perspective. This evaluation of a structured group work process supports the use of group work in engaging students in learning, adding to our understanding of purposeful scaffolding as a pathway to enhance learning for both international and domestic students. By explicitly using group work within the curriculum, educators can promote student learning, a scholarly approach to teaching and internationalization of the curriculum.

  4. [Efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer - an observational study by the Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Nishimura, Reiki; Tanigawa, Tomio; Kawano, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kyoji; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, is known to be effective for the treatment of various carcinomas including advanced/metastatic breast cancer.The Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)conducted an observational study, wherein, the efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy was analyzed in 35 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.The median time to cancer progression was 3.7 months, overall response rate was 12%, and clinical benefit rate was 32%. Adverse events were observed in 27 patients(77%), and adverse events of Grade >3 were observed in 7 patients(20%). The rate of treatment-related Grade 3 and 4 adverse events increased, and was associated with poor levels of creatinine clearance(Ccr)ie TS-1 monotherapy can potentially be used as a salvage treatment for advanced/metastatic breast cancer owing to its safety and efficacy.Measuring the level of Ccr before TS-1 therapy should be considered to avoid severe adverse events.

  5. Histologic comparison between the internal mammary artery and the deep inferior epigastric artery and clinical implications for microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Shik; Yun, Jiyoung; Lee, Taik Jong; Eom, Jin Sup; Kim, Eun Key

    2015-01-01

    The internal mammary artery (IMA) is one of the most popular recipients for microsurgical breast reconstruction. However, it is often separated into sleeve-like layers when it is handled. This study tried to explain this unique behaviour of the IMA through histologic observation. Nine pairs of IMAs and DIEAs were harvested and subject for haematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff's elastic staining. Thickness of the tunica media and the number of elastic lamellae were compared. Samples of the IMA, the DIEA, and the thoracodorsal artery from another patient were observed through the transmission electron microscope to further show the structural differences. The most notable difference was presence of multiple elastic lamellae in tunica media in the IMAs, which was barely present in the DIEAs. The mean number of elastic lamellae was 9.2 in the IMA group and 1.0 in the DIEA group (p DIEA and the TDA was densely packed with smooth muscle cells, while the muscle cells distributed sparsely in the IMA. The IMA is an elastic artery which is characterised by multiple layers of elastic lamellae while relatively lacking in smooth muscle cells. The wall of the IMA is easily dissected between the tunica media and the adventitia, or at the outer 1/3 of the tunica media. The inner structure is easily torn if microsutures do not engage the tunica adventitia.

  6. International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations : Hearing loss in the pediatric patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liming, Bryan J; Carter, John; Cheng, Alan; Choo, Daniel; Curotta, John; Carvalho, Daniela; Germiller, John A; Hone, Stephen; Kenna, Margaret A; Loundon, Natalie; Preciado, Diego; Schilder, Anne; Reilly, Brian J; Roman, Stephane; Strychowsky, Julie; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Young, Nancy; Smith, Richard J H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the workup of hearing loss in the pediatric patient. METHODS: Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group. RESULTS: Consensus recommendations include initial screening and diagnosis as well as the workup of

  7. Mammographic breast density refines Tyrer-Cuzick estimates of breast cancer risk in high-risk women: findings from the placebo arm of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jane; Birke, Hanna; Stone, Jennifer; Warren, Ruth M L; Pinney, Elizabeth; Brentnall, Adam R; Duffy, Stephen W; Howell, Anthony; Cuzick, Jack

    2014-10-08

    Mammographic density is well-established as a risk factor for breast cancer, however, adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) is vital to its clinical interpretation when assessing individual risk. In this paper we develop a model to adjust mammographic density for age and BMI and show how this adjusted mammographic density measure might be used with existing risk prediction models to identify high-risk women more precisely. We explored the association between age, BMI, visually assessed percent dense area and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of women from the placebo arm of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (72 cases, 486 controls). Linear regression was used to adjust mammographic density for age and BMI. This adjusted measure was evaluated in a multivariable logistic regression model that included the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) risk score, which is based on classical breast cancer risk factors. Percent dense area adjusted for age and BMI (the density residual) was a stronger measure of breast cancer risk than unadjusted percent dense area (odds ratio per standard deviation 1.55 versus 1.38; area under the curve (AUC) 0.62 versus 0.59). Furthermore, in this population at increased risk of breast cancer, the density residual added information beyond that obtained from the TC model alone, with the AUC for the model containing both TC risk and density residual being 0.62 compared to 0.51 for the model containing TC risk alone (P =0.002). In women at high risk of breast cancer, adjusting percent mammographic density for age and BMI provides additional predictive information to the TC risk score, which already incorporates BMI, age, family history and other classic breast cancer risk factors. Furthermore, simple selection criteria can be developed using mammographic density, age and BMI to identify women at increased risk in a clinical setting. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91879928 (Registered: 1 June 2006).

  8. Recommendations from GEC ESTRO Breast Cancer Working Group (I): Target definition and target delineation for accelerated or boost Partial Breast Irradiation using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy after breast conserving closed cavity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Guinot, Jose-Luis; Lössl, Kristina; Kauer-Dorner, Daniela; Resch, Alexandra; Kovács, György; Major, Tibor; Van Limbergen, Erik

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to develop a delineation guideline for target definition for APBI or boost by consensus of the Breast Working Group of GEC-ESTRO. Appropriate delineation of CTV (PTV) with low inter- and intra-observer variability in clinical practice is complex and needs various steps as: (1) Detailed knowledge of primary surgical procedure, of all details of pathology, as well as of preoperative imaging. (2) Definition of tumour localization before breast conserving surgery inside the breast and translation of this information in the postoperative CT imaging data set. (3) Calculation of the size of total safety margins. The size should be at least 2 cm. (4) Definition of the target. (5) Delineation of the target according to defined rules. Providing guidelines based on the consensus of a group of experts should make it possible to achieve a reproducible and consistent definition of CTV (PTV) for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) or boost irradiation after breast conserving closed cavity surgery, and helps to define it after selected cases of oncoplastic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  10. Tertiary breast reconstruction using a free contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and contralateral internal mammary recipient vessel anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Satake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary breast reconstruction after a failed autologous procedure is often performed under various restrictions, posing considerable problems not only in the choice of alternative free flap but also in that of recipient vessels. This is a case report of a free contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with a silicone gel implant, with flap pedicle anastomosis to the contralateral internal mammary recipient vessels in a 46-year-old woman with right breast deformity. She underwent a right modified radical mastectomy and failed attempts of reconstruction at another hospital. The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap had already been harvested for the failed reconstruction and high-level interruptions of the internal mammary, thoracodorsal, and thoracoacromial vessels were revealed on preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography angiography; therefore, we selected a contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap to supply the lower pole skin along with a silicone gel implant for volume in this tertiary breast reconstruction. However, weak blood flow in the ipsilateral internal mammary artery and exhaustion of all recipient ipsilateral vessels in previous attempts to salvage the failing deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap necessitated the use of the contralateral internal mammary recipient vessels. A contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with contralateral internal mammary recipient vessel anastomosis appears to be a viable option in complicated cases with unavailable deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap or ipsilateral recipient vessels.

  11. Significance of ABO-Rh blood groups in response and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether ABO-Rh blood groups have significance in the treatment response and prognosis in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. We retrospectively evaluated files of 335 patients with breast cancer who were treated between 2005 and 2010. Demographic data, clinic- pathological findings, treatments employed, treatment response, and overall and disease-free survivals were reviewed. Relationships between clinic-pathological findings and blood groups were evaluated. 329 women and 6 men were included to the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years (range: 26-86). Of the cases, 95% received chemotherapy while 70% were given radiotherapy and 60.9% adjuvant hormone therapy after surgery. Some 63.0% were A blood group, 17.6% O, 14.3% B and 5.1% AB. In addition, 82.0% of the cases were Rh-positive. Mean follow-up was 24.5 months. Median overall and progression-free survival times were 83.9 and 79.5 months, respectively. Overall and disease-free survival times were found to be higher in patients with A and O blood groups (pABO blood groups were identified as factors that had significant effects on overall and disease-survival times (p=0.011 and p=0.002). It was seen that overall and disease-free survival times were higher in breast cancer patients with A and O blood groups when compared to those with other blood groups. It was seen that A and O blood groups had good prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.

  12. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    -2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall......Purpose To examine the importance of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), and constructed subtypes in a large study randomly assigning patients to receive or not receive postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and Methods...... The present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years...

  13. Cervical and Breast Cancer Secreening Programme Results of Etlik KETEM Group

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    Iskender Kog

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The cervical and breast cancer screening programme to report the results between 2008 and 2010 at KETEM in Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Teaching and Research Hospital. METHOD: Populations of healthy women between 2008 and 2010 with a total of 5253 case were evaluated with community-based and opportunistic screening. The cervical cancer screened with the conventional cervical pap smear technique and breast cancer screened with two dimensional bilateral mammography and breast examination. RESULTS: Cervical cancer screening as a result of 65 (1.5% patients had abnormal cytology and abnormal histopathological findings were found in a total of 24 of them. A gynecological examination and biopsy in one case with cervical cancer were detected. In the 4284 women screened for cervical cancer, ASC-US determined in 48 women (1.1%, AGC in four women (0.09%, LGSIL in five women (0.1%, HGSIL in two women (0.045% and ASC-H in six women (0.14%. Although 234 and 664 women screened for breast cancer in year of 2008 and 2009 respectively, breast cancer didn’t find out. However, 10 women (0.9% with breast cancer determined in 1164 screened women in year of 2010. CONCLUSION: Reduced the incidence of cervical and breast cancer and diagnosed at an early stage of tumor is obtained with screening programs in healthy society. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 145-152

  14. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique

  15. Evaluation of factors influencing on non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life in Bushehr Port using focus group discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherafat Akaberian

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-exclusive breast feeding in the early years of life is one of the most important factors in growth and development of infants. Therefore, exclusive breast feeding is recommended during the first six months of life. For determining the effective factors of non-exclusive breast feeding during the first six months of life, we used focus group discussion by participation of 60 mothers who had an infant under 6 months age and enjoyed non-exclusive breast feeding. Mothers divided into eight groups considering their occupation and number of child. All groups reported scanty of mother’s milk, mother’s occupation, mother’s illness, mother’s comfort, wrong beliefs, infant’s illness, doctors and health care providers recommendations, infant’s dependency to feeding bottle and pacifiers as the most frequent factors in using nonexclusive breast feeding. All mothers believed that health care centers, relatives and older members of family, books and pamphlets, mass media, physicians were their effective sources of awareness and promotion of exclusive breast feeding. Considering the presented ideas in all groups, it is realized that mothers during their pregnancy have sparse information about exclusive breast feeding and because of lack of enough essential training, some socio – cultural beliefs affects non-exclusive breast feeding. Mass media and especial training programs should be implemented to promote exclusive breast feeding in Bushehr Port.

  16. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  17. Treatment strategies and survival of older breast cancer patients - an international comparison between the Netherlands and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Mandy; Walsh, Paul M; Bastiaannet, Esther; Kelly, Maria B; Audisio, Riccardo A; Boelens, Petra G; Brown, Chris; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Craen, Anton J M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Forty percent of breast cancers occur among older patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of evidence for treatment guidelines for older breast cancer patients. The aim of this study is to compare treatment strategy and relative survival for operable breast cancer in the elderly between The Netherlands and Ireland. From the Dutch and Irish national cancer registries, women aged ≥65 years with non-metastatic breast cancer were included (2001-2009). Proportions of patients receiving guideline-adherent locoregional treatment, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy were calculated and compared between the countries by stage. Secondly, 5-year relative survival was calculated by stage and compared between countries. Overall, 41,055 patients from The Netherlands and 5,826 patients from Ireland were included. Overall, more patients received guideline-adherent locoregional treatment in The Netherlands, overall (80% vs. 68%, adjusted pIreland, where endocrine therapy was prescribed to 92% of hormone receptor-positive patients, compared to 59% in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, only 6% received chemotherapy, as compared 24% in Ireland. But relative survival was poorer in Ireland (5 years relative survival 89% vs. 83%), especially in stage II (87% vs. 85%) and stage III (61% vs. 58%) patients. Treatment for older breast cancer patients differed significantly on all treatment modalities between The Netherlands and Ireland. More locoregional treatment was provided in The Netherlands, and more systemic therapy was provided in Ireland. Relative survival for Irish patients was worse than for their Dutch counterparts. This finding should be a strong recommendation to study breast cancer treatment and survival internationally, with the ultimate goal to equalize the survival rates for breast cancer patients across Europe.

  18. Accelerated partial breast irradiation via brachytherapy: a patterns-of-care analysis with ASTRO consensus statement groupings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zain A; Mahmood, Usama; Hanlon, Alexandra; Neuner, Geoffrey; Buras, Robert; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Feigenberg, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    The 2002 Food and Drug Administration approval of the MammoSite catheter (Hologic, Inc., Beford, MA) led to a surge of interest in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Until recently, guidelines as to the optimal candidates for this treatment were unavailable. We performed a patterns-of-care analysis for patients undergoing breast brachytherapy and compared these results with the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) consensus statement. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to examine female breast cancer patients treated with brachytherapy between 2002 and 2007. The patients were then categorized into suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable groups based on the ASTRO guidelines. We identified 4172 female breast cancer patients treated within the stated years. The number of brachytherapy cases increased nearly 10-fold over the time period studied from 163 in 2002 to 1427 in 2007 (pASTRO cautionary or unsuitable groupings. This is the largest patterns-of-care analysis for APBI patients and serves as a baseline for future comparison. Copyright © 2011 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Simulation to Model and Validate Invasive Breast Cancer Progression in Women in the Study and Control Groups of the Canadian National Breast Screening Studies I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Sharareh; Caudrelier, Laurent N; Miller, Anthony B; Harvey, Bart

    2017-02-01

    Modeling breast cancer progression and the effect of various risk is helpful in deciding when a woman should start and end screening, and how often the screening should be undertaken. We modeled the natural progression of breast cancer using a hidden Markov process, and incorporated the effects of covariates. Patients are women aged 50-59 (older) and 40-49 (younger) years from the Canadian National Breast Screening Studies. We included prevalent cancers, estimated the screening sensitivities and rates of over-diagnosis, and validated the models using simulation. We found that older women have a higher rate of transition from a healthy to preclinical state and other causes of death but a lower rate of transition from preclinical to clinical state. Reciprocally, younger women have a lower rate of transition from a healthy to preclinical state and other causes of death but a higher rate of transition from a preclinical to clinical state. Different risk factors were significant for the age groups. The mean sojourn times for older and younger women were 2.53 and 2.96 years, respectively. In the study group, the sensitivities of the initial physical examination and mammography for older and younger women were 0.87 and 0.81, respectively, and the sensitivity of the subsequent screens were 0.78 and 0.53, respectively. In the control groups, the sensitivities of the initial physical examination for older and younger women were 0.769 and 0.671, respectively, and the sensitivity of the subsequent physical examinations for the control group aged 50-59 years was 0.37. The upper-bounds for over-diagnosis in older and younger women were 25% and 27%, respectively. The present work offers a basis for the better modeling of cancer incidence for a population with the inclusion of prevalent cancers.

  20. Emotional coping differences among breast cancer patients from an online support group: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny

    2014-02-05

    Due to mixed findings in research on the effect of online peer-to-peer support on psychological well-being, there is a need for studies explaining why and when online support communities are beneficial for cancer patients. Previous studies have typically not taken into account individual coping differences, despite the fact that patients have different strategies to cope with cancer-related emotions. In the current study, it was predicted that the effects of online support group participation would partly depend on patients' ability to cope with thoughts and emotions regarding the illness. For this study, 184 Dutch breast cancer patients filled out a questionnaire assessing activity within a peer-led online support community, coping with emotions and thoughts regarding the illness (cognitive avoidance, emotional processing, and expression) and psychological well-being (depression, breast cancer-related concerns, and emotional well-being). Of these, 163 patients were visiting an online peer-led support community. Results showed interactions of the intensity of support group participation and coping style on psychological well-being. Specifically, we found an interaction of online activity and emotional expression on depression (beta=-.17, P=.030), a marginally significant interaction of online activity and emotional expression on emotional well-being (beta=.14, P=.089), and an interaction of online activity and cognitive avoidance on breast cancer-related concerns (beta=.15, P=.027). For patients who actively dealt with their emotions and thoughts, active online support group participation was positively related to psychological well-being. For patients high on avoidance of illness-related thoughts or low on emotional expression, active participation was negatively related to measures of well-being. The current study revealed the role of individual differences in coping in online support group participation. Results suggest that breast cancer patients' ability to

  1. Marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Zambia: evaluation of compliance to the international regulatory code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funduluka, P; Bosomprah, S; Chilengi, R; Mugode, R H; Bwembya, P A; Mudenda, B

    2017-03-25

    We sought to assess the level of non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing breast-milk substitutes (BMS) and/or Statutory Instrument (SI) Number 48 of 2006 of the Laws of Zambia in two suburbs, Kalingalinga and Chelstone, in Zambia. This was a cross sectional survey. Shop owners (80), health workers (8) and mothers (214) were interviewed. BMS labels and advertisements (62) were observed. The primary outcome was mean non-compliance defined as the number of article violations divided by the total 'obtainable' violations. The score ranges from 0 to 1 with 0 representing no violations in all the articles and one representing violations in all the articles. A total of 62 BMS were assessed. The mean non-compliance score by manufacturers in terms of violations in labelling of BMS was 0.33 (SD = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.40). These violations were mainly due to labels containing pictures or graphics representing an infant. 80 shops were also assessed with mean non-compliance score in respect of violations in tie-in-sales, special display, and contact with mothers at the shop estimated as 0.14 (SD = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.18). Non-compliance with the Code and/or the local SI is high after 10 years of domesticating the Code.

  2. In Vivo Investigation of Breast Cancer Progression by Use of an Internal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baeten

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical imaging of breast cancer has been considered for detecting functional and molecular characteristics of diseases in clinical and preclinical settings. Applied to laboratory research, photonic investigations offer a highly versatile tool for preclinical imaging and drug discovery. A particular advantage of the optical method is the availability of multiple spectral bands for performing imaging. Herein, we capitalize on this feature to demonstrate how it is possible to use different wavelengths to offer internal controls and significantly improve the observation accuracy in molecular imaging applications. In particular, we show the independent in vivo detection of cysteine proteases along with tumor permeability and interstitial volume measurements using a dual-wavelength approach. To generate results with a view toward clinically geared studies, a transgenic Her2/neu mouse model that spontaneously developed mammary tumors was used. In vivo findings were validated against conventional ex vivo tests such as histology and Western blot analyses. By correcting for biodistribution parameters, the dual-wavelength method increases the accuracy of molecular observations by separating true molecular target from probe biodistribution. As such, the method is highly appropriate for molecular imaging studies where often probe delivery and target presence are not independently assessed. On the basis of these findings, we propose the dual-wavelength/normalization approach as an essential method for drug discovery and preclinical imaging studies.

  3. Profile of breast cancer in a group of women in a developing country in South Asia: is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuhetty, Menaka D S; Ranaweera, Gayani G; Wijeratne, Manarangi D M; Wickramasinghe, Kumudu H; Sheriffdeen, Abdul H

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among Sri Lankan women. The aim of this study was to document the breast cancer profile of a group of Sri Lankan women and compare it with regional data. Patient-tumor characteristics and predicted prognosis are compared with the immune profile. A total of 814 Sri Lankan women with breast cancer were studied, with their information retrieved from patient records. Tumor type and grade were reassessed on routine tissue sections. The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was calculated. Estrogen receptors (ER) and human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) were assessed using Dako antibodies. Strong nuclear staining for ER in >10% of tumor cells and strong, complete cell membrane staining (3+) for HER2 were regarded as positive. An SPSS-16 software program and the chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis. The highest prevalence (32%) was in the 50- to 59-year age cohort (mean +/- SD 51.88 +/- 11.939 years). In all, 58% of the tumors measured between 2 and 5 cm. Most (52%) were moderately differentiated and were invasive ductal carcinomas (86.3%). Regional lymph node metastasis was present in 41% of the patients. ER was expressed in 31.7% and was more frequent in women >35 years (p profile of breast cancer and immune characteristics of Sri Lankan women in this study was largely comparable to profiles documented elsewhere in the region despite the lower prevalence of ER.

  4. Implementation of international code of marketing breast-milk substitutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Dai, Yaohua; Xie, Xiaohua; Chen, Li

    2014-11-01

    Breastmilk is the best source of nourishment for infants and young children, and breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. In May 1981, the World Health Assembly adopted the International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes. Since then several subsequent resolutions have been adopted by the World Health Assembly, which both update and clarify the articles within the International Code (herein after the term "Code" refers to both the International Code and all subsequent resolutions). The Code is designed to regulate "inappropriate sales promotion" of breastmilk substitutes and instructs signatory governments to ensure the implementation of its aims through legislation. The Chinese Regulations of the Code were adopted by six government sectors in 1995. However, challenges in promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding remain. This study aimed to monitor the implementation of the Code in China. Six cities were selected with considerable geographic coverage. In each city three hospitals and six stores were surveyed. The International Baby Food Action Network Interview Form was adapted, and direct observations were made. Research assistants administered the questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of infants under 6 months old who were in the outpatient department of the hospitals. In total, 291 mothers of infants, 35 stores, 17 hospitals, and 26 companies were surveyed. From the whole sample of 291 mothers, the proportion who reported exclusively breastfeeding their infant was 30.9%; 69.1% of mothers reported feeding their infant with commercially available formula. Regarding violations of the Code, 40.2% of the mothers reported receiving free formula samples. Of these, 76.1% received the free samples in or near hospitals. Among the stores surveyed, 45.7% were found promoting products in a way that violates the Code. Also, 69.0% of the labeling on the formula products did not comply with the regulations set

  5. Thymic Carcinoma Management Patterns among International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) Physicians with Consensus from the Thymic Carcinoma Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Annemarie; Riely, Gregory; Detterbeck, Frank; Simone, Charles B; Ahmad, Usman; Huang, James; Korst, Robert; Rajan, Arun; Rimner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Thymic carcinomas are rare epithelial malignancies with limited data to guide management. To identify areas of agreement and variability in current clinical practice, a 16-question electronic survey was given to members of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG). Areas of controversy were discussed with the Thymic Carcinoma Working Group and consensus was achieved, as described. A total of 100 ITMIG members responded. There was general agreement regarding the role for multimodality therapy with definitive surgical resection in physically fit patients with advanced but resectable disease. Areas of controversy included the need for histologic confirmation before surgery, the role of adjuvant therapy, the optimal first-line chemotherapy regimen, and the recommended treatment course for marginally resectable disease with invasion into the great vessels, pericardium, and lungs. The results of the questionnaire provide a description of the management of thymic carcinoma by 100 ITMIG members with a specific interest or expertise in thymic malignancies. Although there was agreement in some areas, clinical practice appears to vary significantly. There is a great need for collaborative research to identify optimal evaluation and treatment strategies. Given the need for multimodality therapy in many cases, a multidisciplinary discussion of the management of patients with thymic carcinoma is critical. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    arm 7.63 7.78 8.09 7.93 Risk factors for breast cancer Treatment arm 8.19 8.88 8.83 8.88 Control arm 8.06 8.07 8.15 8.00 Breast cancer anxiety Treatment arm...22.66 19.37 18.32 17.02 Control arm 20.67 22.69 21.74 19.88 General anxiety Treatment arm 37.80 35.77 36.95 34.32 Control arm 40.48 41.45 40.17

  7. Outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy or whole breast irradiation stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauls, A Jason; Watkins, John M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Brackett, N Craig; Aguero, Eric G; Baker, Megan K; Jenrette, Joseph M; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Harper, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) ≤ 3 cm, and ≤ 3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauls, A. Jason, E-mail: zauls@musc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Watkins, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Wahlquist, Amy E. [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brackett, N. Craig [Coastal Carolina Breast Center, Georgetown, SC (United States); Aguero, Eric G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Baker, Megan K. [Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jenrette, Joseph M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Harper, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) {<=}3 cm, and {<=}3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  9. Development and Implementation of an International Counseling Outreach Effort in Bhutan: A Group Stage Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Lorelle, Sonya; Hinkle, J. Scott; Remley, Theodore P.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the development and implementation of an international counseling outreach program in Bhutan using a group stage conceptualization that includes the initial, transition, working, and final stages. The initial stage included a counseling initiative started by one of the queens as well as meetings with key leaders from the…

  10. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious…

  11. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  12. 76 FR 55954 - Astralis Ltd., Cavit Sciences, Inc., Crystal International Travel Group, Inc., and Tasker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Astralis Ltd., Cavit Sciences, Inc., Crystal International Travel Group, Inc., and Tasker Products... securities of Cavit Sciences, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  13. International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations : Routine peri-operative pediatric tracheotomy care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Albert, David; Chan, Kenny; Cheng, Alan; Daniel, Sam J; De Alarcon, Alessandro; Garabedian, Noel; Hart, Catherine; Hartnick, Christopher; Inglis, Andy; Jacobs, Ian; Kleinman, Monica E; Mehta, Nilesh M; Nicollas, Richard; Nuss, Roger; Pransky, Seth; Russell, John; Rutter, Mike; Schilder, Anne; Thompson, Dana; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Volk, Mark; Ward, Bob; Watters, Karen; Wyatt, Michelle; Zalzal, George; Zur, Karen; Rahbar, Reza

    OBJECTIVES: To develop consensus recommendations for peri-operative tracheotomy care in pediatric patients. METHODS: Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). The mission of the IPOG is to develop expertise-based consensus recommendations for the

  14. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  15. Tumor markers in breast cancer- European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie

    2005-01-01

    in the selection of patients for treatment with hormone therapy, while HER-2 is essential in selecting patients with advanced breast cancer for treatment with Herceptin (trastuzumab). Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recently validated prognostic markers for lymph node...

  16. Comparison of International Study Group Criteria and International Criteria for Behcet's Disease in the Azeri population of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Delnabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting multiple organs and systems such as mucosa, skin, eye, joints and cardiovascular, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Various criteria are proposed for the assessment of BD. This study was designed to compare performance of two internationally collaborated criteria for diagnosis of BD, namely International Study Group (ISG criteria and International Criteria for Behcet's Disease (ICBD in the Azeri population of Iran. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 859 consecutive patients with one of the major clinical manifestations of BD were included. All patients were examined and evaluated by an expert rheumatologist and diagnosis was confirmed clinically. All patients were assessed by ISG and ICBD criteria. Finally, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of both criteria were calculated. Results: We included 859 patients in this study. BD was diagnosed in 211 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ISG criteria were 64.9%, 100%, and 91.4%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ICBD criteria were 94.7%, 99.6% and 98.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the finding of the present study, sensitivity and accuracy of ICBD criteria for diagnosis of BD in Azeri population are higher than ISG criteria. So we propose to use ICBD criteria for the evaluation of patients with suspected BD to decrease the rate of missed diagnosis.

  17. International variation in management of screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Antonio; Lynge, Elsebeth; James, Ted; Májek, Ondřej; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Anttila, Ahti; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Mano, Maria Piera; Kawai, Masaaki; Scharpantgen, Astrid; Fracheboud, Jacques; Hofvind, Solveig; Vidal, Carmen; Ascunce, Nieves; Salas, Dolores; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Segnan, Nereo; Kerlikowske, Karla; Taplin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) incidence has grown with the implementation of screening and its detection varies across International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) countries. The aim of this survey is to describe the management of screen-detected DCIS in ICSN countries and to evaluate the potential for treatment related morbidity. Methods We sought screen-detected DCIS data from the ICSN countries identified during 2004–2008. We adopted standardised data collection forms and analysis and explored DCIS diagnosis and treatment processes ranging from pre-operative diagnosis to type of surgery and radiotherapy. Results Twelve countries contributed data from a total of 15 screening programmes, all from Europe except the United States of America and Japan. Among women aged 50–69 years, 7,176,050 screening tests and 5324 screen-detected DCIS were reported. From 21% to 93% of DCIS had a pre-operative diagnosis (PO); 67–90% of DCIS received breast conservation surgery (BCS), and in 41–100% of the cases this was followed by radiotherapy; 6.4–59% received sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) only and 0.8–49% axillary dissection (ALND) with 0.6% (range by programmes 0–8.1%) being node positive. Among BCS patients 35% received SLNB only and 4.8% received ALND. Starting in 2006, PO and SLNB use increased while ALND remained stable. SLNB and ALND were associated with larger size and higher grade DCIS lesions. Conclusions Variation in DCIS management among screened women is wide and includes lymph node surgery beyond what is currently recommended. This indicates the presence of varying levels of overtreatment and the potential for its reduction. PMID:25149183

  18. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.

  19. Effect of empowerment on the quality of life of the survivors of breast cancer: The moderating effect of self-help group participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhwa; Park, Hyojung

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the moderating effect of self-help group participation on the relationship between empowerment and quality of life for survivors of breast cancer. This study was conducted in breast cancer centers in general hospitals and long-term care hospitals with 264 survivors of breast cancer. The Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast were used for the data collection. Differences between the regularly attending participants in the self-help groups and those who did not regularly attend were studied and these groups were dichotomized. The empowerment of the survivors of breast cancer significantly influenced their quality of life. Depending on their participation in the self-help group, there was a significant difference in their quality of life. After controlling for empowerment, however, participation in the self-help group did not significantly influence the survivors' quality of life. Participation in the self-help group had a significant effect on the survivors' sense of empowerment, which in turn positively influenced their quality of life. It is essential to provide emotional support, including valuable information, to the survivors of breast cancer who do not participate in self-help groups. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. Prostate and breast cancer in four Nordic countries: A comparison of incidence and mortality trends across countries and age groups 1975-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvåle, R; Myklebust, T Å; Engholm, G; Heinävaara, S; Wist, E; Møller, B

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, management of prostate and breast cancer patients has changed considerably. The purpose of our study is to interpret patterns of prostate and breast cancer incidence and mortality in four Nordic countries across age groups and time periods. Prostate and breast cancer incidence and mortality data (1975-2013) were obtained from the NORDCAN database. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify changes in the trends. A more prominent increase in prostate than breast cancer incidence was observed. From the mid-1990s, mortality rates in patients below 75 years of age have decreased for both cancers in all four countries. The relative decline in breast cancer mortality from 1985-1989 to 2009-2013 were largest in women under 50 years of age, with reductions in mortality rates ranging from 38% in Finland to 55% in Denmark. In the age group 55-74 years, mortality rates for prostate cancer declined more than for breast cancer in all countries except Denmark, ranging from 14% in Denmark to 39% in Norway. The substantial decrease in breast cancer mortality in women below regular screening age and the reductions in mortality from both cancers in Denmark from the mid-1990s are consistent with beneficial contributions from improved treatment besides mammography screening and increased PSA testing. Alongside similar mortality decreases, the larger increases in prostate cancer incidence as compared to breast cancer indicate that a higher proportion of prostate cancer cases are overdiagnosed. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... patients were treated and followed according to guidelines of DBCG. In addition to surgery 23% received tamoxifen, 23% chemotherapy and 35% radiotherapy as treatment for primary breast cancer. Second primary cancers were identified by linkage to the population based Danish Cancer Register. Cancer incidence...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  2. Recommendations from GEC ESTRO Breast Cancer Working Group (II): Target definition and target delineation for accelerated or boost partial breast irradiation using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy after breast conserving open cavity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Tibor; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Guix, Benjamin; van Limbergen, Erik; Strnad, Vratislav; Polgár, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    To prepare guidelines for target definition and delineations after open cavity breast conserving surgery in accelerated partial breast irradiations or boost treatments using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy based on the consensus of the Breast Working Group of GEC-ESTRO. Following a study on interobserver variations of target volume delineation in multicatheter breast brachytherapy after open cavity surgery and a number of discussions in consensus meetings these guidelines were worked out by experts on the field. (1) Consistent windowing has to be used for proper cavity visualization. (2) The cavity visualization score has to be at least 3 in order to minimize the interobserver variations of target definition. (3) At delineation of surgical cavity only the homogeneous part of the postoperative seroma has to be included in the contours and protrusions or sharp irregularities have to be excluded. When surgical clips are present, they have to be surrounded by the contour with close contact. (4) CTV is created from the outlined surgical cavity with a nonisotropic geometrical extension. In each direction the safety margin is calculated by taking into account the size of the free resection margin. The total size of safety margin is always 20mm which is the sum of the surgical and added safety margins. CTV is limited to chest wall/pectoral muscles and 5mm below the skin surface. Following these guidelines the target volume definition in breast brachytherapy after open cavity surgery is expected to be accomplished in more consistent way with low interobserver variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  4. The impact of the UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) - an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Ron; Williams, Sian

    2007-06-01

    The impact of the UK General Practice Airways Group (GPIAG) over the past 20 years is discussed from an international perspective. The formation of the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) following the GPIAG conference in 2000, and the role of the Primary Care Respiratory Journal in publishing high quality primary care respiratory research, have been seminal elements in the development of the discipline of primary care respiratory medicine internationally. Research, guidelines development, education, and advocacy, are other areas where the GPIAG has provided a model or shown the way. At a more pragmatic level, the experience of the GPIAG in building a relationship with sponsors and in negotiating the regulatory maze in order to establish an incorporated legal company and charity saved the IPCRG much anguish. The differing roles of national and international organisations are contrasted to illustrate the constructive tension that has impacted on both organisations over the past five years. The IPCRG has built on the foundations of national organisations, particularly the GPIAG, but is charting the way internationally to support the delivery of better health outcomes for people with respiratory disease.

  5. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... internal claims and appeals and external review processes for group health plans and health insurance...

  6. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group... PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group. The amended...

  7. To feel like an outsider: focus group discussions regarding the influence on sexuality caused by breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaeson, K; Sandell, K; Berterö, C M

    2011-11-01

    The aftermath of breast cancer treatment, especially the sexual side effects, appears to be a neglected issue in developed society. The purpose of this study was to explore how middle-aged women treated for a breast cancer experienced their sexual identity connected to the community norms and values in the society as a whole. Three focus group interviews were conducted, with a total of 12 women. The discussions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme to feel like an outsider symbolises the women's situation after breast cancer treatment. They experienced their body in a wholly new unfamiliar way, which affected their sexuality in a deep and profound way. This feeling affected their female roles and overshadowed earlier experiences in life. All their female roles were suddenly vague and this was expressed in various ways across each of the four subthemes: to feel different, the unruly body, eroticism is not what it used to be and re-evaluating. From a nursing perspective, there appears to be a definite challenge to identify the women's own unique sexual needs in the rehabilitation transition and to use the skills from all team professionals to improve sexual health in this context. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  9. The differential localization of a methyl group confers a different anti-breast cancer activity to two triterpenes present in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Gaforio, José J

    2015-01-01

    Uvaol (UV) and erythrodiol (ER) are two triterpenic dialcohols present in the minor fraction of virgin olive oil, in leaves and in the drupe of olives. These triterpenes possess the same chemical structure and differ only in the location of a methyl group. It has been reported that they have antitumoral effects in leukemic cells, in skin mice tumours and, finally, in astrocytoma cells, but there are no evidences about their effects in highly invasive human breast cancer cells and human epithelial breast cells. For this purpose, we have evaluated their cytotoxic activities as well as their effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle profile, apoptotic induction, oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage in both highly invasive human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and human epithelial breast cells (MCF10A). UV and ER showed different effects in normal and breast cancer cells, whereas both compounds possess the same structure, except for the location of a methyl group. UV protects from damage to DNA in both cell lines, whereas ER enhances damage to DNA in these cell lines. Thus, ER promotes apoptosis and arrests cell cycle in human epithelial breast cells. Hence, both compounds differ in their action in human breast cells apparently by the different location of only a methyl group.

  10. Prognosis after treatment for loco-regional recurrence after mastectomy or breast conserving therapy in two randomised trials (EORTC 10801 and DBCG-82TM). EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienhoven, G.; Voogd, A. C.; Peterse, J. L.; Nielsen, M.; Andersen, K. W.; Mignolet, F.; Sylvester, R.; Fentiman, I. S.; van der Schueren, E.; van Zijl, K.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Bartelink, H.; van Dongen, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prognosis after treatment for loco-regional recurrences (LR) after (modified) radical mastectomy (MRM) or breast conserving therapy (BCT), in terms of overall survival and time to subsequent LR, in patients originally treated in two European

  11. Recommendations for Adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes Into U.S. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2017-08-01

    In 1981, the World Health Organization adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ( International Code), with subsequent resolutions adopted since then. The International Code contributes to the safe and adequate provision of nutrition for infants by protecting and promoting breastfeeding and ensuring that human milk substitutes, when necessary, are used properly through adequate information and appropriate marketing and distribution. Despite the World Health Organization recommendations for all member nations to implement the International Code in its entirety, the United States has yet to take action to translate it into any national measures. In 2012, only 22.3% of infants in the United States met the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation of at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Countries adopting legislation reflecting the provisions of the International Code have seen increases in breastfeeding rates. This article discusses recommendations for translating the International Code into U.S. policy. Adopting legislation that implements, monitors, and enforces the International Code in its entirety has the potential to contribute to increased rates of breastfeeding in the United States, which can lead to improved health outcomes in both infants and breastfeeding mothers.

  12. Wealth in Two Ethnic Groups: The Role of Internal Migration Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Saarela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies wealth within an area of Finland that is settled by two ethnic groups: Finnish speakers and Swedish speakers. They are equal and similar in most observable respects, but differ greatly on internal migration background. Most of the Swedish speakers were born in the area, whereas many of the Finnish speakers have migrated into it from other parts of the country. The primary aim of the paper is to analyse whether this differential is interrelated with potential wealth variation. Data covering the years 1991 to 1999 reveal that the Swedish speakers have substantially higher wealth levels than the Finnish speakers, and that variation in economic wellbeing interrelates with whether or not the person was born in the present region of residence. The results suggest that failures in economic assimilation, as discussed in the international migration literature, may be found also when studying people who differ on internal migration background.

  13. A Retrospective Survival Analysis of Anatomic and Prognostic Stage Group Based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Cancer Staging Manual in Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The prognostic staging system proposed in the AJCC 8th edition refines the anatomic stage group in Luminal B HER2-negative breast cancer and will lead to a more personalized approach to breast cancer treatment.

  14. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krautter M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance

  15. Benefits of supervised group exercise programme for women being treated for early stage breast cancer: pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrie, Nanette; Campbell, Anna M; Whyte, Fiona; McConnachie, Alex; Emslie, Carol; Lee, Laura; Kearney, Nora; Walker, Andrew; Ritchie, Diana

    2007-03-10

    To determine functional and psychological benefits of a 12 week supervised group exercise programme during treatment for early stage breast cancer, with six month follow-up. Pragmatic randomised controlled prospective open trial. Three National Health Service oncology clinics in Scotland and community exercise facilities. 203 women entered the study; 177 completed the six month follow-up. Supervised 12 week group exercise programme in addition to usual care, compared with usual care. Functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT) questionnaire, Beck depression inventory, positive and negative affect scale, body mass index, seven day recall of physical activity, 12 minute walk test, and assessment of shoulder mobility. Mixed effects models with adjustment for baseline values, study site, treatment at baseline, and age gave intervention effect estimates (intervention minus control) at 12 weeks of 129 (95% confidence interval 83 to 176) for metres walked in 12 minutes, 182 (75 to 289) for minutes of moderate intensity activity reported in a week, 2.6 (1.6 to 3.7) for shoulder mobility, 2.5 (1.0 to 3.9) for breast cancer specific subscale of quality of life, and 4.0 (1.8 to 6.3) for positive mood. No significant effect was seen for general quality of life (FACT-G), which was the primary outcome. At the six month follow-up, most of these effects were maintained and an intervention effect for breast cancer specific quality of life emerged. No adverse effects were noted. Supervised group exercise provided functional and psychological benefit after a 12 week intervention and six months later. Clinicians should encourage activity for their patients. Policy makers should consider the inclusion of exercise opportunities in cancer rehabilitation services. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN12587864 [controlled-trials.com].

  16. Study of failure pattern among high-risk breast cancer patients with or without postmastectomy radiotherapy in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy: long-term results from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82 b and c randomized studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    treatment with or without RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A long-term follow-up was performed among the 3,083 patients from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82 b and c trials, except in those already recorded with distant metastases (DM) or contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The end points were LRR, DM......, and CBC, and the follow-up continued until DM, CBC, emigration, or death. Information was selected from medical records, general practitioners, and the National Causes of Death Registry. The median potential follow-up time was 18 years. RESULTS: The 18-year probability of any first breast cancer event...

  17. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... receptor (ER) and Progesteron receptor (PR) status. Also mastectomy specimens were included. In 2004 the previous malignancy grading was replaced by the Van Nuys classification, and information on microcalcifications was introduced. The axillary status now included the sentinel node technique only. In 2006...

  18. Imaging in Pleural Mesothelioma: A Review of the 13th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armato, Samuel G.; Blyth, Kevin G.; Keating, Jane J.; Katz, Sharyn; Tsim, Selina; Coolen, Johan; Gudmundsson, Eyjolfur; Opitz, Isabelle; Nowak, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the detection, diagnosis, staging, response assessment, and surveillance of malignant pleural mesothelioma. The etiology, biology, and growth pattern of mesothelioma present unique challenges for each modality used to capture various aspects of this disease. Clinical implementation of imaging techniques and information derived from images continue to evolve based on active research in this field worldwide. This paper summarizes the imaging-based research presented orally at the 2016 International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig) in Birmingham, United Kingdom, held May 1–4, 2016. Presented topics included intraoperative near-infrared imaging of mesothelioma to aid the assessment of resection completeness, an evaluation of tumor enhancement improvement with increased time delay between contrast injection and image acquisition in standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, the potential of early contrast enhancement analysis to provide MRI with a role in mesothelioma detection, the differentiation of short- and long-term survivors based on MRI tumor volume and histogram analysis, the response-assessment potential of hemodynamic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) scans, the correlation of CT-based tumor volume with the post-surgical tumor specimen weight, and consideration of the need to update the mesothelioma tumor response assessment paradigm. PMID:27794408

  19. Evaluation of a candidate International Standard for Meningococcal Group C polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipond, Caroline; Mulloy, Barbara; Rigsby, Peter; Burkin, Karena; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Meningococcal group C (MenC) plain polysaccharide (PS) and conjugate vaccines are primarily evaluated by physicochemical methods to ensure that batches are consistently manufactured. As different assays are employed to quantify the MenC PS content of final formulations and bulk intermediaries, there is a need for an International MenC PS Standard to calibrate internal references used in the different laboratories. Twelve laboratories from nine different countries participated in a collaborative study to determine the MenC PS content of a candidate International Standard MenC PS preparation (08/214) and to assess its suitability. On the basis of the results from this study the candidate standard 08/214 was established as an International Standard for the quantification of MenC PS content in vaccines and components. It has a content of 1.192 ± 0.192 mg MenC PS/ampoule (expanded uncertainty with coverage factor of k = 2.365 corresponding to a 95% level of confidence), as determined by the resorcinol assays carried out by eight of the participating laboratories. The standard is available from The National Institute of Biological Standards and Control who act as guardians and distributors of the material under the auspices of WHO. Copyright © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Issues Facing Postgraduate International Students: A View from an International Students' Group on A Masters Programme in Art Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaife, Sally; Reddick, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes case study research of four years of a support group for self-identified international students on an MA Art Psychotherapy programme. The research sought to understand the role of the group in the processing of international students' issues, to broaden thinking on the internationalising of curricula. A key finding was that…

  1. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  2. Group identification and perceived discrimination : a study of international students in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Miguel R.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examined how international students experience life in the UK and, in particular, how these students respond to experiences with discrimination and social exclusion. Specifically, we drew on the rejection-identification model (Branscombe et al., 1999) in order to examine the impact of minority group identification as a coping strategy against perceptions of discrimination. Despite the number of studies supporting the rejection-identification model (e.g. Schmitt et a...

  3. Immunohistochemical and genetic exploration of incompatible A blood group antigen expression in invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Orfi, Z; Kojok, K; Benayad, S; Zaid, Y; Marnissi, F; Habti, N

    Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma and represents the most inherently aggressive form. Expression of incompatible blood group A antigen in cancer of type O patients has been reported in several types of cancer, however, the biosynthetic mechanism and the genetic basis remain unclear until today. The aim of the present case report study was to evaluate the expression of incompatible blood group A antigen and to identify the genetic basis of this expression in IMPC of the breast. One patient blood group O with Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma was screened at Pathology Department of University Hospital CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca. ABH antigens expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ABO genotyping was performed by allele specific primers PCR-ASP and Exon 6 of ABO gene was sequenced with Sanger method. H antigen was expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells of normal tissue. However, H antigen expression was lost in both invasive micropapillary carcinomas. A antigen was expressed in IMPC with approximately 80% of positive cells. Tumor DNA was genotyped as heterozygous A/O. In normal DNA, we identified a single frameshift deletion c.320delA p.(Glu107Glyfs*12), which is removed from tumor DNA. Our findings suggest that incompatible A antigen expression in IMPC is due to glycosyltransferase A encoded by an A allele which is derived from O allele with a deletion at the position 320. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

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    Emmanuel Joseph Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.

  5. A Standard Set of Value-Based Patient-Centered Outcomes for Breast Cancer: The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wee Loon; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; van Bommel, Annelotte C M; Stowell, Caleb; Allison, Kim H; Benn, Karen E; Browne, John P; Cooter, Rodney D; Delaney, Geoff P; Duhoux, Francois P; Ganz, Patricia A; Hancock, Patricia; Jagsi, Reshma; Knaul, Felicia M; Knip, Anne M; Koppert, Linetta B; Kuerer, Henry M; McLaughin, Sarah; Mureau, Marc A M; Partridge, Ann H; Reid, Dereesa Purtell; Sheeran, Lisa; Smith, Thomas J; Stoutjesdijk, Mark J; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T F D; Wengström, Yvonne; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saunders, Christobel

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in value-based health care is the lack of standardized health outcomes measurements, hindering optimal monitoring and comparison of the quality of health care across different settings globally. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled a multidisciplinary international working group, comprised of 26 health care providers and patient advocates, to develop a standard set of value-based patient-centered outcomes for breast cancer (BC). The working group convened via 8 teleconferences and completed a follow-up survey after each meeting. A modified 2-round Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on the outcomes and case-mix variables to be included. Patient focus group meetings (8 early or metastatic BC patients) and online anonymized surveys of 1225 multinational BC patients and survivors were also conducted to obtain patients' input. The standard set encompasses survival and cancer control, and disutility of care (eg, acute treatment complications) outcomes, to be collected through administrative data and/or clinical records. A combination of multiple patient-reported outcomes measurement (PROM) tools is recommended to capture long-term degree of health outcomes. Selected case-mix factors were recommended to be collected at baseline. The ICHOM will endeavor to achieve wide buy-in of this set and facilitate its implementation in routine clinical practice in various settings and institutions worldwide.

  6. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group: formation of patient-centered outcome measures in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W; Abernethy, April; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Bhushan, Reva; Garg, Amit; Merola, Joseph F; Maccarone, Mara; Christensen, Robin

    2015-02-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the group aims to create a tool considerate of patients and providers using the input of all relevant stakeholders in assessment of disease severity and response to treatment. Herein, we delineate the procedures through which consensus is being reached and the future directions of the project. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The International Research Group in Geophysics Europe Africa: A Laboratory without Borders in the Earth Science and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Amory-Mazaudier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    International audience; It was in 1995 that, at the end of the international project IEEY (International Equatorial Electrojet Year), African and European scientists decided to create the IRGGEA (International Group in Geophysics Europe Africa) in order to pursue the scientific work started during the IEEY project. The main objective of IRGGEA was to introduce new fields of research in Africa and built teams of African scientists recognized at an international level in these new fields. To re...

  8. Helping Her Heal-Group: a pilot study to evaluate a group delivered educational intervention for male spouses of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Griffith, Kristin; Cheng, Terry; Secord, Scott; Walton, Tara; Bernstein, Lori J; Maheu, Christine; Catton, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Distress in husbands of women with early-stage breast cancer may be equivalent to or even higher than their wives. Husbands often struggle to help and support their wives cope with the illness and its treatment. In response, we developed a five-session group educational counselling intervention (Helping Her Heal-Group (HHH-G)) for husbands of women with early-stage breast cancer. The primary aim of the current pilot study was to determine the acceptability and feasibility of HHH-G and to obtain a preliminary estimate of its impact on participating men's skills, self-confidence and self care. Secondary aims were to assess the impact of the intervention on both the participating spouses' and wives' ratings of marital quality and depressed mood. The study employed a one-arm, pre-post-intervention design whereby participating men (n=54) and their wives (n=54) independently completed measures at baseline (T0), immediately following the last session (T1) and 3 months after the last session (T2). Overall, there was very high study retention (87%). On the basis of the questionnaire data, we found significant improvements in spouses' self-efficacy (p<0.001) and self-reported skills including wife support (p=0.003) and self-care (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant improvement in wives' mood scores (p=0.003). Post-intervention interviews support acceptability and impact of the HHH-G intervention, and provide support for the group format of the program. The feasibility and acceptability of HHH-G was supported, and treatment outcomes suggest the potential benefits of the intervention. Phase III evaluation of HHH-G program is warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The cross-cultural transition experience: Phenomenological analysis on a group of international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Novara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; International students: Phenomenology  

  10. The cross-cultural transition experience: Phenomenological analysis on a group of international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Novara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; international students: phenomenology.

  11. Leaders are more attractive: birds with bigger yellow breast patches are followed by more group-mates in foraging groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Zoltán; Griggio, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Social network theory provides a perfect tool to better understand the population-level consequences of how individuals interact and make their decisions; however, this approach is generally overlooked among evolutionary biologists interested in social relationships. Here, we used social network analysis to examine the patterns of leader-follower interactions in relation to individual characteristics in foraging groups of free-living rock sparrows (Petronia petronia). We found that yellow feather ornamentation, a carotenoid-based trait, was the best predictor of leadership: birds with bigger ornaments exerted greater influence in the foraging groups and were followed by more group-mates than less elaborate individuals. An individual's tendency for eliciting followings was not influenced by sex, condition or the level of parental investment. None of the above individual characteristics had significant effect on the tendency of individuals to follow others. Our results indicate that a sexually selected trait can also play a significant role in group coordination and social organization of a species.

  12. Leaders are more attractive: birds with bigger yellow breast patches are followed by more group-mates in foraging groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Tóth

    Full Text Available Social network theory provides a perfect tool to better understand the population-level consequences of how individuals interact and make their decisions; however, this approach is generally overlooked among evolutionary biologists interested in social relationships. Here, we used social network analysis to examine the patterns of leader-follower interactions in relation to individual characteristics in foraging groups of free-living rock sparrows (Petronia petronia. We found that yellow feather ornamentation, a carotenoid-based trait, was the best predictor of leadership: birds with bigger ornaments exerted greater influence in the foraging groups and were followed by more group-mates than less elaborate individuals. An individual's tendency for eliciting followings was not influenced by sex, condition or the level of parental investment. None of the above individual characteristics had significant effect on the tendency of individuals to follow others. Our results indicate that a sexually selected trait can also play a significant role in group coordination and social organization of a species.

  13. Internalization: acute apoptosis of breast cancer cells using herceptin-immobilized gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinaraj P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierson Rathinaraj,1 Ahmed M Al-Jumaily,1 Do Sung Huh21Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Nano science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhea, South KoreaAbstract: Herceptin, the monoclonal antibody, was successfully immobilized on gold nanoparticles (GNPs to improve their precise interactions with breast cancer cells (SK-BR3. The mean size of the GNPs (29 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering, enlarged to 82 nm after herceptin immobilization. The in vitro cell culture experiment indicated that human skin cells (FB proliferated well in the presence of herceptin-conjugated GNP (GNP–Her, while most of the breast cancer cells (SK-BR3 had died. To elucidate the mechanism of cell death, the interaction of breast cancer cells with GNP–Her was tracked by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Consequently, GNP–Her was found to be bound precisely to the membrane of the breast cancer cell, which became almost saturated after 6 hours incubation. This shows that the progression signal of SK-BR3 cells is retarded completely by the precise binding of antibody to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptor of the breast cancer cell membrane, causing cell death.Keywords: herceptin, gold nanoparticles, SK-BR3 cells, intracellular uptake

  14. TU-CD-BRB-07: Identification of Associations Between Radiologist-Annotated Imaging Features and Genomic Alterations in Breast Invasive Carcinoma, a TCGA Phenotype Research Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A; Net, J [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Brandt, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Huang, E [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Freymann, J; Kirby, J [Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Burnside, E [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Morris, E; Sutton, E [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bonaccio, E [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Giger, M; Jaffe, C [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Ganott, M; Zuley, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center - Magee Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Le-Petross, H [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dogan, B [UT MDACC, Houston, TX (United States); Whitman, G [UTMDACC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine associations between radiologist-annotated MRI features and genomic measurements in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: 98 TCGA patients with BRCA were assessed by a panel of radiologists (TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group) based on a variety of mass and non-mass features according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Batch corrected gene expression data was obtained from the TCGA Data Portal. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess correlations between categorical image features and tumor-derived genomic features (such as gene pathway activity, copy number and mutation characteristics). Image-derived features were also correlated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status. Multiple hypothesis correction was done using Benjamini-Hochberg FDR. Associations at an FDR of 0.1 were selected for interpretation. Results: ER status was associated with rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. PR status was associated with internal enhancement. Several components of the PI3K/Akt pathway were associated with rim enhancement as well as heterogeneity. In addition, several components of cell cycle regulation and cell division were associated with imaging characteristics.TP53 and GATA3 mutations were associated with lesion size. MRI features associated with TP53 mutation status were rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. Rim enhancement was associated with activity of RB1, PIK3R1, MAP3K1, AKT1,PI3K, and PIK3CA. Margin status was associated with HIF1A/ARNT, Ras/ GTP/PI3K, KRAS, and GADD45A. Axillary lymphadenopathy was associated with RB1 and BCL2L1. Peritumoral edema was associated with Aurora A/GADD45A, BCL2L1, CCNE1, and FOXA1. Heterogeneous internal nonmass enhancement was associated with EGFR, PI3K, AKT1, HF/MET, and EGFR/Erbb4/neuregulin 1. Diffuse nonmass enhancement was associated with HGF/MET/MUC20/SHIP

  15. A review of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on the reduction of body image concern in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, J; Mahdavi, A; Samkhaniyan, E; Asadi, S H; Dezhkam, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Taking the appropriate psychological actions to boost the mental health of patients with breast cancer is critical. This research was performed with the aim of examining the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on reducing body image concerns in patients with breast cancer. Methodology: TThe method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, 40 patients with breast cancer who had referred to the oncology and radiotherapy department of Imam Hossein Hospital of Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method and organized into two groups: experimental and control group. Both groups were pretested by using demographic and body image concern questionnaires. Then the experimental group received cognitive-behavioral group therapy training for eight sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the data were analyzed by using SPSS software with descriptive and inferential statistics methods. Findings: The findings showed that the cognitive-behavioral group therapy training significantly contributed to the reduction of body image concern in patients with cancer (p cognitive-behavioral group therapy training is an effective strategy to help patients with breast cancer who suffer from the concern about body image due to its high efficiency, especially when it was held in groups, it had low cost, and it was acceptable by the patients.

  16. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endophilin A2 promotes HER2 internalization and sensitivity to trastuzumab-based therapy in HER2-positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Tomas; Truesdell, Peter; Craig, Andrew W

    2017-10-03

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is amplified and a clinical target in a subset of human breast cancers with high rates of metastasis. Targeted therapies involving the antibody trastuzumab and trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) have greatly improved outcomes for HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients. However, resistance to these targeted therapies can develop and limit their efficacy. Here, we test the involvement of the endocytic adaptor protein endophilin A2 (Endo II) in HER2+ breast cancer models, and their responses to treatments with trastuzumab and T-DM1. Endo II expression in human breast tumors and lymph node metastases were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Stable silencing of Endo II was achieved in HER2+ cancer cell lines (SK-BR-3 and HCC1954) to test Endo II effects on HER2 levels, localization and signaling, cell motility and tumor metastasis. The effects of Endo II silencing on the responses of HER2+ cancer cells to trastuzumab or T-DM1 treatments were tested using real-time cell motility and cytotoxicity assays. High Endo II protein expression was detected in HER2-positive tumors, and was linked to worse overall survival in node-positive HER2+ breast cancers at the mRNA level. Stable silencing of Endo II in HER2+ cell lines led to elevated levels of HER2 on the cell surface, impaired epidermal growth factor-induced HER2 internalization, and reduced signaling to downstream effector kinases Akt and Erk. Endo II silencing also led to decreased migration and invasion of HER2+ cancer cells in vitro, and impaired lung seeding following tail vein injection in mice. In addition, Endo II silencing also impaired HER2 internalization in response to Trastuzumab, and led to reduced cytotoxicity response in HER2+ cancer cells treated with T-DM1. Our study provides novel evidence of Endo II function in HER2+ cancer cell motility and trafficking of HER2 that relates to effective treatments with trastuzumab or T-DM1. Thus, differential expression of

  18. Recommendations for reporting economic evaluations of haemophilia prophylaxis: a nominal groups consensus statement on behalf of the Economics Expert Working Group of The International Prophylaxis Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, A; Berger, K; Bohn, R; Carcao, M; Fischer, K; Gringeri, A; Hoots, K; Mantovani, L; Schramm, W; van Hout, B A; Willan, A R; Feldman, B M

    2008-01-01

    The need for clearly reported studies evaluating the cost of prophylaxis and its overall outcomes has been recommended from previous literature. To establish minimal ''core standards'' that can be followed when conducting and reporting economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Ten members of the IPSG Economic Analysis Working Group participated in a consensus process using the Nominal Groups Technique (NGT). The following topics relating to the economic analysis of prophylaxis studies were addressed; Whose perspective should be taken? Which is the best methodological approach? Is micro- or macro-costing the best costing strategy? What information must be presented about costs and outcomes in order to facilitate local and international interpretation? The group suggests studies on the economic impact of prophylaxis should be viewed from a societal perspective and be reported using a Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) (with consideration of also reporting Cost Benefit Analysis [CBA]). All costs that exceed $500 should be used to measure the costs of prophylaxis (macro strategy) including items such as clotting factor costs, hospitalizations, surgical procedures, productivity loss and number of days lost from school or work. Generic and disease specific quality of lífe and utility measures should be used to report the outcomes of the study. The IPSG has suggested minimal core standards to be applied to the reporting of economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Standardized reporting will facilitate the comparison of studies and will allow for more rational policy decisions and treatment choices.

  19. Correlative Studies in Clinical Trials: A Position Statement From the International Thyroid Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Cote, Gilbert J; Demeure, Michael J; Elisei, Rossella; Jhiang, Sissy; Ringel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with progressive thyroid cancer in distant metastatic sites represent a population with a need for new therapeutic options. Aspiring to improve the treatment of such patients, the objective of this position statement from the International Thyroid Oncology Group (ITOG) is to clarify the importance of incorporating high-quality correlative studies into clinical trials. ITOG was formed to develop and support high-quality multicenter and multidisciplinary clinical trials for patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. The Correlative Sciences Committee of the ITOG focuses on the quality and types of correlative studies included in ITOG-associated clinical trials. This document represents expert consensus from ITOG regarding this issue based on extensive collective experience in clinical and translational trials informed by basic science. The Correlative Studies Committee identified an international writing group representative of diverse specialties, including basic sciences. Drafts were reviewed by all members of the writing group, the larger committee, and the ITOG board. After consideration of all comments by the writing group and modification of the document, the final document was then approved by the authors and the ITOG board. High-quality correlative studies, which include variety in the types of correlates, should be intrinsic to the design of thyroid cancer clinical trials to offer the best opportunity for each study to advance treatment for patients with advanced and progressive thyroid cancer.

  20. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and

  1. International tobacco control: a focus group study of U.S. anti-tobacco activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N

    2001-01-01

    Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.

  2. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, James C; Salsbury, Stacie A; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J

    2016-10-01

    One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor-patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices.

  3. Prognosis of women with primary breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy: Results from an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amant (Frédéric); G. von Minckwitz (G.); S.N. Han (Sileny); M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A. Ring (Alistair); J. Giermek (Jerzy); H. Wildiers (Hans); T. Fehm (Tanja); S.C. Linn (Sabine); B. Schlehe (Bettina); P. Neven (Patrick); P. Westenend (Pieter); V. Müller (Volkmar); K. van Calsteren (Kristel); B. Rack (Brigitte); V. Nekljudova (Valentina); N. Harbeck (Nadia); M. Untch (Michael); P.O. Witteveen (Petronella); K. Schwedler (Kathrin); C. Thomssen (Christoph); B. Van Calster (Ben); S. Loibl (Sibylle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We aimed to determine the prognosis of patients with breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy (BCP). Patients and Methods: In this cohort study, a multicentric registry of patients with BCP (from Cancer in Pregnancy, Leuven, Belgium, and GBG 29/BIG 02-03) compiled pro- and

  4. Translation and validation of International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale in Hindi language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Lahan, Vivekananda; Goel, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language. Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity. RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (PHindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.

  5. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer (TARGIT-A trial): an international, prospective, randomised, non-inferiority phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Joseph, David J; Tobias, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    After breast-conserving surgery, 90% of local recurrences occur within the index quadrant despite the presence of multicentric cancers elsewhere in the breast. Thus, restriction of radiation therapy to the tumour bed during surgery might be adequate for selected patients. We compared targeted int...... intraoperative radiotherapy with the conventional policy of whole breast external beam radiotherapy....

  6. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer (TARGIT-A trial): an international, prospective, randomised, non-inferiority phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Joseph, David J; Tobias, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    After breast-conserving surgery, 90% of local recurrences occur within the index quadrant despite the presence of multicentric cancers elsewhere in the breast. Thus, restriction of radiation therapy to the tumour bed during surgery might be adequate for selected patients. We compared targeted...... intraoperative radiotherapy with the conventional policy of whole breast external beam radiotherapy....

  7. Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Tejada, R; Keydar, I; Ramanarayanan, M; Ohno, T; Fenoglio, C; Spiegelman, S

    1978-03-01

    An antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen (gp52, a 52,000-dalton glycoprotein) of the mouse mammary tumor virus has been identified in paraffin sections of human breast cancers by means of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The specificity of the reaction with antibody against mouse mammary tumor virus was examined by absorption of the IgG with the following: (a) purified gp52; (b) a number of virus preparations (mouse mammary tumor virus, Rauscher leukemia virus, simian sarcoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus); (c) normal plasma, leukocytes, breast tissue, milk, actin, collagen, and hyaluronic acid, all of human origin; (d) sheep erythrocytes and mucin. Only mouse mammary tumor virus (from C(3)H or Paris RIII strains and grown in either murine or feline cells) and purified gp52 eliminated the immunohistochemical reaction in the human breast tumors. Positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas of various histologic types, a minimal estimate in view of the limited number of sections from each tumor that could be examined. Negative reactions were obtained in all 119 benign breast lesions (cystic disease, fibroadenoma, papilloma, gynecomastia) and in all 18 normal breast tissues. With one exception, 99 carcinomas from 13 organs other than breast and 8 cystosarcomas were all negative.

  8. Framatome, from the nuclear engineering office to the international group; Framatome, du bureau d'ingenierie nucleaire au groupe international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorin, Philippe [Direction de la Communication, FRAMATOME, Tour Framatome, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

    1995-07-01

    A simple office of studies by its inceptions, Framatome became during 30 years an international and diversified group, a world nuclear leader, as designer-manufacturer, fuel supplier and servicing provider. It asserts itself also as a foreground actor in the industrial equipment and connections. This book not only presents an exciting and capital episode of the history of nuclear energy in France but it demonstrate also how an company with a little bit of chance, a lot of endeavour, a plenty of talent and a huge firmness succeeded in becoming an incontestable reference authority in its sector. Staking on technological choices, although different from the creeds inspiring the French decision makers, Framatome has obtained its first orders ahead other French companies, much more powerful and prestigious at the time. The impressive Framatome evolution is presented along six chapters entitled as follows: 1. Beginning of nuclear power; 2. Technological challenge; 3. Industrial challenge; 4. Sectorial challenge; 5. Management challenge; 6. Future. The following four witness' papers are inserted with in the main text: 1. Beginning of Framatome (by P. Boulin); 2. The difficult choice for the PWR system (by M. Boiteux); 3. Impossibly is not French (by A. Giraud); 4. A fabulous common effort (by M. Hug). The book is addressed to the public at large but aims also at the Company's personnel, both the people witnessing the Company's beginning and the newcomers who should know the social body they have chosen to join and to the effort of which they have to contribute with their inventiveness and dynamism.

  9. Breast and ovarian cancer survivors' experience of participating in a cognitive-existential group intervention addressing fear of cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Lebel, Sophie; Tomei, Christina; Singh, Mina; Esplen, Mary Jane

    2015-08-01

    Currently, very few clinical approaches are offered to cancer survivors dealing with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). This paper provides an overview of cancer survivors' experience and satisfaction after taking part in a six-week, cognitive-existential (CE) group intervention that aimed to address FCR. In this qualitative descriptive study, 12 women with breast or ovarian cancer provided in-depth interviews of their experience in taking part in the CE group intervention. Analysis of their accounts revealed struggles to face their fears. Yet, by embracing their group experience, the women learned how to confront their fears and gain emotional control. The women reported that the group work was highly valuable. From the women's analysed accounts, the authors have proposed recommendations for changes to the group work process before moving the study to a full clinical trial. The study's findings also provide valuable insights to other cancer survivor groups who may also be experiencing FCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-Optical sensors on Argo Floats. Reports of the international ocean-colour coordinating group

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bernard, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available . Minimum Requirements for an Operational Ocean-Colour Sensor for the Open Ocean (1998). 2. Status and Plans for Satellite Ocean-Colour Missions: Considerations for Com- plementary Missions (1999). 3. Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal, and Other... by the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada. ISSN: 1098-6030 ©IOCCG 2011 Printed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction: The Development of Bio...

  11. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbalm, K.F. [comp.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  12. Gene expression profiles of breast biopsies from healthy women identify a group with claudin-low features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjord Dina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of the variability in normal breast biology will enable us to identify mechanisms of breast cancer initiation and the origin of different subtypes, and to better predict breast cancer risk. Methods Gene expression patterns in breast biopsies from 79 healthy women referred to breast diagnostic centers in Norway were explored by unsupervised hierarchical clustering and supervised analyses, such as gene set enrichment analysis and gene ontology analysis and comparison with previously published genelists and independent datasets. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two separate clusters of normal breast tissue based on gene-expression profiling, regardless of clustering algorithm and gene filtering used. Comparison of the expression profile of the two clusters with several published gene lists describing breast cells revealed that the samples in cluster 1 share characteristics with stromal cells and stem cells, and to a certain degree with mesenchymal cells and myoepithelial cells. The samples in cluster 1 also share many features with the newly identified claudin-low breast cancer intrinsic subtype, which also shows characteristics of stromal and stem cells. More women belonging to cluster 1 have a family history of breast cancer and there is a slight overrepresentation of nulliparous women in cluster 1. Similar findings were seen in a separate dataset consisting of histologically normal tissue from both breasts harboring breast cancer and from mammoplasty reductions. Conclusion This is the first study to explore the variability of gene expression patterns in whole biopsies from normal breasts and identified distinct subtypes of normal breast tissue. Further studies are needed to determine the specific cell contribution to the variation in the biology of normal breasts, how the clusters identified relate to breast cancer risk and their possible link to the origin of the different

  13. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  14. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2012-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision...... for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...... variables in a logistic regression analysis. We identified tumor size, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status and location of tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the breast as risk factors for NSN metastases in patients with micrometastases. A model based...

  15. Group I Intron Internal Guide Sequence Binding Strength as a Component of Ribozyme Network Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Satterwhite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Origins-of-life research requires searching for a plausible transition from simple chemicals to larger macromolecules that can both hold information and catalyze their own production. We have previously shown that some group I intron ribozymes possess the ability to help synthesize other ribozyme genotypes by recombination reactions in small networks in an autocatalytic fashion. By simplifying these recombination reactions, using fluorescent anisotropy, we quantified the thermodynamic binding strength between two nucleotides of two group I intron RNA fragments for all 16 possible genotype combinations. We provide evidence that the binding strength (KD between the 3-nucleotide internal guide sequence (IGS of one ribozyme and its complement in another is correlated to the catalytic ability of the ribozyme. This work demonstrates that one can begin to deconstruct the thermodynamic basis of information in prebiotic RNA systems.

  16. International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations: Routine peri-operative pediatric tracheotomy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Albert, David; Chan, Kenny; Cheng, Alan; Daniel, Sam J; De Alarcon, Alessandro; Garabedian, Noel; Hart, Catherine; Hartnick, Christopher; Inglis, Andy; Jacobs, Ian; Kleinman, Monica E; Mehta, Nilesh M; Nicollas, Richard; Nuss, Roger; Pransky, Seth; Russell, John; Rutter, Mike; Schilder, Anne; Thompson, Dana; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Volk, Mark; Ward, Bob; Watters, Karen; Wyatt, Michelle; Zalzal, George; Zur, Karen; Rahbar, Reza

    2016-07-01

    To develop consensus recommendations for peri-operative tracheotomy care in pediatric patients. Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). The mission of the IPOG is to develop expertise-based consensus recommendations for the management of pediatric otolaryngologic disorders with the goal of improving patient care. The consensus recommendations herein represent the first publication by the group. Consensus recommendations including pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations, as well as sedation and nutrition management are described. These recommendations are based on the collective opinion of the IPOG members and are targeted to (i) otolaryngologists who perform tracheotomies on pediatric patients, (ii) intensivists who are involved in the shared-care of these patients, and (iii) allied health professionals. Pediatric peri-operative tracheotomy care consensus recommendations are aimed at improving patient-centered care in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J; Schwartz, Billie S; Keiffer, Jackie N; McCurdy, Barry L; Mathen, Manju; Jawad, Abbas F

    2016-07-01

    This article presents outcome data of the implementation of three group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems, anxiety, and depression. School counselors and graduate students co-led the groups in two low-income urban schools. Data were analyzed to assess pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. Results of the exploratory study indicated that all three GCBT protocols were effective at reducing diagnostic severity level for children who had a primary diagnosis of an externalizing disorder, anxiety disorder, or depressive disorder at the clinical or intermediate (at-risk) level. All three GCBT protocols were implemented with relatively high levels of fidelity. Data on the effectiveness of the interventions for reducing diagnostic severity level for externalizing and internalizing spectrum disorders and for specific disorders are presented. A discussion of implementation of mental health evidence-based interventions in urban schools is provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  19. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D. (comp.)

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  1. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: Treatment, results and prognostic factors based on international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Farabi, Raffaele; Fioriti, Lorella; Bistoni, Giovanni; Triola, Roberta; Avenia, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is a rare form of cancer containing mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal elements in variable combinations. Few and conflicting clinical data are available in the literature addressing optimal treatment modalities, prognosis and outcome. A retrospective study was conducted to review all patients with MCB diagnosed and treated at Breast Unit of Azienda Ospedaliera "Santa Maria" Terni - Italy between 2001/2010. The aim is to describe patient's clinic pathologic features and to analyze treatment results. Six female patients were studied. The median age was 48 years (range 14/58). The median tumor size was 9 cm. (range 3/18 cm.). Two cases (33%) were identified as purely epithelial and 4 (67%) as mixed epithelial and mesenchymal metaplasia. Hormone receptors were positive in only 2 patients. Modified radical mastectomy performed in 3 patients and 5 underwent axillary node dissection. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all patients and postoperative radiotherapy to 4. Four patients relapsed with median time of relapse of 12 months. MCB is an aggressive form of breast cancer associated with poor outcome, high incidence of local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. The disease tends to be estrogen/progesterone receptor negative. Tumor size has an important impact on outcome. The best treatment approach is yet to be defined.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Body Image Improving and Increasing Self-Esteem in Women with Breast Cancer after Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Izadi-Ajirlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to improve the body image and self-esteem among breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Materials & Methods: Our study comprised of 23 breast cancer patients in Imam Hossein Hospital, aged between 30-60 years, all of whom had undergone mastectomy and then radiotherapy. The study participants were selected through purposeful sampling and then randomly assigned to the case (10 and control (13 groups. The intervention program (cognitive behavioral group intervention consisted of 12 sessions of intervention (2 sessions per week each taking 90 minutes, in a 6 week process. Both group members completed the “body image and relationships scale” and the “Pope self- esteem questionnaire” before and after training. Analysis of covariance to eliminate the pretest effect on posttest results and ANOVA to determine the differences between the groups were used through SPSS 18 in this study. Results: This intervention was significantly effective on improving the mean score of body image and self- esteem in the breast cancer/mastectomy patients of the case group compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Thus, cognitive behavioral group intervention can be effective in improving body image and increasing self-esteem among women with breast cancer after mastectomy.

  3. Assessment of the Link between XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism and Breast Cancer: a Meta-Analysis in a Single Ethnic Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Ping; Wen, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Wei-Hua; Ma, Zhi-Chao; Fu, Sheng-Miao

    2017-04-01

    Although various individual studies have been conducted to determine the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer, the results remain inconclusive. To assess the influence of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer, a metaanalysis was performed in a single ethnic group. Eligible studies were identified via databases such as PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine, throughout February 2016. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strengths of the associations. Ten studies documenting a total of 4732 breast cancer cases and 5677 controls were included in this metaanalysis. The results indicated no significant association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk in both total analysis and subgroup analysis stratified by geographical areas and source of controls. This meta-analysis provided evidence that XRCC1 Arg399Gln variant might not be risk alleles for breast cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. Further studies conducted in other ethnic groups are required for definite conclusions.

  4. Who's keeping the code? Compliance with the international code for the marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Greater Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Wright, Charlotte; Haq, Shogufta; McGranachan, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate compliance with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in primary care, after the introduction of strict local infant feeding guidelines. An audit form was sent to all community-based health professionals with an infant feeding remit. Walking tours were conducted in a random sample of community care facilities. Greater Glasgow Primary Care Division. (1) Primary-care staff with an infant feeding remit; (2) community health-care facilities. Contact with manufacturers of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) and BMS company personnel, free samples or incentives, and advertising of BMS. Contact with company personnel was minimal, usually unsolicited and was mainly to provide product information. Free samples of BMS or feeding equipment were rare but childcare or parenting literature was more prevalent. Staff voiced concerns about the lack of relevant information for bottle-feeding mothers and the need to support the mother's feeding choice. One-third of facilities were still displaying materials non-compliant with the Code, with the most common materials being weight conversion charts and posters. Contact between personnel from primary care and BMS companies was minimal and generally unsolicited. The presence of materials from BMS companies in health-care premises was more common. Due to the high level of bottle-feeding in Glasgow, primary-care staff stated a need for information about BMS.

  5. Disadvantages of online support groups for people with arthritis, fibromyalgia and breast cancer disproved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.; Taal, Erik; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Lebrun, C.E.I.; Smit, W.M.; Seydel, E.R.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: People in stressful circumstances, such as serious health conditions, often turn to support groups. With the increase in the availability and popularity of internet, the possibility has arisen to join support groups online. Various authors have raised attention for potential

  6. Prognostic Value of the New Prostate Cancer International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Offermann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gleason grading is the best independent predictor for prostate cancer (PCa progression. Recently, a new PCa grading system has been introduced by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. Following studies observed more accurate and simplified grade stratification of the new system. Aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of the new grade groups compared to the former Gleason Grading and to determine whether re-definition of Gleason Pattern 4 might reduce upgrading from prostate biopsy to radical prostatectomy (RP specimen. A cohort of men undergoing RP from 2002 to 2015 at the Hospital of Goeppingen (Goeppingen, Germany was used for this study. In total, 339 pre-operative prostatic biopsies and corresponding RP specimens, as well as additional 203 RP specimens were re-reviewed for Grade Groups according to the ISUP. Biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS after surgery was used as endpoint to analyze prognostic significance. Other clinicopathological data included TNM-stage and pre-operative PSA level. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed risk stratification of patients based on both former Gleason Grading and ISUP Grade Groups, and was statistically significant using the log-rank test (p < 0.001. Both grading systems significantly correlated with TNM-stage and pre-operative PSA level (p < 0.001. Higher tumor grade in RP specimen compared to corresponding pre-operative biopsy was observed in 44 and 34.5% of cases considering former Gleason Grading and ISUP Grade Groups, respectively. Both, former Gleason Grading and ISUP Grade Groups predict survival when applied on tumors in prostatic biopsies as well as RP specimens. This is the first validation study on a large representative German community-based cohort to compare the former Gleason Grading with the recently introduced ISUP Grade Groups. Our data indicate that the ISUP Grade Groups do not improve

  7. [Does nodal irradiation (clavicular and internal mammary chains) increase the toxicity of adjuvant breast radiotherapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, O; Bourgier, C; Fenoglietto, P; Azria, D

    2015-06-01

    Treatment volume is a major risk factor of radiation-induced toxicity. As nodal irradiation increases treatment volume, radiation toxicity should be greater. Nevertheless, scientific randomised data do not support this fact. However, a radiation-induced toxicity is possible outside tangential fields in the nodal volumes not related to breast-only treatment. Treatment should not be adapted only to the disease but personalized to the individual risk of toxicity for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A Standardized Diagnostic Ontology for Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: An International Working Group Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Christopher J; Corte, Tamera J; Lee, Joyce S; Richeldi, Luca; Walsh, Simon L F; Myers, Jeffrey L; Behr, Juergen; Cottin, Vincent; Danoff, Sonye K; Flaherty, Kevin R; Lederer, David J; Lynch, David A; Martinez, Fernando J; Raghu, Ganesh; Travis, William D; Udwadia, Zarir; Wells, Athol U; Collard, Harold R

    2017-04-17

    Diagnosing fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires multidisciplinary integration of clinical, radiological, and pathological features with assignment of a consensus classification. The current approach lacks a standardized ontology and therefore results in diagnostic heterogeneity. The objectives of this international working group perspective are to describe limitations of the current approach to fibrotic ILD diagnosis and to develop an ontological framework for standardizing the diagnostic classification. The proposed framework attempts to balance strict adherence to guidelines with clinical judgment, and uses a disease-agnostic approach to documenting diagnostic certainty that can be applied to fibrotic ILD in both clinical and research settings. It is anticipated that this framework will facilitate future research that will provide objective data to further refine this approach.

  9. Effects of Group Work on English Communicative Competence of Chinese International Graduates in United States Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mo

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated 14 Chinese international graduate students' lived experiences with group work and the effects of group work on their English communicative competence. The interview results showed that these participants' attitudes towards group work went through changes from initial inadaptation or dislike to later adaptation…

  10. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  11. Views of Somali women and men on the use of faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening for Somali women: a focus-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Pratt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening rates for breast and cervical cancer for Muslim women in the United States are low, particularly for first-generation immigrants. Interpretations of the Muslim faith represent some of the barriers for breast and cervical cancer screening. Working to understand how faith influences breast and cervical screening for Somali women, and working with the community to identify and utilize faith-based assets for promoting screening, may lead to life-saving changes in screening behaviors. Methods We partnered with an Imam to develop faith-based messages addressing the concerns of modesty and predetermination and promoting cancer testing and screening. A total of five focus groups were convened, with 34 Somali women (three groups and 20 Somali men (two groups. Each focus group first discussed participant views of breast and cervical cancer screening in general and then viewed and discussed video clips of the Imam delivering the faith-based messages. Results Both Somali women and men had an overwhelmingly positive response to the faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening. The faith-based messages appeared to reinforce the views of those who were already inclined to see screening positively, with participants describing increased confidence to engage in screening. For those who had reservations about screening, there was feedback that the faith-based messages had meaningfully influenced their views. Conclusions Somali immigrant women and men found faith-based messages addressing topics of predestination and modesty and encouraging the use of screening and treatment to be both acceptable and influential. Faith can play an important role as an asset to promote breast and cervical cancer screening, and there may be substantial benefits to adding faith-based messaging to other interventions that focus on improving screening uptake. This may help to address health disparities for Somali women in this area.

  12. Views of Somali women and men on the use of faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening for Somali women: a focus-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rebekah; Mohamed, Sharif; Dirie, Wali; Ahmed, Nimo; VanKeulen, Michael; Ahmed, Huda; Raymond, Nancy; Okuyemi, Kola

    2017-03-20

    Screening rates for breast and cervical cancer for Muslim women in the United States are low, particularly for first-generation immigrants. Interpretations of the Muslim faith represent some of the barriers for breast and cervical cancer screening. Working to understand how faith influences breast and cervical screening for Somali women, and working with the community to identify and utilize faith-based assets for promoting screening, may lead to life-saving changes in screening behaviors. We partnered with an Imam to develop faith-based messages addressing the concerns of modesty and predetermination and promoting cancer testing and screening. A total of five focus groups were convened, with 34 Somali women (three groups) and 20 Somali men (two groups). Each focus group first discussed participant views of breast and cervical cancer screening in general and then viewed and discussed video clips of the Imam delivering the faith-based messages. Both Somali women and men had an overwhelmingly positive response to the faith-based messages promoting breast and cervical cancer screening. The faith-based messages appeared to reinforce the views of those who were already inclined to see screening positively, with participants describing increased confidence to engage in screening. For those who had reservations about screening, there was feedback that the faith-based messages had meaningfully influenced their views. Somali immigrant women and men found faith-based messages addressing topics of predestination and modesty and encouraging the use of screening and treatment to be both acceptable and influential. Faith can play an important role as an asset to promote breast and cervical cancer screening, and there may be substantial benefits to adding faith-based messaging to other interventions that focus on improving screening uptake. This may help to address health disparities for Somali women in this area.

  13. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  14. The Role of Internal Audit in Optimization of Corporate Governance at the Groups of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent financial scandals have demonstrated that the risk of accounting fraud may be vague in any type of economic system. In this context, transparency of information, indispensable element for competitiveness in the market is an efficient operation of systems of corporate governance and especially of control systems. All these must be appropriate in the legislation in terms of external information. The issue of governance will thus be seen as a fundamental pillar against pressures which induce at the fraud as a result of lack of transparency of information flows. In all models of corporate governance, external regulations cover a primary role in ensuring the effectiveness of controls, but remain central the responsibility of entities to adopt a virtuous mechanism as an internal control profile. An example in this sense of "best practice" may be represented by the multinational companies that have known to harmonize the national rules with the typical instruments of other models of governance. The authors have established that the main objective in this work is the evaluation model of governance already existing in a group of companies in accordance with the principles of corporate governance. In the first part of the work it was made a comparitive analysis between the models of corporate governance, focusing on the role of transparency of communication, the primary tool in prevention of frauds, the link between information and prevention of frauds being independent of the model of corporate governance adopted, by the structure of organization and the control mechanisms. The work continued throughout the first part, with the role of internal audit in preventing the accounting fraud, given that any type of government, regardless of how it is configured and the reference market in which we find, to be considered efficiently must provide an appropriate control mechanisms, able to intervene in critical situations and to protect the interests of all

  15. Incidental irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer: conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy versus conformal three-dimensional radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Elton Trigo Teixeira; Ugino, Rafael Tsuneki; Lopes, Mauricio Russo; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes da, E-mail: eltontt@gmail.com [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia; Santana, Marco Antonio; Ferreira, Denis Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate incidental irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) through opposed tangential fields with conventional two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy techniques and to compare the results between the two techniques. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 80 breast cancer patients in whom radiotherapy of the IMLNs was not indicated: 40 underwent 2D radiotherapy with computed tomography for dosimetric control, and 40 underwent 3D radiotherapy. The total prescribed dose was 50.0 Gy or 50.4 Gy (2.0 or 1.8 Gy/day, respectively). We reviewed all plans and defined the IMLNs following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations. For the IMLNs, we analyzed the proportion of the volume that received 45 Gy, the proportion of the volume that received 25 Gy, the dose to 95% of the volume, the dose to 50% of the volume, the mean dose, the minimum dose (Dmin), and the maximum dose (Dmax). Results: Left-sided treatments predominated in the 3D cohort. There were no differences between the 2D and 3D cohorts regarding tumor stage, type of surgery (mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery, or mastectomy with immediate reconstruction), or mean delineated IMLN volume (6.8 vs. 5.9 mL; p = 0.411). Except for the Dmin, all dosimetric parameters presented higher mean values in the 3D cohort (p < 0.05). The median Dmax in the 3D cohort was 50.34 Gy. However, the mean dose to the IMLNs was 7.93 Gy in the 2D cohort, compared with 20.64 Gy in the 3D cohort. Conclusion: Neither technique delivered enough doses to the IMLNs to achieve subclinical disease control. However, all of the dosimetric parameters were significantly higher for the 3D technique. (author)

  16. Radiotherapy in breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomised phase III trial 10853. EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julien, J. P.; Bijker, N.; Fentiman, I. S.; Peterse, J. L.; Delledonne, V.; Rouanet, P.; Avril, A.; Sylvester, R.; Mignolet, F.; Bartelink, H.; van Dongen, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a disorder that has become more common since it may manifest as microcalcifications that can be detected by screening mammography. Since selected women with invasive cancer can be treated safely with breast conservation therapy it is

  17. 75 FR 32834 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    .... Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and Its Treatment of Security Rights in Intellectual Property (IP) The Department of State, Office...

  18. Abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurones are strong synergists for expiration but are not synergists for Group I monosynaptic afferent inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Tim W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Internal intercostal and abdomininal motoneurones are strongly co-activated during expiration (Saywell et al. 2007; Road et al. 2013). We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurones of the internal...

  19. The EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR): an international framework for accelerating scleroderma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Alan; Ladner, Ulf M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Systemic sclerosis has a complex pathogenesis and a multifaceted clinical spectrum without a specific treatment. Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism, the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials And Research group (EUSTAR) has been founded in Europe to foster the study of systemic sclerosis with the aim of achieving equality of assessment and care of systemic sclerosis patients throughout the world according to evidence-based principles. EUSTAR created the minimal essential data set, a simple two-page form with basic demographics and mostly yes/no answers to clinical and laboratory parameters, to track patients throughout Europe. Currently, over 7000 patients are registered from 150 centres in four continents, and several articles have been published with the data generated by the minimal essential data set. A commitment of EUSTAR is also to teaching and educating, and for this reason there are two teaching courses and a third is planned for early in 2009. These courses have built international networks among young investigators improving the quality of multicentre clinical trials. EUSTAR has organized several rounds of 'teach the teachers' to further standardize the skin scoring. EUSTAR activities have extended beyond European borders, and EUSTAR now includes experts from several nations. The growth of data and biomaterial might ensure many further fruitful multicentre studies, but the financial sustainability of EUSTAR remains an issue that may jeopardize the existence of this group as well as that of other organizations in the world.

  20. The Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. Final report, October 1991--April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, A.; Wilowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olson, R. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The IPIRG-2 program was an international group program managed by the US NRC and funded by organizations from 15 nations. The emphasis of the IPIRG-2 program was the development of data to verify fracture analyses for cracked pipes and fittings subjected to dynamic/cyclic load histories typical of seismic events. The scope included: (1) the study of more complex dynamic/cyclic load histories, i.e., multi-frequency, variable amplitude, simulated seismic excitations, than those considered in the IPIRG-1 program, (2) crack sizes more typical of those considered in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) and in-service flaw evaluations, (3) through-wall-cracked pipe experiments which can be used to validate LBB-type fracture analyses, (4) cracks in and around pipe fittings, such as elbows, and (5) laboratory specimen and separate effect pipe experiments to provide better insight into the effects of dynamic and cyclic load histories. Also undertaken were an uncertainty analysis to identify the issues most important for LBB or in-service flaw evaluations, updating computer codes and databases, the development and conduct of a series of round-robin analyses, and analyst`s group meetings to provide a forum for nuclear piping experts from around the world to exchange information on the subject of pipe fracture technology. 17 refs., 104 figs., 41 tabs.

  1. Emotional coping differences among breast cancer patients from an online support group: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.E.; Das, H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  3. Effectiveness of Spiritual Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Spiritual Well-Being among Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Zamaniyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is deemed the century’s major health problem, and its increasing growth during the last decades has made experts concerned more than ever. Of all types of cancer, breast cancer is regarded as the second most common disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients suffering from breast cancer. The present research was carried out between March and June 2011. The sample consisted of 24 participants randomly assigned to 2 groups: an experimental group (n, 12 and a control group (n, 12. All the subjects completed questionnaires on quality of life and spiritual well-being in pretest and posttest. The experimental group received 12 sessions of spiritual group therapy. The results demonstrated improvement in quality of life and spiritual well-being in the experimental group. In conclusion, spiritual group therapy can be used to improve quality of life and spiritual well-being (religious health and existential health among patients with breast cancer.

  4. Group B streptococcal late-onset sepsis with submandibular phlegmon in a premature infant after beginning of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Giovanna; Dani, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    The case of a premature intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) infant, born from caesarean section to a mother with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome, and admitted to NICU for low birth weight is reported. The baby girl was fed with pasteurized maternal milk, and she had a normal growth. Before discharge, at the age of 23 days of life, she started to be breast-fed from the mother. Suddenly, the infant presented inconsolable crying, and then she appeared pale, hypothermic, and irritable. Eventually she showed apneic spells and hyperglycemia. A purple rash in the left submandibular area was noted. This rash rapidly progressed to painful hardening of the area. The neck ultrasonography revealed the presence of non-vascularized oval mass in the left submandibular area with an irregular sonostructure. The diagnosis of sepsis and submandibular phlegmon was confirmed by a positive blood culture for serotype III group B Streptococcus agalactiae. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for group B Streptococcus showed the presence of the same serotype in mother's milk. At 24 months of age the infant's neurodevelopment was normal.

  5. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology

  6. Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzelaer, Pim; Farrell, Joan; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jacob, Gitta A; Lee, Christopher W; Brand, Odette; van Breukelen, Gerard; Fassbinder, Eva; Fretwell, Heather; Harper, R Patrick; Lavender, Anna; Lockwood, George; Malogiannis, Ioannis A; Schweiger, Ulrich; Startup, Helen; Stevenson, Teresa; Zarbock, Gerhard; Arntz, Arnoud

    2014-11-18

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has been found to speed up and amplify the treatment effects found for individual ST. Delivery in a group format may lead to improved cost-effectiveness. An important question is how GST compares to treatment as usual (TAU) and what format for delivery of schema therapy (format A; intensive group therapy only, or format B; a combination of group and individual therapy) produces the best outcomes. An international, multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with a minimum of fourteen participating centres. Each centre will recruit multiple cohorts of at least sixteen patients. GST formats as well as the orders in which they are delivered to successive cohorts will be balanced. Within countries that contribute an uneven number of sites, the orders of GST formats will be balanced within a difference of one. The RCT is designed to include a minimum of 448 patients with BPD. The primary clinical outcome measure will be BPD severity. Secondary clinical outcome measures will include measures of BPD and general psychiatric symptoms, schemas and schema modes, social functioning and quality of life. Furthermore, an economic evaluation that consists of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed using a societal perspective. Lastly, additional investigations will be carried out that include an assessment of the integrity of GST, a qualitative study on patients' and therapists' experiences with GST, and studies on variables that might influence the effectiveness of GST. This trial will compare GST to TAU for patients with BPD as well as two different formats for the delivery of GST. By combining an evaluation of clinical effectiveness, an economic evaluation

  7. Computed tomography angiographic study of internal mammary perforators and their use as recipient vessels for free tissue transfer in breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya V Kanoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The internal mammary artery perforator vessels (IMPV as a recipient in free flap breast reconstruction offer advantages over the more commonly used thoracodorsal vessels and the internal mammary vessels (IMV. Aims: This study was designed to assess the anatomical consistency of the IMPV and the suitability of these vessels for use as recipients in free flap breast reconstruction. Patients and Methods: Data from ten randomly selected female patients who did not have any chest wall or breast pathology but had undergone a computed tomography angiography (CTA for unrelated diagnostic reasons from April 2013 to October 2013 were analysed. Retrospective data of seven patients who had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer and had been primarily reconstructed with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap transfer using the IMPV as recipient vessels were studied. Results: The CTA findings showed that the internal mammary perforator was consistently present in all cases bilaterally. In all cases, the dominant perforator arose from the upper four intercostal spaces (ICS with the majority (55% arising from the 2nd ICS. The mean distance of the perforators from the sternal border at the level of pectoralis muscle surface on the right side was 1.86 cm (range: 0.9–2.5 cm with a mode value of 1.9 cm. On the left side, a mean of 1.77 cm (range: 1.5–2.1 cm and a mode value of 1.7 cm were observed. Mean perforator artery diameters on the right and left sides were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Though the internal mammary perforators are anatomically consistent, their use as recipients in free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction eventually rests on multiple variables.

  8. Health-related quality of life in survivors of locally advanced breast cancer: an international randomised controlled phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Andrew; Therasse, Patrick; Piccart, Martine; Efficace, Fabio; Coens, Corneel; Gotay, Carolyn; Welnicka-Jaskiewicz, Marzena; Mauriac, Louis; Dyczka, Jaroslaw; Cufer, Tanja; Lichinitser, Michail R; Schornagel, Jan H; Bonnefoi, Herve; Shepherd, Lois

    2005-05-01

    Dose-intensive chemotherapy has generated much interest in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer because it might offer a survival benefit. We aimed to compare the effects of such an approach with those of standard chemotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 224 patients with locally advanced breast cancer were randomly assigned to 75 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide given orally on days 1-14, and 60 mg/m(2) epirubicin and 500 mg/m(2) fluorouracil both given intravenously on days 1 and 8, for six cycles every 28 days (6 months' treatment; standard treatment) and 224 patients to 830 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide and 120 mg/m(2) epirubicin both given intravenously on day 1, and 5 microg/kg filgrastim per day given subcutaneously on days 2-13, for six cycles every 14 days (3 months' treatment; dose-intensive treatment). HRQOL was assessed by use of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Baseline assessments were done before randomisation; then once a month for the first 3 months; and at months 6, 9, 12, 18, 26, 34, 42, 48, and 54. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; secondary endpoints were HRQOL, response, safety, overall response, and health economics. Analyses were by intention to treat. Previously reported data showed that groups did not differ in progression-free survival. Patients assigned shorter, intensified treatment had a significantly lower overall HRQOL score during the first 3 months than did those assigned standard treatment (mean score at 3 months 41.8 [SD 1.78] vs 49.6 [1.64], p=0.0015). However, scores returned to near baseline, with no difference between groups, at 12 months (62.6 [1.97] vs 65.6 [2.04], p=0.3007). Over the remaining 2 years, the groups showed few significant differences in HRQOL. Dose-intensive treatment only has a temporary effect on HRQOL, thus enabling more research on intensive treatment for patients with locally

  9. Differences in perception of the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes between pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macnab Iona

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (WHO Code aims to protect and promote breastfeeding. Japan ratified the WHO Code in 1994, but most hospitals in Japan continue to receive free supplies of infant formula and distribute discharge packs to new mothers provided by infant formula companies. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan to the WHO Code. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 132 pediatricians in the 131 NICUs which belonged to the Neonatal Network of Japan, and to 96 chief obstetricians in the general hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan, in 2004. Results Responses were received from 68% of pediatricians and 64% of obstetricians. Sixty-six percent of pediatricians agreed that "Breastmilk is the best", compared to only 13% of obstetricians. Likewise, pediatricians were more likely to be familiar with the WHO Code (51% than obstetricians (18%. Conclusion In Japan, pediatricians and obstetricians, in general, have low levels of support for breastfeeding and low levels of familiarity with the WHO Code. To increase the breastfeeding rates in Japan, both pediatricians and obstetricians need increased knowledge about current infant feeding practices and increased awareness of international policies to promote breastfeeding.

  10. Social and Psychological Determinants of Levels of Engagement with an Online Breast Cancer Support Group: Posters, Lurkers, and Non-Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M.; Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in the support groups. To better understand cancer patients’ online information and support seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and non-users. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients’ characteristics, suggesting that (1) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (2) ‘deficits’ in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22085215

  11. 75 FR 66796 - Pricewaterhousecoopers LLP (“PwC”), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pricewaterhousecoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client... subject firm should read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account... subject firm to read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account...

  12. Ultrafast internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in (4S)-azidoproline: Chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwang-Hee; Joo, Cheonik; Kwon, Hyeok-Jun; Han, Hogyu [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeong-Hyon [Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungnam, E-mail: spark8@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Internal rotational dynamics of the azido group in SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe) was studied in real time by using ultrafast 2DIR spectroscopic method. The time constant of the internal rotation around the C{sup {gamma}}-N{sup {delta}} bond in SA was determined to be {tau}{sub ir} = 5.1 ps, which is found to be much faster than that around the C-C bond in ethane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Femtosecond two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of internal rotational dynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stereo-electronic effects of azido group in azido-derivatized proline peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The timescale of the azido group internal rotation is about 5.1 ps. - Abstract: The azido group in 4-azidoproline (Azp) derivative, SA (Ac-(4S)-Azp-NHMe), can form an intramolecular electrostatic interaction with the backbone peptide in the s-trans and C{sup {gamma}}-endo conformations of SA. As a result, the azido group exists as two forms, bound and free, which are defined by the presence and absence of such interaction, respectively. The bound and free azido forms are spectrally resolved in the azido IR spectrum of SA in CHCl{sub 3}. Using the two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and polarization-controlled IR pump-probe methods, we investigated the internal rotational and orientational relaxation dynamics of the azido group and determined the internal rotational time constant of the azido group to be 5.1 ps. The internal rotational motion is found to be responsible for the early part of the orientational relaxation of the azido group in SA. Thus, the femtosecond 2DIR spectroscopy is shown to be an ideal tool for studying ultrafast conformational dynamics of SA.

  13. International multicenter tool to predict the risk of nonsentinel node metastases in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, Tuomo J; Leidenius, Marjut H K; Heikkilä, Päivi S

    2012-01-01

    predicting nonsentinel node involvement were identified in logistic regression analysis. A multivariable predictive model was developed and validated by area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), first internally in 500 additional patients and then externally in 1068 patients from other...... centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Nine tumor- and sentinel node-specific variables were identified as statistically significant factors predicting nonsentinel node involvement in logistic regression analysis. A resulting predictive model applied to the internal validation series...... resulted in an AUC of 0.714 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.665 to 0.763). For the external validation series, the AUC was 0.719 (95% CI = 0.689 to 0.750). The model was well calibrated in the external validation series. Conclusions We present a novel, international, multicenter, predictive tool...

  14. Core competencies for shared decision making training programs: insights from an international, interdisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, Nora; Drolet, Renée; Stacey, Dawn; Härter, Martin; Bastian, Hilda; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Borduas, Francine; Charles, Cathy; Coulter, Angela; Desroches, Sophie; Friedrich, Gwendolyn; Gafni, Amiram; Graham, Ian D; Labrecque, Michel; LeBlanc, Annie; Légaré, Jean; Politi, Mary; Sargeant, Joan; Thomson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Shared decision making is now making inroads in health care professionals' continuing education curriculum, but there is no consensus on what core competencies are required by clinicians for effectively involving patients in health-related decisions. Ready-made programs for training clinicians in shared decision making are in high demand, but existing programs vary widely in their theoretical foundations, length, and content. An international, interdisciplinary group of 25 individuals met in 2012 to discuss theoretical approaches to making health-related decisions, compare notes on existing programs, take stock of stakeholders concerns, and deliberate on core competencies. This article summarizes the results of those discussions. Some participants believed that existing models already provide a sufficient conceptual basis for developing and implementing shared decision making competency-based training programs on a wide scale. Others argued that this would be premature as there is still no consensus on the definition of shared decision making or sufficient evidence to recommend specific competencies for implementing shared decision making. However, all participants agreed that there were 2 broad types of competencies that clinicians need for implementing shared decision making: relational competencies and risk communication competencies. Further multidisciplinary research could broaden and deepen our understanding of core competencies for shared decision making training. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  15. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBSCG), in partnership with the Breast International Group (BIG) and the North American Breast Cancer Group, and funded by the U.S. National Cancer ... treatment with tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression. At five years ... cancer after treatment with exemestane plus ovarian function suppression; ...

  16. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... CFR Part 147 RIN 0991-AB70 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF GREAT SOIL GROUPS IN THE EAST BLACK SEA BASIN ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify great soil groups in the East Black Sea basin according to international soil classifi cation systems. 13 profi les of 3 great soil groups in this basin have been investigated and classifi ed according to system of FAO/UNESCO (1990, FitzPatrick (1988 and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998 in this study.

  18. A Qualitative Study of the Use of Sand for Counselor Interns in Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Helena Bohn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore sandtray as a group supervision method in counselor education programs. The research centered on the personal growth and development of counselor interns as they conceptualized and reflected on cases during group supervision. Research questions guiding the process included: What is the experience of…

  19. An update from the Chair of the students and new professionals Group of the International Society of Biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    The Students and New Professionals Group of the International Society of Biometeorology is composed of approximately 68 members who are either within 5 years from completing graduate studies or under 35 years of age. The group is represented by 21 countries from around the world and a variety of disciplinary perspectives working within the area of biometeorology. Here, an update from the Chair of the Students and New Professionals Group of the International Society of Biometeorology is provided based on accomplishments and new progress from 2014 to 2017 in advance of the ISB's 60th Anniversary.

  20. Failure pattern and survival after breast conserving therapy. Long-term results of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 89 TM cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, C D; Laurberg, T; Alsner, J

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results from the DBCG 82 trial, breast conserving therapy (BCT) has been implemented as standard in Denmark since 1989, and today constitutes more than 70% of the primary treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the implementation of BCT as a routine procedure in patients treated according...

  1. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  2. Identifying the concepts contained in outcome measures of clinical trials on breast cancer using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Thomas; Duddeck, Katharina; Geyh, Szilvia; Schwarzkopf, Susanne; Weigl, Martin; Franke, Thomas; Brach, Mirjam

    2004-07-01

    To systematically identify and quantify the concepts contained in outcome measures of clinical breast cancer trials using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. Randomized controlled trials between 1991 and 2000 were located in MEDLINE and selected according predefined criteria. The outcome measures were extracted and the concepts contained in the outcome measures were linked to the ICF. A total of 640 trials were included. Ninety-four different health status questionnaires were extracted. Three questionnaires were breast cancer-specific and 12 cancer-specific. Of 19,692 extracted concepts, 88% could be linked to the ICF. The most used ICF categories within the components body structures, body functions, and activities and participation were structure of the reproductive system (s630), sensations associated with the digestive system (b535), and looking after one's health (d570) with frequencies of 64%, 46% and 14%, respectively. No category of the environmental factors component reached a frequency of 10%. The ICF provides a useful reference to identify and quantify the concepts contained in outcome assessment used in clinical breast cancer trials. There seems to be a lack of health concepts evaluating specific aspects of disability and participation in breast cancer. Similarly, environmental factors with an impact on individual life of breast cancer survivors seem to be poorly represented.

  3. ABO blood group alleles and prostate cancer risk: Results from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium (BPC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Shui, Irene M; Unger, Robert H; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L; Stram, Daniel O; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A; Choueiri, Toni K; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney, and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.87-1.08; Type B: OR = 0.92, 95%CI =n0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between "dose" of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ceftibuten vs. penicillin V in group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis. Members of the Ceftibuten Pharyngitis International Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, M E; Mclinn, S E; Gooch, W M; Rodriguez, W; Goldfarb, J; Reidenberg, B E

    1995-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of a 10-day course of ceftibuten oral suspension (9 mg/kg once daily) were compared with those of penicillin V (25 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses) in children 3 to 18 years old treated for symptomatic pharyngitis and scarlet fever caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes). The study was prospective, randomized, multicenter and investigator-blinded; patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (ceftibuten:penicillin V). Overall clinical success (cure/improvement) at the primary end point of treatment (5 to 7 days posttherapy) was achieved in 97% (285 of 294) of ceftibuten-treated patients vs. 89% (117 of 132) of penicillin V-treated patients (P ceftibuten-treated patients vs 80% (105 of 132) of penicillin V-treated patients (P ceftibuten is as safe as and more effective than three times daily penicillin V for the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis.

  5. Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gail and others developed a model (GAIL using age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child, number of previous benign breast biopsy examinations, and number of first-degree-relatives with breast cancer as well as baseline age-specific breast cancer risks for predicting the 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer for Caucasian women. However, the validity of the model for projecting risk in South-East Asian women is uncertain. We evaluated GAIL and attempted to improve its performance for Singapore women of Chinese, Malay and Indian origins. Methods Data from the Singapore Breast Screening Programme (SBSP are used. Motivated by lower breast cancer incidence in many Asian countries, we utilised race-specific invasive breast cancer and other cause mortality rates for Singapore women to produce GAIL-SBSP. By using risk factor information from a nested case-control study within SBSP, alternative models incorporating fewer then additional risk factors were determined. Their accuracy was assessed by comparing the expected cases (E with the observed (O by the ratio (E/O and 95% confidence interval (CI and the respective concordance statistics estimated. Results From 28,883 women, GAIL-SBSP predicted 241.83 cases during the 5-year follow-up while 241 were reported (E/O=1.00, CI=0.88 to 1.14. Except for women who had two or more first-degree-relatives with breast cancer, satisfactory prediction was present in almost all risk categories. This agreement was reflected in Chinese and Malay, but not in Indian women. We also found that a simplified model (S-GAIL-SBSP including only age-at-menarche, age-at-birth of first live child and number of first-degree-relatives performed similarly with associated concordance statistics of 0.5997. Taking account of body mass index and parity did not improve the calibration of S-GAIL-SBSP. Conclusions GAIL can be refined by using national race-specific invasive breast cancer rates and mortality rates

  6. Effects of supportive-expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Fatemeh Moghaddam; Radfar, Moloud; Taei, Zeynab

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the effect of supportive expressive discussion groups on loneliness, hope and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. A randomized control trial including breast cancer patients who had completed chemotherapy and randomly allocated into two groups: intervention (n = 41) and control (n = 40). The intervention consisted of twelve weekly 90-min sessions for groups of six to eight breast cancer survivors. Data were obtained pre-to -post the intervention and at 8-week follow-up. The data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed a significant reduction in loneliness scores (F = 69.85, p group, while scores of control participants did not show this pattern during the study. The strongest effects were found for global quality of life (effect size) = 0.59), for future perspectives (effect size = 0.51), emotional functioning (effect size = 0.35) and social functioning (effect size = 0.31). The intervention was effective on loneliness, hope and quality of life in the intervention group. The intervention needs further evaluation in a larger study and with other cancer types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. International Myeloma Working Group Recommendations for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma–Related Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpos, Evangelos; Morgan, Gareth; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Drake, Matthew T.; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Raje, Noopur; Sezer, Orhan; García-Sanz, Ramón; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Turesson, Ingemar; Reiman, Tony; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Merlini, Giampaolo; Spencer, Andrew; Leleu, Xavier; Cavo, Michele; Munshi, Nikhil; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Durie, Brian G.M.; Roodman, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practice recommendations for the management of multiple myeloma (MM) –related bone disease. Methodology An interdisciplinary panel of clinical experts on MM and myeloma bone disease developed recommendations based on published data through August 2012. Expert consensus was used to propose additional recommendations in situations where there were insufficient published data. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were assigned and approved by panel members. Recommendations Bisphosphonates (BPs) should be considered in all patients with MM receiving first-line antimyeloma therapy, regardless of presence of osteolytic bone lesions on conventional radiography. However, it is unknown if BPs offer any advantage in patients with no bone disease assessed by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Intravenous (IV) zoledronic acid (ZOL) or pamidronate (PAM) is recommended for preventing skeletal-related events in patients with MM. ZOL is preferred over oral clodronate in newly diagnosed patients with MM because of its potential antimyeloma effects and survival benefits. BPs should be administered every 3 to 4 weeks IV during initial therapy. ZOL or PAM should be continued in patients with active disease and should be resumed after disease relapse, if discontinued in patients achieving complete or very good partial response. BPs are well tolerated, but preventive strategies must be instituted to avoid renal toxicity or osteonecrosis of the jaw. Kyphoplasty should be considered for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures. Low-dose radiation therapy can be used for palliation of uncontrolled pain, impending pathologic fracture, or spinal cord compression. Orthopedic consultation should be sought for long-bone fractures, spinal cord compression, and vertebral column instability. PMID:23690408

  8. Impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria for gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Janet; Vigo, Alvaro; Duncan, Bruce B; Falavigna, Maicon; Wendland, Eliana M; Campos, Maria A; Schmidt, Maria I

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) and alternative criteria in terms of resultant prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and measures of diagnostic impact. The Brazilian Gestational Diabetes Study (EBDG) is a cohort of pregnant women enrolled consecutively in prenatal care clinics of the Brazilian National Health Service from 1991 to 1995, a time and setting in which those with lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia rarely received drug treatment. Eligibility criteria were age ≥20 years, gestational age 20-28 weeks and no history of diabetes outside pregnancy. After interview and anthropometric measurements, a standardized 2h 75g OGTT was scheduled. Women were followed through early postpartum. Prevalence of GDM defined by IADPSG criteria was 18.0% (95% CI 16.9-19.0), ranging from 2.7 to 17.0% with the alternative criteria. Relative risks for large for gestational age (LGA) and preeclampsia were generally small. The diagnostic impact assessed by pre- to post-test gain in the probability of an outcome was also small (3.6% for LGA and 0.5% for preeclampsia). Alternative criteria reached maximum gains of 9.7% and 5.3%, respectively. The fractions of LGA births and preeclampsia attributable to GDM by the IADPSG criteria were small, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The IADPSG criteria identify more women as having GDM but their diagnostic and population impacts with respect to adverse outcomes are small. Alternative definitions, although also presenting small diagnostic and population impacts, showed advantages which may be useful in specific settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiologists' preferences for digital mammographic display. The International Digital Mammography Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, E D; Cole, E B; Major, S; Zong, S; Hemminger, B M; Muller, K E; Johnston, R E; Walsh, R; Conant, E; Fajardo, L L; Feig, S A; Nishikawa, R M; Yaffe, M J; Williams, M B; Aylward, S R

    2000-09-01

    To determine the preferences of radiologists among eight different image processing algorithms applied to digital mammograms obtained for screening and diagnostic imaging tasks. Twenty-eight images representing histologically proved masses or calcifications were obtained by using three clinically available digital mammographic units. Images were processed and printed on film by using manual intensity windowing, histogram-based intensity windowing, mixture model intensity windowing, peripheral equalization, multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA), contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization, Trex processing, and unsharp masking. Twelve radiologists compared the processed digital images with screen-film mammograms obtained in the same patient for breast cancer screening and breast lesion diagnosis. For the screening task, screen-film mammograms were preferred to all digital presentations, but the acceptability of images processed with Trex and MUSICA algorithms were not significantly different. All printed digital images were preferred to screen-film radiographs in the diagnosis of masses; mammograms processed with unsharp masking were significantly preferred. For the diagnosis of calcifications, no processed digital mammogram was preferred to screen-film mammograms. When digital mammograms were preferred to screen-film mammograms, radiologists selected different digital processing algorithms for each of three mammographic reading tasks and for different lesion types. Soft-copy display will eventually allow radiologists to select among these options more easily.

  10. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of an Emotional Intelligence Scale across Groups of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Kim, Do-Hong; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of Wong and Law's emotional intelligence scale (WLEIS) in a sample of 375 international students in U.S. universities. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. International students from…

  11. Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection : The case of international students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, MT; Spears, R; Branscombe, NR

    2003-01-01

    With a sample of international students, we investigated how perceptions of rejection by the host community are related to a sense of identification with other international students. Based on the rejection-identification model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999) we predicted that perceiving

  12. Bridging Scholarship and Practice: 20 Years of the Public International Law and Policy Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.A.; Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    When the Editor-in-Chief of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (UJIEL) approached us with the possibility of guest editing a special issue related to public international law and policy, we felt the timing could not have been better. As academics at Utrecht University with the

  13. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R; Yates, Esben S; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized......-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients....... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  14. International medical students' expectations and worries at the beginning of their medical education: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Daniel; Huber, Julia; Ippen, Franziska M; Eckart, Wolfgang; Junne, Florian; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-28

    The number of international students has increased substantially within the last decade. Due to cultural barriers, this specific group faces diverse challenges. In comparison to German colleagues, international medical students perform significantly lower in clinical examinations and exceed the average duration of study; they suffer from personal distress as well as insufficient support. Within the present study, their individual perspectives, expectations, hopes and fears were examined. Four focus groups with first-year international medical students (N = 16) were conducted in October 2013. Each 60- to 90-min discussion was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using qualitative methods. International medical students go abroad in search of good study-conditions. For the choice of place of study, affordability, social ties as well as an educational system following the achievement principle are decisive factors. While contact with German-students and other international students is seen as beneficial, international medical students are most concerned to encounter problems and social exclusion due to language deficits and intercultural differences. Facilitating the access to university places, the provision of financial aid and, moreover, social support, nurturing cultural integration, would greatly benefit international medical students. Hereby, the establishment of specific medical language courses as well as programs fostering intercultural-relations could prove to be valuable.

  15. A new statistical method for curve group analysis of longitudinal gene expression data illustrated for breast cancer in the NOWAC postgenome cohort as a proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiliv Lund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of changes in temporal processes related to human carcinogenesis is limited. One approach for prospective functional genomic studies is to compile trajectories of differential expression of genes, based on measurements from many case-control pairs. We propose a new statistical method that does not assume any parametric shape for the gene trajectories. Methods The trajectory of a gene is defined as the curve representing the changes in gene expression levels in the blood as a function of time to cancer diagnosis. In a nested case–control design it consists of differences in gene expression levels between cases and controls. Genes can be grouped into curve groups, each curve group corresponding to genes with a similar development over time. The proposed new statistical approach is based on a set of hypothesis testing that can determine whether or not there is development in gene expression levels over time, and whether this development varies among different strata. Curve group analysis may reveal significant differences in gene expression levels over time among the different strata considered. This new method was applied as a “proof of concept” to breast cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC postgenome cohort, using blood samples collected prospectively that were specifically preserved for transcriptomic analyses (PAX tube. Cohort members diagnosed with invasive breast cancer through 2009 were identified through linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway, and for each case a random control from the postgenome cohort was also selected, matched by birth year and time of blood sampling, to create a case-control pair. After exclusions, 441 case-control pairs were available for analyses, in which we considered strata of lymph node status at time of diagnosis and time of diagnosis with respect to breast cancer screening visits. Results The development of gene expression levels in the NOWAC postgenome

  16. Milk and social media: online communities and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Sheryl W

    2012-08-01

    The advent of social networking sites and other online communities presents new opportunities and challenges for the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding. This study examines the presence of infant formula marketing on popular US social media sites, using the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) as a framework. We examined to what extent each of 11 infant formula brands that are widely available in the US had established a social media presence in popular social media venues likely to be visited by expectant parents and families with young children. We then examined current marketing practices, using the Code as a basis for ethical marketing. Infant formula manufacturers have established a social media presence primarily through Facebook pages, interactive features on their own Web sites, mobile apps for new and expecting parents, YouTube videos, sponsored reviews on parenting blogs, and other financial relationships with parenting blogs. Violations of the Code as well as promotional practices unforeseen by the Code were identified. These practices included enabling user-generated content that promotes the use of infant formula, financial relationships between manufacturers and bloggers, and creation of mobile apps for use by parents. An additional concern identified for Code enforcement is lack of transparency in social media-based marketing. The use of social media for formula marketing may demand new strategies for monitoring and enforcing the Code in light of emerging challenges, including suggested content for upcoming consideration for World Health Assembly resolutions.

  17. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  19. An international randomised controlled trial to compare TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT) with conventional postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for women with early-stage breast cancer (the TARGIT-A trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Joseph, David J; Saunders, Christobel; Brew-Graves, Chris; Potyka, Ingrid; Morris, Stephen; Vaidya, Hrisheekesh J; Williams, Norman R; Baum, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies. To compare TARGIT within a risk-adapted approach with whole-breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) over several weeks. The TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy Alone (TARGIT-A) trial was a pragmatic, prospective, international, multicentre, non-inferiority, non-blinded, randomised (1 : 1 ratio) clinical trial. Originally, randomisation occurred before initial lumpectomy (prepathology) and, if allocated TARGIT, the patient received it during the lumpectomy. Subsequently, the postpathology stratum was added in which randomisation occurred after initial lumpectomy, allowing potentially easier logistics and a more stringent case selection, but which needed a reoperation to reopen the wound to give TARGIT as a delayed procedure. The risk-adapted approach meant that, in the experimental arm, if pre-specified unsuspected adverse factors were found postoperatively after receiving TARGIT, EBRT was recommended. Pragmatically, this reflected how TARGIT would be practised in the real world. Thirty-three centres in 11 countries. Women who were aged ≥ 45 years with unifocal invasive ductal carcinoma preferably ≤ 3.5 cm in size. TARGIT within a risk-adapted approach and whole-breast EBRT. The primary outcome measure was absolute difference in local recurrence, with a non-inferiority margin of 2.5%. Secondary outcome measures included toxicity and breast cancer-specific and non-breast-cancer mortality. In total, 3451 patients were recruited between March 2000 and June 2012. The

  20. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Effing, T.W; Vercoulen, J.H; Bourbeau, J; Trappenburg, J; Lenferink, A; Cafarella, P; Coultas, D; Meek, P; Valk, P. van de; Bischoff, E.W; Bucknall, C; Dewan, N.A; Early, F; Fan, V; Frith, P; Janssen, D.J; Mitchell, K; Morgan, M; Nici, L; Patel, I; Walters, H; Rice, K.L; Singh, S; ZuWallack, R; Benzo, R; Goldstein, R; Partridge, M.R; van der Palen, J

    2016-01-01

    ...) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management experts using Delphi technique...

  2. Learning for Entrepreneurship in Heterogeneous Groups: Experiences From an International, Interdisciplinary Higher Education Student Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Popov, V.; Oganisjana, K.; Täks, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although entrepreneurship education (EE) has gained popularity internationally, empirical work is scarce on the factors which influence the underlying learning process. This article presents the experiences of a European summer school where factors which contribute to entrepreneurial learning in

  3. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3.0 - Monthly Summary Groups (MSG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), is the most widely-used freely available collection of surface marine observations,...

  4. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH): an International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wente, Moritz N.; Veit, Johannes A.; Bassi, Claudio; Dervenis, Christos; Fingerhut, Abe; Gouma, Dirk J.; Izbicki, Jakob R.; Neoptolemos, John P.; Padbury, Robert T.; Sarr, Michael G.; Yeo, Charles J.; Buechler, Markus W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative hemorrhage is one of the most severe complications after pancreatic surgery. Due to the lack of an internationally accepted, universal definition of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), the incidences reported in the literature vary considerably, even in reports from

  5. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Long-term control and toxicity with brachytherapy for localized breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Amendola, Beatriz; Khan, Atif; Beriwal, Sushil; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Kim, Leonard H; Cuttino, Laurie

    There has been significant controversy regarding the equivalency of accelerated partial breast irradiation to whole-breast irradiation. With the recent publication of a large, randomized trial comparing these two treatment modalities, an update on the current state of knowledge of brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation, with respect to local control and toxicities, would be useful to practitioners and patients. A systematic literature review was conducted examining articles published between January 2000 and April 2016 on the topics "brachytherapy" and "breast." A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria, providing outcomes on local tumor control and/or toxicity for breast brachytherapy. Reported 5-year local failure rates were 1.4-6.1% for multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MIB) and 0-5.7% for single-entry brachytherapy catheters when delivered to patients with standard selection criteria. Toxicity profiles are acceptable, with cosmetic outcomes comparable to whole-breast irradiation. The reported rates of infection were 0-12%. Symptomatic fat necrosis was found in 0-12% and 0-3.2% of patients treated with MIB and single-entry brachytherapy catheters, respectively. Late Grade ≥3 telangiectasias and fibrosis were reported in 0-8% and 0-9.1% of patients treated with MIB, respectively. These side effects were less common with single-entry brachytherapy catheters (0-2.0% and 0%, respectively). Breast brachytherapy is a treatment technique that provides acceptable rates of local control in select patients, as demonstrated by Level I evidence. The side effect profile of this treatment is well documented and should be shared with patients when considering this treatment modality. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early postpartum breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy in Turkish mothers undergoing vaginal birth or cesarean birth with different types of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alus Tokat, Merlinda; Serçekuş, Pinar; Yenal, Kerziban; Okumuş, Hülya

    2015-04-01

    To compare the breast-feeding outcomes and breast-feeding self-efficacy, in the first 24 postpartum hours, of mothers who underwent vaginal birth, cesarean birth with epidural anesthesia, and cesarean birth with general anesthesia. A comparative study was conducted in Turkey. A total of 334 mothers participated. Data were evaluated through descriptive data form, breast-feeding outcomes form, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale. It was observed that the mothers who had cesarean birth with general anesthesia experienced more breast-feeding problems. With regard to breast-feeding self-efficacy, all the groups were similar. For reducing breast-feeding problems, nurses should provide more care and support to mothers undergoing cesarean birth. Therefore, the fact that the breast-feeding self-efficacy was similar among the groups might be related to culture. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  7. Group IV semiconductor surface chemistry: A multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.Q.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorption of Si[sub 2]H[sub 6], Ge[sub 2]H[sub 6], and hydrogen (atoms) on Ge(111) and Si(100) surfaces are characterized by using multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIRIRS). The inherent high resolution or infrared spectroscopy and the application of polarized light enable the detection of important modes for resolving the structure of surface species. The choice of Ge as substrate has extended the low frequency limit for MIRIRS to below 700 cm[sup [minus]1] (in comparison to that of Si at 1450 cm[sup [minus]1]). The vibrational modes in this low frequency region are used to uniquely measure the extent of Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] and Ge[sub 2]H[sub 6] dissociation on Ge(111). Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] and Ge[sub 2]H[sub 6] interact similarly with the Ge(111) surface. Molecular adsorption is the dominant process below 120K. Complete dissociation occurs above 150K to produce adsorbed trihydrides, SiH[sub 3] and GeH[sub 3], respectively. Adsorbed SiH[sub 3] decomposes at temperatures [ge] 200K to form SiH[sub 2], SiH and GeH, while surface GeH[sub 3] decomposition produces only GeH[sub 2] and GeH. Decomposition of all surface hydrides occurs by 600K. The adsorption of atomic hydrogen on Ge(111) leads to the production of GeH[sub 3], GeH[sub 2] and GeH at low temperatures ([le]200K), and strictly monohydrides at temperatures [ge]400K. Atomic hydrogen occupies primarily a single adsorption site at 500K, while a variety of adsorption sites are populated at lower adsorption temperatures. The reaction of H atoms with Si(100) - 2 [times] 1 produces Si(100) - 2 [times] 1:H, 3 [times] 1:H, and 1 [times] 1:H, sequentially, depending on the exposure and adsorption temperatures. The highly repulsive interaction between SiH[sub 2] groups prohibits the formation of a pure 1 [times] 1 dihydride phase, and induces the preferential formation of SiH[sub 3] at low temperatures ([le]150K).

  8. Fracture-related infection: A consensus on definition from an international expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsemakers, W J; Morgenstern, M; McNally, M A; Moriarty, T F; McFadyen, I; Scarborough, M; Athanasou, N A; Ochsner, P E; Kuehl, R; Raschke, M; Borens, O; Xie, Z; Velkes, S; Hungerer, S; Kates, S L; Zalavras, C; Giannoudis, P V; Richards, R G; Verhofstad, M H J

    2017-08-24

    Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a common and serious complication in trauma surgery. Accurately estimating the impact of this complication has been hampered by the lack of a clear definition. The absence of a working definition of FRI renders existing studies difficult to evaluate or compare. In order to address this issue, an expert group comprised of a number of scientific and medical organizations has been convened, with the support of the AO Foundation, in order to develop a consensus definition. The process that led to this proposed definition started with a systematic literature review, which revealed that the majority of randomized controlled trials in fracture care do not use a standardized definition of FRI. In response to this conclusion, an international survey on the need for and key components of a definition of FRI was distributed amongst all registered AOTrauma users. Approximately 90% of the more than 2000 surgeons who responded suggested that a definition of FRI is required. As a final step, a consensus meeting was held with an expert panel. The outcome of this process led to a consensus definition of FRI. Two levels of certainty around diagnostic features were defined. Criteria could be confirmatory (infection definitely present) or suggestive. Four confirmatory criteria were defined: Fistula, sinus or wound breakdown; Purulent drainage from the wound or presence of pus during surgery; Phenotypically indistinguishable pathogens identified by culture from at least two separate deep tissue/implant specimens; Presence of microorganisms in deep tissue taken during an operative intervention, as confirmed by histopathological examination. Furthermore, a list of suggestive criteria was defined. These require further investigations in order to look for confirmatory criteria. In the current paper, an overview is provided of the proposed definition and a rationale for each component and decision. The intention of establishing this definition of FRI was

  9. Effects of a psychoeducational versus a support group intervention in patients with early-stage breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Bredal, Inger; Kåresen, Rolf; Smeby, Nina Aarhus; Espe, Randi; Sørensen, Elin Myklebust; Amundsen, Mette; Aas, Hans; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Limited documentation exists on the effectiveness of psychoeducational group (PEG) versus support group (SG) interventions among breast cancer patients during primary care. Support group is a component of the hospitals' routine breast cancer care. The aim of this study was to investigate which of these approaches provides the greatest benefits to participants, particularly to women with low optimism (pessimists). The primary outcomes investigated here were anxiety, depression, and mental adjustment to cancer. A total of 367 women with early-stage breast cancer were randomized to the PEG or SG intervention starting 1 to 8 weeks after surgery. The PEG intervention included health education, enhancement of problem-solving skills, stress management, and psychological support. Participants in both groups showed improvement over time; however, no significant differences in emotional distress were found. The PEG participants exhibited more positive attitude at 2 and 6 months (P < .001) and less helplessness/hopelessness (P = .01) at 2 months compared with the SG participants. However, no significant differences were found between the groups at 12 months. Pessimists did not benefit more from attending the PEG than they did from attending the SG. Both groups showed improvement in emotional distress and coping over time. Although the results were limited, the PEG intervention seems to enhance short-term, but not long-term, adaptive coping. Psychoeducational group intervention yields benefits during the difficult period when patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Thus, the hospital's standard group interventions have been changed to include more health education and stress management, but within the same time frame as the original SG.

  10. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; et, al.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although childbearing is known to protect against breast cancer, whether or not breastfeeding contributes to this protective effect is unclear. METHODS: Individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries that included information on breastfeeding patterns and other aspects

  11. Brief report: Peer group influences and adolescent internalizing problems as mediated by effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The clinical database and implementation of treatment guidelines by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group in 2007-2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maj-Britt; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2018-01-01

    guidelines for the management of early breast cancer. By use of the clinical DBCG database we analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of guideline revisions in Denmark. METHODS: From the DBCG guidelines we extracted modifications introduced in 2007-2016 and selected examples regarding surgery......, radiotherapy (RT) and systemic treatment. We assessed introduction of modifications from release on the DBCG webpage to change in clinical practice using the DBCG clinical database. RESULTS: Over a 10-year period data from 48,772 patients newly diagnosed with malignant breast tumors were entered into DBCG......'s clinical database and 42,197 of these patients were diagnosed with an invasive carcinoma following breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy. More than twenty modifications were introduced in the guidelines. Implementations, based on prospectively collected data, varied widely; exemplified with around...

  13. Comparison of International Working Group criteria and National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Vos, S.; van Rossum, I.A.; Scheltens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two sets of research criteria for Alzheimer's disease are now available: those published by an International Working Group in 2007, and the recommendations published by the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) in 2011. They both provide guidelines for the diagnosis of

  14. 75 FR 36455 - SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc... Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of SSE Telecom...

  15. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C.; Langkjær, Rikke B.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...... systems investigated with RFLP. The rate of typing and reporting errors was 0.2%...

  16. Impact of Training on Change in Practice for Education Assistants in a Group of International Private Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Forlin, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research that evaluated the efficacy of training for education assistants and its impact upon changing practices in a group of private international schools in Hong Kong, China. Two cohorts of education assistants received training through an education institute. The focus was on supporting and fostering inclusive practices in…

  17. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth : A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James P.; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark; Currey, Laura; Daly, Daniel L.; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek T.; Holden, Martha J.; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erik J.; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John S.; Martin, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari M.; Small, Richard W.; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald; Zeira, Anat

    While the focus of this consensus statement and the review volume that preceded it (Whittaker, Del Valle, & Holmes, 2014) is on therapeutic residential care (TRC), a specialized form of group care, we view our work as supportive of a much wider effort internationally concerned with the quality of

  18. A Study of International Undergraduate Students Taking Online Courses: Group and Organizational Socialization Theory and Sense of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (1) identify and describe the experiences of international students participating in U.S. cohort- and text-based asynchronous online courses and to 2) analyze perceptions of belonging/isolation within online environments through group and organizational socialization theory. Research Methods: Data from interviews with…

  19. 76 FR 56490 - In the Matter of Amerex Group, Inc., AmeriChip International, Inc., Amish Naturals, Inc., Banker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Amerex Group, Inc., AmeriChip International, Inc., Amish Naturals, Inc., Banker's... concerning the securities of Amish Naturals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  20. The visiting internet Fiancé/ée (VIF): an emerging group of international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofarelli, Theresa A; Birich, Holly K; Hale, DeVon C

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an emerging category of travelers called the Visiting Internet Fiancé/ée (VIF), characterized by their travel to pursue a romantic relationship with an individual they have only encountered online. The VIF is not well identified in travel medicine literature despite having a higher risk for several travel-related issues including sexually transmitted infections, monetary fraud, and international scams. We also propose specific counseling interventions designed to minimize the adverse outcomes faced by the VIF traveler. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  1. Patch Testing To a Textile Dye Mix by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    .2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. CONCLUSIONS: Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix......BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. METHODS: Two thousand four hundred ninety...... should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series....

  2. The 2016 update of the International Study Group (ISGPS) definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula: 11 Years After.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Claudio; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Dervenis, Christos; Sarr, Micheal; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Adham, Mustapha; Allen, Peter; Andersson, Roland; Asbun, Horacio J; Besselink, Marc G; Conlon, Kevin; Del Chiaro, Marco; Falconi, Massimo; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano; Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos; Fingerhut, Abe; Friess, Helmut; Gouma, Dirk J; Hackert, Thilo; Izbicki, Jakob; Lillemoe, Keith D; Neoptolemos, John P; Olah, Attila; Schulick, Richard; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Takada, Tadahiro; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, William; Vollmer, Charles R; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Yeo, Charles J; Salvia, Roberto; Buchler, Marcus

    2017-03-01

    In 2005, the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula developed a definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula that has been accepted universally. Eleven years later, because postoperative pancreatic fistula remains one of the most relevant and harmful complications of pancreatic operation, the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification has become the gold standard in defining postoperative pancreatic fistula in clinical practice. The aim of the present report is to verify the value of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula and to update the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification in light of recent evidence that has emerged, as well as to address the lingering controversies about the original definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula. The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula reconvened as the International Study Group in Pancreatic Surgery in order to perform a review of the recent literature and consequently to update and revise the grading system of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Based on the literature since 2005 investigating the validity and clinical use of the original International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification, a clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula is now redefined as a drain output of any measurable volume of fluid with an amylase level >3 times the upper limit of institutional normal serum amylase activity, associated with a clinically relevant development/condition related directly to the postoperative pancreatic fistula. Consequently, the former "grade A postoperative pancreatic fistula" is now redefined and called a "biochemical leak," because it has no clinical importance and is no longer referred to a true pancreatic fistula. Postoperative pancreatic fistula grades B and C are confirmed but defined more strictly. In particular, grade B requires a

  3. Glucose is a key driver for GLUT1-mediated nanoparticles internalization in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Leonardo; Nappini, Silvia; Bulfoni, Michela; Gianfranceschi, Giuseppe; Dal Zilio, Simone; Coceano, Giovanna; Del Ben, Fabio; Turetta, Matteo; Scoles, Giacinto; Vaccari, Lisa; Cesselli, Daniela; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-02-01

    The mesenchymal state in cancer is usually associated with poor prognosis due to the metastatic predisposition and the hyper-activated metabolism. Exploiting cell glucose metabolism we propose a new method to detect mesenchymal-like cancer cells. We demonstrate that the uptake of glucose-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by mesenchymal-like cells remains constant when the glucose in the medium is increased from low (5.5 mM) to high (25 mM) concentration, while the MNPs uptake by epithelial-like cells is significantly reduced. These findings reveal that the glucose-shell of MNPs plays a major role in recognition of cells with high-metabolic activity. By selectively blocking the glucose transporter 1 channels we showed its involvement in the internalization process of glucose-coated MNPs. Our results suggest that glucose-coated MNPs can be used for metabolic-based assays aimed at detecting cancer cells and that can be used to selectively target cancer cells taking advantage, for instance, of the magnetic-thermotherapy.

  4. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  5. International Relations as Group Interaction: The Case of Russia and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    most obvious manifestation.” Because of the anarchic nature of the international environment, and because states “tend to assume the worst,” measures... Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. 4th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. Favarel-Garrigues, Gilles, Kathy

  6. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, T.W.; Vercoulen, J.H.; Bourbeau, J.; Trappenburg, J.; Lenferink, A.; Cafarella, P.; Coultas, D.; Meek, P.; Valk, P. van de; Bischoff, E.W.; Bucknall, C.; Dewan, N.A.; Early, F.; Fan, V.; Frith, P.; Janssen, D.J.; Mitchell, K.; Morgan, M.; Nici, L.; Patel, I.; Walters, H.; Rice, K.L.; Singh, S.; ZuWallack, R.; Benzo, R.; Goldstein, R.; Partridge, M.R.; van der Palen, J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  7. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention : International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Tanja W; Vercoulen, Jan H; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W M A; Bucknall, Christine; Dewan, Naresh A; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J A; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L; Singh, Sally; Zuwallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger; Partridge, Martyn R; van der Palen, Job

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  8. Modern Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Departments of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.

  9. Compliance with the International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: an observational study of pediatricians' waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Watkins, Amanda L; Bond, Angela B; Kintaro-Tagaloa, Cheryl; Arellano, Alondra; Allred, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Abstract The importance of breastmilk as a primary preventative intervention is widely known and understood by most healthcare providers. The actions or non-actions that heathcare providers take toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding families make a difference in the success and duration of breastfeeding. Recognizing this relationship, the World Health Organization developed the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which defines best practices in breastfeeding promotion, including physicians' offices. The pediatric practices' waiting rooms are often a family's first experience with pediatric care. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) Code compliance, (2) the demographic factors affecting the Code compliance, and (3) the amount and type of breastfeeding-supportive materials available in the pediatricians' waiting rooms. An observational cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 (82%) of the pediatric practices in Maricopa County, Arizona. None of the 100 waiting rooms that had any materials displayed (61%) was found to be completely Code compliant, with 81 of the offices having formula-promotional materials readily available. Waiting rooms in higher income areas offered more non-Code-compliant materials and gifts. Breastfeeding support information and materials were lacking in all but 18 (18%) offices. A positive relationship (t97=-2.31, p=0.02) occurred between the presence of breastfeeding educational materials and higher income areas. We were able to uncover some practice-related patterns that impact families and potentially undermine breastfeeding success. To move current practices toward breastfeeding-friendly physicians' offices, change is needed.

  10. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  11. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, H. A.; Pérez-Badillo, M. P.; Villaseñor, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the "Quality assurance programme for digital mammography", where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  12. Associations between gene expression profiles of invasive breast cancer and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System MRI lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Ram; Ku, You Jin; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Sei Joong; Min, Byung Soh

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon could reflect the genomic information of breast cancers and to suggest intuitive imaging features as biomarkers. Matched breast MRI data from The Cancer Imaging Archive and gene expression profile from The Cancer Genome Atlas of 70 invasive breast cancers were analyzed. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed according to the BI-RADS MRI lexicon of mass morphology. The cancers were divided into 2 groups of gene clustering by gene set enrichment an alysis. Clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The luminal subtype was predominant in the group 1 gene set and the triple-negative subtype was predominant in the group 2 gene set (55 of 56, 98.2% vs. 9 of 14, 64.3%). Internal enhancement descriptors were different between the 2 groups; heterogeneity was most frequent in group 1 (27 of 56, 48.2%) and rim enhancement was dominant in group 2 (10 of 14, 71.4%). In group 1, the gene sets related to mammary gland development were overexpressed whereas the gene sets related to mitotic cell division were overexpressed in group 2. We identified intuitive imaging features of breast MRI associated with distinct gene expression profiles using the standard imaging variables of BI-RADS. The internal enhancement pattern on MRI might reflect specific gene expression profiles of breast cancers, which can be recognized by visual distinction.

  13. Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, P.; Farrell, J.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; Jacob, G.A.; Lee, C.W.; Brand, O.; van Breukelen, G.; Fassbinder, E.; Fretwell, H.; Harper, R.P.; Lavender, A.; Lockwood, G.; Malogiannis, I.A.; Schweiger, U.; Startup, H.; Stevenson, T.; Zarbock, G.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has

  14. Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data. Results Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways. Conclusions All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target

  15. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  16. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model. Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer.

  17. International multi-site survey on the use of online support groups in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Y W; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Zompo, Maria Del; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Girish; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W; Hvenegaard Lund, Anne; Misiak, Blazej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Monteith, Scott; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nakanotani, Takako; Nielsen, René E; O'donovan, Claire; Okamura, Yasushi; Osher, Yamima; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Sawchuk, Brett; Schwartz, Elon; Scippa, Ângela M; Slaney, Claire; Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Suominen, Kirsi; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Tam, Peter; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Vieta, Eduard; Vinberg, Maj; Viswanath, Biju; Volkert, Julia; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Peer support is an established component of recovery from bipolar disorder, and online support groups may offer opportunities to expand the use of peer support at the patient's convenience. Prior research in bipolar disorder has reported value from online support groups. To understand the use of online support groups by patients with bipolar disorder as part of a larger project about information seeking. The results are based on a one-time, paper-based anonymous survey about information seeking by patients with bipolar disorder, which was translated into 12 languages. The survey was completed between March 2014 and January 2016 and included questions on the use of online support groups. All patients were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Analysis included descriptive statistics and general estimating equations to account for correlated data. The survey was completed by 1222 patients in 17 countries. The patients used the Internet at a percentage similar to the general public. Of the Internet users who looked online for information about bipolar disorder, only 21.0% read or participated in support groups, chats, or forums for bipolar disorder (12.8% of the total sample). Given the benefits reported in prior research, clarification of the role of online support groups in bipolar disorder is needed. With only a minority of patients using online support groups, there are analytical challenges for future studies.

  18. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached. The results show that in many immigrant groups the diagnostic age is earlier than that in natives of Sweden, suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology an...

  19. International multi-site survey on the use of online support groups in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    . The survey was completed between March 2014 and January 2016 and included questions on the use of online support groups. All patients were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Analysis included descriptive statistics and general estimating equations to account for correlated data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The survey.......8% of the total sample). Given the benefits reported in prior research, clarification of the role of online support groups in bipolar disorder is needed. With only a minority of patients using online support groups, there are analytical challenges for future studies....

  20. An Internal Evaluation of Educational Groups in Dentistry Faculty of Tabriz Medical University Using CIPP model in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Limouei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the purpose of internal evaluation of educational groups in dentistry faculty of Tabriz Medical University using CIPP model. Statistical population of this descriptive- cross sectional study consists of faculty members (n=106 and specialized assistants (n=108, conducted as whole counting. Questionnaires in four aspects of context, input, process and product were used to collect data. Reliability coefficient was obtained by Cronbach’s Alpha method. It was 0.886 for faculty members and 0.916 for assistants. Descriptive statistical methods were used for data analysis. In the context aspect, it was assessed fairly favorable and favorable by professors and assistants, respectively, for Endodontics, dental Prosthodontics, Pathology and Pediatric dentistry groups; it was evaluated fairly favorable for the other groups according to both perspectives. Professors of Periodontics group evaluated the input aspect fairly favorable and the assistants evaluated it favorable; Radiology professors assessed the input favorable and assistants recognized it fairly favorable and in other groups, professors and assistants assessed the input aspect fairly favorable. The process aspect was evaluated fairly favorable in Orthodontics, Pediatric and Radiology groups, favorable in Pathology group, and fairly favorable according to the professors and favorable according to the assistants in other groups. The product aspect was favorable in operative and Pathology groups from professors' viewpoints and fairly favorable according to the assistants' opinions.

  1. Definition and classification of chyle leak after pancreatic operation: A consensus statement by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselink, Marc G; van Rijssen, L Bengt; Bassi, Claudio; Dervenis, Christos; Montorsi, Marco; Adham, Mustapha; Asbun, Horacio J; Bockhorn, Maximillian; Strobel, Oliver; Büchler, Markus W; Busch, Olivier R; Charnley, Richard M; Conlon, Kevin C; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Fingerhut, Abe; Friess, Helmut; Izbicki, Jakob R; Lillemoe, Keith D; Neoptolemos, John P; Sarr, Michael G; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Sitarz, Robert; Vollmer, Charles M; Yeo, Charles J; Hartwig, Werner; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Gouma, Dirk J

    2017-02-01

    Recent literature suggests that chyle leak may complicate up to 10% of pancreatic resections. Treatment depends on its severity, which may include chylous ascites. No international consensus definition or grading system of chyle leak currently is available. The International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery, an international panel of pancreatic surgeons working in well-known, high-volume centers, reviewed the literature and worked together to establish a consensus on the definition and classification of chyle leak after pancreatic operation. Chyle leak was defined as output of milky-colored fluid from a drain, drain site, or wound on or after postoperative day 3, with a triglyceride content ≥110 mg/dL (≥1.2 mmol/L). Three different grades of severity were defined according to the management needed: grade A, no specific intervention other than oral dietary restrictions; grade B, prolongation of hospital stay, nasoenteral nutrition with dietary restriction, total parenteral nutrition, octreotide, maintenance of surgical drains, or placement of new percutaneous drains; and grade C, need for other more invasive in-hospital treatment, intensive care unit admission, or mortality. This classification and grading system for chyle leak after pancreatic resection allows for comparison of outcomes between series. As with the other the International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery consensus statements, this classification should facilitate communication and evaluation of different approaches to the prevention and treatment of this complication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees’ Organizational Identification? A Perspective From the Group Engagement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran eHameed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature examines the impact of firms’ corporate social responsibility (CSR activities on employees’ organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed towards external stakeholders and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed towards employees activities influence employees’ organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees’ identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees’ calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail.

  3. How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees' Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Imran; Riaz, Zahid; Arain, Ghulam A.; Farooq, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The literature examines the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on employees' organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed toward external stakeholders) and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed toward employees) activities influence employees' organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees' identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions) moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees' calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail. PMID:27303345

  4. How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees' Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Imran; Riaz, Zahid; Arain, Ghulam A; Farooq, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The literature examines the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on employees' organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed toward external stakeholders) and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed toward employees) activities influence employees' organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees' identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions) moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees' calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail.

  5. Results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and two alleged fathers. The laboratories were encouraged...... VNTR systems investigated with RFLP, 49 autosomal SNPs and 11 mtDNA SNPs. The rate of typing and reporting errors was 0.1%....

  6. The Impact of Corporate Volunteerism on Organisational Identity and Organisational Identification: The Perspective of Community Groups and Internal Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Ying Hung

    2007-01-01

    The current study seeks to uncover the process underlying the renegotiation process of organisational identity orientation, a framework proposed by Brickson (2005), as well as the change on the level of organisational identification in relation to corporate volunteerism, from the perspective of internal stakeholders and community groups. In the course of studying inductively two cases which employ different sets of strategy on corporate volunteerism, a framework on different stages of c...

  7. Effects of parity on pregnancy hormonal profiles across ethnic groups with a diverse incidence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Alan A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Katz, Joseph; Levitz, Mortimer; Del Priore, Giuseppe; Toniolo, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a full-term pregnancy may affect maternal risk of breast cancer later in life. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare circulating levels of maternal hormones affecting breast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin and prolactin) and proliferation [alpha-fetoprotein, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and estradiol] between women at a low to moderate risk (Asians and Hispanics), as compared with women at a high risk for breast cancer (Caucasians and African-Americans). Between May 2002 and December 2004, a total of 586 pregnant women were approached during a routine prenatal visit. Among them, 450 women (206 Caucasian, 126 Asian, 88 Hispanic, and 30 African-American) met the inclusion criteria and signed the informed consent. Only singleton pregnancies were considered. Blood samples were drawn during the second trimester of pregnancy. Laboratory analyses were done using the IMMULITE 2000 immunoassay system. Gestational age standardized mean levels of estradiol, IGF-I, and prolactin were significantly higher in Hispanic women compared with Caucasian women. Mean concentration of IGF-I was significantly higher in African-American women compared with Caucasian and Asian women. No significant differences in pregnancy hormone levels were observed between Caucasian and Asian (predominantly second-generation Chinese) women in this study. Irrespective of ethnicity, women who had their first pregnancy had substantially higher mean levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol, and prolactin compared with women who previously had at least one full-term pregnancy. These data suggest that circulating pregnancy hormone levels may explain some of the ethnic differences in breast cancer risk.

  8. The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW TBE): Review of 17 years of activity and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and other parts of the world for the past 20 years. In 1999, in order to encourage the control of TBE, international experts created a new body: The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE). This Working Group has been composed of internationally recognized scientific experts from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv)-endemic and non-endemic regions with extensive personal expertise in the field and a high level of commitment to improve the knowledge of TBE and to increase the public awareness of TBE. Since the foundation of the Working Group, ISW-TBE members meet annually. Every meeting is dedicated to a specific topic, and since 2004 a yearly conference report has been published to inform the scientific community about the latest developments. Among the specific issues that have been extensively discussed over the years were the following: clinical aspects of the disease, TBE in children and golden agers, epidemiology, possible causes for the increase in TBE incidence in Europe, TBE and awareness, TBE and travel, (low) vaccination rates, and the cooperation with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). This paper gives an overview of the most important activities and achievements of the ISW-TBE over the past 17 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group thymic initiative: a state-of-the-art study of thymic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterbeck, Frank; Korst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thymic malignancies are relatively rare tumors. A general lack of knowledge, misconceptions about benignancy, confusion about the definition of terms, and variability in reporting of outcomes have further hampered progress in these diseases. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has emerged to counter these challenges and has brought together a worldwide multidisciplinary community determined to improve outcomes for these patients. Although the organization is young (initiated in 2010), major early accomplishments have created a foundation and infrastructure for scientific research. These include consensus definitions of terms, an unprecedented global database, development of practical clinical resources and, together with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, development of proposals for the first formal stage classification of these malignant tumors. Many articles have been published or are under way, and a second phase of projects building on the early success is proceeding. The greatest accomplishment of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group lies in the establishment of an open culture of collaboration and the engagement of a broad group of individuals united by a common mission. It is a testament to what can be achieved, despite ongoing and inherent challenges, by determination and a collective effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. International Conference on Non-Commutative Harmonic Analysis and Lie Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, Patrick; Vergne, Michèle

    1987-01-01

    All the papers in this volume are research papers presenting new results. Most of the results concern semi-simple Lie groups and non-Riemannian symmetric spaces: unitarisation, discrete series characters, multiplicities, orbital integrals. Some, however, also apply to related fields such as Dirac operators and characters in the general case.

  11. Power Distance and Group Dynamics of an International Project Team: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Trena M.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Malopinsky, Larissa; Pereira, Maura; Rastogi, Polly

    2005-01-01

    Project-based team activities are commonly used in higher education. Teams comprised of members from different national cultures can be faced with unique challenges during the creative process. Hofstede's (1991) cultural dimension of power distance was used to examine one such design team's intra- and inter-group interactions in a graduate-level…

  12. 75 FR 26945 - International Education Programs Service-Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... colleges or departments of arts and sciences within institutions of higher education, and (2) projects that... promote the internationalization of teacher education and would expand the capabilities of participating... represented in those groups in substantial numbers. We believe that internationalization of K-12 education can...

  13. Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, A; Astley, S; Warwick, J; Stavrinos, P; Sahin, S; Ingham, S; McBurney, H; Eckersley, B; Harvie, M; Wilson, M; Beetles, U; Warren, R; Hufton, A; Sergeant, J; Newman, W; Buchan, I; Cuzick, J; Evans, D. G

    2012-01-01

    ...; and Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge; UK). Prevention of breast cancer in the context of a national breast screening programme (Review). J Intern Med 2012; 271 : 321–330...

  14. Randomized-controlled trial of mindfulness-based cancer recovery versus supportive expressive group therapy among distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET): long-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Linda E; Tamagawa, Rie; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Zhong, Lihong; Speca, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) and supportive expressive group therapy (SET) are two well-validated psychosocial interventions, but they have not been directly compared, and little is known about long-term outcomes. This comparative effectiveness study measured the effects of these two interventions immediately following the groups and for 1 year thereafter in distressed breast cancer survivors. Two hundred fifty-two distressed Stage I-III breast cancer survivors were randomized into either MBCR or SET. Women completed questionnaires addressing mood, stress symptoms, quality of life, social support, spirituality and post-traumatic growth before and after the interventions, and 6 and 12 months later. Immediately following the intervention, women in MBCR reported greater reduction in mood disturbance (primarily fatigue, anxiety and confusion) and stress symptoms including tension, sympathetic arousal and cognitive symptoms than those in SET. They also reported increased emotional and functional quality of life, emotional, affective and positive social support, spirituality (feelings of peace and meaning in life) and post-traumatic growth (appreciation for life and ability to see new possibilities) relative to those in SET, who also improved to a lesser degree on many outcomes. Effect sizes of the time × group interactions were small to medium, and most benefits were maintained over 12 months of follow-up. This study is the first and largest to demonstrate sustained benefits of MBCR in distressed breast cancer survivors relative to an active control. MBCR was superior to SET for improving psychological well-being with lasting benefits over 1 year, suggesting these women gained long-lasting and efficacious tools to cope with cancer. Registered on clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00390169, October 2006. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The effectiveness of a psycho-educational group after early-stage breast cancer treatment: results of a randomized French study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeault, S; Cayrou, S; Brédart, A; Viala, A L; Desclaux, B; Saltel, P; Gauvain-Piquard, A; Hardy, P; Dickes, P

    2009-06-01

    Many women with breast cancer need psychological help to cope more effectively after treatment. Cognitive and behavioural techniques are not yet well established in France. A multi-site randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a psycho-educational group intervention in this population. Two hundred and three patients, recruited after primary treatment, were randomly assigned either to a treatment group (psycho-educational intervention) or to a waiting-list control group. The 8-week programme of 2 h sessions comprised of thematic discussions, information and training in stress management techniques. Evaluation at baseline, after 8 sessions, and 1 month after programme completion, included evaluations using the STAI, POMS, MAC, EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 breast module scales. We observed a significant reduction in anxiety (STAI, POMS) among group participants, a reduction in anger, depression and fatigue (POMS), a significant improvement in vigor and interpersonal relationships (POMS), in emotional and role functioning, in health status and fatigue level (EORTC QLQ-C30). In contrast, coping strategies (MAC) were not significantly different between groups. No group-related negative effects were observed and the global satisfaction levels were very high. This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention, which can accelerate the reduction of those negative affects which are present at the end of treatment. It represents an excellent complement or an alternative to individual psycho-oncologic therapeutic support, widely proposed in France, and should now be tested in groups with other types of cancer and at other disease phases.

  16. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. THE "PARENT" COMPANY, PART OF THE ACCOUNTING ENTITY GROUP, IN THE CURRENT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniu, TURLEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study's objectives include: 1. Knowledge of the economic context of classification of the parent company in the group of accounting entities, in order to establish the development needs, resources and the activity conduct of private economic group versus State-held economic group. 2. Systematic analysis of the economic potential at the legislative level, in order to identify differences in corporate governance as an instrument to increase the performance of private economic interest group versus State-held group and integration into a general descriptive context to facilitate the use of available information in their field of interest, the exchange of experiences and best practices. The premise of this paper is intended to be a starting point in an active approach and encouragement of economic entities to meet economic groups in order to have easier access to sources of funding and to provide economic stability and credibility in the industry where they activate. The research is experimental, both qualitative and quantitative, by explaining the current national and international legal context of the studied phenomenon. The information are based on the bibliographical and direct documentation on reality, direct contact of primary documents, as well as on decision-making persons in such group companies. Information about the status of the studied phenomenon anchored in the national economic reality is estimated to be obtained.

  18. Sustaining international careers: a peer group for psychiatrists working in global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Julian; Bouras, Nick; Jones, Lynne; Hanlon, Charlotte; Stewart, Rob; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Regular appraisal and revalidation are now a routine part of professional life for doctors in the UK. For British-trained psychiatrists working abroad (in either development/humanitarian or academic fields) this is a cause of insecurity, as most of the processes of revalidation are tailored to those working in the standard structures of the National Health Service. This article explores the degree to which a peer group for psychiatrists working abroad has achieved its aim of helping its members to fulfil their revalidation requirements. It gives recommendations for how those considering work abroad can maximise their chances of remaining recognised under the revalidation system.

  19. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lamart@nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Curtis, Rochelle E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Travis, Lois [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Kwon, Deukwoo [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Morton, Lindsay M. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower

  20. Community Impacts of International Service-Learning and Study Abroad: An Analysis of Focus Groups with Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Wood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethical practice of international service-learning requires participants and institutions to examine their potential impacts on vulnerable host communities. This study reports on a series of focus groups with leaders of short-term international service-learning and other study abroad programs. The results of these focus groups suggests that while program leaders do not generally take into account the potential impacts of their programs on local communities in the design or implementation of their programs, they are very open to considering ways to mitigate negative impacts and promote positive ones once the issue has been raised. Program leaders are also collectively able to generate many excellent and creative strategies for improving their programs with respect to effects on communities, and are enthusiastic about engaging in this dialogue. We conclude that more research as well as substantial institutional commitment to addressing the community impacts of international service-learning and other study abroad programs are necessary for positive change, including training and other support to program leaders. KEYWORDSinternational service-learning, community impacts, civic engagement, community partnerships

  1. [Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, James K; Holmes, Lisa; Del Valle, Jorge F; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark; Currey, Laurah; Daly, Daniel; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek; Holden, Martha; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erick; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John; Martin, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari; Small, Richard; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald; Zeira, Anat

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care. In many developed countries around the world residential care interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny. Against this background an international summit was organised in England (spring 2016) with experts from 13 countries to reflect on therapeutic residential care (TRC). The following working definition of TRC was leading: “Therapeutic residential care involves the planful use of a purposefully constructed, multi-dimensional living environment designed to enhance or provide treatment, education, socialization, support, and protection to children and youth with identified mental health or behavioral needs in partnership with their families and in collaboration with a full spectrum of community based formal and informal helping resources”. The meeting was characterised by exchange of information and evidence, and by preparing an international research agenda. In addition, the outlines of a consensus statement on TRC were discussed. This statement, originally published in English and now reproduced in a Spanish translation, comprises inter alia five basic principles of care that according to the Work Group on Therapeutic Residental Care should be guiding for residential youth care provided at any time.

  2. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  3. [Using cancer case identification algorithms in medico-administrative databases: Literature review and first results from the REDSIAM Tumors group based on breast, colon, and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Caillet, P; Coeuret-Pellicer, M; Goulard, H; Kudjawu, Y C; Le Bihan, C; Lecuyer, A I; Séguret, F

    2017-10-01

    The development and use of healthcare databases accentuates the need for dedicated tools, including validated selection algorithms of cancer diseased patients. As part of the development of the French National Health Insurance System data network REDSIAM, the tumor taskforce established an inventory of national and internal published algorithms in the field of cancer. This work aims to facilitate the choice of a best-suited algorithm. A non-systematic literature search was conducted for various cancers. Results are presented for lung, breast, colon, and rectum. Medline, Scopus, the French Database in Public Health, Google Scholar, and the summaries of the main French journals in oncology and public health were searched for publications until August 2016. An extraction grid adapted to oncology was constructed and used for the extraction process. A total of 18 publications were selected for lung cancer, 18 for breast cancer, and 12 for colorectal cancer. Validation studies of algorithms are scarce. When information is available, the performance and choice of an algorithm are dependent on the context, purpose, and location of the planned study. Accounting for cancer disease specificity, the proposed extraction chart is more detailed than the generic chart developed for other REDSIAM taskforces, but remains easily usable in practice. This study illustrates the complexity of cancer detection through sole reliance on healthcare databases and the lack of validated algorithms specifically designed for this purpose. Studies that standardize and facilitate validation of these algorithms should be developed and promoted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...

  5. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF HOME GROUPS AND PEASANT FAMILIES IN THE LOWLANDS OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ruiz Rueda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of Vicente Fox in the year 2000 to thepresidency openly imposed the exercise of “a governmentof business men and for business men”, whose impact in thelowlands of Guanajuato was translated into a higher level ofunderstanding of neoliberal farming policies. In front of aneconomical bankrupt of grains production imposed by thosepolicies, the peasants had intensify the migration, mainly inthe US, which originated a varied process of socialstructure, that goes beyond, the one that points out that inthe rural communities only lives women, old people andchildren. It´s precisely this process of social structure,which will be analyzed in this work. To do this, will beaddressed the case of study of a village from theMunicipality of Irapuato, Guanajuato, where would bepossible to identify the different types of social structurearound the families and peasant home groups, taking countthat Guanajuato, and in particular the lowlands, is theregion that most migrants send to US.

  6. International Working Group consensus response evaluation criteria in lymphoma (RECIL 2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, A; Hilden, P; Coiffier, B

    2017-01-01

    . The RECIL group hypothesized that single-dimension measurement could be used to assess response to therapy in lymphoma patients, producing results similar to the standard criteria. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 47 828 imaging measurements from 2983 individual adult and pediatric lymphoma patients......In recent years, the number of approved and investigational agents that can be safely administered for the treatment of lymphoma patients for a prolonged period of time has substantially increased. Many of these novel agents are evaluated in early-phase clinical trials in patients with a wide range...... of malignancies, including solid tumors and lymphoma. Furthermore, with the advances in genome sequencing, new "basket" clinical trial designs have emerged that select patients based on the presence of specific genetic alterations across different types of solid tumors and lymphoma. The standard response criteria...

  7. An international survey of classification and treatment choices for group D retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelfo, Christina; Francis, Jasmine H; Khetan, Vikas; Jenkins, Thomas; Marr, Brian; Abramson, David H; Shields, Carol L; Pe'er, Jacob; Munier, Francis; Berry, Jesse; Harbour, J William; Yarovoy, Andrey; Lucena, Evandro; Murray, Timothy G; Bhagia, Pooja; Paysse, Evelyn; Tuncer, Samuray; Chantada, Guillermo L; Moll, Annette C; Ushakova, Tatiana; Plager, David A; Ziyovuddin, Islamov; Leal, Carlos A; Materin, Miguel A; Ji, Xun-Da; Cursino, Jose W; Polania, Rodrigo; Kiratli, Hayyam; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; Kebudi, Rejin; Honavar, Santosh G; Vishnevskia-Dai, Vicktoria; Epelman, Sidnel; Daniels, Anthony B; Ling, Jeanie D; Traore, Fousseyni; Ramirez-Ortiz, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region. An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012. Participants were asked to record which version of the IIRC was used for classification, how many group D eyes were diagnosed, and how many eyes were treated with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies. Averages of eyes per treatment modality were calculated and stratified by both IIRC version and geographic region. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests using Prism. The survey was completed by 29% of physicians invited to participate. Totally 1807 D eyes were diagnosed. Regarding IIRC system, 27% of centers used the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) version, 33% used the Children's Oncology Group (COG) version, 23% used the Philadelphia version, and 17% were unsure. The rate for primary enucleation varied between 0 and 100% and the mean was 29%. By IIRC version, primary enucleation rates were: Philadelphia, 8%; COG, 34%; and CHLA, 37%. By geographic region, primary enucleation rates were: Latin America, 57%; Asia, 40%; Europe, 36%; Africa, 10%, US, 8%; and Middle East, 8%. However, systemic chemoreduction was used more often than enucleation in all regions except Latin America with a mean of 57% per center ( P <0.0001). Worldwide there is no consensus on which IIRC version is used, systemic chemoreduction was the most frequently used initial treatment during the study period followed by enucleation and primary treatment modality, especially enucleation, varied greatly with regards to IIRC version used and geographic region.

  8. An international survey of classification and treatment choices for group D retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine H Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region. METHODS: An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012. Participants were asked to record which version of the IIRC was used for classification, how many group D eyes were diagnosed, and how many eyes were treated with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies. Averages of eyes per treatment modality were calculated and stratified by both IIRC version and geographic region. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests using Prism. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 29% of physicians invited to participate. Totally 1807 D eyes were diagnosed. Regarding IIRC system, 27% of centers used the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA version, 33% used the Children’s Oncology Group (COG version, 23% used the Philadelphia version, and 17% were unsure. The rate for primary enucleation varied between 0 and 100% and the mean was 29%. By IIRC version, primary enucleation rates were: Philadelphia, 8%; COG, 34%; and CHLA, 37%. By geographic region, primary enucleation rates were: Latin America, 57%; Asia, 40%; Europe, 36%; Africa, 10%, US, 8%; and Middle East, 8%. However, systemic chemoreduction was used more often than enucleation in all regions except Latin America with a mean of 57% per center (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Worldwide there is no consensus on which IIRC version is used, systemic chemoreduction was the most frequently used initial treatment during the study period followed by enucleation and primary treatment modality, especially enucleation, varied greatly with regards to IIRC version

  9. [International Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology. Proposals of the Interdisciplinary Group on American Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pierres, G; López-Antuñano, F J

    1997-01-01

    Parasite diseases such as Leishmaniases and American Trypanosomiases have been increasingly important in Mexico and other countries of the American Region. In known areas, these diseases are highly endemic, and in recently opened developing areas became a new threat to public health. Some social groups working in natural resources exploitation, agriculture, animal stock and public labor are particularly affected. The molecular epidemiology approach to these diseases is linking valuable capabilities and resources within the academic and operational institutions actual working in genetic polymorphism, strain characterization and PRC identification of Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of American trypanosomiasis infections and Chagas's disease and of cutaneous, mucocutaneous, disseminated and visceral leishmaniases, as well as genetic susceptibility studies have been initiated by Mexican scientists. In order to organize and coordinate the molecular epidemiology activities and support effective prevention and control programs against these diseases, political decision from the health, and academic authorities is urgently needed to adopt and support the research strategy for typing Trypanosoma and Leishmania species through exposition and biological markers (analysis of chromosomal DNA, ribosomal genes restriction patterns, DNA sequence, and DNA plasmids); the study of the membrane proteins and isoenzymes and monoclonal antibodies; detecting antigens and nucleic acids; defining susceptibility to infection with genetic markers, and searching for species, variants and mutant strains responsible for high virulence. The support for the establishment of a Reference Center for identification, cryopreservation and registration of parasites, vectors and reservoires is of paramount importance.

  10. Female breast cancer: distribution, risk factors, and effect of steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, K C

    1980-07-01

    The 3 common diseases of the female breast are cystic hyperplasia, fibroadenoma and carcinoma. In discussing the 3rd and the most common forms of malignant disease, attention is directed to the following: criteria for source data selection (source data for distribution and for risk and etiological factors); distribution of female characteristics, environmental attributes, temporal variation, and a summary of major variables on breast cancer distribution); risk factors (pregnancy, ovarian activity, international variation, benign breast disease, familial aggregation); etiologic hypotheses (effect of contraceptive pill use on benign breast disease and effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on breast cancer risk); and further hypotheses research. The most common cancer in women, breast cancer usually occurs in the years before the menopause. Factors favoring the development of breast cancer frequently are present early in life. Among women, breast cancer accounts for more than 1 out of very 4 cancers. The age-specific mortality and incidence rates of female cancer increase with age. This pattern is consistently present in both white and black groups. Age-adjusted mortality rates for female breast cancer by place of residence and race for the United States and for each geographic division and state for the 1959-1961 period are presented in table form. An elevated risk of breast cancer associated with long-term OC use has been reported among women with a biopsy diagnosis of benign breast neoplasia prior to the development of breast cancer.

  11. Sutureless Aortic Valve Replacement International Registry (SU-AVR-IR): design and rationale from the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Bouchard, Denis; Carrel, Thierry P.; Dapunt, Otto E.; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Eichstaedt, Harald C.; Fischlein, Theodor; Folliguet, Thierry; Gersak, Borut; Glauber, Mattia; Haverich, Axel; Misfeld, Martin; Oberwalder, Peter J.; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Shrestha, Malakh Lal; Solinas, Marco; Vola, Marco; Alamanni, Francesco; Albertini, Alberto; Bhatnagar, Gopal; Carrier, Michel; Clark, Stephen; Collart, Federic; Kappert, Utz; Kocher, Alfred; Meuris, Bart; Mignosa, Carmelo; Ouda, Ahmed; Pelletier, Marc; Rahmanian, Parwis Baradaran; Reineke, David; Teoh, Kevin; Troise, Giovanni; Villa, Emmanuel; Wahlers, Thorsten; Yan, Tristan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is an innovative approach which shortens cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp durations and may facilitate minimally invasive approach. Evidence outlining its safety, efficacy, hemodynamic profile and potential complications is replete with small-volume observational studies and few comparative publications. Methods Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and high-volume SU-AVR replacement centers were contacted for recruitment into a global collaborative coalition dedicated to sutureless valve research. A Research Steering Committee was formulated to direct research and support the mission of providing registry evidence warranted for SU-AVR. Results The International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) was formed under the auspices of the Research Steering Committee, comprised of 36 expert valvular surgeons from 27 major centers across the globe. IVSSG Sutureless Projects currently proceeding include the Retrospective and Prospective Phases of the SU-AVR International Registry (SU-AVR-IR). Conclusions The global pooling of data by the IVSSG Sutureless Projects will provide required robust clinical evidence on the safety, efficacy and hemodynamic outcomes of SU-AVR. PMID:25870808

  12. Food fortification to reduce vitamin A deficiency: International Vitamin A Consultative Group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary, Omar; Mora, Jose O

    2002-09-01

    In developed countries, food fortification has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil products as well as cereal flours and meals with vitamin A has been shown. Sugar has been fortified with vitamin A in Central American countries for years, and biological efficacy and program effectiveness are well established. Efficacy of fortifying monosodium glutamate with vitamin A was demonstrated but a program has not been established. Fortification with vitamin A in the developing world should satisfy certain elements for success. a) A potential food matrix (a food regularly consumed, produced by a few centralized factories, without sensorial changes compared with the nonfortified equivalent, and nutrient remains bioavailable and in a sufficient amount) is required. b) Fortified foods should provide at least 15% of the recommended daily intakes for the target group (e.g., individuals consuming the lowest amount of the fortified food). c) Voluntary fortification of processed foods should be regulated to prevent excessive consumption of vitamin A. d) Neighboring countries should harmonize technical standards, facilitate compliance and minimize conflicts over global trade laws. e) A practical monitoring system should be instituted. f) Social marketing activities should be permanent and aimed at industry, government and consumers. g) Food fortification should be combined with other strategies (e.g., supplementation) to reach those not adequately covered by fortification alone. Infants and small children, whose dietary habits differ from those of adults, require special attention. Fortification of food commodities is a very attractive and economic way to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Effective food

  13. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed with surgery. Breast infections are treated with antibiotics. If you are diagnosed with breast cancer , you will discuss your options carefully and thoroughly with your provider. Alternative Names Breast mass Images Female breast Breast lumps ...

  14. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  15. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  16. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastasis with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with stage III breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Jung; Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Hye Ok; Chae, Sun-Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seol Hoon [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sei Hyun; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Gyung-Yub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The present study assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the detection of internal mammary node (IMN) metastasis in patients with clinical stage III breast cancer. Patients who were diagnosed with clinical stage III breast cancer and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were prospectively reviewed by two board-certified nuclear medicine physicians in a blinded manner. The intensities of IMNs were graded into four categories (no activity and lower, similar, and higher activities than that of the mediastinal blood pool). IMNs were measured from the combined CT (largest diameter of the short axis). Histologic data of the IMNs were obtained by ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. The PPV was calculated for pathologically confirmed IMNs. Visual grade, maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}), and sizes were analyzed according to the pathology results. There were 249 clinical stage III breast cancer patients (age 48.0 ± 10.1 years, range 26-79 years) who had undergone initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. Excluding 33 cases of stage IV breast cancer, 62 of 216 patients had visible IMNs on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and histologic confirmation was obtained in 31 patients. There were 27 metastatic and four nonmetastatic nodes (PPV 87.1 %). Metastatic nodes mostly presented with visual grade 3 (83.9 %), and SUV{sub max} and size were 3.5 ± 4.3 and 5.6 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has a high PPV for IMN metastasis in clinical stage III breast cancer, indicating the possibility of metastasis in IMNs with FDG uptake similar to/lower than that of the blood pool or small-sized nodes. (orig.)

  17. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

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    Cortesi Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44 were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6 to 7.6; p P P P = 0.0018 was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74. Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in the slightly increased risk group. These results support the effectiveness of the proposed program to identify and monitor individuals at high risk, whereas prospective trials are needed for

  18. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

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    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  19. Diagnosis and potential management of gestational diabetes mellitus using the International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Mayumi; Takai, Yasushi; Matsunaga, Shigetaka; Era, Sumiko; Ono, Yoshihisa; Saito, Masahiro; Baba, Kazunori; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Appropriate screening and plasma glucose control is important during pregnancy, but an international consensus has not been reached regarding the recommended method of screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We investigated glucose intolerance in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM, applying stricter screening criteria. The study involved 452 women with singleton pregnancies, who underwent a 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test between January 2006 and December 2010. They had previously been screened for GDM using Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) criteria. We retrospectively re-evaluated their status using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. The major differences between JSOG and IADPSG criteria are the number of applicable threshold values, and the threshold value for fasting glucose measured by the glucose tolerance test. The insulinogenic index and insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment were compared among groups in the presence or absence of obesity. GDM was diagnosed in 56 (1.07%) and 133 (2.54%) women based on the JSOG and IADPSG criteria, respectively. Compared to non-GDM, non-obese women, those diagnosed with GDM according to IADPSG criteria had significantly higher insulin resistance, while those diagnosed with GDM exceeding two or more threshold values had significantly lower insulinogenic indexes. Adopting stricter diagnostic criteria increased the prevalence of GDM 2.37-fold, as women previously diagnosed with milder abnormalities in glucose levels were then diagnosed as having GDM. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Effects of knowledge and internal locus of control in groups of health care workers judging likelihood of pathogen transfer.

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    McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Walsh, Fran; Bryant, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    A study was conducted to measure the effects of attitudes and beliefs on the risk judgments of health care workers. Lack of hand hygiene compliance is a worldwide issue in health care, contributing to infections, fatalities, and increased health care costs. Human factors methods are a promising solution to the problem of compliance, although thus far, the concentration has been on process and engineering methods, such as the design of no-touch sinks. Factors internal to the health care worker, such as their attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene, have received less attention. For this study, three groups of health care workers completed measures of attitudes, control beliefs, and hand hygiene knowledge. They then provided risk judgments of touching various surfaces via a factorial survey. Attitudes, knowledge, control beliefs, and surface type all predicted the risk judgments of the sample of health care workers, with differences between professional groups. Health care workers perceive less risk when touching surfaces,which may explain historically low rates of hand hygiene compliance after surface contact. Although more research is needed to directly connect risk judgments to failures of hand hygiene, the current results can inform interventions targeting the internal attitudes and beliefs of health care workers.

  1. Core outcome sets in dermatology: report from the second meeting of the International Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, J; Jacobi, L; Hahnel, E; Alam, M; Balzer, K; Beeckman, D; Busard, C; Chalmers, J; Deckert, S; Eleftheriadou, V; Furlan, K; Horbach, S E R; Kirkham, J; Nast, A; Spuls, P; Thiboutot, D; Thorlacius, L; Weller, K; Williams, H C; Schmitt, J

    2018-02-14

    Results of clinical trials are the most important information source for generating external clinical evidence. The use of different outcomes across trials, which investigate similar interventions for similar patient groups, significantly limits the interpretation, comparability and clinical application of trial results. Core outcome sets (COSs) aim to overcome this limitation. A COS is an agreed standardized collection of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific clinical condition. The Core Outcome Set Initiative within the Cochrane Skin Group (CSG-COUSIN) supports the development of core outcomes in dermatology. In the second CSG-COUSIN meeting held in 2017, 11 COS development groups working on skin diseases presented their current work. The presentations and discussions identified the following overarching methodological challenges for COS development in dermatology: it is not always easy to define the disease focus of a COS; the optimal method for outcome domain identification and level of detail needed to specify such domains is challenging to many; decision rules within Delphi surveys need to be improved; appropriate ways of patient involvement are not always clear. In addition, there appear to be outcome domains that may be relevant as potential core outcome domains for the majority of skin diseases. The close collaboration between methodologists in the Core Outcome Set Initiative and the international Cochrane Skin Group has major advantages for trialists, systematic reviewers and COS developers. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria is suitable for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis: further evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yumei; Yang, Huixia; Zhu, Weiwei; Yang, Hongyun; Li, Haixia; Yan, Jie; Zhang, Cuilin

    2014-01-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) recommended new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after extensive analyses of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study. Unfortunately, there was no data from mainland of China in this study. We evaluated the feasibility of IADPSG criteria for GDM diagnosis in China. A large prospective study was conducted. We reviewed medical records of a total of 25 674 pregnant women who underwent GDM screening and diagnosis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 in the Peking University First Hospital. The prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was calculated according to different cut off values defined by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the IADPSG, and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to GDM was analyzed. According to the cut off values of NDDG and IADPSG criteria, the prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was 8.4% and 18.9% (P criteria were applied. The prevalence of macrosomia, cesarean section, neonatal hypoglycemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, etc. was also higher in the GDM group than in the normal group. The prevalence of cesarean section (62.3%) and macrosomia (14.8%) was the highest in untreated mild GDM patients. Our results indicated that treatment/intervention of women with GDM identified by IADPSG criteria was related to significantly lower risk of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such findings provide support for applying IADPSG criteria in China.

  3. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

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    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  4. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

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    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  5. Major ethnic group differences in breast cancer screening uptake in Scotland are not extinguished by adjustment for indices of geographical residence, area deprivation, long-term illness and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, N; Bhopal, R S; Steiner, M F C; Brewster, D H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer screening data generally show lower uptake in minority ethnic groups. We investigated whether such variations occur in Scotland. Methods: Using non-disclosive computerised linkage we combined Scottish breast screening and Census 2001 data. Non-attendance at first breast-screening invitation (2002–2008) was compared between 11 ethnic groups using age-adjusted risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), multiplied by 100, using Poisson regression. Results: Compared with the White Scottish (RR=100), non-attendance was similar for Other White British (99.5, 95% CI 96.1–103.2) and Chinese (112.8, 95% CI 96.3–132.2) and higher for Pakistani (181.7, 95% CI 164.9–200.2), African (162.2, 95% CI 130.8–201.1), Other South Asian (151.7, 95% CI 118.9–193.7) and Indian (141.7, 95% CI 121.1–165.7) groups. Adjustment for rural vs urban residence, long-term illness, area deprivation and education, associated with risk of non-attendance, increased the RR for non-attendance except for Pakistani women where it was modestly attenuated (RR=164.9, 149.4–182.1). Conclusion: Our data show important inequality in breast cancer screening uptake, not attenuated by potential confounding factors. Ethnic inequalities in breast screening attendance are of concern especially given evidence that the traditionally lower breast cancer rates in South Asian groups are converging towards the risks in the White UK population. Notwithstanding the forthcoming review of breast cancer screening, these data call for urgent action. PMID:22415231

  6. Media audit reveals inappropriate promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, Kristine Hansen; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Thanh; Henjum, Sigrun; Ribe, Lovise Omoijuanfo; Mathisen, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Regulations on the child's age for inappropriate marketing of products are all below the Code's updated recommendation of 36 months (i.e. 12 months in Thailand and Indonesia; 24 months in the other three countries) and are voluntary in Thailand. Although the advertisements complied with the national regulations on the age limit, they had content (e.g. stages of milk formula; messages about the benefit; pictures of a child) that confused audiences. Market size and growth of milk formula were positively associated with the number of newborns and the number of advertisements, and were not affected by the current level of implementation of breast-milk substitute laws and regulations. The present media audit reveals inappropriate promotion and insufficient national regulation of products under the scope of the Code in South-East Asia. Strengthened implementation of regulations aligned with the Code's updated recommendation should be part of comprehensive strategies to minimize the harmful effects of advertisements of breast-milk substitutes on maternal and child nutrition and health.

  7. Does the 'Scottish effect' apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Raj S; Bansal, Narinder; Steiner, Markus; Brewster, David H

    2012-01-01

    Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION, MEASURES AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups. For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups. The 'Scottish effect' does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low cancer rates.

  8. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  9. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Judith; Royston, Patrick; Elson, Paul; McCormack, Jennifer Bacik; Mazumdar, Madhu; Négrier, Sylvie; Escudier, Bernard; Eisen, Tim; Dutcher, Janice; Atkins, Michael; Heng, Daniel Y C; Choueiri, Toni K; Motzer, Robert; Bukowski, Ronald

    2011-08-15

    To develop a single validated model for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using a comprehensive international database. A comprehensive database of 3,748 patients including previously reported clinical prognostic factors was established by pooling patient-level data from clinical trials. Following quality control and standardization, descriptive statistics were generated. Univariate analyses were conducted using proportional hazards models. Multivariable analysis using a log-logistic model stratified by center and multivariable fractional polynomials was conducted to identify independent predictors of survival. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation methods. Three risk groups were formed using the 25th and 75th percentiles of the resulting prognostic index. The model was validated using an independent data set of 645 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Median survival in the favorable, intermediate and poor risk groups was 26.9 months, 11.5 months, and 4.2 months, respectively. Factors contributing to the prognostic index included treatment, performance status, number of metastatic sites, time from diagnosis to treatment, and pretreatment hemoglobin, white blood count, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and serum calcium. The model showed good concordance when tested among patients treated with TKI therapy (C statistic = 0.741, 95% CI: 0.714-0.768). Nine clinical factors can be used to model survival in mRCC and form distinct prognostic groups. The model shows utility among patients treated in the TKI era. ©2011 AACR.

  10. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Li, Ye-Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wirth, Andrew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  11. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarty A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anuradha Godavarty,1 Suset Rodriguez,1 Young-Jin Jung,2 Stephanie Gonzalez1 1Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE or self-breast examinations (SBEs. Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. Keywords: diffuse optical imaging, near-infrared, hand-held devices, breast cancer, prescreening, early detection 

  12. World disparities in risk definition and management of retinoblastoma: a report from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantada, Guillermo L; Doz, François; Orjuela, Manuela; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Sitorus, Rita S; Kepak, Tomas; Furmanchuk, Anna; Castellanos, Mauricio; Sharma, Tarun; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Following from the publication of the International Retinoblastoma Staging System, an open internet discussion group was created at the www.cure4kids.org resource. The results of a survey distributed among participants are discussed. Although most patients with retinoblastoma were treated under prospective protocols, there was a wide variation in the definition of risk criteria and in the criteria for giving adjuvant chemotherapy following enucleation. Definition of high-risk histological features and the criteria for use of adjuvant therapy will be standardized in future studies. Internet meetings are a valuable mechanism for enabling participation from under-resourced countries in the development of cooperative studies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study demonstrates insufficient diagnosis and treatment of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurney, Christopher; Shimizu, Reiko; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Kolski, Hanna; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clemens, Paula R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common cause of morbidity and death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This investigation was a cross-sectional cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from the multi-institutional Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study of 340 DMD patients aged 2-28 years. Cardiomyopathy was defined as shortening fraction (SF) cardiomyopathy was 27% (47 of 174), and it was associated significantly with age and clinical stage. The association of cardiomyopathy with age and clinical stage was not changed by glucocorticoid use as a covariate (P > 0.68). In patients with cardiomyopathy, 57% (27 of 47) reported not taking any cardiac medications. Cardiac medications were used in 12% (15 of 127) of patients without cardiomyopathy. We found that echocardiograms were underutilized, and cardiomyopathy was undertreated in this DMD natural history cohort. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration among Hong Kong Chinese women: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Kin Sin

    2014-06-01

    to (1) estimate the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration rate; (2) identify the reasons to initiate and wean breast feeding and (3) explore predictors of breast-feeding duration. a prospective longitudinal study antenatal clinics of five regional hospitals from four clusters in Hong Kong a population-based sample of 2098 women in the second trimester of pregnancy was recruited with a systematic sampling method. three different sets of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the breast-feeding intention, initiation and duration, demographic, socio-economic, obstetric, complications of pregnancy and intrapartum variables at three time points. Reasons for initiating and weaning breast feeding, the formal and informal supportive resources of participants during breast feeding were collated at the third time points. the rates of artificial feeding and breast feeding were 41.1% and 58.9%, whereas breast-feeding intention and initiation rates were 85.3% and 67.0%, respectively. The breast-feeding duration rates were 11.1%, 10.3%, 10.7% and 26.7%, for the 'within 3-6 weeks' and '>6 weeks' groups. The common reasons for initiating breast feeding were that breast feeding is beneficial for both the baby (89.8%) and mother (39.7%). Reasons for weaning breast feeding were insufficient breast milk (32.7%), tiredness and fatigue (39.7%) and return to work (29.6%). Partner, relatives and nurse midwives were important supportive resource during breast feeding. Ordinal logistic regression analysis identified five predictive factors of breast-feeding duration. Participants who were working part-time or were housewives (p=0.037), had monthly family income of breast-feeding intention (p=0.001) and early breast feeding within the first hour (pbreast feeding than their counterparts. mothers in Hong Kong do not meet the recommendation of the international standards for breast feeding. Understanding of reasons for initiation, weaning and predictors of breast

  15. Stress management reduces intraindividual cortisol variability, while not impacting other measures of cortisol rhythm, in a group of women at risk for breast cancer☆,☆☆,★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannes, Timothy S.; Dolan, Emily; Albano, Denise; Ceballos, Rachel M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The stress hormone cortisol exhibits a diurnal rhythm throughout the day, as well as within person variability. Recent statistical approaches allow for the estimation of intraindividual cortisol variability (“ICV”) and a greater ICV has been observed in some mood disorders (major depression, remitted bipolar disorder); however, ICV has not been examined following stress management. In this secondary analyses of an efficacious randomized clinical trial, we examine how ICV may change after cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) among healthy stressed women at risk for breast cancer. Second, we concurrently compare other calculations of cortisol that may change following CBSM. Methods Multilevel modeling (MLM) was applied to estimate ICV and to test for a group by time interaction from baseline, post-intervention, to 1 month following CBSM. Forty-four women were randomized to the CBSM; 47 to the comparison group; mean age of the entire group was 44.2 (SD = 10.27). Results After controlling for relevant covariates, a significant time by group interaction emerged (β estimate = −.070; p cortisol slope and cortisol output (area under the curve) approached significance (β estimates = −.10 and −.062, respectively; p's cortisol outcomes tested were not significantly changed following CBSM. Conclusion ICV may represent a novel index of cortisol dysregulation that is impacted by CBSM and may represent a more malleable within-person calculation than other, widely applied cortisol outcomes. Future research should examine these relationships in larger samples, and examine ICV and health outcomes. PMID:26526317

  16. Stress management reduces intraindividual cortisol variability, while not impacting other measures of cortisol rhythm, in a group of women at risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannes, Timothy S; Dolan, Emily; Albano, Denise; Ceballos, Rachel M; McGregor, Bonnie A

    2015-11-01

    The stress hormone cortisol exhibits a diurnal rhythm throughout the day, as well as within person variability. Recent statistical approaches allow for the estimation of intraindividual cortisol variability ("ICV") and a greater ICV has been observed in some mood disorders (major depression, remitted bipolar disorder); however, ICV has not been examined following stress management. In this secondary analyses of an efficacious randomized clinical trial, we examine how ICV may change after cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) among healthy stressed women at risk for breast cancer. Second, we concurrently compare other calculations of cortisol that may change following CBSM. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was applied to estimate ICV and to test for a group by time interaction from baseline, post-intervention, to 1 month following CBSM. Forty-four women were randomized to the CBSM; 47 to the comparison group; mean age of the entire group was 44.2 (SD=10.27). After controlling for relevant covariates, a significant time by group interaction emerged (β estimate=-.070; pcortisol slope and cortisol output (area under the curve) approached significance (β estimates=-.10 and -.062, respectively; p'scortisol outcomes tested were not significantly changed following CBSM. ICV may represent a novel index of cortisol dysregulation that is impacted by CBSM and may represent a more malleable within-person calculation than other, widely applied cortisol outcomes. Future research should examine these relationships in larger samples, and examine ICV and health outcomes. NCT01048528. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of a physical exercise rehabilitation group program on anxiety, depression, body image, and health-related quality of life among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja; Veers, Silke; Howaldt, Dirk; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Since physical exercise programs have the potential to help cancer patients regain physical fitness and may exert a range of positive consequences for recovery and psychological well-being, the impact of a physical exercise program was investigated in this prospective study. Women with primary nonmetastatic breast cancer after a minimum 4-week period post chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: intervention group (IG) (n = 30) and waiting group (WG) (n = 28). The 10-week twice weekly exercise group program consisted of gymnastics, movement games, relaxation, walking, and jogging. Anxiety, depression, body image, and quality of life were measured using standardized questionnaires. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max/kg) was assessed as a measure of physical fitness. Patients in the IG improved significantly over time with regard to anxiety (p = 0.03, d = 0.45), depression (p = 0.05, d = 0.43), individual body image (p = 0.006, d = 0.44), and VO(2)max/kg (p quality of life and social body image. This prospective study provided evidence for the effectiveness of a 10-week physical exercise intervention to significantly improve psychosocial wellbeing, individual body image, and physical fitness. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign References Hacker NF, Friedlander ML. Breast disease: a gynecologic perspective. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and ...

  19. Innovation processes navigated by women groups in the Malian shea sector: How targeting of international niche markets results in fragmentation and obstructs coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, A.; Vellema, S.; Dembele, M.M.; Traore, K.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of women and their associations into international markets and value chains is proposed increasingly as a development pathway in Sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying assumption is that exclusion of individual women from groups specialized in supplying a single international niche

  20. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, G. Levy; Kanj, S.S.; Pagani, L.; Abbo, L.; Endimiani, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.; Tattevin, P.; Mehtar, S.; Cardoso, F.; Unal, S.; Gould, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results:

  1. The limits of forgiveness in International Relations: groups supporting the Yasukuni shrine in Japan and political tensions in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visits (or attempts to visit to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese officials have generated a series of controversies and tensions between the countries occupied by imperialist Japan during the Pacific War. The central dilemma is that Yasukuni, emblem of Japanese militarism, questions the coherence and consistency of the requests for forgiveness made by different Japanese prime ministers to countries in the region in repentance for atrocities and violations of human rights committed in the past. The weakness of the apologies is not an exclusive problem of Japan. On the contrary, the official pardon granted by one state to another has become an increasingly common practice, but questioned in international relations. The limits of apologies in the process of reconciliation between states have led to a new research strand, aligned with the debates on transitional justice, which discusses dimensions of the level of forgiveness in terms of rectification processes. From this perspective, previous research shows that there is a tendency to analyse the case of Yasukuni without delving into the social groups that support the shrine and define the agenda of prominent personalities of local politics, especially linked to the ruling party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP, who claim Yasukuni. Faced with this gap, this article examines the characteristics and modes of action of the groups in favour of Yasukuni and the responses from China and South Korea to the visits to the shrine by officials, in order to understand the peculiarities and scope of forgiveness in East Asia.

  2. A Retrospective Survival Analysis of Anatomic and Prognostic Stage Group Based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Cancer Staging Manual in Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Xu; Jiang-Hong Li; Jing-Ming Ye; Xue-Ning Duan; Yuan-Jia Cheng; Ling Xin; Qian Liu; Bin Zhou,; Yin-Hua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current understanding of tumor biology suggests that breast cancer is a group of diseases with different intrinsic molecular subtypes. Anatomic staging system alone is insufficient to provide future outcome information. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) expert panel updated the 8th edition of the staging manual with prognostic stage groups by incorporating biomarkers into the anatomic stage groups. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the data from our center in ...

  3. Pregnancy after breast cancer: Are young patients willing to participate in clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Olivia; Ruggeri, Monica; Manunta, Silvia; Saunders, Christobel; Peccatori, Fedro; Cardoso, Fatima; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Gewefel, Hanan; Gallerani, Elisa; Abulkhair, O Malkahi; Pistilli, Barbara; Warner, Ellen; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Perey, Lucien; Zaman, Khalil; Rabaglio, Manuela; Gelber, Shari; Gelber, Richard D; Goldhirsch, Aron; Korde, Larissa; Azim, Hatem A; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-06-01

    Young patients with breast cancer (BC) are often concerned about treatment-induced infertility and express maternity desire. Conception after BC does not seem to affect outcome, but information in estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) disease is not definitive. From September 2012-March 2013, 212 evaluable patients with ER+ early BC, pregnancy. Overall, 37% of respondents were interested in the study; younger patients (≤30 years) reported higher interest (57%). Motivation in younger patients treated >30 months was higher (83%) than in older women (14%), interest was independent of age in patients treated for ≤30 months. A prospective study in this patient population seems relevant and feasible. The International-Breast-Cancer-Study-Group (IBCSG), within the Breast-International-Group (BIG) - North-American-Breast-Cancer-Groups (NABCG) collaboration, is launching a study (POSITIVE) addressing ET interruption to allow pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabaglio, M; Sun, Z; Price, K. N; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Hawle, H; Thürlimann, B; Mouridsen, H; Campone, M; Forbes, J. F; Paridaens, R. J; Colleoni, M; Pienkowski, T; Nogaret, J.-M; Láng, I; Smith, I; Gelber, R. D; Goldhirsch, A; Coates, A. S

    2009-01-01

    ...-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. Methods: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication...

  5. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT): A Multidisciplinary group for an improvement of Nanorisk Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, C.; Rolando, C.; Hirano, S.; Schuster, F.; Jolliet, O.; Maghni, K.; Meyer-Plath, A.; Hallé, S.; Vandelac, L.; Sentein, C.; Torkaski, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology allows the ability to design many new materials and devices with multiple applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. However, nanotechnology also raises several concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. A report published by the Council of Canadian Academies points out the necessity to respond about many uncertainties associated with risk assessment for ensuring the safety of health and environment. Nanotoxicology (or Nanosafety) is a part of the toxicology science that aims to study adverse effects of nanomaterials or nanoparticles on living organisms. This field includes different aspects from workers prevention to the environment protection. Group of researchers have initiated an international powerful interactive milieu for researchers to work in concert for a global and integrated study of many aspects of nanotoxicology. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT) is composed of research scientists from 5 different countries (Canada, USA, Japan, France and Germany) working together on 6 different specific thematics, and organized as 9 different technology platforms (www.titnt.com). TITNT aims to study different features of nanomaterials related to nanosafety, such as in vivo and in vitro studies, life cycle, occupational protections and monitoring, early biomarkers detection, characterization and nanotoxicokinetic/dynamic assessment during and after nanoparticles synthesis and the societal, public policy and environmental aspects. While the rapid growth of nanotechnology is opening up a floodgate of opportunities, the legislation related is lagging behind mainly because of a lack of knowledge in the biosafety of most nanomaterials. The main goal of TITNT is to improve knowledge in nanosafety science for the benefit of the discipline, for better public policies and for the public itself.

  6. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT): A Multidisciplinary group for an improvement of Nanorisk Assessment and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, C [BioSimulation Consulting Inc 220E. Delaware Ave. 1182, Newark DE, 19711 (United States); Rolando, C; Torkaski, C [MSAP, USR CNRS 3290, and Proteomique, Modifications Post-traductionnelles et Glycobiologie, IFR 147, Universite de Lille 1 Sciences et Technologies, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Hirano, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Schuster, F; Sentein, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay (France); Jolliet, O [University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Michigan (United States); Maghni, K [University of Montreal, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Department, PO Box 6128 Main Station, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Meyer-Plath, A [BAM - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Halle, S [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Vandelac, L, E-mail: claude.emond@biosmc.com [Departement de sociologie, Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Qc (Canada)

    2011-07-06

    Nanotechnology allows the ability to design many new materials and devices with multiple applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. However, nanotechnology also raises several concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. A report published by the Council of Canadian Academies points out the necessity to respond about many uncertainties associated with risk assessment for ensuring the safety of health and environment. Nanotoxicology (or Nanosafety) is a part of the toxicology science that aims to study adverse effects of nanomaterials or nanoparticles on living organisms. This field includes different aspects from workers prevention to the environment protection. Group of researchers have initiated an international powerful interactive milieu for researchers to work in concert for a global and integrated study of many aspects of nanotoxicology. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT) is composed of research scientists from 5 different countries (Canada, USA, Japan, France and Germany) working together on 6 different specific thematics, and organized as 9 different technology platforms (www.titnt.com). TITNT aims to study different features of nanomaterials related to nanosafety, such as in vivo and in vitro studies, life cycle, occupational protections and monitoring, early biomarkers detection, characterization and nanotoxicokinetic/dynamic assessment during and after nanoparticles synthesis and the societal, public policy and environmental aspects. While the rapid growth of nanotechnology is opening up a floodgate of opportunities, the legislation related is lagging behind mainly because of a lack of knowledge in the biosafety of most nanomaterials. The main goal of TITNT is to improve knowledge in nanosafety science for the benefit of the discipline, for better public policies and for the public itself.

  7. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Münster (Germany); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mikhaeel, N. George [Department of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    use of ISRT has not yet been validated in a formal study, it is more conservative than INRT, accounting for suboptimal information and appropriately designed for safe local disease control. The goal of modern smaller field radiation therapy is to reduce both treatment volume and treatment dose while maintaining efficacy and minimizing acute and late sequelae. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG guidelines.

  8. Exercise training reduces high mobility group box-1 protein levels in women with breast cancer: findings from the DIANA-5 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Gentile, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Maresca, Luigi; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether exercise training might exert anti-inflammatory effect by reducing HMGB1 levels in women with breast cancer (BC). We analyzed monocentric data from the DIANA (DIET AND ANDROGENS)-5 PROJECT. Study population consisted of 94 patients randomized into two groups: 61 patients (53 +/- 8 yrs, training group) were assigned to a structured exercise training intervention (3 times/week for the first 3 months, and once /week for the following 9 months); whereas 33 patients (52 +/- 7 yrs, control group) followed only the general indications to adhere to the life-style intervention suggestions of the DIANA protocol. At study entry and after 12 months, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biochemical as- sessment [HMGB1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)]; and lipid and glycemic profile. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline clinical and inflammatory profile. Among the training group, only 19/61 patients had high adherence to the exercise intervention. After stratifying the study population according to the level of adhesion to the exer- cise intervention, 1-year HMGB1 levels were lower among patients more adherent to exercise (p for trend = 0.001). Further adjusting for age, body mass index and baseline values, 1-year HMGB1 levels remained significantly and inversely associated to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention (B = -0.97, SE = 0.43, p = 0.01). Moderate intensity exercise training in BC survivors is associated with reduced HMGB1 levels that are proportional to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention, independently from other classical inflammatory molecules, suggesting an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect mediated by HMGB1.

  9. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A; Moreno, J; Neamtiu, L; Peiró-Pérez, R; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Lopez-Alcalde, J; Lerda, D; Salas, D

    2016-10-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into account potential needs for targeting particular socioeconomic groups. A European survey on coverage and participation, and key organisational and policy characteristics of the programmes, targeting years 2010 and 2014, was undertaken in 2014. Overall, 27 countries contributed to this survey, 26 of the 28 European Union member states (92.9%) plus Norway. In 2014, 25 countries reported an ongoing population-based programme, one country reported a pilot programme and another was planning a pilot. In eight countries, the target age range was broader than that proposed by the Council Recommendation, and in three countries the full range was not covered. Fifteen countries reported not reaching some vulnerable populations, such as immigrants, prisoners and people without health insurance, while 22 reported that participation was periodically monitored by socioeconomic variables (e.g. age and territory). Organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on routine mammograms are in place in most EU member states. However, there are still differences in the way screening programmes are implemented, and participation by vulnerable populations should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MRI and ultrasound evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast after primary systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takamoto, Yayoi; Murai, Michiko; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Suzuki, Koyu; Yamauchi, Hideko

    2015-07-01

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma after primary systemic therapy compared to the primary surgery group. A total of 218 breasts with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which were diagnosed by core needle biopsy and underwent surgery between 2004 and 2010 in St. Luke's International Hospital, were reviewed. Of these, 44 breasts received primary systemic therapy (PST) and the residual 174 breasts underwent surgery first. Before surgery, MRI and second-look US were performed. Patients whose extent of lesion from MRI and US was over 90° were recommended to receive total mastectomy. Diagnostic image evaluation was categorized from the final pathology. A negative margin of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy which has over 90° tumor extent in pathology were regarded as "appropriate". A positive margin of BCS was regarded as "underestimated". "Overestimation" was determined when the pathological extension was small enough for BCS although MRI and US diagnosis was over 90°. Of 44 breasts which received PST, 26 breasts received BCS as initial surgery. Of these, 14 (53.8 %) breasts were "underestimated". Of these 14, 5 breasts received additional total mastectomy. Of 174 breasts that received surgery first, 121 (69.5 %) breasts received BCS as the initial surgery. Of these, 46 (38.0 %) breasts were "underestimated" and 6 breast of these 46 received additional total mastectomy. "Underestimated" rate was similar in the two groups, but the additional total mastectomy rate was significantly higher in the PST group (p = 0.025). There were no "overestimations". The "appropriate" rate was similar between the PST (68.2 %) and surgery-first groups (73.6 %). Although 68.2 % of ILC patients were evaluated "appropriately" even after PST, higher additional total mastectomy rates should be considered when selecting the surgical procedure.

  11. Expression analysis of E-cad and vascular endothelial growth factor in triple-negative breast cancer patients of different ethnic groups in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weihua; Li, Yongtao; Ou, Jianghua; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Chenguang; Yi, Lina; Xue, Laiti; Zhang, Mingshuai

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the expression of E-cadherin (E-cad) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) of Han and Uygur women patients in western China, and their relationship with clinical features of TNBC.Totally, 172 cases of Han TNBC patients and 79 cases of Uighur TNBC patients were enrolled. The expressions of E-cad and VEGF were detected with immunohistochemistry. The correlation of E-cad and VEGF expression with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and histological grade were analyzed. The 5-year disease-free survival rate of the 2 groups was also evaluated.There was no significant difference in the 5-year disease-free survival rate (P > .05) and the expression of E-cad between the 2 groups. The positive rate of VEGF in Han was significantly lower than that in Uygur (P cad was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and histological grade (-1≤r cad and VEGF and their relationship with clinical features of TNBC suggest that Uygur TNBC patients might have different prognostic factors as compared with Han patients.

  12. Spin filtering in a double quantum dot device: Numerical renormalization group study of the internal structure of the Kondo state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernek, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos-SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Büsser, C. A. [Department of Physics and Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, D-80333 München (Germany); Anda, E. V. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Feiguin, A. E. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Martins, G. B., E-mail: martins@oakland.edu [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A double quantum dot device, connected to two channels that only interact through interdot Coulomb repulsion, is analyzed using the numerical renormalization group technique. Using a two-impurity Anderson model, and realistic parameter values [S. Amasha, A. J. Keller, I. G. Rau, A. Carmi, J. A. Katine, H. Shtrikman, Y. Oreg, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 046604 (2013)], it is shown that, by applying a moderate magnetic field and independently adjusting the gate potential of each quantum dot at half-filling, a spin-orbital SU(2) Kondo state can be achieved where the Kondo resonance originates from spatially separated parts of the device. Our results clearly link this spatial separation effect to currents with opposing spin polarizations in each channel, i.e., the device acts as a spin filter. In addition, an experimental probe of this polarization effect is suggested, pointing to the exciting possibility of experimentally probing the internal structure of an SU(2) Kondo state.

  13. Boundary work for sustainable development: Natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William C; Tomich, Thomas P; van Noordwijk, Meine; Guston, David; Catacutan, Delia; Dickson, Nancy M; McNie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-26

    Previous research on the determinants of effectiveness in knowledge systems seeking to support sustainable development has highlighted the importance of "boundary work" through which research communities organize their relations with new science, other sources of knowledge, and the worlds of action and policymaking. A growing body of scholarship postulates specific attributes of boundary work that promote used and useful research. These propositions, however, are largely based on the experience of a few industrialized countries. We report here on an effort to evaluate their relevance for efforts to harness science in support of sustainability in the developing world. We carried out a multicountry comparative analysis of natural resource management programs conducted under the auspices of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. We discovered six distinctive kinds of boundary work contributing to the successes of those programs-a greater variety than has been documented in previous studies. We argue that these different kinds of boundary work can be understood as a dual response to the different uses for which the results of specific research programs are intended, and the different sources of knowledge drawn on by those programs. We show that these distinctive kinds of boundary work require distinctive strategies to organize them effectively. Especially important are arrangements regarding participation of stakeholders, accountability in governance, and the use of "boundary objects." We conclude that improving the ability of research programs to produce useful knowledge for sustainable development will require both greater and differentiated support for multiple forms of boundary work.

  14. Use and acceptance of the International Study Group for Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) definition and criteria in the surgical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian P; Bennett, Sean; Bertens, Kimberly A; Balaa, Fady K; Martel, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    The level of utilization and acceptance of the 2005 International Study Group for Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) definition for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has not be quantified. The aim of this study was to determine the uptake of the ISGPF definition and evaluate its use in the surgical literature. A sample of primary studies, review articles, and textbooks were identified through screening of literature searches. Included citations were assessed for their definition of POPF and use of the ISGPF criteria. From 2006 to 2009, 6%-63% of primary papers were compliant with the ISGPF definition compared to 84%-98% from 2010 onwards. Of the primary studies compliant with the ISGPF criteria, 36% focused on grade B and C fistula and 15% did not report grade A fistula. 88% of European papers used the criteria compared to 77% and 72% of Asian and North American papers, respectively (p = 0.033). 46% of review articles and textbooks did not define POPF. Among those that defined POPF, 74% cited the ISGPF definition exclusively while 26% mentioned other definitions. The ISGPF criteria have been widely adopted and accepted as the standard for defining POPF, although the utility of grade A fistulas is questionable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Identifying specific non-attending groups in breast cancer screening - population-based registry study of participation and socio-demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population-based breast cancer screening programme was implemented in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09. The objective of this registry-based study was to examine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and screening participation and to examine whether the group of non-participants can be regarded as a homogeneous group of women. Method Participation status was obtained from a regional database for all women invited to the first screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–2009 (n=149,234. Participation data was linked to registries containing socio-demographic information. Distance to screening site was calculated using ArcGIS. Participation was divided into ‘participants’ and ‘non-participants’, and non-participants were further stratified into ‘active non-participants’ and ‘passive non-participants’ based on whether the woman called and cancelled her participation or was a ‘no-show’. Results The screening participation rate was 78.9%. In multivariate analyses, non-participation was associated with older age, immigrant status, low OECD-adjusted household income, high and low level education compared with middle level education, unemployment, being unmarried, distance to screening site >20 km, being a tenant and no access to a vehicle. Active and passive non-participants comprised two distinct groups with different socio-demographic characteristics, with passive non-participants being more socially deprived compared with active non-participants. Conclusion Non-participation was associated with low social status e.g. low income, unemployment, no access to vehicle and status as tenant. Non-participants were also more likely than participants to be older, single, and of non-Danish origin. Compared to active non-participants, passive non-participants were characterized by e.g. lower income and lower educational level. Different interventions might be warranted to increase

  16. Identifying specific non-attending groups in breast cancer screening--population-based registry study of participation and socio-demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2012-11-14

    A population-based breast cancer screening programme was implemented in the Central Denmark Region in 2008-09. The objective of this registry-based study was to examine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and screening participation and to examine whether the group of non-participants can be regarded as a homogeneous group of women. Participation status was obtained from a regional database for all women invited to the first screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008-2009 (n=149,234). Participation data was linked to registries containing socio-demographic information. Distance to screening site was calculated using ArcGIS. Participation was divided into 'participants' and 'non-participants', and non-participants were further stratified into 'active non-participants' and 'passive non-participants' based on whether the woman called and cancelled her participation or was a 'no-show'. The screening participation rate was 78.9%. In multivariate analyses, non-participation was associated with older age, immigrant status, low OECD-adjusted household income, high and low level education compared with middle level education, unemployment, being unmarried, distance to screening site >20 km, being a tenant and no access to a vehicle. Active and passive non-participants comprised two distinct groups with different socio-demographic characteristics, with passive non-participants being more socially deprived compared with active non-participants. Non-participation was associated with low social status e.g. low income, unemployment, no access to vehicle and status as tenant. Non-participants were also more likely than participants to be older, single, and of non-Danish origin. Compared to active non-participants, passive non-participants were characterized by e.g. lower income and lower educational level. Different interventions might be warranted to increase participation in the two non-participant groups.

  17. Metaplastic Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T?rkan, Halil; G?kg?z, M. ?ehsuvar; Parlak, N. Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Metaplastic Breast Cancer (MBC) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tissue components. MBC is a rare disease, accounting for 0.2% of all breast cancers. Most MBC are triple negative cancers with poor prognosis and an aggressive clinical course. Herein, we aimed to present a 74-year-old patient with metaplastic breast cancer along with clinical, radiologic and pathologic properties.

  18. Common Anastomosis and Internal Transcribed Spacer RFLP Groupings in Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Representing Root Endophytes of Pinus sylvestris, Ceratorhiza spp. from Orchid Mycorrhizas and a Phytopathogenic Anastomosis Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robin Sen; Ari M. Hietala; Carla D. Zelmer

    1999-01-01

    ...) seedlings and the orchid Goodyera repens from Scots pine forests were characterized on the basis of morphological characters, anastomosis group membership and PCR-assisted ribosomal DNA fingerprinting...

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma larger than 3 cm: a unicentre randomized trial with a 124-month median follow-up. Institut Bergonié Bordeaux Groupe Sein (IBBGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriac, L; MacGrogan, G; Avril, A; Durand, M; Floquet, A; Debled, M; Dilhuydy, J M; Bonichon, F

    1999-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and renders possible breast-conserving treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. It was necessary for this method to be evaluated in operable breast tumors too large to be treated immediately by conserving surgery. Initial results of this randomized trial were published in Annals of Oncology (1991). Women with T2 > 3 cm or T3 N0-1 M0 breast tumors were treated by either initial mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by adjusted locoregional treatment. Chemotherapy was the same in the two arms. The prognostic and predictive factors of response to chemotherapy were analyzed. Conserving treatments were performed in 63% at the end of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and this rate had decreased to 45% at the median follow-up of 124 months. Survivals are identical in the two treatment groups. Initial clinical tumor size 40% are predictive of tumor response to chemotherapy by uni- and multivariate analyses. For outcome prediction, c-erb-B2 > 0% is the independent prognostic factor for overall and metastasis-free survivals. Breast-conserving therapy can be performed in more than half of all cases without alteration of survival, despite a non-negligible rate of local recurrences.

  20. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Why do we need irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: Analysis of lymph flow and radiotherapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevich, Novikov Sergey; Vasilevich, Kanaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Using clinical data and results of lymphoscintigraphy to calculate probability of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) invasion by breast cancer (BC). To evaluate clinical value of lymphoscintigraphy as the guide for irradiation of IMLN. Using the data of eight published studies that analyzed lymph flow from primary BC (4541pts) after intra-peri-tumoral injection of nanosized 99mTc-colloids we determined probability of lymph-flow from internal-central and external BC to IMLN. In 7 studies (4359pts) axillary staging was accompanied by IMLN biopsy (911pts) that helped us to estimate probability of IMLN metastatic invasion in relation to the status of axillary LN. Finally, we estimated probability of IMLN invasion by BC in five randomized and observation studies that analyzed effect of IMLN irradiation on overall survival (OS). We calculated possible gain in survival if they would be treated according to lymph-flow guided radiotherapy to IMLN. Lymph-flow from internal/central BC to IMLN was mentioned in 35% from external lesions - in 16% cases. In women with negative axillary LN metastases in IMLN were revealed in 7.8%pts, in the case of positive axillary nodes average risk of IMLN invasion increased to 38.1%. Calculated probability of IMLN metastatic invasion in pts included in evaluated trials did not exceed 10%. If lymphoscintigraphy would drive decision about irradiation of IMLN than 72-78% of pts included in these studies would escape radiotherapy to IMLN. In the remaining 21-28%pts with lymph-flow to IMLN their irradiation probably would increase gain in OS from 1.0-3.3% to 4.3-16.8%. Lymphoscintigraphy can be used to optimize the strategy of IMLN irradiation.

  2. Radiotherapy of breast or left wall and of ganglionary areas including the internal mammary chain: dosimetric comparison of different ballistics; Radiotherapie du sein ou de la paroi gauche et des aires ganglionnaires incluant la chaine mammaire interne: comparaison dosimetrique de differentes balistiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnault de la Mothe, P.; Berger, A.; Bensadoun, R.J. [PRC, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the irradiation of the mammary chain is still a matter of controversy because of non negligible toxicity risks, the authors report the comparison of three different irradiation ballistics for the breast or left wall as well as for ganglionary areas: short ballistics of internal mammary chains, long ballistics of internal mammary chains, and ballistics in tangential beams. Target volumes and organs at risk have been delineated, and dose-volume histograms have been compared. Short communication

  3. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) versus Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET) for distressed breast cancer survivors: evaluating mindfulness and social support as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E

    2017-06-01

    Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.

  4. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  5. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Million, Lynn, E-mail: lmillion@stanford.edu [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Campbell, Belinda A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Dabaja, Bouthaina [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Richard W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology/Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Kirova, Youlia [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  6. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Filippi, Andrea R. [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Illidge, Tim [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A. [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Headley, Jayne [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Specht, Lena [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  7. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M; Schut, Deborah A; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality assurance in conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Report on a consensus meeting of the EORTC Radiotherapy and Breast Cancer Cooperative Groups and the EUSOMA (European Society of Mastology)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.; Garavaglia, G.; Johansson, K. A.; Mijnheer, B. J.; van den Bogaert, W.; van Tienhoven, G.; Yarnold, J.

    1991-01-01

    A consensus on a quality assurance programme of the treatment of early breast cancer was reached in a multidisciplinary meeting of surgeons, pathologists, radiotherapists, physicists and radiographers. Guidelines for treatment preparation and execution have been set up, including careful location

  9. Emotional approach coping and the effects of online peer-led support group participation among patients with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny

    2014-11-28

    Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients' well-being. A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer-related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F1,89=4.232, P=.04, η(2) ρ=.045) and depression (F1,88=8.167, P=.005, η(2) ρ=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high

  10. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    of an internationally available resource guiding practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SBF. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES: The guidelines were developed by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases, with consultation and advice...... from diplomates of the American and European Colleges of Veterinary Dermatology. They describe optimal methods for the diagnosis and management of SBF, including isolation of the causative organism, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, selection of antimicrobial drugs, therapeutic protocols and advice...

  11. The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study is to test a model in which personal discrimination predicts internalized stigma, while group discrimination predicts a greater willingness to engage in collective action. Internalized stigma and collective action, in turn, are associated to positive and negative affect. A cross-sectional study with 213 people with mental illness was conducted. The model was tested using path analysis. Although the data supported the model, its fit was not sufficiently good. A respecified model, in which a direct path from collective action to internalized stigma was added, showed a good fit. Personal and group discrimination appear to impact subjective well-being through two different paths: the internalization of stigma and collective action intentions, respectively. These two paths, however, are not completely independent, as collective action predicts a lower internalization of stigma. Thus, collective action appears as an important tool to reduce internalized stigma and improve subjective well-being. Future interventions to reduce the impact of stigma should fight the internalization of stigma and promote collective action are suggested.

  12. Chaperone Use by Residents During Pelvic, Breast, Testicular, and Rectal Exams

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Farber, Neil J.; Collier, Virginia U; Aboff, Brian M

    2000-01-01

    We designed a questionnaire survey to study internal medicine residents' plans to use a chaperone during the pelvic, breast, rectal, and testicular examinations. We found chaperone use by male and female residents differed markedly, and neither group planned to use chaperones universally. When examining female patients, male residents overall were very likely to use a chaperone during a pelvic exam, but less likely for the breast exam and rectal exam. For the female resident, there was a sign...

  13. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Parent Group Interventions for Primary School Children Aged 4-12 Years with Externalizing and/or Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Pascall, Sarah; Gray, Kylie M; Gordon, Michael; Melvin, Glenn A

    2017-07-11

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of parent training group interventions to treat child externalizing and/or internalizing problems. A search identified 21 randomized controlled trials of parent group interventions aimed at ameliorating child externalizing and/or internalizing problems in children aged 4-12 years. Random effects meta-analyses yielded significant pooled treatment effect size (g) estimates for child externalizing (g = -0.38) and internalizing problems (g = -0.18). Child anxiety symptoms or internalizing problems evident in children with externalizing behavior problems did not change significantly following intervention. Study quality was a statistically significant moderator of treatment response for child externalizing problems, however hours of planned parent group treatment and treatment recipient were not. Findings support the use of parent group interventions as an effective treatment for reducing externalizing problems in children aged 4-12 years. Whilst statistically significant, programs had a limited impact on internalizing symptoms, indicating a need for further investigation.

  14. Seven law concepts on nuclear non-proliferation suggested by the International Group of Legal Experts (ILG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE